Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8963

Search results for: constant rate of strain

8963 Experimental Investigation and Constitutive Modeling of Volume Strain under Uniaxial Strain Rate Jump Test in HDPE

Authors: Rida B. Arieby, Hameed N. Hameed


In this work, tensile tests on high density polyethylene have been carried out under various constant strain rate and strain rate jump tests. The dependency of the true stress and specially the variation of volume strain have been investigated, the volume strain due to the phenomena of damage was determined in real time during the tests by an optical extensometer called Videotraction. A modified constitutive equations, including strain rate and damage effects, are proposed, such a model is based on a non-equilibrium thermodynamic approach called (DNLR). The ability of the model to predict the complex nonlinear response of this polymer is examined by comparing the model simulation with the available experimental data, which demonstrate that this model can represent the deformation behavior of the polymer reasonably well.

Keywords: strain rate jump tests, volume strain, high density polyethylene, large strain, thermodynamics approach

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8962 New Dynamic Constitutive Model for OFHC Copper Film

Authors: Jin Sung Kim, Hoon Huh


The material properties of OFHC copper film was investigated with the High-Speed Material Micro Testing Machine (HSMMTM) at the high strain rates. The rate-dependent stress-strain curves from the experiment and the Johnson-Cook curve fitting showed large discrepancies as the plastic strain increases since the constitutive model implies no rate-dependent strain hardening effect. A new constitutive model was proposed in consideration of rate-dependent strain hardening effect. The strain rate hardening term in the new constitutive model consists of the strain rate sensitivity coefficients of the yield strength and strain hardening.

Keywords: rate dependent material properties, dynamic constitutive model, OFHC copper film, strain rate

Procedia PDF Downloads 355
8961 The Effect of Deformation Activation Volume, Strain Rate Sensitivity and Processing Temperature of Grain Size Variants

Authors: P. B. Sob, A. A. Alugongo, T. B. Tengen


The activation volume of 6082T6 aluminum is investigated at different temperatures on grain size variants. The deformation activation volume was computed on the basis of the relationship between the Boltzmann’s constant k, the testing temperatures, the material strain rate sensitivity and the material yield stress of grain size variants. The material strain rate sensitivity is computed as a function of yield stress and strain rate of grain size variants. The effect of the material strain rate sensitivity and the deformation activation volume of 6082T6 aluminum at different temperatures of 3-D grain are discussed. It is shown that the strain rate sensitivities and activation volume are negative for the grain size variants during the deformation of nanostructured materials. It is also observed that the activation volume vary in different ways with the equivalent radius, semi minor axis radius, semi major axis radius and major axis radius. From the obtained results it is shown that the variation of activation volume increased and decreased with the testing temperature. It was revealed that, increased in strain rate sensitivity led to decrease in activation volume whereas increased in activation volume led to decrease in strain rate sensitivity.

Keywords: nanostructured materials, grain size variants, temperature, yield stress, strain rate sensitivity, activation volume

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8960 Plastic Strain Accumulation Due to Asymmetric Cyclic Loading of Zircaloy-2 at 400°C

Authors: R. S. Rajpurohit, N. C. Santhi Srinivas, Vakil Singh


Asymmetric stress cycling leads to accumulation of plastic strain which is called as ratcheting strain. The problem is generally associated with nuclear fuel cladding materials used in nuclear power plants and pressurized pipelines. In the present investigation, asymmetric stress controlled fatigue tests were conducted with three different parameters namely, mean stress, stress amplitude and stress rate (keeping two parameters constant and varying third parameter) to see the plastic strain accumulation and its effect on fatigue life and deformation behavior of Zircaloy-2 at 400°C. The tests were conducted with variable mean stress (45-70 MPa), stress amplitude (95-120 MPa) and stress rate (30-750 MPa/s) and tested specimens were characterized using transmission and scanning electron microscopy. The experimental results show that with the increase in mean stress and stress amplitude, the ratcheting strain accumulation increases with reduction in fatigue life. However, increase in stress rate leads to improvement in fatigue life of the material due to small ratcheting strain accumulation. Fractographs showed a decrease in area fraction of fatigue failed region.

Keywords: asymmetric cyclic loading, ratcheting fatigue, mean stress, stress amplitude, stress rate, plastic strain

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8959 Determination of Material Constants and Zener-Hollomon Parameter of AA2017 Aluminium Alloy under Hot Compression Test

Authors: C. H. Shashikanth, M. J. Davidson, V. Suresh Babu


The formability of metals depends on a number of variables such as strain, strain rate, and temperature. Though most of the metals are formable at room temperature, few are not. To evaluate the workability of such metals at elevated temperatures, thermomechanical experiments should be carried out to find out the forming temperatures and strain rates. Though a number of constitutive relations are available to correlate the material parameters and the corresponding formability at elevated temperatures, the constitutive rule proposed by Arrhenius has been used in this work. Thus, in the present work, the material constants such as A (constant), α (stress multiplier), β (constant), and n (stress exponent) of AA 2017 has been found by conducting a series of hot compression tests at different temperatures such as 400°C, 450°C, 500°C, and 550°C and at different strain rates such as 0.16, 0.18, and 0.2. True stress (σt), true strains (εt) deformation activation energy (Q), and the Zener-Hollomon parameter (Z value) were also calculated. The results indicate that the value of ln (Z) decreases as the temperature increases and it increases as the strain rate increases.

Keywords: hot compression test, aluminium alloy, flow stress, activation energy

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8958 A Crystal Plasticity Approach to Model Dynamic Strain Aging

Authors: Burak Bal, Demircan Canadinc


Dynamic strain aging (DSA), resulting from the reorientation of C-Mn clusters in the core of dislocations, can provide a strain hardening mechanism. In addition, in Hadfield steel, negative strain rate sensitivity is observed due to the DSA. In our study, we incorporated dynamic strain aging onto crystal plasticity computations to predict the local instabilities and corresponding negative strain rate sensitivity. Specifically, the material response of Hadfield steel was obtained from monotonic and strain-rate jump experiments under tensile loading. The strain rate range was adjusted from 10⁻⁴ to 10⁻¹s ⁻¹. The crystal plasticity modeling of the material response was carried out based on Voce-type hardening law and corresponding Voce hardening parameters were determined. The solute pinning effect of carbon atom was incorporated to crystal plasticity simulations at microscale level by computing the shear stress contribution imposed on an arrested dislocation by carbon atom. After crystal plasticity simulations with modifying hardening rule, which takes into account the contribution of DSA, it was seen that the model successfully predicts both the role of DSA and corresponding strain rate sensitivity.

Keywords: crystal plasticity, dynamic strain aging, Hadfield steel, negative strain rate sensitivity

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8957 Determination of Strain Rate Sensitivity (SRS) for Grain Size Variants on Nanocrystalline Materials Produced by ARB and ECAP

Authors: P. B. Sob, T. B. Tengen, A. A. Alugongo


Mechanical behavior of 6082T6 aluminum is investigated at different temperatures. The strain rate sensitivity is investigated at different temperatures on the grain size variants. The sensitivity of the measured grain size variants on 3-D grain is discussed. It is shown that the strain rate sensitivities are negative for the grain size variants during the deformation of nanostructured materials. It is also observed that the strain rate sensitivities vary in different ways with the equivalent radius, semi minor axis radius, semi major axis radius and major axis radius. From the obtained results, it is shown that the variation of strain rate sensitivity with temperature suggests that the strain rate sensitivity at the low and the high temperature ends of the 6082T6 aluminum range is different. The obtained results revealed transition at different temperature from negative strain rate sensitivity as temperature increased on the grain size variants.

Keywords: nanostructured materials, grain size variants, temperature, yield stress, strain rate sensitivity

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8956 Effect of Grain Size and Stress Parameters on Ratcheting Behaviour of Two Different Single Phase FCC Metals

Authors: Jayanta Kumar Mahato, Partha Sarathi De, Amrita Kundu, P. C. Chakraborti


Ratcheting is one of the most important phenomena to be considered for design and safety assessment of structural components subjected to stress controlled asymmetric cyclic loading in the elasto-plastic domain. In the present study uniaxial ratcheting behavior of commercially pure annealed OFHC copper and aluminium with two different grain sizes has been investigated. Stress-controlled tests have been conducted at various combinations of stress amplitude and mean stress. These stresses were selected in such a way that the ratio of equivalent stress amplitude (σₐeq) to ultimate tensile strength (σUTS) of the selected materials remains constant. It is found that irrespective of grain size the ratcheting fatigue lives decrease with the increase of both stress amplitude and mean stress following power relationships. However, the effect of stress amplitude on ratcheting lives is observed higher as compared to mean stress for both the FCC metals. It is also found that for both FCC metals ratcheting fatigue lives at a constant ratio of equivalent stress amplitude (σ ₐeq) to ultimate tensile strength (σUTS) are more in case fine grain size. So far ratcheting strain rate is concerned, it decreases rapidly within first few cycles and then a steady state is reached. Finally, the ratcheting strain rate increases up to the complete failure of the specimens due to a very large increase of true stress for a substantial reduction in cross-sectional area. The steady state ratcheting strain rate increases with the increase in both stress amplitude and mean stress. Interestingly, a unique perfectly power relationship between steady state ratcheting strain rate and cycles to failure has been found irrespective of stress combination for both FCC metals. Similar to ratcheting strain rate, the strain energy density decreases rapidly within first few cycles followed by steady state and then increases up to a failure of the specimens irrespective of stress combinations for both FCC metals; but strain energy density at steady state decreases with increase in mean stress and increases with the increase of stress amplitude. From the fractography study, it is found that the void density increases with the increase of maximum stress, but the void size and void density are almost same for any combination of stress parameters considering constant maximum stress.

Keywords: ratcheting phenomena, grain size, stress parameter, ratcheting lives, ratcheting strain rate

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8955 The Mechanical Response of a Composite Propellant under Harsh Conditions

Authors: Xin Tong, Jin-sheng Xu, Xiong Chen, Ya Zheng


The aim of this paper is to study the mechanical properties of HTPB (Hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene) composite propellant under harsh conditions. It describes two tests involving uniaxial tensile tests of various strain rates (ranging from 0.0005 s-1 to 1.5 s-1), temperatures (ranging from 223 K to 343 K) and high-cycle fatigue tests under low-temperature (223 K, frequencies were set at 50, 100, 150 Hz) using DMA (Dynamic Mechanical Analyzer). To highlight the effect of small pre-strain on fatigue properties of HTPB propellant, quasi-static stretching was carried out before fatigue loading, and uniaxial tensile tests at constant strain rates were successively applied. The results reveal that flow stress of propellant increases with reduction in temperature and rise in strain rate, and the strain rate-temperature equivalence relationship could be described by TTSP (time-temperature superposition principle) incorporating a modified WLF equation. Moreover, the rate of performance degradations and damage accumulation of propellant during fatigue tests increased with increasing strain amplitude and loading frequencies, while initial quasi-static loading has a negative effect on fatigue properties by comparing stress-strain relations after fatigue tests.

Keywords: fatigue, HTPB propellant, tensile properties, time-temperature superposition principle

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8954 Impact Tensile Mechanical Properties of 316L Stainless Steel at Different Strain Rates

Authors: Jiawei Chen, Jia Qu, Dianwei Ju


316L stainless steel has good mechanical and technological properties, has been widely used in shipbuilding and aerospace manufacturing. In order to understand the effect of strain rate on the yield limit of 316L stainless steel and the constitutive relationship of the materials at different strain rates, this paper used the INSTRON-4505 electronic universal testing machine to study the mechanical properties of the tensile specimen under quasi-static conditions. Meanwhile, the Zwick-Roell RKP450 intelligent oscillometric impact tester was used to test the tensile specimens at different strain rates. Through the above two kinds of experimental researches, the relationship between the true stress-strain and the engineering stress-strain at different strain rates is obtained. The result shows that the tensile yield point of 316L stainless steel increases with the increase of strain rate, and the real stress-strain curve of the 316L stainless steel has a better normalization than that of the engineering stress-strain curve. The real stress-strain curves can be used in the practical engineering of impact stretch to improve its safety.

Keywords: impact stretch, 316L stainless steel, strain rate, real stress-strain, normalization

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8953 Experimental Characterization of Composite Material with Non Contacting Methods

Authors: Nikolaos Papadakis, Constantinos Condaxakis, Konstantinos Savvakis


The aim of this paper is to determine the elastic properties (elastic modulus and Poisson ratio) of a composite material based on noncontacting imaging methods. More specifically, the significantly reduced cost of digital cameras has given the opportunity of the high reliability of low-cost strain measurement. The open source platform Ncorr is used in this paper which utilizes the method of digital image correlation (DIC). The use of digital image correlation in measuring strain uses random speckle preparation on the surface of the gauge area, image acquisition, and postprocessing the image correlation to obtain displacement and strain field on surface under study. This study discusses technical issues relating to the quality of results to be obtained are discussed. [0]8 fabric glass/epoxy composites specimens were prepared and tested at different orientations 0[o], 30[o], 45[o], 60[o], 90[o]. Each test was recorded with the camera at a constant frame rate and constant lighting conditions. The recorded images were processed through the use of the image processing software. The parameters of the test are reported. The strain map output which is obtained through strain measurement using Ncorr is validated by a) comparing the elastic properties with expected values from Classical laminate theory, b) through finite element analysis.

Keywords: composites, Ncorr, strain map, videoextensometry

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8952 Analysis of Mechanical Properties for AP/HTPB Solid Propellant under Different Loading Conditions

Authors: Walid M. Adel, Liang Guo-Zhu


To investigate the characterization of the mechanical properties of composite solid propellant (CSP) based on hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) at different temperatures and strain rates, uniaxial tensile tests were conducted over a range of temperatures -60 °C to +76 °C and strain rates 0.000164 to 0.328084 s-1 using a conventional universal testing machine. From the experimental data, it can be noted that the mechanical properties of AP/HTPB propellant are mainly dependent on the applied strain rate and the temperature condition. The stress-strain responses exhibited an initial yielding followed by the viscoelastic phase, which was strongly affected by the strain rate and temperature. It was found that the mechanical properties increased with both increasing strain rate and decreasing temperature. Based on the experimental tests, the master curves of the tensile properties are drawn using predetermined shift factor and the results were discussed. This work is a first step in preliminary investigation the nonlinear viscoelasticity behavior of CSP.

Keywords: AP/HTPB composite solid propellant, mechanical behavior, nonlinear viscoelastic, tensile test, strain rate

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8951 Flexural Strength Design of RC Beams with Consideration of Strain Gradient Effect

Authors: Mantai Chen, Johnny Ching Ming Ho


The stress-strain relationship of concrete under flexure is one of the essential parameters in assessing ultimate flexural strength capacity of RC beams. Currently, the concrete stress-strain curve in flexure is obtained by incorporating a constant scale-down factor of 0.85 in the uniaxial stress-strain curve. However, it was revealed that strain gradient would improve the maximum concrete stress under flexure and concrete stress-strain curve is strain gradient dependent. Based on the strain-gradient-dependent concrete stress-strain curve, the investigation of the combined effects of strain gradient and concrete strength on flexural strength of RC beams was extended to high strength concrete up to 100 MPa by theoretical analysis. As an extension and application of the authors’ previous study, a new flexural strength design method incorporating the combined effects of strain gradient and concrete strength is developed. A set of equivalent rectangular concrete stress block parameters is proposed and applied to produce a series of design charts showing that the flexural strength of RC beams are improved with strain gradient effect considered.

Keywords: beams, equivalent concrete stress block, flexural strength, strain gradient

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8950 Impact Deformation and Fracture Behaviour of Cobalt-Based Haynes 188 Superalloy

Authors: Woei-Shyan Lee, Hao-Chien Kao


The impact deformation and fracture behaviour of cobalt-based Haynes 188 superalloy are investigated by means of a split Hopkinson pressure bar. Impact tests are performed at strain rates ranging from 1×103 s-1 to 5×103 s-1 and temperatures between 25°C and 800°C. The experimental results indicate that the flow response and fracture characteristics of cobalt-based Haynes 188 superalloy are significantly dependent on the strain rate and temperature. The flow stress, work hardening rate and strain rate sensitivity all increase with increasing strain rate or decreasing temperature. It is shown that the impact response of the Haynes 188 specimens is adequately described by the Zerilli-Armstrong fcc model. The fracture analysis results indicate that the Haynes 188 specimens fail predominantly as the result of intensive localised shearing. Furthermore, it is shown that the flow localisation effect leads to the formation of adiabatic shear bands. The fracture surfaces of the deformed Haynes 188 specimens are characterised by dimple- and / or cleavage-like structure with knobby features. The knobby features are thought to be the result of a rise in the local temperature to a value greater than the melting point.

Keywords: Haynes 188 alloy, impact, strain rate and temperature effect, adiabatic shearing

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8949 An Integrated Approach to Find the Effect of Strain Rate on Ultimate Tensile Strength of Randomly Oriented Short Glass Fiber Composite in Combination with Artificial Neural Network

Authors: Sharad Shrivastava, Arun Jalan


In this study tensile testing was performed on randomly oriented short glass fiber/epoxy resin composite specimens which were prepared using hand lay-up method. Samples were tested over a wide range of strain rate/loading rate from 2mm/min to 40mm/min to see the effect on ultimate tensile strength of the composite. A multi layered 'back propagation artificial neural network of supervised learning type' was used to analyze and predict the tensile properties with strain rate and temperature as given input and output as UTS to predict. Various network structures were designed and investigated with varying parameters and network sizes, and an optimized network structure was proposed to predict the UTS of short glass fiber/epoxy resin composite specimens with reasonably good accuracy.

Keywords: glass fiber composite, mechanical properties, strain rate, artificial neural network

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8948 Optimization of Leaching Properties of a Low-Grade Copper Ore Using Central Composite Design (CCD)

Authors: Lawrence Koech, Hilary Rutto, Olga Mothibedi


Worldwide demand for copper has led to intensive search for methods of extraction and recovery of copper from different sources. The study investigates the leaching properties of a low-grade copper ore by optimizing the leaching variables using response surface methodology. The effects of key parameters, i.e., temperature, solid to liquid ratio, stirring speed and pH, on the leaching rate constant was investigated using a pH stat apparatus. A Central Composite Design (CCD) of experiments was used to develop a quadratic model which specifically correlates the leaching variables and the rate constant. The results indicated that the model is in good agreement with the experimental data with a correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.93. The temperature and solid to liquid ratio were found to have the most substantial influence on the leaching rate constant. The optimum operating conditions for copper leaching from the ore were identified as temperature at 65C, solid to liquid ratio at 1.625 and stirring speed of 325 rpm which yielded an average leaching efficiency of 93.16%.

Keywords: copper, leaching, CCD, rate constant

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8947 An Criterion to Minimize FE Mesh-Dependency in Concrete Plate Subjected to Impact Loading

Authors: Kwak, Hyo-Gyung, Gang, Han Gul


In the context of an increasing need for reliability and safety in concrete structures under blast and impact loading condition, the behavior of concrete under high strain rate condition has been an important issue. Since concrete subjected to impact loading associated with high strain rate shows quite different material behavior from that in the static state, several material models are proposed and used to describe the high strain rate behavior under blast and impact loading. In the process of modelling, in advance, mesh dependency in the used finite element (FE) is the key problem because simulation results under high strain-rate condition are quite sensitive to applied FE mesh size. It means that the accuracy of simulation results may deeply be dependent on FE mesh size in simulations. This paper introduces an improved criterion which can minimize the mesh-dependency of simulation results on the basis of the fracture energy concept, and HJC (Holmquist Johnson Cook), CSC (Continuous Surface Cap) and K&C (Karagozian & Case) models are examined to trace their relative sensitivity to the used FE mesh size. To coincide with the purpose of the penetration test with a concrete plate under a projectile (bullet), the residual velocities of projectile after penetration are compared. The correlation studies between analytical results and the parametric studies associated with them show that the variation of residual velocity with the used FE mesh size is quite reduced by applying a unique failure strain value determined according to the proposed criterion.

Keywords: high strain rate concrete, penetration simulation, failure strain, mesh-dependency, fracture energy

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8946 Tapered Double Cantilever Beam: Evaluation of the Test Set-up for Self-Healing Polymers

Authors: Eleni Tsangouri, Xander Hillewaere, David Garoz Gómez, Dimitrios Aggelis, Filip Du Prez, Danny Van Hemelrijck


Tapered Double Cantilever Beam (TDCB) is the most commonly used test set-up to evaluate the self-healing feature of thermoset polymers autonomously activated in the presence of crack. TDCB is a modification of the established fracture mechanics set-up of Double Cantilever Beam and is designed to provide constant strain energy release rate with crack length under stable load evolution (mode-I). In this study, the damage of virgin and autonomously healed TDCB polymer samples is evaluated considering the load-crack opening diagram, the strain maps provided by Digital Image Correlation technique and the fractography maps given by optical microscopy. It is shown that the pre-crack introduced prior to testing (razor blade tapping), the loading rate and the length of the side groove are the features that dominate the crack propagation and lead to inconstant fracture energy release rate.

Keywords: polymers, autonomous healing, fracture, tapered double cantilever beam

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8945 Energy Consumption in Biodiesel Production at Various Kinetic Reaction of Transesterification

Authors: Sariah Abang, S. M. Anisuzzaman, Awang Bono, D. Krishnaiah, S. Rasmih


Biodiesel is a potential renewable energy due to biodegradable and non-toxic. The challenge of its commercialization is associated with high production cost due to its feedstock also useful in various food products. Non-competitive feedstock such as waste cooking oils normally contains a large amount of free fatty acids (FFAs). Large amount of fatty acid degrades the alkaline catalyst in the biodiesel production, thereby decreasing the biodiesel production rate. Generally, biodiesel production processes including esterification and trans-esterification are conducting in a mixed system, in which the hydrodynamic effect on the reaction could not be completely defined. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of variation rate constant and activation energy on energy consumption of biodiesel production. Usually, the changes of rate constant and activation energy depend on the operating temperature and the degradation of catalyst. By varying the activation energy and kinetic rate constant, the effects can be seen on the energy consumption of biodiesel production. The result showed that the energy consumption of biodiesel is dependent on the changes of rate constant and activation energy. Furthermore, this study was simulated using Aspen HYSYS.

Keywords: methanol, palm oil, simulation, transesterification, triolein

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8944 Hot Deformation Behavior and Constitutive Modelling of a Medium-Carbon Steel

Authors: Khalil Boroumanda, Morteza Hadib, Reza Vafaeia


The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of temperature and strain rate on the hot deformation behavior of a medium-carbon structural steel. This steel is known as 30XΓCA steel in GOST standard and contains 3 wt% carbon. To investigate the hot deformation behavior of this steel, hot compression tests were performed on cylindrical samples in temperature ranges from 800 to 1000 °C and strain ranges from 0.001 to 0.1 S-1. Microstructure of samples was characterized using optical microscopy (OM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The true stress-strain curves of 30XΓCA steel obtained at various deformation conditions showed that the softening phenomenon based on recovery and dynamic recrystallization (DRX) occurred during hot deformation tests. The results indicated that the peak stress decreased with increasing temperature and decreasing strain rate. With increasing temperature from 800 to 1000 °C, the peak stress decreased by 52%, 60% and 38% at strain rates of 0.001, 0.01 and 0.1 S-1, respectively. According to the results, it can be claimed that the DRX was a dominate mechanism of softening in all deformation conditions. The changes of work hardening rate for 30XΓCA steel during hot deformation were analyzed to confirm the results. Accordingly, it was observed that critical stress for the initiation of DRX decreased with increasing temperature and decreasing strain rate. Furthermore, constitutive equations and activation energy of deformation for 30XΓCA steel were successfully determined. Based on the hyperbolic sine equation, the activation energy of hot deformation of 30XΓCA steel was 256.11 kJ/mole.

Keywords: 30XΓCA steel, hot compression, dynamic recrystallization, constitutive equations

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8943 Modeling the Time-Dependent Rheological Behavior of Clays Used in Fabrication of Ceramic

Authors: Larbi Hammadi, N. Boudjenane, N. Benhallou, R. Houjedje, R. Reffis, M. Belhadri


Many of clays exhibited the thixotropic behavior in which, the apparent viscosity of material decreases with time of shearing at constant shear rate. The structural kinetic model (SKM) was used to characterize the thixotropic behavior of two different kinds of clays used in fabrication of ceramic. Clays selected for analysis represent the fluid and semisolid clays materials. The SKM postulates that the change in the rheological behavior is associated with shear-induced breakdown of the internal structure of the clays. This model for the structure decay with time at constant shear rate assumes nth order kinetics for the decay of the material structure with a rate constant.

Keywords: ceramic, clays, structural kinetic model, thixotropy, viscosity

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8942 Cellular Automata Modelling of Titanium Alloy

Authors: Jyoti Jha, Asim Tewari, Sushil Mishra


The alpha-beta Titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) is the most common alloy in the aerospace industry. The hot workability of Ti–6Al–4V has been investigated by means of hot compression tests carried out in the 750–950 °C temperature range and 0.001–10s-1 strain rate range. Stress-strain plot obtained from the Gleeble 3800 test results show the dynamic recrystallization at temperature 950 °C. The effect of microstructural characteristics of the deformed specimens have been studied and correlated with the test temperature, total strain and strain rate. Finite element analysis in DEFORM 2D has been carried out to see the effect of flow stress parameters in different zones of deformed sample. Dynamic recrystallization simulation based on Cellular automata has been done in DEFORM 2D to simulate the effect of hardening and recovery during DRX. Simulated results well predict the grain growth and DRX in the deformed sample.

Keywords: compression test, Cellular automata, DEFORM , DRX

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8941 Evaluation of the Role of Bacteria-Derived Flavins as Plant Growth Promoting Molecules

Authors: Nivethika Ajeethan, Lord Abbey, Svetlana Yurge


Riboflavin is a water-soluble vitamin and the direct precursor of the flavin cofactors flavin mononucleotide and flavin adenine dinucleotide. Flavins (FLs) are bioactive molecules that have a beneficial effect on plant growth and development. Sinorhizobium meliloti strain 1021 is an α-proteobacterium that forms agronomically important N₂-fixing symbiosis with Medicago plants and secretes a considerable amount of FLs (FL⁺ strain). This strain was also implicated in plant growth promotion in its association with non-legume host plants. However, the mechanism of this plant growth promotion is not well understood. In this study, we evaluated the growth and development of tomato plants inoculated with S. meliloti 1021 and its mutant (FL⁻ strain) with limited ability to secrete FLs. Our preliminary experiments indicated that inoculation with FL⁺ strain significantly increased seedlings' root and shoot length and surface area compared to those of plants inoculated with FL⁻ strain. For example, the root lengths of 9-day old seedlings inoculated with FL⁺ strain were 35% longer than seedlings inoculated with the mutant. Proteomic approaches combined with the analysis of plant physiological responses such as growth and photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate, and chlorophyll content will be used to evaluate the host-plant response to bacteria-derived FLs.

Keywords: flavin, plant growth promotion, riboflavin, Sinorhizobium meliloti

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8940 Predicting Consolidation Coefficient of Busan Clay by Time-Displacement-Velocity Methods

Authors: Thang Minh Le, Hadi Khabbaz


The coefficient of consolidation is a parameter governing the rate at which saturated soil particularly clay undergoes consolidation when subjected to an increase in pressure. The rate and amount of compression in soil varies with the rate that pore water is lost; and hence depends on soil permeability. Over many years, various methods have been proposed to determine the coefficient of consolidation, cv, which is an indication of the rate of foundation settlement on soft ground. However, defining this parameter is often problematic and heavily relies on graphical techniques, which are subject to some uncertainties. This paper initially presents an overview of many well-established methods to determine the vertical coefficient of consolidation from the incremental loading consolidation tests. An array of consolidation tests was conducted on the undisturbed clay samples, collected at various depths from a site in Nakdong river delta, Busan, South Korea. The consolidation test results on these soft sensitive clay samples were employed to evaluate the targeted methods to predict the settlement rate of Busan clay. In relationship of time-displacement-velocity, a total of 3 method groups from 10 common procedures were classified and compared together. Discussions on study results will be also provided.

Keywords: Busan clay, coefficient of consolidation, constant rate of strain, incremental loading

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8939 High Strain Rate Behavior of Harmonic Structure Designed Pure Nickel: Mechanical Characterization Microstructure Analysis and 3D Modelisation

Authors: D. Varadaradjou, H. Kebir, J. Mespoulet, D. Tingaud, S. Bouvier, P. Deconick, K. Ameyama, G. Dirras


The development of new architecture metallic alloys with controlled microstructures is one of the strategic ways for designing materials with high innovation potential and, particularly, with improved mechanical properties as required for structural materials. Indeed, unlike conventional counterparts, metallic materials having so-called harmonic structure displays strength and ductility synergy. The latter occurs due to a unique microstructure design: a coarse grain structure surrounded by a 3D continuous network of ultra-fine grain known as “core” and “shell,” respectively. In the present study, pure harmonic-structured (HS) Nickel samples were processed via controlled mechanical milling and followed by spark plasma sintering (SPS). The present work aims at characterizing the mechanical properties of HS pure Nickel under room temperature dynamic loading through a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) test and the underlying microstructure evolution. A stopper ring was used to maintain the strain at a fixed value of about 20%. Five samples (named B1 to B5) were impacted using different striker bar velocities from 14 m/s to 28 m/s, yielding strain rate in the range 4000-7000 s-1. Results were considered until a 10% deformation value, which is the deformation threshold for the constant strain rate assumption. The non-deformed (INIT – post-SPS process) and post-SHPB microstructure (B1 to B5) were investigated by EBSD. It was observed that while the strain rate is increased, the average grain size within the core decreases. An in-depth analysis of grains and grain boundaries was made to highlight the thermal (such as dynamic recrystallization) or mechanical (such as grains fragmentation by dislocation) contribution within the “core” and “shell.” One of the most widely used methods for determining the dynamic behavior of materials is the SHPB technique developed by Kolsky. A 3D simulation of the SHPB test was created through ABAQUS in dynamic explicit. This 3D simulation allows taking into account all modes of vibration. An inverse approach was used to identify the material parameters from the equation of Johnson-Cook (JC) by minimizing the difference between the numerical and experimental data. The JC’s parameters were identified using B1 and B5 samples configurations. Predictively, identified parameters of JC’s equation shows good result for the other sample configuration. Furthermore, mean rise of temperature within the harmonic Nickel sample can be obtained through ABAQUS and show an elevation of about 35°C for all fives samples. At this temperature, a thermal mechanism cannot be activated. Therefore, grains fragmentation within the core is mainly due to mechanical phenomena for a fixed final strain of 20%.

Keywords: 3D simulation, fragmentation, harmonic structure, high strain rate, Johnson-cook model, microstructure

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8938 Design and Development of Constant Stress Composite Cantilever Beam

Authors: Vinod B. Suryawanshi, Ajit D. Kelkar


Glass fiber reinforced composites materials, due their unique properties such as high mechanical strength to weight ratio, corrosion resistance, and impact resistance have huge potential as structural materials in automotive, construction and transportation applications. However, these properties often come at higher cost owing to complex design methods, difficult manufacturing processes and raw material cost. In this paper, a cost effective design and manufacturing approach for a composite cantilever beam structure is presented. A constant stress (variable cross section) beam concept has been used to design and optimize the shape of composite cantilever beam and thus obtain the reduction in material used. The variable cross section beam was fabricated from the glass epoxy prepregs using cost effective out of autoclave process. The drop ply technique has been successfully used to obtain the variation in the cross section along the span of the beam. In order to test the beam and validate the design, the beam was subjected to different end loads. Strain gauges were mounted along the length of the beam to obtain strains in the beam at different sections and loads. The strain values were used to calculate the flexural strength and bending stresses in the beam. The stresses obtained through strain measurements from the experiment were found to be uniform along the span of the beam, and thus validates the design. Finally, the finite element model for the constant stress beam was developed using commercial finite element simulation software. It was observed that the simulation results agreed very well with the experimental results.

Keywords: beams, composites, constant cross-section, structures

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8937 Creep Analysis and Rupture Evaluation of High Temperature Materials

Authors: Yuexi Xiong, Jingwu He


The structural components in an energy facility such as steam turbine machines are operated under high stress and elevated temperature in an endured time period and thus the creep deformation and creep rupture failure are important issues that need to be addressed in the design of such components. There are numerous creep models being used for creep analysis that have both advantages and disadvantages in terms of accuracy and efficiency. The Isochronous Creep Analysis is one of the simplified approaches in which a full-time dependent creep analysis is avoided and instead an elastic-plastic analysis is conducted at each time point. This approach has been established based on the rupture dependent creep equations using the well-known Larson-Miller parameter. In this paper, some fundamental aspects of creep deformation and the rupture dependent creep models are reviewed and the analysis procedures using isochronous creep curves are discussed. Four rupture failure criteria are examined from creep fundamental perspectives including criteria of Stress Damage, Strain Damage, Strain Rate Damage, and Strain Capability. The accuracy of these criteria in predicting creep life is discussed and applications of the creep analysis procedures and failure predictions of simple models will be presented. In addition, a new failure criterion is proposed to improve the accuracy and effectiveness of the existing criteria. Comparisons are made between the existing criteria and the new one using several examples materials. Both strain increase and stress relaxation form a full picture of the creep behaviour of a material under high temperature in an endured time period. It is important to bear this in mind when dealing with creep problems. Accordingly there are two sets of rupture dependent creep equations. While the rupture strength vs LMP equation shows how the rupture time depends on the stress level under load controlled condition, the strain rate vs rupture time equation reflects how the rupture time behaves under strain-controlled condition. Among the four existing failure criteria for rupture life predictions, the Stress Damage and Strain Damage Criteria provide the most conservative and non-conservative predictions, respectively. The Strain Rate and Strain Capability Criteria provide predictions in between that are believed to be more accurate because the strain rate and strain capability are more determined quantities than stress to reflect the creep rupture behaviour. A modified Strain Capability Criterion is proposed making use of the two sets of creep equations and therefore is considered to be more accurate than the original Strain Capability Criterion.

Keywords: creep analysis, high temperature mateials, rapture evalution, steam turbine machines

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8936 Influence of Crystal Orientation on Electromechanical Behaviors of Relaxor Ferroelectric P(VDF-TRFE-CTFE) Terpolymer

Authors: Qing Liu, Jean-fabien Capsal, Claude Richard


In this current contribution, authors are dedicated to investigate influence of the crystal lamellae orientation on electromechanical behaviors of relaxor ferroelectric Poly (vinylidene fluoride –trifluoroethylene -chlorotrifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE-CTFE)) films by control of polymer microstructure, aiming to picture the full map of structure-property relationship. In order to define their crystal orientation films, terpolymer films were fabricated by solution-casting, stretching and hot-pressing process. Differential scanning calorimetry, impedance analyzer, and tensile strength techniques were employed to characterize crystallographic parameters, dielectric permittivity, and elastic Young’s modulus respectively. In addition, large electrical induced out-of-plane electrostrictive strain was obtained by cantilever beam mode. Consequently, as-casted pristine films exhibited surprisingly high electrostrictive strain 0.1774% due to considerably small value of elastic Young’s modulus although relatively low dielectric permittivity. Such reasons contributed to large mechanical elastic energy density. Instead, due to 2 folds increase of elastic Young’s modulus and less than 50% augmentation of dielectric constant, fully-crystallized film showed weak electrostrictive behavior and mechanical energy density as well. And subjected to mechanical stretching process, Film C exhibited stronger dielectric constant and out-performed electrostrictive strain over Film B because edge-on crystal lamellae orientation induced by uniaxially mechanical stretch. Hot-press films were compared in term of cooling rate. Rather large electrostrictive strain of 0.2788% for hot-pressed Film D in quenching process was observed although its dielectric permittivity equivalent to that of pristine as-casted Film A, showing highest mechanical elastic energy density value of 359.5 J/m^3. In hot-press cooling process, dielectric permittivity of Film E saw values at 48.8 concomitant with ca.100% increase of Young’s modulus. Films with intermediate mechanical energy density were obtained.

Keywords: crystal orientation, electrostroctive strain, mechanical energy density, permittivity, relaxor ferroelectric

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8935 Mechanical Characterization of Brain Tissue in Compression

Authors: Abbas Shafiee, Mohammad Taghi Ahmadian, Maryam Hoviattalab


The biomechanical behavior of brain tissue is needed for predicting the traumatic brain injury (TBI). Each year over 1.5 million people sustain a TBI in the USA. The appropriate coefficients for injury prediction can be evaluated using experimental data. In this study, an experimental setup on brain soft tissue was developed to perform unconfined compression tests at quasistatic strain rates ∈0.0004 s-1 and 0.008 s-1 and 0.4 stress relaxation test under unconfined uniaxial compression with ∈ 0.67 s-1 ramp rate. The fitted visco-hyperelastic parameters were utilized by using obtained stress-strain curves. The experimental data was validated using finite element analysis (FEA) and previous findings. Also, influence of friction coefficient on unconfined compression and relaxation test and effect of ramp rate in relaxation test is investigated. Results of the findings are implemented on the analysis of a human brain under high acceleration due to impact.

Keywords: brain soft tissue, visco-hyperelastic, finite element analysis (FEA), friction, quasistatic strain rate

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8934 Viscoelastic Modeling of Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) under Repeated Loading by Using Finite Element Method

Authors: S. A. Tabatabaei, S. Aarabi


Predicting the hot mix asphalt (HMA) response and performance is a challenging task because of the subjectivity of HMA under the complex loading and environmental condition. The behavior of HMA is a function of temperature of loading and also shows the time and rate-dependent behavior directly affecting design criteria of mixture. Velocity of load passing make the time and rate. The viscoelasticity illustrates the reaction of HMA under loading and environmental conditions such as temperature and moisture effect. The behavior has direct effect on design criteria such as tensional strain and vertical deflection. In this paper, the computational framework for viscoelasticity and implementation in 3D dimensional HMA model is introduced to use in finite element method. The model was lied under various repeated loading conditions at constant temperature. The response of HMA viscoelastic behavior is investigated in loading condition under speed vehicle and sensitivity of behavior to the range of speed and compared to HMA which is supposed to have elastic behavior as in conventional design methods. The results show the importance of loading time pulse, unloading time and various speeds on design criteria. Also the importance of memory fading of material to storing the strain and stress due to repeated loading was shown. The model was simulated by ABAQUS finite element package

Keywords: viscoelasticity, finite element method, repeated loading, HMA

Procedia PDF Downloads 324