Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 2042

Search results for: coefficient of consolidation

2042 Predicting Consolidation Coefficient of Busan Clay by Time-Displacement-Velocity Methods

Authors: Thang Minh Le, Hadi Khabbaz

Abstract:

The coefficient of consolidation is a parameter governing the rate at which saturated soil particularly clay undergoes consolidation when subjected to an increase in pressure. The rate and amount of compression in soil varies with the rate that pore water is lost; and hence depends on soil permeability. Over many years, various methods have been proposed to determine the coefficient of consolidation, cv, which is an indication of the rate of foundation settlement on soft ground. However, defining this parameter is often problematic and heavily relies on graphical techniques, which are subject to some uncertainties. This paper initially presents an overview of many well-established methods to determine the vertical coefficient of consolidation from the incremental loading consolidation tests. An array of consolidation tests was conducted on the undisturbed clay samples, collected at various depths from a site in Nakdong river delta, Busan, South Korea. The consolidation test results on these soft sensitive clay samples were employed to evaluate the targeted methods to predict the settlement rate of Busan clay. In relationship of time-displacement-velocity, a total of 3 method groups from 10 common procedures were classified and compared together. Discussions on study results will be also provided.

Keywords: Busan clay, coefficient of consolidation, constant rate of strain, incremental loading

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2041 Shear Strength and Consolidation Behavior of Clayey Soil with Vertical and Radial Drainage

Authors: R. Pillai Aparna, S. R. Gandhi

Abstract:

Soft clay deposits having low strength and high compressibility are found all over the world. Preloading with vertical drains is a widely used method for improving such type of soils. The coefficient of consolidation, irrespective of the drainage type, plays an important role in the design of vertical drains and it controls accurate prediction of the rate of consolidation of soil. Also, the increase in shear strength of soil with consolidation is another important factor considered in preloading or staged construction. To our best knowledge no clear guidelines are available to estimate the increase in shear strength for a particular degree of consolidation (U) at various stages during the construction. Various methods are available for finding out the consolidation coefficient. This study mainly focuses on the variation of, consolidation coefficient which was found out using different methods and shear strength with pressure intensity. The variation of shear strength with the degree of consolidation was also studied. The consolidation test was done using two types of highly compressible clays with vertical, radial and a few with combined drainage. The test was carried out at different pressures intensities and for each pressure intensity, once the target degree of consolidation is achieved, vane shear test was done at different locations in the sample, in order to determine the shear strength. The shear strength of clayey soils under the application of vertical stress with vertical and radial drainage with target U value of 70% and 90% was studied. It was found that there is not much variation in cv or cr value beyond 80kPa pressure intensity. Correlations were developed between shear strength ratio and consolidation pressure based on laboratory testing under controlled condition. It was observed that the shear strength of sample with target U value of 90% is about 1.4 to 2 times than that of 70% consolidated sample. Settlement analysis was done using Asaoka’s and hyperbolic method. The variation of strength with respect to the depth of sample was also studied, using large-scale consolidation test. It was found, based on the present study that the gain in strength is more on the top half of the clay layer, and also the shear strength of the sample ensuring radial drainage is slightly higher than that of the vertical drainage.

Keywords: consolidation coefficient, degree of consolidation, PVDs, shear strength

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2040 Secondary Compression Behavior of Organic Soils in One-Dimensional Consolidation Tests

Authors: Rinku Varghese, S. Chandrakaran, K. Rangaswamy

Abstract:

The standard one-dimensional consolidation test is used to find the consolidation behaviour of artificially consolidated organic soils. Incremental loading tests were conducted on the clay without and with organic matter. The study was conducted with soil having different organic content keeping all other parameters constant. The tests were conducted on clay and artificially prepared organic soil sample at different vertical pressure. The load increment ratio considered for the test is equal to one. Artificial organic soils are used for the test by adding starch to the clay. The percentage of organic content in starch is determined by adding 5% by weight starch into the clay (inorganic soil) sample and corresponding change in organic content of soil was determined. This was expressed as percentage by weight of starch, and it was found that about 95% organic content in the soil sample. Accordingly percentage of organic content fixed and added to the sample for testing to understand the consolidation behaviour clayey soils with organic content. A detailed study of the results obtained from IL test was investigated. The main items investigated were (i) coefficient of consolidation (cv), (ii) coefficient of volume compression (mv), (iii) coefficient of permeability (k). The consolidation parameter obtained from IL test was used for determining the creep strain and creep parameter and also predicting their variation with vertical stress and organic content.

Keywords: consolidation, secondary compression, creep, starch

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2039 Reliability Based Performance Evaluation of Stone Column Improved Soft Ground

Authors: A. GuhaRay, C. V. S. P. Kiranmayi, S. Rudraraju

Abstract:

The present study considers the effect of variation of different geotechnical random variables in the design of stone column-foundation systems for assessing the bearing capacity and consolidation settlement of highly compressible soil. The soil and stone column properties, spacing, diameter and arrangement of stone columns are considered as the random variables. Probability of failure (Pf) is computed for a target degree of consolidation and a target safe load by Monte Carlo Simulation (MCS). The study shows that the variation in coefficient of radial consolidation (cr) and cohesion of soil (cs) are two most important factors influencing Pf. If the coefficient of variation (COV) of cr exceeds 20%, Pf exceeds 0.001, which is unsafe following the guidelines of US Army Corps of Engineers. The bearing capacity also exceeds its safe value for COV of cs > 30%. It is also observed that as the spacing between the stone column increases, the probability of reaching a target degree of consolidation decreases. Accordingly, design guidelines, considering both consolidation and bearing capacity of improved ground, are proposed for different spacing and diameter of stone columns and geotechnical random variables.

Keywords: bearing capacity, consolidation, geotechnical random variables, probability of failure, stone columns

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
2038 Soft Ground Improved by Prefabricated Vertical Drains with Vacuum and Thermal Preloading

Authors: Gia Lam Le, Dennis T. Bergado, Thi Ngoc Truc Nguyen

Abstract:

This study focuses on behaviors of improved soft clay using prefabricated vertical drain (PVD) combined with vacuum and electro-osmotic preloading. Large-scale consolidations of reconstituted soft Bangkok clay were conducted for PVD improvement with vacuum (vacuum-PVD), and vacuum combined with heat (vacuum-thermo-PVD). The research revealed that vacuum-thermo-PVD gives high efficiency of the consolidation rate compared to the vacuum-PVD. In addition, the magnitude of settlement of the specimen improved by the vacuum-thermo-PVD is higher than the vacuum-PVD because the assistance of heat causes the collapse of the clay structure. Particularly, to reach 90% degree of consolidation, the thermal-vacuum-PVD reduced about 58% consolidation time compared to the vacuum-PVD. The increase in consolidation rate is resulted from the increase in horizontal coefficient of consolidation, Ch, the reduction of the smear effect expressed by the ratio of the horizontal hydraulic conductivity in the undisturbed zone, kh, and the horizontal hydraulic conductivity in the smeared zone, ks. Furthermore, the shear strength, Su, increased about 100% when compared using the vacuum-thermal-PVD to the vacuum PVD. In addition, numerical simulations gave reasonable results compared to the laboratory data.

Keywords: PVD improvement, vacuum preloading, prefabricated vertical drain, thermal PVD

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2037 Determination and Evaluation of the Need of Land Consolidation for Nationalization Purpose with the Survey Results

Authors: Turgut Ayten, Tayfun Çay, Demet Ayten

Abstract:

In this research, nationalization method for obtaining land on the destination of Ankara-Konya High Speed Train in Turkey; Land consolidation for nationalization purpose as an alternative solution on obtaining land; a survey prepared for land owners whose lands were nationalized and institution officials who carries out the nationalization and land consolidation was applied, were investigated and the need for land consolidation for nationalization purpose is tried to be put forth. Study area is located in the Konya city- Kadınhanı district-Kolukısa and Sarikaya neighbourhood in Turkey and land consolidation results of the selected field which is on the destination of the high-speed train route were obtained. The data obtained was shared with the landowners in the research area, their choice between the nationalization method and land consolidation for nationalization method was questioned. In addition, the organization and institution officials who are accepted to used primarily by the state for obtaining land that are needed for the investments of state, and institution officials who make land consolidation were investigated on the issues of the efficiency of the methods they used and if they tried different methods.

Keywords: nationalization, land consolidation, land consolidation for nationalization

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2036 Active Part of the Burnishing Tool Effect on the Physico-Geometric Aspect of the Superficial Layer of 100C6 and 16NC6 Steels

Authors: Tarek Litim, Ouahiba Taamallah

Abstract:

Burnishing is a mechanical surface treatment that combines several beneficial effects on the two steel grades studied. The application of burnishing to the ball or to the tip favors a better roughness compared to turning. In addition, it allows the consolidation of the surface layers through work hardening phenomena. The optimal effects are closely related to the treatment parameters and the active part of the device. With an improvement of 78% on the roughness, burnishing can be defined as a finishing operation in the machining range. With a 44% gain in consolidation rate, this treatment is an effective process for material consolidation. These effects are affected by several factors. The factors V, f, P, r, and i have the most significant effects on both roughness and hardness. Ball or tip burnishing leads to the consolidation of the surface layers of both grades 100C6 and 16NC6 steels by work hardening. For each steel grade and its mechanical treatment, the rational tensile curve has been drawn. Lüdwick's law is used to better plot the work hardening curve. For both grades, a material hardening law is established. For 100C6 steel, these results show a work hardening coefficient and a consolidation rate of 0.513 and 44, respectively, compared to the surface layers processed by turning. When 16NC6 steel is processed, the work hardening coefficient is about 0.29. Hardness tests characterize well the burnished depth. The layer affected by work hardening can reach up to 0.4 mm. Simulation of the tests is of great importance to provide the details at the local scale of the material. Conventional tensile curves provide a satisfactory indication of the toughness of 100C6 and 16NC6 materials. A simulation of the tensile curves revealed good agreement between the experimental and simulation results for both steels.

Keywords: 100C6 steel, 16NC6 steel, burnishing, work hardening, roughness, hardness

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2035 Effects of the Purpose Expropriation of Land Consolidation to Landholding

Authors: Turgut Ayten, Tayfun Çay

Abstract:

In the current expropriation of Turkey, the state acquires necessary lands for its investment without permission of the owners and not searching for alternative solutions, so it is determined that neither processor nor processed is not happy. In this study, interactions of enterprises in Turkey are analysed in case the necessary land for public investments are acquired by expropriation purposed land consolidation. Legal basis, positive and negative sides, financial effects to enterprises of this method is evaluated according to Konya Kadınhanı, Kolukısa avenue which is on the Konya-Ankara High-Speed Train Route.

Keywords: expropriation, land consolidation, land consolidation for expropriation purpose, sustainable rural development

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2034 The Evaluation of Shear Modulus (Go) Consistency State of Consolidation Cohesive Soils and Seismic Reflection Survey Using Degree of Soil Consolidation

Authors: Abdul Halim Abdul, Wan Ismail Wan Yusoff

Abstract:

The geological formation at Limau Manis Besar area, are consist of low grade metamorphic rock and undulating mountaineers, rugged terrain and the quite steeply 45 degree slope gradient. The objectives of this paper are present the methods and devices used in measurement of P-wave velocity to estimate the initial Shear Modulus (Go) in steady state and critical state soil consolidation. The relationship between SPT-N values and the Shear Modulus (Go) at very small strain is widely considered to be evaluated. Based on the seismic reflection survey, the constant (K) poroelastic theory, mean effectives stress and primer wave velocity (Vs) increase as the soil depth increase. The steady state and critical state, Degree of Soil Consolidation(U) concept is used to interpret the behavior of Shear Modulus (Go). The relationship between Consolidation Test and Seismic Reflection Survey is also discussed.

Keywords: geological setting, shear modulus, poroelastic theory, steady state and none steady state degree of soil consolidation, consolidation test

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2033 Computer Server Virtualization

Authors: Pradeep M. C. Chand

Abstract:

Virtual infrastructure initiatives often spring from data center server consolidation projects, which focus on reducing existing infrastructure “box count”, retiring older hardware or life-extending legacy applications. Server consolidation benefits result from a reduction in the overall number of systems and related recurring costs (power, cooling, rack space, etc.) and also helps in the reduction of heat to the environment.

Keywords: server virtualization, data center, consolidation, project

Procedia PDF Downloads 436
2032 Modified Evaluation of the Hydro-Mechanical Dependency of the Water Coefficient of Permeability of a Clayey Sand with a Novel Permeameter for Unsaturated Soils

Authors: G. Adelian, A. Mirzaii, S. S. Yasrobi

Abstract:

This paper represents data of an extensive experimental laboratory testing program for the measurement of the water coefficient of permeability of clayey sand in different hydraulic and mechanical boundary conditions. A novel permeameter was designed and constructed for the experimental testing program, suitable for the study of flow in unsaturated soils in different hydraulic and mechanical loading conditions. In this work, the effect of hydraulic hysteresis, net isotropic confining stress, water flow condition, and sample dimensions are evaluated on the water coefficient of permeability of understudying soil. The experimental results showed a hysteretic variation for the water coefficient of permeability versus matrix suction and degree of saturation, with higher values in drying portions of the SWCC. The measurement of the water permeability in different applied net isotropic stress also signified that the water coefficient of permeability increased within the increment of net isotropic consolidation stress. The water coefficient of permeability also appeared to be independent of different applied flow heads, water flow condition, and sample dimensions.

Keywords: water permeability, unsaturated soils, hydraulic hysteresis, void ratio, matrix suction, degree of saturation

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2031 Significant Stressed Zone of Highway Embankment

Authors: Sharifullah Ahmed, P. Eng

Abstract:

The Axle Pressure and the Consolidation Pressure decrease with the height of the highway embankment and the depth of subsoil. This reduction of pressure depends on the height and width of the embankment. The depth is defined as the significantly stressed zone at which the pressure is reduced to 0.2 or 20%. The axle pressure is reduced to 7% for embankment height 1-3m and to 0.7% for embankment height 4-12m at the bottom level of Highway Embankment. This observation implies that, the portion of axle pressure transferred to subsoil underlying the embankment is not significant for ESAL factor 4.8. The 70% consolidation to have occurred after the construction of the surface layer of pavement. Considering this ratio of post construction settlement, 70% consolidation pressure (Δσ70) is used in this analysis. The magnitude of influence depth or Significant Stressed Zone (Ds) had been obtained for the range of crest width (at the top level of the embankment) is kept between 5m and 50m and for the range of embankment height from 1.0m to 12.0m considering 70% of consolidation pressure (Δσ70). Significantly stressed zones (Ds) for 70% embankment pressure are found as 2-6.2He for embankment top width 5-50m.

Keywords: consolidation pressure, consolidation settlement, ESAL, highway embankment, HS 20-44, significant stressed zone, stress distribution

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2030 On Flow Consolidation Modelling in Urban Congested Areas

Authors: Serban Stere, Stefan Burciu

Abstract:

The challenging and continuously growing competition in the urban freight transport market emphasizes the need for optimal planning of transportation processes in terms of identifying the solution of consolidating traffic flows in congested urban areas. The aim of the present paper is to present the mathematical framework and propose a methodology of combining urban traffic flows between the distribution centers located at the boundary of a congested urban area. The three scenarios regarding traffic flow between consolidation centers that are taken into consideration in the paper are based on the same characteristics of traffic flows. The scenarios differ in terms of the accessibility of the four consolidation centers given by the infrastructure, the connections between them, and the possibility of consolidating traffic flows for one or multiple destinations. Also, synthetical indicators will allow us to compare the scenarios considered and chose the indicated for our distribution system.

Keywords: distribution system, single and multiple destinations, urban consolidation centers, traffic flow consolidation schemes

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2029 Numerical Analysis of Prefabricated Horizontal Drain Induced Consolidation Using ABAQUS

Authors: Anjana R. Menon, Anjana Bhasi

Abstract:

This paper deals with the numerical analysis of Prefabricated Horizontal Drain (PHD) induced consolidation of clayey deposits, using ABAQUS. PHDs are much like Prefabricated Vertical Drains (PVDs) installed in horizontal layers, used mainly for enhancing the consolidation of clayey fill embankments, and dredged mud deposits. The efficiency of the system depends mainly on the spacing and layout of the drain. Hence, two spacing related parameters are defined, namely WH (width to horizontal spacing ratio) and VH (vertical to horizontal spacing ratio), and the finite element models are developed based on plane strain unit cell conditions under various combinations of these parameters. The analysis results, in terms of degree of consolidation (U), are compared with the established theories. Based on the analysis, a set of equations are proposed to analyse the PHD induced consolidation. The proposed method is found to be reasonably accurate. Further, the effect of PHDs at different spacing ratios, in accelerating consolidation of a clayey embankment fill is analysed in terms of pore pressure dissipation rate, and settlement. The PHD is found to accelerate the rate of pore pressure dissipation by more than 50%, thus reducing the time for final settlement significantly.

Keywords: ABAQUS, consolidation, plane strain, prefabricated horizontal drain

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2028 Consolidation Behavior of Lebanese Soil and Its Correlation with the Soil Parameters

Authors: Robert G. Nini

Abstract:

Soil consolidation is one of the biggest problem facing engineers. The consolidation process has an important role in settlement analysis for the embankments and footings resting on clayey soils. The settlement amount is related to the compression and the swelling indexes of the soil. Because the predominant upper soil layer in Lebanon is consisting mainly of clay, this layer is a real challenge for structural and highway engineering. To determine the effect of load and drainage on the engineering consolidation characteristics of Lebanese soil, a full experimental and synthesis study was conducted on different soil samples collected from many locations. This study consists of two parts. During the first part which is an experimental one, the Proctor test and the consolidation test were performed on the collected soil samples. After it, the identifications soil tests as hydrometer, specific gravity and Atterberg limits are done. The consolidation test which is the main test in this research is done by loading the soil for some days then an unloading cycle was applied. It takes two weeks to complete a typical consolidation test. Because of these reasons, during the second part of our research which is based on the analysis of the experiments results, some correlations were found between the main consolidation parameters as compression and swelling indexes with the other soil parameters easy to calculate. The results show that the compression and swelling indexes of Lebanese clays may be roughly estimated using a model involving one or two variables in the form of the natural void ratio and the Atterberg limits. These correlations have increasing importance for site engineers, and the proposed model also seems to be applicable to a wide range of clays worldwide.

Keywords: atterberg limits, clay, compression and swelling indexes, settlement, soil consolidation

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2027 Determination of Relationship among Shape Indexes Used for Land Consolidation

Authors: Firat Arslan, Hasan Degirmenci, Serife Tulin Akkaya Aslan

Abstract:

The aim of the current experiment was to determine the relationship among shape indexes which are used by the researchers in many fields to evaluate parcel shapes which is very important for farming even if these indexes are controversial. In the current study, land consolidation project of Halitaga village in Mersin province in Turkey which has 278 parcel and cover 894.4 ha, was taken as a material. Commonly used indicators such as fractal dimension (FD), shape index (SI), form factor (FORM), areal form factor (AFF) and two distinct area-perimeter ratio (APR-1 and APR2) in land consolidation are used to measure agricultural plot’s shape. FD was positively correlated with SI, APR-1 and APR-2 whereas it was negatively correlated with FORM and AFF. SI was positively correlated with APR-1 and APR-2 whereas it was negatively correlated with FORM and AFF. As a conclusion, it is likely that these indexes involved may be used interchangeably due to high correlations among them.

Keywords: GIS, land consolidation, parcel shape, shape index

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2026 A Preliminary Study for Design of Automatic Block Reallocation Algorithm with Genetic Algorithm Method in the Land Consolidation Projects

Authors: Tayfun Çay, Yasar İnceyol, Abdurrahman Özbeyaz

Abstract:

Land reallocation is one of the most important steps in land consolidation projects. Many different models were proposed for land reallocation in the literature such as Fuzzy Logic, block priority based land reallocation and Spatial Decision Support Systems. A model including four parts is considered for automatic block reallocation with genetic algorithm method in land consolidation projects. These stages are preparing data tables for a project land, determining conditions and constraints of land reallocation, designing command steps and logical flow chart of reallocation algorithm and finally writing program codes of Genetic Algorithm respectively. In this study, we designed the first three steps of the considered model comprising four steps.

Keywords: land consolidation, landholding, land reallocation, optimization, genetic algorithm

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2025 The Effectiveness of Prefabricated Vertical Drains for Accelerating Consolidation of Tunis Soft Soil

Authors: Marwa Ben Khalifa, Zeineb Ben Salem, Wissem Frikha

Abstract:

The purpose of the present work is to study the consolidation behavior of highly compressible Tunis soft soil “TSS” by means of prefabricated vertical drains (PVD’s) associated to preloading based on laboratory and field investigations. In the first hand, the field performance of PVD’s on the layer of Tunis soft soil was analysed based on the case study of the construction of embankments of “Radès la Goulette” bridge project. PVD’s Geosynthetics drains types were installed with triangular grid pattern until 10 m depth associated with step-by-step surcharge. The monitoring of the soil settlement during preloading stage for Radès La Goulette Bridge project was provided by an instrumentation composed by various type of tassometer installed in the soil. The distribution of water pressure was monitored through piezocone penetration. In the second hand, a laboratory reduced tests are performed on TSS subjected also to preloading and improved with PVD's Mebradrain 88 (Mb88) type. A specific test apparatus was designed and manufactured to study the consolidation. Two series of consolidation tests were performed on TSS specimens. The first series included consolidation tests for soil improved by one central drain. In thesecond series, a triangular mesh of three geodrains was used. The evolution of degree of consolidation and measured settlements versus time derived from laboratory tests and field data were presented and discussed. The obtained results have shown that PVD’s have considerably accelerated the consolidation of Tunis soft soil by shortening the drainage path. The model with mesh of three drains gives results more comparative to field one. A longer consolidation time is observed for the cell improved by a single central drain. A comparison with theoretical analysis, basically that of Barron (1948) and Carillo (1942), was presented. It’s found that these theories overestimate the degree of consolidation in the presence of PVD.

Keywords: tunis soft soil, prefabricated vertical drains, acceleration of consolidation, dissipation of excess pore water pressures, radès bridge project, barron and carillo’s theories

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2024 Effect of Prefabricated Vertical Drain System Properties on Embankment Behavior

Authors: Seyed Abolhasan Naeini, Ali Namaei

Abstract:

This study presents the effect of prefabricated vertical drain system properties on embankment behavior by calculating the settlement, lateral displacement and induced excess pore pressure by numerical method. In order to investigate this behavior, three different prefabricated vertical drains have been simulated under an embankment. The finite element software PLAXIS has been carried out for analyzing the displacements and excess pore pressures. The results showed that the consolidation time and induced excess pore pressure are highly depended to the discharge capacity of the prefabricated vertical drain. The increase in the discharge capacity leads to decrease the consolidation process and the induced excess pore pressure. Moreover, it was seen that the vertical drains spacing does not have any significant effect on the consolidation time. However, the increase in the drains spacing would decrease the system stiffness.

Keywords: vertical drain, prefabricated, consolidation, embankment

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2023 Influence of Some Technological Parameters on the Content of Voids in Composite during On-Line Consolidation with Filament Winding Technology

Authors: M. Stefanovska, B. Samakoski, S. Risteska, G. Maneski

Abstract:

In this study was performed in situ consolidation of polypropylene matrix/glass reinforced roving by combining heating systems and roll pressing. The commingled roving during hoop winding was winded on a cylindrical mandrel. The work also presents the advances made in the processing of these materials into composites by conventional technique filament winding. Experimental studies were performed with changing parameters – temperature, pressure and speed. Finally, it describes the investigation of the optimal processing conditions that maximize the mechanical properties of the composites. These properties are good enough for composites to be used as engineering materials in many structural applications.

Keywords: commingled fiber, consolidation heat, filament winding, voids

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2022 Numerical Investigation of Embankment Settlement Improved by Method of Preloading by Vertical Drains

Authors: Seyed Abolhasan Naeini, Saeideh Mohammadi

Abstract:

Time dependent settlement due to loading on soft saturated soils produces many problems such as high consolidation settlements and low consolidation rates. Also, long term consolidation settlement of soft soil underlying the embankment leads to unpredicted settlements and cracks on soil surface. Preloading method is an effective improvement method to solve this problem. Using vertical drains in preloading method is an effective method for improving soft soils. Applying deep soil mixing method on soft soils is another effective method for improving soft soils. There are little studies on using two methods of preloading and deep soil mixing simultaneously. In this paper, the concurrent effect of preloading with deep soil mixing by vertical drains is investigated through a finite element code, Plaxis2D. The influence of parameters such as deep soil mixing columns spacing, existence of vertical drains and distance between them, on settlement and stability factor of safety of embankment embedded on soft soil is investigated in this research.

Keywords: preloading, soft soil, vertical drains, deep soil mixing, consolidation settlement

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2021 On Coverage Probability of Confidence Intervals for the Normal Mean with Known Coefficient of Variation

Authors: Suparat Niwitpong, Sa-aat Niwitpong

Abstract:

Statistical inference of normal mean with known coefficient of variation has been investigated recently. This phenomenon occurs normally in environment and agriculture experiments when the scientist knows the coefficient of variation of their experiments. In this paper, we constructed new confidence intervals for the normal population mean with known coefficient of variation. We also derived analytic expressions for the coverage probability of each confidence interval. To confirm our theoretical results, Monte Carlo simulation will be used to assess the performance of these intervals based on their coverage probabilities.

Keywords: confidence interval, coverage probability, expected length, known coefficient of variation

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2020 Investigation of the Turbulent Cavitating Flows from the Viewpoint of the Lift Coefficient

Authors: Ping-Ben Liu, Chien-Chou Tseng

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between the lift coefficient and dynamic behaviors of cavitating flow around a two-dimensional Clark Y hydrofoil at 8° angle of attack, cavitation number of 0.8, and Reynolds number of 7.10⁵. The flow field is investigated numerically by using a vapor transfer equation and a modified turbulence model which applies the filter and local density correction. The results including time-averaged lift/drag coefficient and shedding frequency agree well with experimental observations, which confirmed the reliability of this simulation. According to the variation of lift coefficient, the cycle which consists of growth and shedding of cavitation can be divided into three stages, and the lift coefficient at each stage behaves similarly due to the formation and shedding of the cavity around the trailing edge.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, cavitation, turbulence, lift coefficient

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2019 Influence of Plastic Waste Reinforcement on Compaction and Consolidation Behavior of Silty Soil

Authors: Maryam Meftahi, Yashar Hamidzadeh

Abstract:

In recent decades, the amount of solid waste production has been rising. In the meantime, plastic waste is one of the major parts of urban solid waste, so, recycling plastic waste from water bottles has become a serious challenge in the whole world. The experimental program includes the study of the effect of waste plastic fibers on maximum dry density (MDD), optimum moisture content (OMC) with different sizes and contents. Also, one dimensional consolidation tests were carried out to evaluate the benefit of utilizing randomly distributed waste plastics fiber to improve the engineering behavior of a tested soils. Silty soil specimens were prepared and tested at five different percentages of plastic waste content (i.e. 0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75%, 1% and 1.25% by weight of the parent soil). The size of plastic chips used, are 4 mm, 8 mm and 12 mm long and 4 mm in width. The results show that with the addition of waste plastic fibers, the MDD and OMC and also the compressibility of soil decrease significantly.

Keywords: silty soil, waste plastic, compaction, consolidation, reinforcement

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2018 Fully Coupled Porous Media Model

Authors: Nia Mair Fry, Matthew Profit, Chenfeng Li

Abstract:

This work focuses on the development and implementation of a fully implicit-implicit, coupled mechanical deformation and porous flow, finite element software tool. The fully implicit software accurately predicts classical fundamental analytical solutions such as the Terzaghi consolidation problem. Furthermore, it can capture other analytical solutions less well known in the literature, such as Gibson’s sedimentation rate problem and Coussy’s problems investigating wellbore stability for poroelastic rocks. The mechanical volume strains are transferred to the porous flow governing equation in an implicit framework. This will overcome some of the many current industrial issues, which use explicit solvers for the mechanical governing equations and only implicit solvers on the porous flow side. This can potentially lead to instability and non-convergence issues in the coupled system, plus giving results with an accountable degree of error. The specification of a fully monolithic implicit-implicit coupled porous media code sees the solution of both seepage-mechanical equations in one matrix system, under a unified time-stepping scheme, which makes the problem definition much easier. When using an explicit solver, additional input such as the damping coefficient and mass scaling factor is required, which are circumvented with a fully implicit solution. Further, improved accuracy is achieved as the solution is not dependent on predictor-corrector methods for the pore fluid pressure solution, but at the potential cost of reduced stability. In testing of this fully monolithic porous media code, there is the comparison of the fully implicit coupled scheme against an existing staggered explicit-implicit coupled scheme solution across a range of geotechnical problems. These cases include 1) Biot coefficient calculation, 2) consolidation theory with Terzaghi analytical solution, 3) sedimentation theory with Gibson analytical solution, and 4) Coussy well-bore poroelastic analytical solutions.

Keywords: coupled, implicit, monolithic, porous media

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2017 Public Financial Management in Ghana: A Move beyond Reforms to Consolidation and Sustainability

Authors: Mohammed Sani Abdulai

Abstract:

Ghana’s Public Financial Management reforms have been going on for some two decades now (1997/98 to 2017/18). Given this long period of reforms, Ghana in 2019 is putting together both a Public Financial Management (PFM) strategy and a Ghana Integrated Financial Management Information System (GIFMIS) strategy for the next 5-years (2020-2024). The primary aim of these dual strategies is assisting the country in moving beyond reforms to consolidation and sustainability. In this paper we, first, examined the evolution of Ghana’s PFM reforms. We, secondly, reviewed the legal and institutional reforms undertaken to strengthen the country’s key PFM institutions. Thirdly, we summarized the strengths and weaknesses identified by the 2018 Public Expenditure and Financial Accountability (PEFA) assessment of Ghana’s PFM system relating to its macro-fiscal framework, budget preparation and approval, budget execution, accounting and fiscal reporting as well as external scrutiny and audit. We, finally, considered what the country should be doing to achieve its intended goal of PFM consolidation and sustainability. Using a qualitative method of review and analysis of existing documents, we, through this paper, brought to the fore the lessons that could be learnt by other developing countries from Ghana’s PFM reforms experiences. These lessons included the need to: (a) undergird any PFM reform with a comprehensive PFM reform strategy; (b) undertake a legal and institutional reforms of the key PFM institutions; (c) assess the strengths and weaknesses of those reforms using PFM performance evaluation tools such as PEFA framework; and (d) move beyond reforms to consolidation and sustainability.

Keywords: public financial management, public expenditure and financial accountability, reforms, consolidation, sustainability

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2016 Mechanical Behavior of 16NC6 Steel Hardened by Burnishing

Authors: Litim Tarek, Taamallah Ouahiba

Abstract:

This work relates to the physico-geometrical aspect of the surface layers of 16NC6 steel having undergone the burnishing treatment by hard steel ball. The results show that the optimal effects of burnishing are closely linked to the shape and the material of the active part of the device as well as to the surface plastic deformation ability of the material to be treated. Thus the roughness is improved by more than 70%, and the consolidation rate is increased by 30%. In addition, modeling of the rational traction curves provides a work hardening coefficient of up to 0.3 in the presence of burnishing.

Keywords: 16NC6 steel, burnishing, hardening, roughness

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
2015 Field Tests and Numerical Simulation of Tunis Soft Soil Improvement Using Prefabricated Vertical Drains

Authors: Marwa Ben Khalifa, Zeineb Ben Salem, Wissem Frikha

Abstract:

This paper presents a case study of “Radès la Goulette” bridge project using the technique of prefabricated vertical drains (PVD) associated with step by step construction of preloading embankments with averaged height of about 6 m. These embankments are founded on a highly compressible layer of Tunis soft soil. The construction steps included extensive soil instrumentation such as piezometers and settlement plates for monitoring the dissipation of excess pore water pressures and settlement during the consolidation of Tunis soft soil. An axisymmetric numerical model using the 2D finite difference code FLAC was developed and calibrated using laboratory tests to predict the soil behavior and consolidation settlements. The constitutive model impact for simulating the soft soil behavior is investigated. The results of analyses show that numerical analysis provided satisfactory predictions for the field performance during the construction of Radès la Goulette embankment. The obtained results show the effectiveness of PVD in the acceleration of the consolidation time. A comparison of numerical results with theoretical analysis was presented.

Keywords: tunis soft soil, radès bridge project, prefabricated vertical drains, FLAC, acceleration of consolidation

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
2014 Predicting Trapezoidal Weir Discharge Coefficient Using Evolutionary Algorithm

Authors: K. Roushanger, A. Soleymanzadeh

Abstract:

Weirs are structures often used in irrigation techniques, sewer networks and flood protection. However, the hydraulic behavior of this type of weir is complex and difficult to predict accurately. An accurate flow prediction over a weir mainly depends on the proper estimation of discharge coefficient. In this study, the Genetic Expression Programming (GEP) approach was used for predicting trapezoidal and rectangular sharp-crested side weirs discharge coefficient. Three different performance indexes are used as comparing criteria for the evaluation of the model’s performances. The obtained results approved capability of GEP in prediction of trapezoidal and rectangular side weirs discharge coefficient. The results also revealed the influence of downstream Froude number for trapezoidal weir and upstream Froude number for rectangular weir in prediction of the discharge coefficient for both of side weirs.

Keywords: discharge coefficient, genetic expression programming, trapezoidal weir

Procedia PDF Downloads 294
2013 Estimation of Consolidating Settlement Based on a Time-Dependent Skin Friction Model Considering Column Surface Roughness

Authors: Jiang Zhenbo, Ishikura Ryohei, Yasufuku Noriyuki

Abstract:

Improvement of soft clay deposits by the combination of surface stabilization and floating type cement-treated columns is one of the most popular techniques worldwide. On the basis of one dimensional consolidation model, a time-dependent skin friction model for the column-soil interaction is proposed. The nonlinear relationship between column shaft shear stresses and effective vertical pressure of the surrounding soil can be described in this model. The influence of column-soil surface roughness can be represented using a roughness coefficient R, which plays an important role in the design of column length. Based on the homogenization method, a part of floating type improved ground will be treated as an unimproved portion, which with a length of αH1 is defined as a time-dependent equivalent skin friction length. The compression settlement of this unimproved portion can be predicted only using the soft clay parameters. Apart from calculating the settlement of this composited ground, the load transfer mechanism is discussed utilizing model tests. The proposed model is validated by comparing with calculations and laboratory results of model and ring shear tests, which indicate the suitability and accuracy of the solutions in this paper.

Keywords: floating type improved foundation, time-dependent skin friction, roughness, consolidation

Procedia PDF Downloads 395