Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13024

Search results for: sports development

13024 Sports Development in Nigeria

Authors: Bakari Mohammed

Abstract:

Sports performance and achievements have been the avenue through which great nations of the world exhibit their supremacy over others through sports development strategy. Effective sports development, therefore, requires variables like sports policy, sports funding, sports programme, sports facilities and sponsorship. The extent to what these variables are met shall no doubt affects the effectiveness of any sports development. Two distinguishing features of the Nigerian sports system are its central organization and its employment for specific socio-political objectives, it is against this backdrop that this paper will x-ray the politicization of sports which parallels sports development in the enhanced role of sports and in contrast with developed nations system and management.

Keywords: sport development, sport policy, personnel, program, facilities, funding, sponsorship

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13023 Study on the Effect of Sports Academic Journals in the Construction of Strong Sporting Nation in China

Authors: Qinghui Li, Lei Zhang

Abstract:

In China, sport will play a more important role in the future development of the national economy, are facing greater challenges. Sports industry development in this background,innovative technology and cultural forces which will play an important role. Therefore, as a guide of sports culture, the development of science and technology, display the sports scientific and technological achievements, culture showed important - Sports Academic Journals sports technology platform of talent, but also innovation and value-added will through its value function,play an important role in the development of China's sports development and sports industry. At the same time, in the Chinese academic journals of social environment has undergone great changes,one aspect is the national news publishing system reform, change, development group of scientific publishing market has become the mainstream trend of development; on the other hand, digitalization, internationalization development speed of academic journal soon, in such a social background, how sports academic journal of development? How to serve for the development of sports? This research will be based on the sports academic journals in the past, the development status and characteristics and now plays in the history and context of modern academic value and social value, to explore the new era background, especially the development of the reform of the cultural system, marketization and the digital innovation situation of sports academic periodical show in sports, sports industry development and play a more important role in study.

Keywords: sports academin journals, strong sporting nation, innovation, China

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13022 Sports in the Contemporary Society; Its Role in the Economic Development of a Country

Authors: C. K. Kishore Kumar, B. P. Aruna

Abstract:

We have made an attempt to analyze the role of sports in the contemporary society. This paper critically analyses how developed as well as developing countries spend huge amount of money every year in conducting various sports and games, development of sports infrastructure, manufacturing of sports equipment and get into bidding to organize international events like Olympic, World Cup games like foot ball, soccer, tennis etc., Throughout the world, Sports and Commerce have joined together. Sports in today’s world has become a large profit making industry. An attempt is further made to understand that the players or sports persons are only a small part of this huge industry, more than the players, there are various other people, corporations, Nation as a whole who are making huge profits from the sports industry. This industrialization has indeed changed the whole scenario of sports. Top level sports are purely a business nowadays and so fans are sucked into believing they are part of their club. In reality they are merely cash cows to be milked by a greedy, grasping and corrupt business that cares nothing but making money. In no previous time period have we seen the type of growth in the commercialization of sports that we have seen in the last 3 decades. Athletes are leveled with prize money and/or appearances fees so much so, that injuries may be ignored, educational opportunities are put aside in the quest for success which is ultimately money. Industrialization and commercialization of sports has taken a key role in the economic development of the country. The purpose of this paper is to explore as to how sports once considered as a leisure time activity has become an activity for money and in turn has taken a lead role in the economic development of a country.

Keywords: contemporary society, economic development, industrialization of sports, commercialization of sports, leisure time activity

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13021 Influence of Branding and Consultancy Services on the Performance of Coaches, Athletes and Sports Managers in Nigeria

Authors: Yakubu Nkom Bityong, A. I. Kabido, K. Venkateswarlu

Abstract:

The influence of branding and consultancy services on sports development and marketing mix has been a matter of interest among coaches athletes and sports managers in Nigeria. Marketers use sports as a promotional vehicle towards attracting customers to their products and services. The use of images, names, and photographs of sports personalities to advertise beverages, cars, and a whole range of other products and services as it is clearly noticed all over the television, radio and print media has generated a lot of argument among consumers who have vested interest and are more drawn to their favorite teams and sports personalities than they are to many company products This paper examines the influence of branding and consultancy services on sports Performance of coaches, athletes and sports managers in Nigeria. From a population of 7,441 made up of coaches, athletes and sports managers, 372 respondents were sampled for the study. A self developed and standardized questionnaire was the instrument used for data collection. One-tailed t-test was used to test the hypothesis. Results revealed that branding and consultancy services influence the performances of coaches, athletes and sports managers in Nigeria. It was concluded that the establishment of the National Institute of Sports (NIS) in Lagos with affiliated sports training programmes in Nigerian Universities is responsible for boosting the performance of sports personalities in Nigeria. It was recommended that National Policy on Sports should be reviewed in order to inculcate new methods and strategies towards enhancing sports development initiatives in the country while stakeholders should intensify regular training and retraining programmes for coaches, athletes and sports managers to update their knowledge and skills.

Keywords: branding, consultancy, sports performance, sports development

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13020 Barriers to Sports Participation as a Means of Achieving Sustainable Development in Michael Otedola College of Primary Education

Authors: Osifeko Olalekan Remigious, Osifeko Christiana Osikorede, Folarin Bolanle Eunice, Olugbenga Adebola Shodiya

Abstract:

In this period of economic problem, nations are looking for avenues to improve their economy, preserve their environment and socio-political environment, educational institutions are not left out as there is the need for them to increase their economy and preserve their socio political environment. Sports is one of the ways through which sustainable development can be achieved. The purpose of this study was to examine the barriers to sports participation. A total of 1025 students were purposively selected from all the five schools in the College. A questionnaire which has a reliability coefficient of 0.71 was used for data collection. Data collected were subjected to the descriptive survey research design. Findings showed that facilities, funds and lectures schedule were significant barriers to sports participation. It was recommended that sports facilities should be provided by the Lagos State government.

Keywords: MOCPED sports, sustainable development, sports participation, state government

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13019 Identify and Prioritize the Sustainable Development of Sports Venues Using New and Degradable Energies with a Hierarchical Analysis Approach

Authors: Mahsaossadat Pourrahmati Khelejan

Abstract:

The purpose of this research was to identify and prioritize the sustainable development of sports venues using new and degradable energies with using the AHP Hierarchical Analysis approach. The research method is a descriptive strategy with regard to the direction of implementation and is a hierarchical research with a practical purpose. In this study, 30 experts (physical education faculty members, geography professors, accredited sports venues managers, and renewable energy engineers) were selected using purposeful sampling method as the research population. The research tool was a researcher-made questionnaire on the factors affecting the sustainable development of sports venues by using new technologies and degradable energy. Finally, the research questionnaire was designed with four components and 21 items. All steps were performed by using Expert Choice software. The importance of indicators that influence the sustainable development of sports venues is highlighted by the use of clean and degradable energy, for example: 1. Economic factor, weighing 0.420 2. Environmental index, weighing 0. 320 3. Physical index, weighing 0.148 4. Social index, weighing 0.122.

Keywords: Sports Venues, Sustainable Development, Degradable Energies, Prioritize

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13018 Sports for the Children with Autism

Authors: Mohamed A. Abdelnaby

Abstract:

Relevance of the research: A few people known about Autism and also about Sports for Autism. Children with Autism have difficult experience with sport that makes many problems during the sports activities. There are several areas of motor skills development essential for participating daily life and several sports activities. The object of the research is describe the program for the sports activities for children with Autism, and the aim is to improving their movement skills, motor skills and social skills. Research methods and organization: Twenty-five children with Autism perceived barriers to sports activities participation, and functioning. All the program inside the Pegasus Dreamland Sports Club and all the facilities available for the research. Results and discussion: Standard, children were reported to meet or exceeded general PA occurrence guidelines, belonged to active participated in a variety of sports activities. We identified several barriers to optimal sports activities for their children. Conclusions: Children with Autism can achieve optimal sports activities. Exposure to a variety of sports activities opportunities and experiences aids in identifying the model activity for each individual child.

Keywords: autism, sports activates, movement skills, motor skills

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13017 Sports as a Powerful Tool in Building Peace among Countries of the World

Authors: Mohammed Usman Sani

Abstract:

Worldwide it is observed that sport plays an important role in our communities and is capable of bringing about the need for peaceful coexistence within and among nations which include tolerating one another, building team spirit, showing loyalty and fair play. In addition, sport builds character and the development of skills, which are necessary in fulfilling a desirable and happy life among nations. Sport builds discipline, endurance, courage and self-motivation among nations. Sports for Peace was set up to answer the question of whether sport can foster common ideals. In sports as a powerful tool in building peace, athletes all over the world come together to promote the core values of sport, such as fair play, tolerance, the Olympic ideal of freedom and intercultural understanding. Sport as a powerful tool is used to address varieties of social issues that is widely accepted in countries mostly affected by poverty, violence and conflict. In building peace through sports among nations, a wide range of individuals and nonprofit organizations which includes the United Nations (UN) and international development agencies have accepted sport as an important social catalyst. This paper therefore seeks to define sports, sports and its fundamental rights, sports as a powerful tool, and ways in which sport may bring about peace building among countries and finally the status of Sport Development and Peace initiatives in Nigeria. It concluded that the international community has acknowledged the importance of sport in peace building efforts among nations. It further recommended that countries should engage in the design and delivery of sports, adhering to generally accepted principles of openness and sustainability through sports collaboration, sports partnerships and coordinated effort.

Keywords: building, peace, powerful tool, sports

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13016 Mediation as an Effective Tool for Resolving Sports Disputes

Authors: Mohd Akram Shair Mohamad

Abstract:

The relation to the infinite variety issues sprouting in sports or lex sportiva, like lex mercatoria in the early centuries, has now come of age and even begun a maturing process in the past thirty-five years or so. Lex sportiva now straddles sports management, sports medicine, tort, criminal law, employment contract, competition law and a host of multifarious activities related to sports. This has catapulted a host of legal issue and problems, demanding urgent legal solutions to actual or potential disputes. This paper discusses the nature and development of lex sportiva, and how it is able to resolve sports disputes. Resolving sports dispute via the tiresome, dilatory and expensive process of litigation is most unsuitable. Arbitration may not be equally a satisfactory solution. The paper strongly advocates the far the most effective and resolution friendly mode of settling sports disputes namely, mediation. In support it highlights numerous advantages mediation has to offer and with reference to many significant sports disputes which had been successfully resolved via mediation.

Keywords: alternative dispute resolution, mediation, arbitration, litigation

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13015 Sports Fans and Non-Interested Public Recognition of the Problems of Sports in Egypt through Caricature

Authors: Alaaeldin Hamdy Ahmed Mohammed

Abstract:

Introduction: This study examines sports’ fans and non-interested public perception and recognition of the problems that have negative impacts upon the Egyptian sports, particularly football, through caricatures. Eight caricature paintings were designed to express eight problems affecting the Egyptian sports and its development. These paintings were distributed on two groups of the fans and the non-interested public. Methods: The study was limited to eight caricatures representing the eight issues which are: the impact of stopping the sports activity on athletes, the effect of clubs’ disagreement, fanaticism between the members of the ultras of different clubs, the negative impact of the mingling of politics into sports, the negative role of the clubs affects the professionalism of the promising players, the conflict between the national organization responsible for sports, the breaking in of the fans to the playgrounds, the impact of the lack of planning on the national team. The Results: The results showed that both sports fans and those who are not interested in sports recognized the problems that the caricatures refer to and criticizes exaggeration although the rate was higher for the fans. These caricatures contributed also in their recognition of the danger of the negative impact of these problems on the Egyptian sports, particularly football which is the most common at the Egyptian sports fans. Discussion: This finding echoes the conclusion that caricatures are distinctive in the adults’ facial stimuli that are either systematically exaggerated recognition of them.

Keywords: caricature, fans, football, sports

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13014 Athlete Burnout and Moral Disengagement in Sports

Authors: Min Pan, An-Hsu Chen

Abstract:

Burnout has been proved to be one of the factors that hinder the development and sport performances of athletes while moral disengagement is the psychological mechanism used by athletes to elevate the guilt caused by conducting the anti-social behaviors to gain competitive advantages and in sports which have both been discussed extensively. The sports devaluation in burnout may undermine the sportsmanship of athletes therefore may serve as one of factors of moral disengagement in sports. Nonetheless, the connection between athlete burnout and moral disengagement in sports is yet established. Hence, the study aims to investigate whether there is the correlation between athlete burnout and moral disengagement in sports. Participants of this study are 120 collegiate athletes who specialize in seven different sports (e.g., fence, boxing, taekwondo, and etc.) with average training hours of 3.7 per day and 4.5 days per week. Athlete Burnout Questionnaire and Moral Disengagement in Sports – Short were administrated as the research instruments. Data collected were analyzed with descriptive statistics, t-test, one-way ANOVA, and step-wise regression. The results show, participants demonstrate mild to moderate burnout and moral disengagement in their perspective sports disciplines. Moreover, athletes specialize in different sports experience distinct burnout situations while there is no significant variation of moral disengagement in different sports. It is also found, moral disengagement in sports has significant and positive correlations with emotional and physical exhaustion as well as sports devaluation in athlete burnout. Furthermore, athlete burnout can positively predict moral disengagement in sports while sports devaluation plays an important role within. It can be concluded that, athlete burnout may contribute to their tendency of moral disengagement in sport. By relieving the burnout level may help improve their moral disengagement inclination in sports. The finding may contribute to the current literature regarding athlete burnout and moral disengagement in sports.

Keywords: athlete burnout, dehumanization, moral disengagement, reduced sense of accomplishment

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13013 The Development of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness in China from Reviewing Their Studies from the Journal of China Sports Science

Authors: Dong Zhan

Abstract:

China sports science is the core periodical of scientific research in the field of sports in China at present. It is the first academic periodical ranked in China. The author has studied the characteristics and trends of articles on sports medicine and physical fitness published in the journal since it founded. Now, the articles on sports medicine and physical fitness published in the Journal of Sports Science from 2013 to 2017 are reviewed. The results show that 1) The characteristics of previous sports medicine articles showed that there were more articles on the basis of sports medicine than that on the application. The research on animal experiments was far more than that on the human body. Moreover, the trend was getting worse and worse as time goes on. But in the past five years, there had been a marked improvement. The basic/application has been improved from 2.1/1 to 1.3/1. This shows that sports medicine researchers have been paid more attention to the application research in sports medicine. 2) There are few articles on sports injury, because the state put the sports injury specialty into the medical colleges, and the research scope of sports research institutes does not include sports injury. It cannot meet the need for the development of sports medicine, and it should change sooner or later. 3) In the past, researchers’ effort was on athletes' physical health, not on ordinary people. Now, there is a great change, they not only research on the sportsmen’s health but also research on the health of the ordinary people. 4) Researchers mainly studied on the young people’s physical fitness in the past; now, it has been greatly improved. Researchers study on the physical health of the elderly, especially those over the age of 60. Numbers of paper researching on the young were much more than those on the old. In the past 10 years, the ratio of number of paper researching on the young to the old people was (young/old) 16.6/1, while in the past 5 years, this ratio was 6.3/1. However, this is not enough. China has a large population and needs to focus on promoting the health of the people. Conclusion: It is important to pay more attention to the application research on sports medicine and on the physical fitness, and it is also important to make a research on physical health of the elderly.

Keywords: sports medicine, people's health, the young, the old

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13012 Understanding Barriers to Sports Participation as a Means of Achieving Sustainable Development in Michael Otedola College of Primary Education

Authors: Osifeko Olalekan Remigious, Osifeko Christiana Osikorede, Folarin Bolanle Eunice, Olugbenga Adebola Shodiya

Abstract:

During these difficult economic times, nations are looking for ways to improve their finances, preserve the environment as well as the socio-political climate and educational institutions, which are needed to increase their economy and preserve their sustainable development. Sport is one of the ways through which sustainable development can be achieved. The purpose of this study was to examine and understanding barriers to participation in sport. A total of 1,025 students were purposively selected from five schools (School of Arts and Social Sciences, School of Languages, School of Education, School of Sciences and School of Vocational and Technical Education) in Michael Otedola College of Primary Education (MOCPED). A questionnaire, with a tested reliability coefficient of 0.71, was used for data collection. The collected data were subjected to the descriptive survey research design. The findings showed that sports facilities, funding and lecture schedules were significant barriers to sports participation. It was recommended that sports facilities be provided by the Lagos State government.

Keywords: sports, sustainable development, Participation, State government, barriers

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13011 New Approach in Sports Management of Great Sports Events

Authors: Taieb Kherafa Noureddine

Abstract:

The paper presents a new approach regarding the management in sports that is based on the principles of reengineering. Applying that modern and pure management system, called reengineering, in sports activity, we hope to get better and better results, in order to increase both the health state and the performances of trained athletes. The paper also presents the similarities between BPR (Business Process Reengineering) and sports managements, as well as the proposed solution for a proper implementation of such model of management. The five components of the basic BPR model are presented, together with their features for sports management.

Keywords: business process reengineering, great sports events, sports management, training activities

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13010 Exploring the Factors That Influence the Choices of Senior on Sporting Goods and Brands: A Case Study of Wufeng District, Taichung City

Authors: Ting Hsiang Chang, Cheng Zuo Tsai

Abstract:

In recent years, sports culture dominated in Taiwan, which spurred the rapid development of the sports industry. More innovative and high-tech sporting goods were developed to provide choices for consumers. Nowadays, Taiwan has gradually entered the aging society where people pay more attention to health promotion, delay of aging and other related issues among senior. However, it is an undeniable fact that moderate exercise is a great help to delay aging. Therefore, how senior select the appropriate sporting goods, including sports shoes, sportswear, sports equipment, and even the sports brands when engaged in various kinds of sports, are explored in this research. Therefore, this study sets the reference indicators by exploring the brands of sporting goods, that senior aged 50-70 choose in a fog peak district, the Taichung City, as the subjects of study by answering a questionnaire. Also, this study offers recommendations in terms of the design, marketing or selling of sporting goods for the senior, and how owners of sports brands or related sports industries should target them.

Keywords: senior, aging, sporting goods, sports brand

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13009 Sports and Beauty: Translating the History of Aesthetics into Today’s World of Sports

Authors: Matthew McNees

Abstract:

An inductive aesthetic approach to sports yields critical and meaningful insight into sports philosophy, sports governance, and sports history. Critical reflection will always remain key to the analysis of the past, present and future of sporting institutions, but a philosophically imaginative method of induction allows certain salient connections to be articulated and potentially implemented between various sporting entities who exist as individuals, particularly between practitioner, owner/manager and observer (‘fan’ or interested party.) By honing in on the concept of beauty in sports, the primary reason for viewership, consumption or engagement with sports comes into focus as an aesthetic concept. While always a subjective or shadowy articulation, an aesthetic state often remains unnecessarily unrevealed due to claims about unconscious states, entire rhetorics (or counter-rhetorics) about beauty, and Misalliance among sporting development systems. Since aesthetics require an inductive state of subjectivity in determining various levels of beauty (which the so-called world of sports often thinks of as morality), the audience for aesthetics in sports also needs an inductive explanation of the concept in which one comes to see a process of viewership at work within themselves that is revealed by a simple need parried outward by a complex process of engagement. The potentially redemptive moment of revelation regarding the beauty of sports and the athlete within these systems creates in the viewer a new space of consciousness where the world of sports discovers some of its longed-for transparency, openness, parity and equity upon which its immediate future depends.

Keywords: aesthetics, governance, history, philosophy

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13008 Prospects and Challenges of Sports Culture in India: A Case Study of Gujarat

Authors: Jay Raval

Abstract:

Sports and physical fitness have been a vital component of our civilization. It is such a power which, motivates and inspires every individual, communities and even countries to be aware of the physical and mental health. All though, sports play vital role in the overall development of the nation, but in the developing countries such as India, this culture of sports is yet to be motivated. However, in India lack of sporting culture has held back the growth of a similar industry in the past, despite the growing awareness and interest in various different sports besides cricket. Hence, due to a lack of sporting culture, corporate investments in India’s sports have traditionally been limited to only non-profit corporate social responsibility activities and initiatives. From past couple of years, India has come up with new initiatives such as Indian Premier League (Cricket), Hockey India League, Indian Badminton League, Pro Kabaddi League, and Indian Super League (Football) which help to boost Indian sports culture and thereby increase economy of the country. Out of 29 states of India, among all of those competitive states, Gujarat is showing very rapid increase in sports participation. Khel Mahakumbh, the competition conducted for the last six years has been a giant step in this direction and covers rural and urban areas of Gujarat. The objective of the research is to address the overall development of the sports system. Sports system includes infrastructure, coaches, resources, and participants. The current existing system is not disabled friendly. This research paper highlights adequate steps in order to improve and sort out pressing issues in the sports system. Education system is highly academic-centric with a definite trend towards reducing school sports and extra-curricular sports in the Gujarat state. Constituents of this research work make an attempt to evaluate the framework of the Olympic Charter, the Sports Authority of India, the Indian Olympics Association and the National Sports Federations. It explores the areas that need to be revamped, rejuvenated and reoriented to function in an open, democratic, equitable, transparent and accountable manner. Research is based on mixed method approach. It is used for the data collection which includes the personal interviews, document analysis and the use of news article. Quality assurance is also tested by conducting the trustworthiness of the paper. Mixed method helps to strengthen the analysis part and give strong base for the discussion during the analysis.

Keywords: physical development, sports authority of India, sports policy, women empowerment

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13007 A Comparative Study of Primary Revenue Sources in the U.S. Professional Sports, Intercollegiate Sports, and Sporting Goods Industry

Authors: Chenghao Ma

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This paper mainly examines and compares the primary revenue sources in the professional sports, intercollegiate sports, and sporting goods industries in the U.S. In the professional team sport, revenues may come from different resources, including broadcasting rights, ticket sales, corporate partnerships, naming rights, licensed merchandise, luxury suites, club seating, ancillary activities, and transfer fees. Many universities use university budgets and student fees to cover the cost of collegiate athletics. Other sources of revenue include ticket sales, broadcast rights, concessions, corporate partnerships, cash contributions from alumni, and others. Revenues in the sporting goods industry are very different compared with professional sports teams and collegiate athletics. Sporting goods companies mainly sell a line of products and equipment to generate revenue. Revenues are critical for sports organizations, including professional sports teams, intercollegiate athletics, and sporting goods companies. There are similarities and differences among these areas. Sports managers are looking for new ways to generate revenues, and there are many changes of sources because of the development of the internet and technology. Compared with intercollegiate athletics, professional sport and sporting goods companies will create more revenue opportunities globally.

Keywords: revenue sources, professional sports, intercollegiate athletics, sporting goods industry

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13006 Sports Psychology: The View in Future

Authors: Malkin Valery, Rogaleva Liudmila

Abstract:

During the last 50-60 years the sports psychology has become firmly established in sports. At the same time, the sport practice brings evidence that it is only beginning to solve some of the most important problems in sports. It is untimely to say that the sports psychology has become a compulsory and efficient part of the sportsman’s preparation. It seems that the further development of the sports psychology can be seen, on the one hand, in the re-orientation of the psychologists from the regulation of the sportsman’s mentality to the process of forming the subject of the sport activity able to take the overall responsibility for the result of the sport activity, able to independently set objectives and to overcome the psychological difficulties that arise in the process of attaining these objectives. In its turn, it will require the change in the very approach to the psychologist’s work. The psychologist and the couch will turn from the specialists in correcting the negative manifestations of the sportsman’s mentality to the specialists in forming the subjects of the sport activity. It will require the creation of the technologies that can form the subjects on all the age-specific stages of the sport activity, that can form the most important psychological qualities (psychological stability, mental reliability, etc.). Getting these technologies will enable the couch to change from the consumer of the psychological knowledge to the immediate participant of the psychological process.

Keywords: sports psychology, subject, sportsman’s preparation, psychological knowledge

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13005 Development of Sports Nation on the Way of Health Management

Authors: Beatrix Faragó, Zsolt Szakály, Ágnes Kovácsné Tóth, Csaba Konczos, Norbert Kovács, Zsófia Pápai, Tamás Kertész

Abstract:

The future of the nation is the embodiment of a healthy society. A key segment of government policy is the development of health and a health-oriented environment. As a result, sport as an activator of health is an important area for development. In Hungary, sport is a strategic sector with the aim of developing a sports nation. The function of sport in the global society is multifaceted, which is manifested in both social and economic terms. The economic importance of sport is gaining ground in the world, with implications for Central and Eastern Europe. Smaller states, such as Hungary, cannot ignore the economic effects of exploiting the effects of sport. The relationship between physical activity and health is driven by the health economy towards the nation's economic factor. In our research, we analyzed sport as a national strategy sector and its impact on age groups. By presenting the current state of health behavior, we get an idea of the directions where development opportunities require even more intervention. The foundation of the health of a nation is the young age group, whose shaping of health will shape the future generation. Our research was attended by university students from the Faculty of Health and Sports Sciences who will be experts in the field of health in the future. The other group is the elderly, who are a growing social group due to demographic change and are a key segment of the labor market and consumer society. Our study presents the health behavior of the two age groups, their differences, and similarities. The survey also identifies gaps in the development of a health management strategy that national strategies should take into account.

Keywords: competitiveness, health behavior, health economy, health management, sports nation

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13004 Multidimensional Sports Spectators Segmentation and Social Media Marketing

Authors: B. Schmid, C. Kexel, E. Djafarova

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Understanding consumers is elementary for practitioners in marketing. Consumers of sports events, the sports spectators, are a particularly complex consumer crowd. In order to identify and define their profiles different segmentation approaches can be found in literature, one of them being multidimensional segmentation. Multidimensional segmentation models correspond to the broad range of attitudes, behaviours, motivations and beliefs of sports spectators, other than earlier models. Moreover, in sports there are some well-researched disciplines (e.g. football or North American sports) where consumer profiles and marketing strategies are elaborate and others where no research at all can be found. For example, there is almost no research on athletics spectators. This paper explores the current state of research on sports spectators segmentation. An in-depth literature review provides the framework for a spectators segmentation in athletics. On this basis, additional potential consumer groups and implications for social media marketing will be explored. The findings are the basis for further research.

Keywords: multidimensional segmentation, social media, sports marketing, sports spectators segmentation

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13003 Evaluation of Distance Education Needs of Athletes

Authors: Yunus Emre Karakaya, Sebahattin Devecioglu, Bilal Coban

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Today, information technology’s presence is felt in every field of life. Fields of education and sports sciences have their own share too. Especially developments in informatics technologies changed the perspectives of these fields. The altered technological conditions made distance education argumentative in these fields. Due to advantages distance education provides to students, they can access the desired education without concerns about time and place. Education facilities are seen to head for distance education in this manner and expedite the process. Distance education applications, which was first started to be applied in the mid-1800s, have been implemented in Turkey since 1970s and still continues today. In this study, the historical development of distance education in the world and Turkey and the problems athletes face in education were discussed. Accordingly, suggestions were made evaluating the importance and requirements of distance education in sports education facilities at higher education level. Additionally, Questions of “Is distance education important in sports education in Turkey?”, “What are the problems of athletes in the education field in Turkey?” and similar questions were attempted to be answered. Finally, in Turkey, distance sports education applications in universities should be launched to ensure that athletes’ educations are not deficit and unfinished. Within this framework, legal regulations should be implemented by “Council of Higher Education” to develop the distance sports education in Turkey and utilize distance education efficiently in solving the sports education problems. By ensuring the advancement of athletes with this method, it is expected for athletes to contribute to sports in the country in both government and the private sector in the medium and long terms. Individuals who participated in the distance sports education will set an example in extending the country’s youth to national and international fields.

Keywords: athletes, distance education, higher education, sports education, Turkey

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13002 Parallels between Training Parameters of High-Performance Athletes Determining the Long-Term Adaptation of the Body in Various Sports: Case Study on Different Types of Training and Their Gender Conditioning

Authors: Gheorghe Braniste

Abstract:

Gender gap has always been in dispute when comparing records and has been a major factor influencing best performances in various sports. Consequently, our study registers the evolution of the difference between men's and women’s best performances within either cyclic or acyclic sports, considering the fact that the training sessions of high performance athletes prove both similarities and differences in long-term adaptation of their body to stress and effort in breaking limits and records. Firstly, for a correct interpretation of the data and tables included in this paper, we must point out that the intense muscular activity has a considerable impact on the structural organization of the organs and systems of the performer's body through the mechanism of motor-visceral reflexes, forming a high working capacity suitable for intense muscular activity. The opportunity to obtaine high sports results during the official competitions is due, on the one hand, to the genetic characteristics of the athlete's body, and on the other hand, to the fact that playing professional sports leaves its mark on the vital morphological and functional parameters. The aim of our research is to study the landmarking differences between male and female athletes and their physical development, together with their growing capacity to stand up to the functional training during the competitive period of their annual training cycle. In order to evaluate the physical development of the athletes, the data of the anthropometric screenings obtained at the Olympic Training Center of the selected teams of the Republic of Moldova were interpreted and rated. During the study of physical development in terms of body height and weight, vital capacity, thoracic excursion, maximum force (Fmax), dynamometry of the hand and back, a further evaluation of the physical development indices that allow an evaluation of complex physical development were registered. The interdependence of the results obtained in performance sports with the morphological and functional particularities of the athletes' body is firmly determined and cannot be disputed. Nevertheless, registered data proved that with the increase of the training capacity, the morphological and functional abilities of the female body increase and, in some respects, approach and even slightly surpass the men in certain sports.

Keywords: physical development, indices, parameters, active body weight, morphological maturity, physical performance

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13001 The Survey of Sports Injuries in Ten Sports

Authors: Najmeh Arabnejad, Mohammad Hossein Yousefi

Abstract:

The risk of injuring is possible in most sports. These injuries are inevitable in contact sports. Since sports injuries result in financial, physical, physiological and social problems for most athletes and endanger their professional future, studying the happening of sports injuries in sports changes to an important issue. This study can be conducted through different aspects including psychological, pathological, social, managerial, etc. Therefore, the present study was designed and conducted with the aim Survey of Sports Injuries In Ten Sports from 2006 to 2011.This descriptive study was carried out in a documentary form. Thus, data related to sports insurance and sport injuries happened in soccer, volleyball, basketball, handball, badminton, karate, track and field, taekwondo, gymnastics and wrestling was collected from Sports Medical Board of Kerman Province, as the largest province in Iran, and then was analyzed. Data collection method was library one. Furthermore, information related to 210406 insured athletes was analyzed using Descriptive Statistical Indexes in the level mean and SPSS20 Software. The research findings showed that the number of male athletes who injured was higher than female athletes in most sports within various years. Soccer, karate, volleyball, wrestling, handball, taekwondo, gymnastics, basketball, track and field, and badminton had the most injuries, respectively. Moreover, the number of injured athletes and their ratio to insured ones during six years were studied; in general, an increase in ratio of sports injuries was observed. Thus, upward movement of sports injuries in different sports, as the results of this study confirm it, is a warning which results in losing young forces and wasting of sports potential in Iran.

Keywords: sports, sports injuries, survey, Kerman

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13000 Analysis of Selected Hematological Variables during Three Different Menstrual Phases between Sedentary and Sports Women

Authors: G. Vasanthi

Abstract:

The purpose of the study was to analyse the red blood cells and white blood cells during three different menstrual phases between sedentary and sports women. To achieve this purpose, fifteen female sedentary post graduate students (M.A., M.Sc.) and fifteen students of Master of Physical Education and Sports (M.P.Ed.) women who regularly involved in vigouous sports training and participated in sports competition on different games were selected by adopting random sampling method. All the students were hostelers and their age group was between 20 to 22 years. The blood sample were collected during the mid-period of the three different phases to calculate the red blood cells and white blood cells. The data collected were treated statistically by using analysis of variance. The results reveal that the RBC and WBC is found to be significant between sedentary and sports women during the three different menstrual phases.

Keywords: RBC, WBC, menstrual, proliferative, secretary, sedentary women, sports women

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12999 Factors Contributing to Sports Injuries among Senior High Schools in Ghana

Authors: Mawuli M. Sedegah, Emmanuel O. Sarpong, Ernest Y. Acheampong

Abstract:

Sports injuries among student-athletes in high schools have become prevalent in most developing countries. The study explores the risk factors influencing sports injuries and identify those sustained among high schools’ competitions in the Akuapem Municipality. Drawing on literature from sports injuries, 610 student-athletes were used to understand how they sustained various injuries during schools’ sports and games. Using a cross-sectional survey, the study reveals how wounds, knee injury, muscle cramps, and thigh injury are common injuries in the municipality. The physiological factor was rampant, resulting from the number of games played by student-athletes, which significantly influenced sprain, strain, dislocation, and nose bleeding injuries among them. Results recorded a low correlation accounting for 9% occurrence of sports injuries in the Akuapem Municipality. Further study can be done in the other districts to have a general approach to remedy some of these sports injuries.

Keywords: common injuries, physiological factors, sports injuries, student-athletes

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
12998 A Phenomenological Study of Sports for the Analysis of Soccer Game: On Embodiment of the Goal Type Ball Games of Team Sports

Authors: K. Kiniwa, S. Kitagawa, M. Kawamoto, H. Uchiyama

Abstract:

This study aims to identify phenomenologically the embodiment of soccer in order to analyze soccer games. In this paper the authors focused on the embodiment of sports and the embodiment of the goal type ball games of team sports. The authors revealed that the embodiment of sports is represented by inverse proportional body. It is possible for this structure (body scheme) of intercorporeality of sports to be compared to the symbolic figure of Uroboros which is a monster connected the tails of two snakes. The embodiment of the goal type ball games of team sports has dependency on situation and complexity. In doing this, it revealed that soccer is sensitive and emotional sports.

Keywords: intercorporeality, structure, body scheme, Uroboros, inverse proportional body, dependency on situation, complexity

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
12997 Proposal of a Virtual Reality Dynamism Augmentation Method for Sports Spectating

Authors: Hertzog Clara, Sakurai Sho, Hirota Koichi, Nojima Takuya

Abstract:

It is common to see graphics appearing on television while watching a sports game to provide information, but it is less common to see graphics specifically aiming to boost spectators’ dynamism perception. It is even less common to see such graphics designed especially for virtual reality (VR). However, it appears that even with simple dynamic graphics, it would be possible to improve VR sports spectators’ experience. So, in this research, we explain how graphics can be used in VR to improve the dynamism of a broadcasted sports game and we provide a simple example. This example consists in a white halo displayed around the video and blinking according to the game speed. We hope to increase people’s awareness about VR sports spectating and the possibilities this display offers through dynamic graphics.

Keywords: broadcasting, graphics, sports spectating, virtual reality

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12996 Investigation of Various Variabilities of Social Anxiety Levels of Physical Education and Sports School Students

Authors: Turan Cetinkaya

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to determine the relation of the level of social anxiety to various variables of the students in physical education and sports departments. 229 students who are studying at the departments of physical education and sports teaching, sports management and coaching in Ahi Evran University, College of Physical Education and Sports participate in the research. Personal information tool and social anxiety scale consisting 30 items were used as data collection tool in the research. Distribution, frequency, t-test and ANOVA test were used in the comparison of the related data. As a result of statistical analysis, social anxiety levels do not differ according to gender, income level, sports type and national player status.

Keywords: social anxiety, undergraduates, sport, unıversty

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12995 Psychological Factors as Predictor of Sports Violence among Tertiary Institutions

Authors: Oluwasgun Moses Jolayemi

Abstract:

Violence has become a fairly often occurrence in sports (within our tertiary institutions), a development that is giving every society in the world sleepless night. School violence is part of youth violence, a broader salient public health problem. This study employing a questionnaire-based survey strategy aimed at investigates psychological factors as predictors of sports violence among Oyo state tertiary institution. A sample of Two hundred athletes and three tertiary institutions were selected through purposive sampling from the Oyo State tertiary institution. The estimated reliability co-efficient of the instrument was found to be 0.89 using cronbach Alpha technique. Data were analyzed at 0.05 level of significance using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software, version 20.0. Five hypotheses were tested using Pearson Correlation. Result revealed that personality, anxiety, mental health has no significant influence on sports violence; mental stress has a significant influence on sports violence. Based on the findings, it was recommended that sport management should reduce work overload and that they should organized seminars and social activities to help athletes lose up.

Keywords: Ibadan, mental health, personality, psychology, violence

Procedia PDF Downloads 206