Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 113

Search results for: filament winding

113 Influence of Some Technological Parameters on the Content of Voids in Composite during On-Line Consolidation with Filament Winding Technology

Authors: M. Stefanovska, B. Samakoski, S. Risteska, G. Maneski


In this study was performed in situ consolidation of polypropylene matrix/glass reinforced roving by combining heating systems and roll pressing. The commingled roving during hoop winding was winded on a cylindrical mandrel. The work also presents the advances made in the processing of these materials into composites by conventional technique filament winding. Experimental studies were performed with changing parameters – temperature, pressure and speed. Finally, it describes the investigation of the optimal processing conditions that maximize the mechanical properties of the composites. These properties are good enough for composites to be used as engineering materials in many structural applications.

Keywords: commingled fiber, consolidation heat, filament winding, voids

Procedia PDF Downloads 150
112 Theoretical and Experimental Bending Properties of Composite Pipes

Authors: Maja Stefanovska, Svetlana Risteska, Blagoja Samakoski, Gari Maneski, Biljana Kostadinoska


Aim of this work is to determine the theoretical and experimental properties of filament wound glass fiber/epoxy resin composite pipes with different winding design subjected under bending. For determination of bending strength of composite samples three point bending tests were conducted according to ASTM D790 standard. Good correlation between theoretical and experimental results has been obtained, where sample No4 has shown the highest value of bending strength. All samples have demonstrated matrix cracking and fiber failure followed by layers delamination during testing. Also, it was found that smaller winding angles lead to an increase in bending stress. From presented results good merger between glass fibers and epoxy resin was confirmed by SEM analysis.

Keywords: bending properties, composite pipe, winding design, SEM

Procedia PDF Downloads 220
111 Theoretical Density Study of Winding Yarns on Spool

Authors: Bachir Chemani, Rachid Halfaoui


The aim of work is to define the distribution density of winding yarn on cylindrical and conical bobbins. It is known that parallel winding gives greater density and more regular distribution, but the unwinding of yarn is much more difficult for following process. The conical spool has an enormous advantage during unwinding and may contain a large amount of yarns, but the density distribution is not regular because of difference in diameters. The variation of specific density over the reel height is explained generally by the sudden change of winding speed due to direction movement variation of yarn. We determined the conditions of uniform winding and developed a calculate model to the change of the specific density of winding wire over entire spool height.

Keywords: textile, cylindrical bobbins, conical bobbins, parallel winding, cross winding

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
110 Degradation of Mechanical Properties of Offshoring Polymer Composite Pipes in Thermal Environment

Authors: Hamza Benyahia, Mostapha Tarfaoui, Ahmed El-Moumen, Djamel Ouinas


Composite pipes are commonly used in the oil industry, and extreme flow of hot and cold gas fluid can cause degradation of their mechanical performance and properties. Therefore, it is necessary to consider thermomechanical behavior as an important parameter in designing these tubular structures. In this paper, an experimental study is conducted on composite glass/epoxy tubes, with a thickness of 6.2 mm and 86 mm internal diameter made by filament winding of (Փ = ± 55°), to investigate the effects of extreme thermal condition on their mechanical properties b over a temperature range from -40 to 80°C. The climatic chamber is used for the thermal aging and then, combine split disk system is used to perform tensile tests on these composite pies. Thermal aging is carried out for 8hr but each specimen was subjected to various temperature ranges and then, uniaxial tensile test is conducted to evaluate their mechanical performance. Experimental results show degradation in the mechanical properties of composite pipes with an increase in temperature. The rigidity of pipes increases progressively with a decrease in thermal load and results in a radical decrease in their elongation before fracture, thus, decreasing their ductility. However, with an increase in the temperature, there is a decrease in the yield strength and an increase in yield strain, which confirmed an increase in the plasticity of composite pipes.

Keywords: composite pipes, thermal-mechanical properties, filament winding, thermal degradation

Procedia PDF Downloads 34
109 Research on Placement Method of the Magnetic Flux Leakage Sensor Based on Online Detection of the Transformer Winding Deformation

Authors: Wei Zheng, Mao Ji, Zhe Hou, Meng Huang, Bo Qi


The transformer is the key equipment of the power system. Winding deformation is one of the main transformer defects, and timely and effective detection of the transformer winding deformation can ensure the safe and stable operation of the transformer to the maximum extent. When winding deformation occurs, the size, shape and spatial position of the winding will change, which directly leads to the change of magnetic flux leakage distribution. Therefore, it is promising to study the online detection method of the transformer winding deformation based on magnetic flux leakage characteristics, in which the key step is to study the optimal placement method of magnetic flux leakage sensors inside the transformer. In this paper, a simulation model of the transformer winding deformation is established to obtain the internal magnetic flux leakage distribution of the transformer under normal operation and different winding deformation conditions, and the law of change of magnetic flux leakage distribution due to winding deformation is analyzed. The results show that different winding deformation leads to different characteristics of the magnetic flux leakage distribution. On this basis, an optimized placement of magnetic flux leakage sensors inside the transformer is proposed to provide a basis for the online detection method of transformer winding deformation based on the magnetic flux leakage characteristics.

Keywords: magnetic flux leakage, sensor placement method, transformer, winding deformation

Procedia PDF Downloads 28
108 Physical Properties of Alkali Resistant-Glass Fibers in Continuous Fiber Spinning Conditions

Authors: Ji-Sun Lee, Soong-Keun Hyun, Jin-Ho Kim


In this study, a glass fiber is fabricated using a continuous spinning process from alkali resistant (AR) glass with 4 wt% zirconia. In order to confirm the melting properties of the marble glass, the raw material is placed into a Pt crucible and melted at 1650 ℃ for 2 h, and then annealed. In order to confirm the transparency of the clear marble glass, the visible transmittance is measured, and the fiber spinning condition is investigated by using high temperature viscosity measurements. A change in the diameter is observed according to the winding speed in the range of 100–900 rpm; it is also verified as a function of the fiberizing temperature in the range of 1200–1260 ℃. The optimum winding speed and spinning temperature are 500 rpm and 1240 ℃, respectively. The properties of the prepared spinning fiber are confirmed using optical microscope, tensile strength, modulus, and alkali-resistant tests.

Keywords: glass composition, fiber diameter, continuous filament fiber, continuous spinning, physical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 209
107 Interactive Winding Geometry Design of Power Transformers

Authors: Paffrath Meinhard, Zhou Yayun, Guo Yiqing, Ertl Harald


Winding geometry design is an important part of power transformer electrical design. Conventionally, the winding geometry is designed manually, which is a time-consuming job because it involves many iteration steps in order to meet all cost, manufacturing and electrical requirements. Here a method is presented which automatically generates the winding geometry for given user parameters and allows the user to interactively set and change parameters. To achieve this goal, the winding problem is transferred to a mixed integer nonlinear optimization problem. The relevant geometrical design parameters are defined as optimization variables. The cost and other requirements are modeled as constraints. For the solution, a stochastic ant colony optimization algorithm is applied. It is well-known, that an optimizer can get stuck in a local minimum. For the winding problem, we present efficient strategies to come out of local minima, furthermore a reduced variable search range helps to accelerate the solution process. Numerical examples show that the optimization result is delivered within seconds such that the user can interactively change the variable search area and constraints to improve the design.

Keywords: ant colony optimization, mixed integer nonlinear programming, power transformer, winding design

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
106 The Influence of Winding Angle on Functional Failure of FRP Pipes

Authors: Roham Rafiee, Hadi Hesamsadat


In this study, a parametric finite element modeling is developed to analyze failure modes of FRP pipes subjected to internal pressure. First-ply failure pressure and functional failure pressure was determined by a progressive damage modeling and then it is validated using experimental observations. The influence of both winding angle and fiber volume fraction is studied on the functional failure of FRP pipes and it corresponding pressure. It is observed that despite the fact that increasing fiber volume fraction will enhance the mechanical properties, it will be resulted in lower values for functional failure pressure. This shortcoming can be compensated by modifying the winding angle in angle plies of pipe wall structure.

Keywords: composite pipe, functional failure, progressive modeling, winding angle

Procedia PDF Downloads 380
105 Permanent Magnet Generator – One Phase Regime Operation

Authors: Pawel Pistelok


The article presents the concept of an electromagnetic circuit of a 3-phase surface-mounted permanent magnet generator designed for a single phase operation. A cross section of electromagnetic circuit and a field-circuit model of generator used for computations are shown. The paper presents comparative analysis of simulation results obtained for two different versions of generator regarding construction of armature winding. In the first version of generator the voltages generated in each of three winding phases have different rms values (different number of turns in each of phases), three winding phases are connected in series and one phase load is connected to the two output terminals of generator. The second version of generator is very similar, i.e. three winding phases are connected in series and one phase load is powered by generator, but in this version the voltages generated in each of winding phases have exactly the same rms values (the same number of turns in each of phases). The time waveforms of voltages, currents and electromagnetic torques in the airgaps of two machine versions for rated power are shown.

Keywords: permanent magnet generator, permanent magnets, synchronous generator, vibration, course of torque, single phase work, unsymmetrical operation point, serial connection of winding phase

Procedia PDF Downloads 570
104 Algorithms of ABS-Plastic Extrusion

Authors: Dmitrii Starikov, Evgeny Rybakov, Denis Zhuravlev


Plastic for 3D printing is very necessary material part for printers. But plastic production is technological process, which implies application of different control algorithms. Possible algorithms of providing set diameter of plastic fiber are proposed and described in the article. Results of research were proved by existing unit of filament production.

Keywords: ABS-plastic, automation, control system, extruder, filament, PID-algorithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
103 Evaluation of Structural Integrity for Composite Lattice Structure

Authors: Jae Moon Im, Kwang Bok Shin, Sang Woo Lee


In this paper, evaluation of structural integrity for composite lattice structure was conducted by compressive test. Composite lattice structure was manufactured by carbon fiber using filament winding method. In order to evaluate the structural integrity of composite lattice structure, compressive test was done using anti-buckling fixture. The delamination occurred 84 Tons of compressive load. It was found that composite lattice structure satisfied the design requirements.

Keywords: composite material, compressive test, lattice structure, structural integrity

Procedia PDF Downloads 289
102 Development of a Table-Top Composite Wire Fabrication System for Additive Manufacturing

Authors: Krishna Nand, Mohammad Taufik


Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF) is one of the most popular additive manufacturing (AM) technology. In FFF technology, a wire form material (filament) is fed inside a heated chamber, where it gets converted into semi-solid form and extruded out of a nozzle to be deposited on the build platform to fabricate the part. FFF technology is expanding and covering the market at a very rapid rate, so the need of raw materials for 3D printing is also increasing. The cost of 3D printing is directly affected by filament cost. To make 3D printing more economic, a compact and portable filament/wire extrusion system is needed. Wire extrusion systems to extrude ordinary wire/filament made of a single material are available in the market. However, extrusion system to make a composite wire/filament are not available. Hence, in this study, initial efforts have been made to develop a table-top composite wire extruder. The developed system is consisted of mechanical parts, electronics parts, and a control system. A multiple channel hopper, extrusion screw, melting chamber and nozzle, cooling zone, and spool winder are some mechanical parts. While motors, heater, temperature sensor, cooling fans are some electronics parts, which are used to develop this system. A control board has been used to control the various process parameters like – temperature and speed of motors. For the production of composite wire/filament, two different materials could be fed through two channels of hopper, which will be mixed and carried to the heated zone by extrusion screw. The extrusion screw is rotated by a motor, and the speed of this motor will be controlled by the controller as per the requirement of material extrusion rate. In the heated zone, the material will melt with the help of a heating element and extruded out of the nozzle in the form of wire. The developed system occupies less floor space due to the vertical orientation of its heating chamber. It is capable to extrude ordinary filament as well as composite filament, which are compatible with 3D printers available in the market. Further, the developed system could be employed in the research and development of materials, processing, and characterization for 3D printer. The developed system presented in this study could be a better choice for hobbyists and researchers dealing with the fused filament fabrication process to reduce the 3D printing cost significantly by recycling the waste material into 3D printer feed material. Further, it could also be explored as a better alternative for filament production at the commercial level.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, 3D Printing, filament extrusion, pellet extrusion

Procedia PDF Downloads 40
101 Influence of Geometry on Performance of Type-4 Filament Wound Composite Cylinder for Compressed Gas Storage

Authors: Pranjali Sharma, Swati Neogi


Composite pressure vessels are low weight structures mainly used in a variety of applications such as automobiles, aeronautics and chemical engineering. Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composite materials offer the simplicity of design and use, high fuel storage capacity, rapid refueling capability, excellent shelf life, minimal infrastructure impact, high safety due to the inherent strength of the pressure vessel, and little to no development risk. Apart from these preliminary merits, the subsidized weight of composite vessels over metallic cylinders act as the biggest asset to the automotive industry, increasing the fuel efficiency. The result is a lightweight, flexible, non-explosive, and non-fragmenting pressure vessel that can be tailor-made to attune with specific applications. The winding pattern of the composite over-wrap is a primary focus while designing a pressure vessel. The critical stresses in the system depend on the thickness, angle and sequence of the composite layers. The composite over-wrap is wound over a plastic liner, whose geometry can be varied for the ease of winding. In the present study, we aim to optimize the FRP vessel geometry that provides an ease in winding and also aids in weight reduction for enhancing the vessel performance. Finite element analysis is used to study the effect of dome geometry, yielding a design with maximum value of burst pressure and least value of vessel weight. The stress and strain analysis of different dome ends along with the cylindrical portion is carried out in ANSYS 19.2. The failure is predicted using different failure theories like Tsai-Wu theory, Tsai-Hill theory and Maximum stress theory. Corresponding to a given winding sequence, the optimum dome geometry is determined for a fixed internal pressure to identify the theoretical value of burst pressure. Finally, this geometry is used to decrease the number of layers to reach the set value of safety in accordance with the available safety standards. This results in decrease in the weight of the composite over-wrap and manufacturing cost of the pressure vessel. An improvement in the overall weight performance of the pressure vessel gives higher fuel efficiency for its use in automobile applications.

Keywords: Compressed Gas Storage, Dome geometry, Theoretical Analysis, Type-4 Composite Pressure Vessel, Improvement in Vessel Weight Performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 21
100 Field Experience with Sweep Frequency Response Analysis for Power Transformer Diagnosis

Authors: Ambuj Kumar, Sunil Kumar Singh, Shrikant Singh, Zakir Husain, R. K. Jarial


Sweep frequency response analysis has been turning out a powerful tool for investigation of mechanical as well as electrical integration of transformers. In this paper various aspect of practical application of SFRA has been studied. Open circuit and short circuit measurement were done on different phases of high voltage and low voltage winding. A case study was presented for the transformer of rating 31.5 MVA for various frequency ranges. A clear picture was presented for sub- frequency ranges for HV as well as LV winding. The main motive of work is to investigate high voltage short circuit response. The theoretical concept about SFRA responses is validated with expert system software results.

Keywords: transformer winding, SFRA, OCT & SCT, frequency deviation

Procedia PDF Downloads 689
99 Multiple Winding Multiphase Motor for Electric Drive System

Authors: Zhao Tianxu, Cui Shumei


This paper proposes a novel multiphase motor structure. The armature winding consists of several independent multiphase windings that have different rating rotate speed and power. Compared to conventional motor, the novel motor structure has more operation mode and fault tolerance mode, which makes it adapt to high-reliability requirement situation such as electric vehicle, aircraft and ship. Performance of novel motor structure varies with winding match. In order to find optimum control strategy, motor torque character, efficiency performance and fault tolerance ability under different operation mode are analyzed in this paper, and torque distribution strategy for efficiency optimization is proposed. Simulation analyze is taken and the result shows that proposed structure has the same efficiency on heavy load and higher efficiency on light load operation points, which expands high efficiency area of motor and cruise range of vehicle. The proposed structure can improve motor highest speed.

Keywords: multiphase motor, armature winding match, torque distribution strategy, efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
98 Commercial Winding for Superconducting Cables and Magnets

Authors: Glenn Auld Knierim


Automated robotic winding of high-temperature superconductors (HTS) addresses precision, efficiency, and reliability critical to the commercialization of products. Today’s HTS materials are mature and commercially promising but require manufacturing attention. In particular to the exaggerated rectangular cross-section (very thin by very wide), winding precision is critical to address the stress that can crack the fragile ceramic superconductor (SC) layer and destroy the SC properties. Damage potential is highest during peak operations, where winding stress magnifies operational stress. Another challenge is operational parameters such as magnetic field alignment affecting design performance. Winding process performance, including precision, capability for geometric complexity, and efficient repeatability, are required for commercial production of current HTS. Due to winding limitations, current HTS magnets focus on simple pancake configurations. HTS motors, generators, MRI/NMR, fusion, and other projects are awaiting robotic wound solenoid, planar, and spherical magnet configurations. As with conventional power cables, full transposition winding is required for long length alternating current (AC) and pulsed power cables. Robotic production is required for transposition, periodic swapping of cable conductors, and placing into precise positions, which allows power utility required minimized reactance. A full transposition SC cable, in theory, has no transmission length limits for AC and variable transient operation due to no resistance (a problem with conventional cables), negligible reactance (a problem for helical wound HTS cables), and no long length manufacturing issues (a problem with both stamped and twisted stacked HTS cables). The Infinity Physics team is solving manufacturing problems by developing automated manufacturing to produce the first-ever reliable and utility-grade commercial SC cables and magnets. Robotic winding machines combine mechanical and process design, specialized sense and observer, and state-of-the-art optimization and control sequencing to carefully manipulate individual fragile SCs, especially HTS, to shape previously unattainable, complex geometries with electrical geometry equivalent to commercially available conventional conductor devices.

Keywords: automated winding manufacturing, high temperature superconductor, magnet, power cable

Procedia PDF Downloads 27
97 Design, Analysis and Construction of a 250vac 8amps Arc Welding Machine

Authors: Anthony Okechukwu Ifediniru, Austin Ikechukwu Gbasouzor, Isidore Uche Uju


This article is centered on the design, analysis, construction, and test of a locally made arc welding machine that operates on 250vac with 8 amp output taps ranging from 60vac to 250vac at a fixed frequency, which is of benefit to urban areas; while considering its cost-effectiveness, strength, portability, and mobility. The welding machine uses a power supply to create an electric arc between an electrode and the metal at the welding point. A current selector coil needed for current selection is connected to the primary winding. Electric power is supplied to the primary winding of its transformer and is transferred to the secondary winding by induction. The voltage and current output of the secondary winding are connected to the output terminal, which is used to carry out welding work. The output current of the machine ranges from 110amps for low current welding to 250amps for high current welding. The machine uses a step-down transformer configuration for stepping down the voltage in order to obtain a high current level for effective welding. The welder can adjust the output current within a certain range. This allows the welder to properly set the output current for the type of welding that is being performed. The constructed arc welding machine was tested by connecting the work piece to it. Since there was no shock or spark from the transformer’s laminated core and was successfully used to join metals, it confirmed and validated the design.

Keywords: AC current, arc welding machine, DC current, transformer, welds

Procedia PDF Downloads 33
96 Numerical Investigation of Fluid Flow and Temperature Distribution on Power Transformer Windings Using Open Foam

Authors: Saeed Khandan Siar, Stefan Tenbohlen, Christian Breuer, Raphael Lebreton


The goal of this article is to investigate the detailed temperature distribution and the fluid flow of an oil cooled winding of a power transformer by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The experimental setup consists of three passes of a zig-zag cooled disc type winding, in which losses are modeled by heating cartridges in each winding segment. A precise temperature sensor measures the temperature of each turn. The laboratory setup allows the exact control of the boundary conditions, e.g. the oil flow rate and the inlet temperature. Furthermore, a simulation model is solved using the open source computational fluid dynamics solver OpenFOAM and validated with the experimental results. The model utilizes the laminar and turbulent flow for the different mass flow rate of the oil. The good agreement of the simulation results with experimental measurements validates the model.

Keywords: CFD, conjugated heat transfer, power transformers, temperature distribution

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
95 Comparative Analysis of Hybrid and Non-hybrid Cooled 185 KW High-Speed Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine for Air Suspension Blower

Authors: Usman Abubakar, Xiaoyuan Wang, Sayyed Haleem Shah, Sadiq Ur Rahman, Rabiu Saleh Zakariyya


High-speed Permanent magnet synchronous machine (HSPMSM) uses in different industrial applications like blowers, compressors as a result of its superb performance. Nevertheless, the over-temperature rise of both winding and PM is one of their substantial problem for a high-power HSPMSM, which affects its lifespan and performance. According to the literature, HSPMSM with a Hybrid cooling configuration has a much lower temperature rise than non-hybrid cooling. This paper presents the design 185kW, 26K rpm with two different cooling configurations, i.e., hybrid cooling configuration (forced air and housing spiral water jacket) and non-hybrid (forced air cooling assisted with winding’s potting material and sleeve’s material) to enhance the heat dissipation of winding and PM respectively. Firstly, the machine’s electromagnetic design is conducted by the finite element method to accurately account for machine losses. Then machine’s cooling configurations are introduced, and their effectiveness is validated by lumped parameter thermal network (LPTN). Investigation shows that using potting, sleeve materials to assist non-hybrid cooling configuration makes the machine’s winding and PM temperature closer to hybrid cooling configuration. Therefore, the machine with non-hybrid cooling is prototyped and tested due to its simplicity, lower energy consumption and can still maintain the lifespan and performance of the HSPMSM.

Keywords: airflow network, axial ventilation, high-speed PMSM, thermal network

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
94 Modeling of Transformer Winding for Transients: Frequency-Dependent Proximity and Skin Analysis

Authors: Yazid Alkraimeen


Precise prediction of dielectric stresses and high voltages of power transformers require the accurate calculation of frequency-dependent parameters. A lack of accuracy can result in severe damages to transformer windings. Transient conditions is stuided by digital computers, which require the implementation of accurate models. This paper analyzes the computation of frequency-dependent skin and proximity losses included in the transformer winding model, using analytical equations and Finite Element Method (FEM). A modified formula to calculate the proximity and the skin losses is presented. The results of the frequency-dependent parameter calculations are verified using the Finite Element Method. The time-domain transient voltages are obtained using Numerical Inverse Laplace Transform. The results show that the classical formula for proximity losses is overestimating the transient voltages when compared with the results obtained from the modified method on a simple transformer geometry.

Keywords: fast front transients, proximity losses, transformer winding modeling, skin losses

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93 One-Dimensional Numerical Simulation of the Nonlinear Instability Behavior of an Electrified Viscoelastic Liquid Jet

Authors: Fang Li, Xie-Yuan Yin, Xie-Zhen Yin


Instability and breakup of electrified viscoelastic liquid jets are involved in various applications such as inkjet printing, fuel atomization, the pharmaceutical industry, electrospraying, and electrospinning. Studying on the instability of electrified viscoelastic liquid jets is of theoretical and practical significance. We built a one-dimensional electrified viscoelastic model to study the nonlinear instability behavior of a perfecting conducting, slightly viscoelastic liquid jet under a radial electric field. The model is solved numerically by using an implicit finite difference scheme together with a boundary element method. It is found that under a radial electric field a viscoelastic liquid jet still evolves into a beads-on-string structure with a thin filament connecting two adjacent droplets as in the absence of an electric field. A radial electric field exhibits limited influence on the decay of the filament thickness in the nonlinear evolution process of a viscoelastic jet, in contrast to its great enhancing effect on the linear instability of the jet. On the other hand, a radial electric field can induce axial non-uniformity of the first normal stress difference within the filament. Particularly, the magnitude of the first normal stress difference near the midpoint of the filament can be greatly decreased by a radial electric field. Decreasing the extensional stress by a radial electric field may found applications in spraying, spinning, liquid bridges and others. In addition, the effect of a radial electric field on the formation of satellite droplets is investigated on the parametric plane of the dimensionless wave number and the electrical Bond number. It is found that satellite droplets may be formed for a larger axial wave number at a larger radial electric field. The present study helps us gain insight into the nonlinear instability characteristics of electrified viscoelastic liquid jets.

Keywords: non linear instability, one-dimensional models, radial electric fields, viscoelastic liquid jets

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
92 Voltage Sag Characteristics during Symmetrical and Asymmetrical Faults

Authors: Ioannis Binas, Marios Moschakis


Electrical faults in transmission and distribution networks can have great impact on the electrical equipment used. Fault effects depend on the characteristics of the fault as well as the network itself. It is important to anticipate the network’s behavior during faults when planning a new equipment installation, as well as troubleshooting. Moreover, working backwards, we could be able to estimate the characteristics of the fault when checking the perceived effects. Different transformer winding connections dominantly used in the Greek power transfer and distribution networks and the effects of 1-phase to neutral, phase-to-phase, 2-phases to neutral and 3-phase faults on different locations of the network were simulated in order to present voltage sag characteristics. The study was performed on a generic network with three steps down transformers on two voltage level buses (one 150 kV/20 kV transformer and two 20 kV/0.4 kV). We found that during faults, there are significant changes both on voltage magnitudes and on phase angles. The simulations and short-circuit analysis were performed using the PSCAD simulation package. This paper presents voltage characteristics calculated for the simulated network, with different approaches on the transformer winding connections during symmetrical and asymmetrical faults on various locations.

Keywords: Phase angle shift, power quality, transformer winding connections, voltage sag propagation

Procedia PDF Downloads 22
91 Design and Manufacture of Removable Nosecone Tips with Integrated Pitot Tubes for High Power Sounding Rocketry

Authors: Bjorn Kierulf, Arun Chundru


Over the past decade, collegiate rocketry teams have emerged across the country with various goals: space, liquid-fueled flight, etc. A critical piece of the development of knowledge within a club is the use of so-called "sounding rockets," whose goal is to take in-flight measurements that inform future rocket design. Common measurements include acceleration from inertial measurement units (IMU's), and altitude from barometers. With a properly tuned filter, these measurements can be used to find velocity, but are susceptible to noise, offset, and filter settings. Instead, velocity can be measured more directly and more instantaneously using a pitot tube, which operates by measuring the stagnation pressure. At supersonic speeds, an additional thermodynamic property is necessary to constrain the upstream state. One possibility is the stagnation temperature, measured by a thermocouple in the pitot tube. The routing of the pitot tube from the nosecone tip down to a pressure transducer is complicated by the nosecone's structure. Commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) nosecones come with a removable metal tip (without a pitot tube). This provides the opportunity to make custom tips with integrated measurement systems without making the nosecone from scratch. The main design constraint is how the nosecone tip is held down onto the nosecone, using the tension in a threaded rod anchored to a bulkhead below. Because the threaded rod connects into a threaded hole in the center of the nosecone tip, the pitot tube follows a winding path, and the pressure fitting is off-center. Two designs will be presented in the paper, one with a curved pitot tube and a coaxial design that eliminates the need for the winding path by routing pressure through a structural tube. Additionally, three manufacturing methods will be presented for these designs: bound powder filament metal 3D printing, stereo-lithography (SLA) 3D printing, and traditional machining. These will employ three different materials, copper, steel, and proprietary resin. These manufacturing methods and materials are relatively low cost, thus accessible to student researchers. These designs and materials cover multiple use cases, based on how fast the sounding rocket is expected to travel and how important heating effects are - to measure and to avoid melting. This paper will include drawings showing key features and an overview of the design changes necessitated by the manufacture. It will also include a look at the successful use of these nosecone tips and the data they have gathered to date.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, machining, pitot tube, sounding rocketry

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90 Investigation of Dispersion of Carbon Nanoparticles in Polymer Melt for the Fabrication of Functional Filaments

Authors: Merle Bischoff, Thomas Gries, Gunnar Seide


Nanocomposites have become more and more important as the implementation of nanoparticles in polymer allows additional functions in common industrial parts. Especially in the fabrication of filaments or fibres nanomodification is important, as only very small fillers can be added to the very fine fibres (common diameter is 20 µm, fine filament are 1 µm). Discharging fibres, conductive fibres, and many other functional fibres raise in their importance nowadays. Especially the dispersion quality is essential for the final enhancement of the filament propertied. In this paper, the dispersion of carbon nanoparticles in polymer melt is enhanced by a newly developed sonication unit of ITA and BANDELIN electronic GmbH & Co. KG. The first development steps of the unit fabrication, as well as the first experimental results of the modification of the dispersion, are shown. Special focus will be laid on the sealing of the new sonication unit as well as the positioning and equipment size when being implemented in an existing melt spinning unit. Furthermore, the influence on the thereby manufactured nano-modified filaments will be shown.

Keywords: dispersion, sonication, carbon nanoparticles, filaments

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
89 Intelligent Algorithm-Based Tool-Path Planning and Optimization for Additive Manufacturing

Authors: Efrain Rodriguez, Sergio Pertuz, Cristhian Riano


Tool-path generation is an essential step in the FFF (Fused Filament Fabrication)-based Additive Manufacturing (AM) process planning. In the manufacture of a mechanical part by using additive processes, high resource consumption and prolonged production times are inherent drawbacks of these processes mainly due to non-optimized tool-path generation. In this work, we propose a heuristic-search intelligent algorithm-based approach for optimized tool-path generation for FFF-based AM. The main benefit of this approach is a significant reduction of travels without material deposition when the AM machine performs moves without any extrusion. The optimization method used reduces the number of travels without extrusion in comparison with commercial software as Slic3r or Cura Engine, which means a reduction of production time.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, tool-path optimization, fused filament fabrication, process planning

Procedia PDF Downloads 314
88 Finite Element Analysis of a Modular Brushless Wound Rotor Synchronous Machine

Authors: H. T. Le Luong, C. Hénaux, F. Messine, G. Bueno-Mariani, S. Mollov, N. Voyer


This paper presents a comparative study of different modular brushless wound rotor synchronous machine (MB-WRSM). The goal of the study is to highlight the structure which offers the best fault tolerant capability and the highest output performances. The fundamental winding factor is calculated by using the method based on EMF phasors as a significant criterion to select the preferred number of phases, stator slots, and poles. With the limited number of poles for a small machine (3.67kW/7000rpm), 15 different machines for preferred phase/slot/pole combinations are analyzed using two-dimensional (2-D) finite element method and compared according to three criteria: torque density, torque ripple and efficiency. The 7phase/7slot/6pole machine is chosen with the best compromise of high torque density, small torque ripple (3.89%) and high nominal efficiency (95%). This machine is then compared with a reference design surface permanent magnet synchronous machine (SPMSM). In conclusion, this paper provides an electromagnetic analysis of a new brushless wound-rotor synchronous machine using multiphase non-overlapping fractional slot double layer winding. The simulation results are discussed and demonstrate that the MB-WRSM presents interesting performance features, with overall performance closely matching that of an equivalent SPMSM.

Keywords: finite element method (FEM), machine performance, modular wound rotor synchronous machine, non-overlapping concentrated winding

Procedia PDF Downloads 173
87 A 3Y/3Y Pole-Changing Winding of High-Power Asynchronous Motors

Authors: Gábor Kovács


Requirement for pole-changing motors emerged at the very early times of asynchronous motor design. Different solutions have been elaborated and some of them are generally used. An alternative is the so called 3 Y/3 Y pole-changing winding. This paper deals with high power application of this solution. A complete and comprehensive study is introduced, including features and design guidelines. The method presented in this paper is especially suitable for pole numbers being close to each other. The study also reveals that the method is more advantageous then the existing solutions for high power motors with 1:3 pole ratio. Using this motor, a new and complete drive supply system has been proposed as most appropriate arrangement of high power main naval propulsion drive. Further, the method makes possible to extend the pole ratio to 1:6, 1:9, 1:12, etc. At the end, the proposal is further extended to the here so far missing 1:4, 1:5, 1:7 etc. pole ratios. A complete proposal for the theoretically infinite range has been given in this way.

Keywords: induction motor, pole changing 3Y/3Y, pole phase modulation, pole changing 1:3, 1:6

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86 Concentrated Winding Permanent Magnet Axial Flux Motor with Soft Magnetic Composite Core

Authors: N. Aliyu, G. Atkinson, N. Stannard


Compacted insulated iron powder is a key material in high volume electric motors manufacturing. It offers high production rates, dimensionally stable components, and low scrap volumes. It is the aim of this paper to develop a three-phase compact single sided concentrated winding axial flux PM motor with soft magnetic composite (SMC) core for reducing core losses and cost. To succeed the motor would need to be designed in such a way as to exploit the isotropic magnetic properties of the material and open slot constructions with surface mounted PM for higher speed up to 6000 rpm, without excessive rotor losses. Higher fill factor up to 70% was achieved by compacting the coils, which offered a significant improvement in performance. A finite-element analysis was performed for accurate parameters calculation and the simulation results are thoroughly presented and agree with the theoretical calculations very well.

Keywords: SMC core, axial gap motor, high efficiency, torque

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
85 Moderation in Temperature Dependence on Counter Frictional Coefficient and Prevention of Wear of C/C Composites by Synthesizing SiC around Surface and Internal Vacancies

Authors: Noboru Wakamoto, Kiyotaka Obunai, Kazuya Okubo, Toru Fujii


The aim of this study is to moderate the dependence of counter frictional coefficient on temperature between counter surfaces and to reduce the wear of C/C composites at low temperature. To modify the C/C composites, Silica (SiO2) powders were added into phenolic resin for carbon precursor. The preform plate of the precursor of C/C composites was prepared by conventional filament winding method. The C/C composites plates were obtained by carbonizing preform plate at 2200 °C under an argon atmosphere. At that time, the silicon carbides (SiC) were synthesized around the surfaces and the internal vacancies of the C/C composites. The frictional coefficient on the counter surfaces and specific wear volumes of the C/C composites were measured by our developed frictional test machine like pin-on disk type. The XRD indicated that SiC was synthesized in the body of C/C composite fabricated by current method. The results of friction test showed that coefficient of friction of unmodified C/C composites have temperature dependence when the test condition was changed. In contrast, frictional coefficient of the C/C composite modified with SiO2 powders was almost constant at about 0.27 when the temperature condition was changed from Room Temperature (RT) to 300 °C. The specific wear rate decreased from 25×10-6 mm2/N to 0.1×10-6 mm2/N. The observations of the surfaces after friction tests showed that the frictional surface of the modified C/C composites was covered with a film produced by the friction. This study found that synthesizing SiC around surface and internal vacancies of C/C composites was effective to moderate the dependence on the frictional coefficient and reduce to the abrasion of C/C composites.

Keywords: C/C composites, friction coefficient, wear, SiC

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84 Development of a Nanocompound Based Fibre to Combat Insects

Authors: Merle Bischoff, Thomas Gries, Gunnar Seide


Pesticides, which harm crop enemies, but can also interfere with the human body, are nowadays mostly used for crop spraying. Silica particles (SiO2) in the nanometer and micrometer scale offer a physical way to combat insects without harming humans and other mammals. Thereby, they allow foregoing pesticides, which can harm the environment. As silica particles are supplied as a powder or in a suspension to farmers, the silica use in large scale agriculture is not sufficient due to erosion through wind and rain. When silica is implemented in a textile’s surface (nanocompound), particles are locally bound and do resist erosion, but can function against bugs. By choosing polypropylene as a matrix polymer, the production of an inexpensive agritextile with an 'anti-bug' effect is made possible. In the Symposium the results of the manufacturing and filament spinning of silica nanocomposites from a polypropylene basis is compared to the fabrication from nanocomposites based on Polybutylene succinate, a biodegradable composite. The investigation focuses on the difference between degradable nanocomposite and stable nanocomposite. Focus will be laid on the filament characteristics as well as the degradation of the nanocompound to underline their potential use and application as an agricultural textile.

Keywords: agriculture, environment, insects, protection, silica, textile, nanocomposite

Procedia PDF Downloads 151