Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 3153

Search results for: tunis soft soil

3153 3D Modeling of Tunis Soft Soil Settlement Reinforced with Plastic Wastes

Authors: Aya Rezgui, Lasaad Ajam, Belgacem Jalleli


The Tunis soft soils present a difficult challenge as construction sites and for Geotechnical works. Currently, different techniques are used to improve such soil properties taking into account the environmental considerations. One of the recent methods is involving plastic wastes as a reinforcing materials. The present study pertains to the development of a numerical model for predicting the behavior of Tunis Soft soil (TSS) improved with recycled Monobloc chair wastes.3D numerical models for unreinforced TSS and reinforced TSS aims to evaluate settlement reduction and the values of consolidation times in oedometer conditions.

Keywords: Tunis soft soil, settlement, plastic wastes, finte -difference, FLAC3D modeling

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3152 Field Tests and Numerical Simulation of Tunis Soft Soil Improvement Using Prefabricated Vertical Drains

Authors: Marwa Ben Khalifa, Zeineb Ben Salem, Wissem Frikha


This paper presents a case study of “Radès la Goulette” bridge project using the technique of prefabricated vertical drains (PVD) associated with step by step construction of preloading embankments with averaged height of about 6 m. These embankments are founded on a highly compressible layer of Tunis soft soil. The construction steps included extensive soil instrumentation such as piezometers and settlement plates for monitoring the dissipation of excess pore water pressures and settlement during the consolidation of Tunis soft soil. An axisymmetric numerical model using the 2D finite difference code FLAC was developed and calibrated using laboratory tests to predict the soil behavior and consolidation settlements. The constitutive model impact for simulating the soft soil behavior is investigated. The results of analyses show that numerical analysis provided satisfactory predictions for the field performance during the construction of Radès la Goulette embankment. The obtained results show the effectiveness of PVD in the acceleration of the consolidation time. A comparison of numerical results with theoretical analysis was presented.

Keywords: tunis soft soil, radès bridge project, prefabricated vertical drains, FLAC, acceleration of consolidation

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3151 The Effectiveness of Prefabricated Vertical Drains for Accelerating Consolidation of Tunis Soft Soil

Authors: Marwa Ben Khalifa, Zeineb Ben Salem, Wissem Frikha


The purpose of the present work is to study the consolidation behavior of highly compressible Tunis soft soil “TSS” by means of prefabricated vertical drains (PVD’s) associated to preloading based on laboratory and field investigations. In the first hand, the field performance of PVD’s on the layer of Tunis soft soil was analysed based on the case study of the construction of embankments of “Radès la Goulette” bridge project. PVD’s Geosynthetics drains types were installed with triangular grid pattern until 10 m depth associated with step-by-step surcharge. The monitoring of the soil settlement during preloading stage for Radès La Goulette Bridge project was provided by an instrumentation composed by various type of tassometer installed in the soil. The distribution of water pressure was monitored through piezocone penetration. In the second hand, a laboratory reduced tests are performed on TSS subjected also to preloading and improved with PVD's Mebradrain 88 (Mb88) type. A specific test apparatus was designed and manufactured to study the consolidation. Two series of consolidation tests were performed on TSS specimens. The first series included consolidation tests for soil improved by one central drain. In thesecond series, a triangular mesh of three geodrains was used. The evolution of degree of consolidation and measured settlements versus time derived from laboratory tests and field data were presented and discussed. The obtained results have shown that PVD’s have considerably accelerated the consolidation of Tunis soft soil by shortening the drainage path. The model with mesh of three drains gives results more comparative to field one. A longer consolidation time is observed for the cell improved by a single central drain. A comparison with theoretical analysis, basically that of Barron (1948) and Carillo (1942), was presented. It’s found that these theories overestimate the degree of consolidation in the presence of PVD.

Keywords: tunis soft soil, prefabricated vertical drains, acceleration of consolidation, dissipation of excess pore water pressures, radès bridge project, barron and carillo’s theories

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3150 Numerical Investigation of Embankment Settlement Improved by Method of Preloading by Vertical Drains

Authors: Seyed Abolhasan Naeini, Saeideh Mohammadi


Time dependent settlement due to loading on soft saturated soils produces many problems such as high consolidation settlements and low consolidation rates. Also, long term consolidation settlement of soft soil underlying the embankment leads to unpredicted settlements and cracks on soil surface. Preloading method is an effective improvement method to solve this problem. Using vertical drains in preloading method is an effective method for improving soft soils. Applying deep soil mixing method on soft soils is another effective method for improving soft soils. There are little studies on using two methods of preloading and deep soil mixing simultaneously. In this paper, the concurrent effect of preloading with deep soil mixing by vertical drains is investigated through a finite element code, Plaxis2D. The influence of parameters such as deep soil mixing columns spacing, existence of vertical drains and distance between them, on settlement and stability factor of safety of embankment embedded on soft soil is investigated in this research.

Keywords: preloading, soft soil, vertical drains, deep soil mixing, consolidation settlement

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3149 Effect of Deep Mixing Columns and Geogrid on Embankment Settlement on the Soft Soil

Authors: Seyed Abolhasan Naeini, Saeideh Mohammadi


Embankment settlement on soft clays has always been problematic due to the high compaction and low shear strength of the soil. Deep soil mixing and geosynthetics are two soil improvement methods in such fields. Here, a numerical study is conducted on the embankment performance on the soft ground improved by deep soil mixing columns and geosynthetics based on the data of a real project. For this purpose, the finite element method is used in the Plaxis 2D software. The Soft Soil Creep model considers the creep phenomenon in the soft clay layer while the Mohr-Columb model simulates other soil layers. Results are verified using the data of an experimental embankment built on deep mixing columns. The effect of depth and diameter of deep mixing columns and the stiffness of geogrid on the vertical and horizontal movements of embankment on clay subsoil will be investigated in the following.

Keywords: PLAXIS 2D, embankment settlement, horizontal movement, deep soil mixing column, geogrid

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3148 Improvement of Bearing Capacity of Soft Clay Using Geo-Cells

Authors: Siddhartha Paul, Aman Harlalka, Ashim K. Dey


Soft clayey soil possesses poor bearing capacity and high compressibility because of which foundations cannot be directly placed over soft clay. Normally pile foundations are constructed to carry the load through the soft soil up to the hard stratum below. Pile construction is costly and time consuming. In order to increase the properties of soft clay, many ground improvement techniques like stone column, preloading with and without sand drains/band drains, etc. are in vogue. Time is a constraint for successful application of these improvement techniques. Another way to improve the bearing capacity of soft clay and to reduce the settlement possibility is to apply geocells below the foundation. The geocells impart rigidity to the foundation soil, reduce the net load intensity on soil and thus reduce the compressibility. A well designed geocell reinforced soil may replace the pile foundation. The present paper deals with the applicability of geocells on improvement of the bearing capacity. It is observed that a properly designed geocell may increase the bearing capacity of soft clay up to two and a half times.

Keywords: bearing capacity, geo-cell, ground improvement, soft clay

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3147 Construction Technology of Modified Vacuum Pre-Loading Method for Slurry Dredged Soil

Authors: Ali H. Mahfouz, Gao Ming-Jun, Mohamad Sharif


Slurry dredged soil at coastal area has a high water content, poor permeability, and low surface intensity. Hence, it is infeasible to use vacuum preloading method to treat this type of soil foundation. For the special case of super soft ground, a floating bridge is first constructed on muddy soil and used as a service road and platform for implementing the modified vacuum preloading method. The modified technique of vacuum preloading and its construction process for the super soft soil foundation improvement is then studied. Application of modified vacuum preloading method shows that the technology and its construction process are highly suitable for improving the super soft soil foundation in coastal areas.

Keywords: super soft foundation, dredger fill, vacuum preloading, foundation treatment, construction technology

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3146 Numerical Investigation of Soft Clayey Soil Improved by Soil-Cement Columns under Harmonic Load

Authors: R. Ziaie Moayed, E. Ghanbari Alamouty


Deep soil mixing is one of the improvement methods in geotechnical engineering which is widely used in soft soils. This article investigates the consolidation behavior of a soft clay soil which is improved by soil-cement column (SCC) by numerical modeling using Plaxis2D program. This behavior is simulated under vertical static and cyclic load which is applied on the soil surface. The static load problem is the simulation of a physical model test in an axisymmetric condition which uses a single SCC in the model center. The results of numerical modeling consist of settlement of soft soil composite, stress on soft soil and column, and excessive pore water pressure in the soil show a good correspondence with the test results. The response of soft soil composite to the cyclic load in vertical direction also compared with the static results. Also the effects of two variables namely the cement content used in a SCC and the area ratio (the ratio of the diameter of SCC to the diameter of composite soil model, a) is investigated. The results show that the stress on the column with the higher value of a, is lesser compared with the stress on other columns. Different rate of consolidation and excessive pore pressure distribution is observed in cyclic load problem. Also comparing the results of settlement of soil shows higher compressibility in the cyclic load problem.

Keywords: area ratio, consolidation behavior, cyclic load, numerical modeling, soil-cement column

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3145 Comparison Study between Deep Mixed Columns and Encased Sand Column for Soft Clay Soil in Egypt

Authors: Walid El Kamash


Sand columns (or granular piles) can be employed as soil strengthening for flexible constructions such as road embankments, oil storage tanks in addition to multistory structures. The challenge of embedding the sand columns in soft soil is that the surrounding soft soil cannot avail the enough confinement stress in order to keep the form of the sand column. Therefore, the sand columns which were installed in such soil will lose their ability to perform needed load-bearing capacity. The encasement, besides increasing the strength and stiffness of the sand column, prevents the lateral squeezing of sands when the column is installed even in extremely soft soils, thus enabling quicker and more economical installation. This paper investigates the improvement in load capacity of the sand column by encasement through a comprehensive parametric study using the 3-D finite difference analysis for the soft clay of soil in Egypt. Moreover, the study was extended to include a comparison study between encased sand column and Deep Mixed columns (DM). The study showed that confining the sand by geosynthetic resulted in an increment of shear strength. That result paid the attention to use encased sand stone rather than deep mixed columns due to relative high permeability of the first material.

Keywords: encased sand column, Deep mixed column, numerical analysis, improving soft soil

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3144 Analysis of Reinforced Granular Pile in Soft Soil

Authors: G. Nitesh


Stone column or granular pile is a proven technique to mitigate settlement in soft soil. Granular pile increases both rate of consolidation and stiffness of the ground. In this paper, a method to analyze further reduction in settlement of granular column reinforced with lime pile is presented treating the system as a unit cell and considering one-dimensional compression approach. The core of the granular pile is stiffened with a steel rod or lime column. Influence of a wide range of parameters such as area ratio of granular pile-soft soil, area ratio of lime pile-granular pile, modular ratio of granular pile and modular ratio of lime pile with respect to granular pile on settlement reduction factor, etc. are obtained and presented.

Keywords: lime pile, granular pile, soft soil, settlement

Procedia PDF Downloads 324
3143 The Utilisation of Two Types of Fly Ashes Used as Cement Replacement in Soft Soil Stabilisation

Authors: Hassnen M. Jafer, W. Atherton, F. Ruddock, E. Loffill


This study represents the results of an experimental work using two types of fly ashes as a cement replacement in soft soil stabilisation. The fly ashes (FA1 and FA2) used in this study are by-products resulting from an incineration processes between 800 and 1200 ˚C. The stabilised soil in this study was an intermediate plasticity silty clayey soil with medium organic matter content. The experimental works were initially conducted on soil treated with different percentages of FA1 (0, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15%) to identify the optimum FA1 content. Then FA1 was chemically activated by FA2 which has high alkalinity by blending the optimum content of FA1 with different portions of FA2. The improvement levels were evaluated dependent on the results obtained from consistency limits and compaction tests along with the results of unconfined compressive strength (UCS) tests which were conducted on specimens of soil treated with FA1 and FA2 and exposed to different periods of curing (zero, 7, 14, and 28 days). The results indicated that the FA1 and FA2 used in this study effectively improved the physical and geotechnical properties of the soft soil where the index of plasticity (IP) was decreased significantly from 21 to 13.17 with 12% of FA1; however, there was a slight increase in IP with the use of FA2. Meanwhile, 12% of FA1 was identified as the optimum percentage improving the UCS of stabilised soil significantly. Furthermore, FA2 was found effective as a chemical activator to FA1 where the UCS was improved significantly after using FA2.

Keywords: fly ashes, soft soil stabilisation, waste materials, unconfined compressive strength

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3142 The Behavior of Ordinary and Encased Stone Columns in Soft Clay Soil of Egypt: A Finite Element Study

Authors: Mahmoud F. Awad-Allah, Mohammed Rabeih, Eman Abdel Baseer


Soft to very soft soil deposits are widely speared in some areas of Egypt such as East Port Said, Damietta, Kafr El-Sheik, Alexandria, etc. The construction projects in these areas have faced the challenge of the presence of extended deep layers of soft and very soft clays which reach to depths of 40 to 60 m from the ground level. Stone columns are commonly used to support structures overlying soft ground soils and surcharged by embankment type loading. Therefore, this paper introduces a wide comparison numerical study between the ordinary stone columns (OSC) versus the geosynthetic encased stone columns (ESC) installed in soft clay soil deposit using finite element method (FEM). Parametric study of an embankment on soft soils reinforced with stone columns is performed using commercial computer program based on the finite element technique (PLAXIS 2D). The investigation will present the influence of the following parameters: diameter of stone columns, stiffness of geosynthetic encasement, embedded depth of stone column from ground level, and the length encasement of the stone column on the consolidation time, vertical settlement, and lateral displacement of soft clay soil formations.

Keywords: finite element method, geosynthetic, lateral displacement, settlement, soft clay

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3141 Effects of the Slope Embankment Variation on Influence Areas That Causes the Differential Settlement around of Embankment

Authors: Safitri W. Nur, Prathisto Panuntun L. Unggul, M. Ivan Adi Perdana, R. Dary Wira Mahadika


On soft soil areas, high embankment as a preloading needed to improve the bearing capacity of the soil. For sustainable development, the construction of embankment must not disturb the area around of them. So, the influence area must be known before the contractor applied their embankment design. For several cases in Indonesia, the area around of embankment construction is housing resident and other building. So that, the influence area must be identified to avoid the differential settlement occurs on the buildings around of them. Differential settlement causes the building crack. Each building has a limited tolerance for the differential settlement. For concrete buildings, the tolerance is 0,002 – 0,003 m and for steel buildings, the tolerance is 0,006 – 0,008 m. If the differential settlement stands on the range of that value, building crack can be avoided. In fact, the settlement around of embankment is assumed as zero. Because of that, so many problems happen when high embankment applied on soft soil area. This research used the superposition method combined with plaxis analysis to know the influences area around of embankment in some location with the differential characteristic of the soft soil. The undisturbed soil samples take on 55 locations with undisturbed soil samples at some soft soils location in Indonesia. Based on this research, it was concluded that the effects of embankment variation are if more gentle the slope, the influence area will be greater and vice versa. The largest of the influence area with h initial embankment equal to 2 - 6 m with slopes 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, 1:5, 1:6, 1:7, 1:8 is 32 m from the edge of the embankment.

Keywords: differential settlement, embankment, influence area, slope, soft soil

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3140 Assessing the Potential of a Waste Material for Cement Replacement and the Effect of Its Fineness in Soft Soil Stabilisation

Authors: Hassnen M. Jafer, W. Atherton, F. Ruddock


This paper represents the results of experimental work to investigate the suitability of a waste material (WM) for soft soil stabilisation. In addition, the effect of particle size distribution (PSD) of the waste material on its performance as a soil stabiliser was investigated. The WM used in this study is produced from the incineration processes in domestic energy power plant and it is available in two different grades of fineness (coarse waste material (CWM) and fine waste material (FWM)). An intermediate plasticity silty clayey soil with medium organic matter content has been used in this study. The suitability of the CWM and FWM to improve the physical and engineering properties of the selected soil was evaluated dependant on the results obtained from the consistency limits, compaction characteristics (optimum moisture content (OMC) and maximum dry density (MDD)); along with the unconfined compressive strength test (UCS). Different percentages of CWM were added to the soft soil (3, 6, 9, 12 and 15%) to produce various admixtures. Then the UCS test was carried out on specimens under different curing periods (zero, 7, 14, and 28 days) to find the optimum percentage of CWM. The optimum and other two percentages (either side of the optimum content) were used for FWM to evaluate the effect of the fineness of the WM on UCS of the stabilised soil. Results indicated that both types of the WM used in this study improved the physical properties of the soft soil where the index of plasticity (IP) was decreased significantly. IP was decreased from 21 to 13.64 and 13.10 with 12% of CWM and 15% of FWM respectively. The results of the unconfined compressive strength test indicated that 12% of CWM was the optimum and this percentage developed the UCS value from 202kPa to 500kPa for 28 days cured samples, which is equal, approximately 2.5 times the UCS value for untreated soil. Moreover, this percentage provided 1.4 times the value of UCS for stabilized soil-CWA by using FWM which recorded just under 700kPa after 28 days curing.

Keywords: soft soil stabilisation, waste materials, fineness, unconfined compressive strength

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3139 Laboratory Evaluation of Geogrids Used for Stabilizing Soft Subgrades

Authors: Magdi M. E. Zumrawi, Nehla Mansour


This paper aims to assess the efficiency of using geogrid reinforcement for subgrade stabilization. The literature of applying geogrid reinforcement technique for pavements built on soft subgrades and the previous experiences were reviewed. Laboratory tests were conducted on soil reinforced with geogrids in one or several layers. The soil specimens were compacted in four layers with or without geogrid sheets. The California Bearing Ratio (CBR) test, in soaking condition, was performed on natural soil and soil-geogrid specimens. The test results revealed that the CBR value is much affected by the geogrid sheet location and the number of sheets used in the soil specimen. When a geogrid sheet was placed at the 1st layer of the soil, there was an increment of 26% in the CBR value. Moreover, the CBR value was significantly increased by 62% when geogrid sheets were placed at all four layers. The high CBR value is attributed to interface friction and interlock involved in the geogrid/ soil interactions. It could be concluded that geogrid reinforcement is successful and more economical technique.

Keywords: geogrid, reinforcement, stabilization, subgrade

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3138 Using Electro-Biogrouting to Stabilize of Soft Soil

Authors: Hamed A. Keykha, Hadi Miri


This paper describes a new method of soil stabilisation, electro-biogrouting (EBM), for improvement of soft soil with low hydraulic conductivity. This method uses an applied voltage gradient across the soil to induce the ions and bacteria cells through the soil matrix, resulting in CaCO3 precipitation and an increase of the soil shear strength in the process. The EBM were used effectively with two injection methods; bacteria injection and products of bacteria injection. The bacteria cells, calcium ions and urea were moved across the soil by electromigration and electro osmotic flow respectively. The products of bacteria (CO3-2) were moved by electromigration. The results showed that the undrained shear strength of the soil increased from 6 to 65 and 70 kPa for first and second injection method respectively. The injection of carbonate solution and calcium could be effectively flowed in the clay soil compare to injection of bacteria cells. The detection of CaCO3 percentage and its corresponding water content across the specimen showed that the increase of undrained shear strength relates to the deposit of calcite crystals between soil particles.

Keywords: Sporosarcina pasteurii, electrophoresis, electromigration, electroosmosis, biocement

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3137 Numerical Static and Seismic Evaluation of Pile Group Settlement: A Case Study

Authors: Seyed Abolhassan Naeini, Hamed Yekehdehghan


Shallow foundations cannot be used when the bedding soil is soft. A suitable method for constructing foundations on soft soil is to employ pile groups to transfer the load to the bottom layers. The present research used results from tests carried out in northern Iran (Langarud) and the FLAC3D software to model a pile group for investigating the effects of various parameters on pile cap settlement under static and seismic conditions. According to the results, changes in the strength parameters of the soil, groundwater level, and the length of and distance between the piles affect settlement differently.

Keywords: FLACD 3D software, pile group, settlement, soil

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3136 Geochemistry of Nutrients in the South Lagoon of Tunis, Northeast of Tunisia, Using Multivariable Methods

Authors: Abidi Myriam, Ben Amor Rim, Gueddari Moncef


Understanding ecosystem response to the restoration project is essential to assess its rehabilitation. Indeed, the time elapsed after restoration is a critical indicator to shows the real of the restoration success. In this order, the south lagoon of Tunis, a shallow Mediterranean coastal area, has witnessed several pollutions. To resolve this environmental problem, a large restoration project of the lagoon was undertaken. In this restoration works, the main changes are the decrease of the residence time of the lagoon water and the nutrient concentrations. In this paper, we attempt to evaluate the trophic state of lagoon water for evaluating the risk of eutrophication after almost 16 years of its restoration. To attend this objectives water quality monitoring was untaken. In order to identify and to analyze the natural and anthropogenic factor governing the nutrients concentrations of lagoon water geochemical methods and multivariate statistical tools were used. Results show that nutrients have duel sources due to the discharge of municipal wastewater of Megrine City in the south side of the lagoon. The Carlson index shows that the South lagoon of Tunis Lagoon Tunis is eutrophic, and may show limited summer anoxia.

Keywords: geochemistry, nutrients, statistical analysis, the south lagoon of Tunis, trophic state

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3135 A Statistical Model for the Geotechnical Parameters of Cement-Stabilised Hightown’s Soft Soil: A Case Stufy of Liverpool, UK

Authors: Hassnen M. Jafer, Khalid S. Hashim, W. Atherton, Ali W. Alattabi


This study investigates the effect of two important parameters (length of curing period and percentage of the added binder) on the strength of soil treated with OPC. An intermediate plasticity silty clayey soil with medium organic content was used in this study. This soft soil was treated with different percentages of a commercially available cement type 32.5-N. laboratory experiments were carried out on the soil treated with 0, 1.5, 3, 6, 9, and 12% OPC by the dry weight to determine the effect of OPC on the compaction parameters, consistency limits, and the compressive strength. Unconfined compressive strength (UCS) test was carried out on cement-treated specimens after exposing them to different curing periods (1, 3, 7, 14, 28, and 90 days). The results of UCS test were used to develop a non-linear multi-regression model to find the relationship between the predicted and the measured maximum compressive strength of the treated soil (qu). The results indicated that there was a significant improvement in the index of plasticity (IP) by treating with OPC; IP was decreased from 20.2 to 14.1 by using 12% of OPC; this percentage was enough to increase the UCS of the treated soil up to 1362 kPa after 90 days of curing. With respect to the statistical model of the predicted qu, the results showed that the regression coefficients (R2) was equal to 0.8534 which indicates a good reproducibility for the constructed model.

Keywords: cement admixtures, soft soil stabilisation, geotechnical parameters, multi-regression model

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3134 Mechanical Activation of a Waste Material Used as Cement Replacement in Soft Soil Stabilisation

Authors: Hassnen M. Jafer, W. Atherton, F. Ruddock, E. Loffil


Waste materials or sometimes called by-product materials have been increasingly used as construction material to reduce the usage of cement in different construction projects. In the field of soil stabilisation, waste materials such as pulverised fuel ash (PFA), biomass fly ash (BFA), sewage sludge ash (SSA), etc., have been used since 1960s in last century. In this study, a particular type of a waste material (WM) was used in soft soil stabilisation as a cement replacement, as well as, the effect of mechanical activation, using grinding, on the performance of this WM was also investigated. The WM used in this study is a by-product resulted from the incineration processes between 1000 and 1200oc in domestic power generation plant using a fluidized bed combustion system. The stabilised soil in this study was an intermediate plasticity silty clayey soil with medium organic matter content. The experimental works were conducted first to find the optimum content of WM by carrying out Atterberg limits and unconfined compressive strength (UCS) tests on soil samples contained (0, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15%) of WM by the dry weight of soil. The UCS test was carried out on specimens provided to different curing periods (zero, 7, 14, and 28 days). Moreover, the optimum percentage of the WM was subject to different periods of grinding (10, 20, 30, 40mins) using mortar and pestle grinder to find the effect of grinding and its optimum time by conducting UCS test. The results indicated that the WM used in this study improved the physical properties of the soft soil where the index of plasticity (IP) was decreased significantly from 21 to 13.10 with 15% of WM. Meanwhile, the results of UCS test indicated that 12% of WM was the optimum and this percentage developed the UCS value from 202kPa to 700kPa for 28 days cured samples. Along with the time of grinding, the results revealed that 10 minutes of grinding was the best for mechanical activation for the WM used in this study.

Keywords: soft soil stabilisation, waste materials, grinding, and unconfined compressive strength

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3133 Performance Analysis of Encased Sand Columns in Different Clayey Soils Using 3D Numerical Method

Authors: Enayatallah Najari, Ali Noorzad, Mehdi Siavoshnia


One of the most decent and low-cost options in soft clayey soil improvement is using stone columns to reduce the settlement and increase the bearing capacity which is used for different ways to do this in various projects with diverse conditions. In the current study, it is tried to evaluate this improvement method in 4 different weak soils with diverse properties like specific gravity, permeability coefficient, over consolidation ratio (OCR), poison’s ratio, internal friction angle and bulk modulus by using ABAQUS 3D finite element software. Increment and decrement impacts of each mentioned factor on settlement and lateral displacement of weak soil beds are analyzed. In analyzed models, the properties related to sand columns and geosynthetic cover are assumed to be constant with their optimum values, and just soft clayey soil parameters are considered to be variable. It’s also demonstrated that OCR value can play a determinant role in soil resistance.

Keywords: stone columns, geosynthetic, finite element, 3D analysis, soft soils

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3132 Experimental Study on Stabilisation of a Soft Soil by Alkaline Activation of Industrial By-Products

Authors: Mohammadjavad Yaghoubi, Arul Arulrajah, Mahdi M. Disfani, Suksun Horpibulsuk, Myint W. Bo, Stephen P. Darmawan


Utilising waste materials, such as fly ash (FA) and slag (S) stockpiled in landfills, has drawn the attention of researchers and engineers in the recent years. There is a great potential for usage of these wastes in ground improvement projects, especially where deep deposits of soft compressible soils exist. This paper investigates the changes in the strength development of a high water content soft soil stabilised with alkaline activated FA and S, termed as geopolymer binder, to use in deep soil mixing technology. The strength improvement and the changes in the microstructure of the mixtures have been studied. The results show that using FA and S-based geopolymers can increases the strength significantly. Furthermore, utilising FA and S in ground improvement projects, where large amounts of binders are required, can be a solution to the disposal of these wastes.

Keywords: alkaline activation, fly ash, geopolymer, slag, strength development

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3131 Electrokinetic Application for the Improvement of Soft Clays

Authors: Abiola Ayopo Abiodun, Zalihe Nalbantoglu


The electrokinetic application (EKA), a relatively modern chemical treatment has a potential for in-situ ground improvement in an open field or under existing structures. It utilizes a low electrical gradient to transport electrolytic chemical ions between bespoke electrodes inserted in the fine-grained, low permeable soft soils. The paper investigates the efficacy of the EKA as a mitigation technique for the soft clay beds. The laboratory model of the EKA comprises of rectangular plexiglass test tank, electrolytes compartments, geosynthetic electrodes and direct electric current supply. Within this setup, the EK effects resulted from the exchange of ions between anolyte (anodic) and catholyte (cathodic) ends through the tested soil were examined by basic experimental laboratory testing methods. As such, the treated soft soil properties were investigated as a function of the anode-to-cathode distances and curing periods. The test results showed that there have been some changes in the physical and engineering properties of the treated soft soils. The significant changes in the physicochemical and electrical properties suggested that their corresponding changes can be utilized as a monitoring technique to evaluate the improvement in the engineering properties EK treated soft clay soils.

Keywords: electrokinetic, electrolytes, exchange ions, geosynthetic electrodes, soft soils

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3130 A Numerical Study for Mixing Depth and Applicability of Partial Cement Mixing Method Utilizing Geogrid and Fixing Unit

Authors: Woo-seok Choi, Eun-sup Kim, Nam-Seo Park


The demand for new technique in soft ground improvement continuously increases as general soft ground methods like PBD and DCM have a application problem in soft grounds with deep depth and wide distribution in Southern coast of Korea and Southeast. In this study, partial cement mixing method utilizing geogrid and fixing unit(CMG) is suggested and Finite element analysis is performed for analyzing the depth of surface soil and deep soil stabilization and comparing with DCM method. In the result of the experiment, the displacement in DCM method were lower than the displacement in CMG, it's because the upper load is transferred to deep part soil not treated by cement in CMG method case. The differential settlement in DCM method was higher than the differential settlement in CMG, because of the effect load transfer effect by surface part soil treated by cement and geogrid. In conclusion, CMG method has the advantage of economics and constructability in embankment road, railway, etc in which differential settlement is the important consideration.

Keywords: soft ground, geogrid, fixing unit, partial cement mixing, finite element analysis

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3129 Numerical Evaluation of Lateral Bearing Capacity of Piles in Cement-Treated Soils

Authors: Reza Ziaie Moayed, Saeideh Mohammadi


Soft soil is used in many of civil engineering projects like coastal, marine and road projects. Because of low shear strength and stiffness of soft soils, large settlement and low bearing capacity will occur under superstructure loads. This will make the civil engineering activities more difficult and costlier. In the case of soft soils, improvement is a suitable method to increase the shear strength and stiffness for engineering purposes. In recent years, the artificial cementation of soil by cement and lime has been extensively used for soft soil improvement. Cement stabilization is a well-established technique for improving soft soils. Artificial cementation increases the shear strength and hardness of the natural soils. On the other hand, in soft soils, the use of piles to transfer loads to the depths of ground is usual. By using cement treated soil around the piles, high bearing capacity and low settlement in piles can be achieved. In the present study, lateral bearing capacity of short piles in cemented soils is investigated by numerical approach. For this purpose, three dimensional (3D) finite difference software, FLAC 3D is used. Cement treated soil has a strain hardening-softening behavior, because of breaking of bonds between cement agent and soil particle. To simulate such behavior, strain hardening-softening soil constitutive model is used for cement treated soft soil. Additionally, conventional elastic-plastic Mohr Coulomb constitutive model and linear elastic model are used for stress-strain behavior of natural soils and pile. To determine the parameters of constitutive models and also for verification of numerical model, the results of available triaxial laboratory tests on and insitu loading of piles in cement treated soft soil are used. Different parameters are considered in parametric study to determine the effective parameters on the bearing of the piles on cemented treated soils. In the present paper, the effect of various length and height of the artificial cemented area, different diameter and length of the pile and the properties of the materials are studied. Also, the effect of choosing a constitutive model for cemented treated soils in the bearing capacity of the pile is investigated.

Keywords: bearing capacity, cement-treated soils, FLAC 3D, pile

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3128 Design Charts for Strip Footing on Untreated and Cement Treated Sand Mat over Underlying Natural Soft Clay

Authors: Sharifullah Ahmed, Sarwar Jahan Md. Yasin


Shallow foundations on unimproved soft natural soils can undergo a high consolidation and secondary settlement. For low and medium rise building projects on such soil condition, pile foundation may not be cost effective. In such cases an alternative to pile foundations may be shallow strip footings placed on a double layered improved soil system soil. The upper layer of this system is untreated or cement treated compacted sand and underlying layer is natural soft clay. This system will reduce the settlement to an allowable limit. The current research has been conducted with the settlement of a rigid plane-strain strip footing of 2.5 m width placed on the surface of a soil consisting of an untreated or cement treated sand layer overlying a bed of homogeneous soft clay. The settlement of the mentioned shallow foundation has been studied considering both cases with the thicknesses of the sand layer are 0.3 to 0.9 times the width of footing. The response of the clay layer is assumed as undrained for plastic loading stages and drained during consolidation stages. The response of the sand layer is drained during all loading stages. FEM analysis was done using PLAXIS 2D Version 8.0. A natural clay deposit of 15 m thickness and 18 m width has been modeled using Hardening Soil Model, Soft Soil Model, Soft Soil Creep Model, and upper improvement layer has been modeled using only Hardening Soil Model. The groundwater level is at the top level of the clay deposit that made the system fully saturated. Parametric study has been conducted to determine the effect of thickness, density, cementation of the sand mat and density, shear strength of the soft clay layer on the settlement of strip foundation under the uniformly distributed vertical load of varying value. A set of the chart has been established for designing shallow strip footing on the sand mat over thick, soft clay deposit through obtaining the particular thickness of sand mat for particular subsoil parameter to ensure no punching shear failure and no settlement beyond allowable level. Design guideline in the form of non-dimensional charts has been developed for footing pressure equivalent to medium-rise residential or commercial building foundation with strip footing on soft inorganic Normally Consolidated (NC) soil of Bangladesh having void ratio from 1.0 to 1.45.

Keywords: design charts, ground improvement, PLAXIS 2D, primary and secondary settlement, sand mat, soft clay

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3127 Influence Zone of Strip Footing on Untreated and Cement Treated Sand Mat Underlain by Soft Clay (2nd reviewed)

Authors: Sharifullah Ahmed


Shallow foundation on soft soils without ground improvement can represent a high level of settlement. In such a case, an alternative to pile foundations may be shallow strip footings placed on a soil system in which the upper layer is untreated or cement-treated compacted sand to limit the settlement within a permissible level. This research work deals with a rigid plane-strain strip footing of 2.5m width placed on a soil consisting of untreated or cement treated sand layer underlain by homogeneous soft clay. Both the thin and thick compared the footing width was considered. The soft inorganic cohesive NC clay layer is considered undrained for plastic loading stages and drained in consolidation stages, and the sand layer is drained in all loading stages. FEM analysis was done using PLAXIS 2D Version 8.0 with a model consisting of clay deposits of 15m thickness and 18m width. The soft clay layer was modeled using the Hardening Soil Model, Soft Soil Model, Soft Soil Creep model, and the upper improvement layer was modeled using only the Hardening Soil Model. The system is considered fully saturated. The value of natural void ratio 1.2 is used. Total displacement fields of strip footing and subsoil layers in the case of Untreated and Cement treated Sand as Upper layer are presented. For Hi/B =0.6 or above, the distribution of major deformation within an upper layer and the influence zone of footing is limited in an upper layer which indicates the complete effectiveness of the upper layer in bearing the foundation effectively in case of the untreated upper layer. For Hi/B =0.3 or above, the distribution of major deformation occurred within an upper layer, and the function of footing is limited in the upper layer. This indicates the complete effectiveness of the cement-treated upper layer. Brittle behavior of cemented sand and fracture or cracks is not considered in this analysis.

Keywords: displacement, ground improvement, influence depth, PLAXIS 2D, primary and secondary settlement, sand mat, soft clay

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3126 Geotechnical Investigation of Soil Foundation for Ramps of Dawar El-Tawheed Bridge in Jizan City, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Ali H. Mahfouz, Hossam E. M. Sallam, Abdulwali Wazir, Hamod H. Kharezi


The soil profile at site of the bridge project includes soft fine grained soil layer located between 5.0 m to 11.0 m in depth, it has high water content, low SPT no., and low bearing capacity. The clay layer induces high settlement due to surcharge application of earth embankment at ramp T1, ramp T2, and ramp T3 especially at heights from 9m right 3m. Calculated settlement for embankment heights less than 3m may be accepted regarding Saudi Code for soil and foundation. The soil and groundwater at the project site comprise high contents of sulfates and chlorides of high aggressively on concrete and steel bars, respectively. Regarding results of the study, it has been recommended to use stone column piles or new technology named PCC piles as soil improvement to improve the bearing capacity of the weak layer. The new technology is cast in-situ thin wall concrete pipe piles (PCC piles), it has economically advantageous and high workability. The technology can save time of implementation and cost of application is almost 30% of other types of piles.

Keywords: soft foundation soil, bearing capacity, bridge ramps, soil improvement, geogrid, PCC piles

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3125 Comparative Settlement Analysis on the under of Embankment with Empirical Formulas and Settlement Plate Measurement for Reducing Building Crack around of Embankments

Authors: Safitri Nur Wulandari, M. Ivan Adi Perdana, Prathisto L. Panuntun Unggul, R. Dary Wira Mahadika


In road construction on the soft soil, we need a soil improvement method to improve the soil bearing capacity of the land base so that the soil can withstand the traffic loads. Most of the land in Indonesia has a soft soil, where soft soil is a type of clay that has the consistency of very soft to medium stiff, undrained shear strength, Cu <0:25 kg/cm2, or the estimated value of NSPT <5 blows/ft. This study focuses on the analysis of the effect on preloading load (embarkment) to the amount of settlement ratio on the under of embarkment that will impact on the building cracks around of embarkment. The method used in this research is a superposition method for embarkment distribution on 27 locations with undisturbed soil samples at some borehole point in Java and Kalimantan, Indonesia. Then correlating the results of settlement plate monitoring on the field with Asaoka method. The results of settlement plate monitoring taken from an embarkment of Ahmad Yani airport in Semarang on 32 points. Where the value of Cc (index compressible) soil data based on some laboratory test results, while the value of Cc is not tested obtained from empirical formula Ardhana and Mochtar, 1999. From this research, the results of the field monitoring showed almost the same results with an empirical formulation with the standard deviation of 4% where the formulation of the empirical results of this analysis obtained by linear formula. Value empirical linear formula is to determine the effect of compression heap area as high as 4,25 m is 3,1209x + y = 0.0026 for the slope of the embankment 1: 8 for the same analysis with an initial height of embankment on the field. Provided that at the edge of the embankment settlement worth is not equal to 0 but at a quarter of embankment has a settlement ratio average 0.951 and at the edge of embankment has a settlement ratio 0,049. The influence areas around of embankment are approximately 1 meter for slope 1:8 and 7 meters for slope 1:2. So, it can cause the building cracks, to build in sustainable development.

Keywords: building cracks, influence area, settlement plate, soft soil, empirical formula, embankment

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3124 A Soft Computing Approach Monitoring of Heavy Metals in Soil and Vegetables in the Republic of Macedonia

Authors: Vesna Karapetkovska Hristova, M. Ayaz Ahmad, Julijana Tomovska, Biljana Bogdanova Popov, Blagojce Najdovski


The average total concentrations of heavy metals; (cadmium [Cd], copper [Cu], nickel [Ni], lead [Pb], and zinc [Zn]) were analyzed in soil and vegetables samples collected from the different region of Macedonia during the years 2010-2012. Basic soil properties such as pH, organic matter and clay content were also included in the study. The average concentrations of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn in the A horizon (0-30 cm) of agricultural soils were as follows, respectively: 0.25, 5.3, 6.9, 15.2, 26.3 mg kg-1 of soil. We have found that neural networking model can be considered as a tool for prediction and spatial analysis of the processes controlling the metal transfer within the soil-and vegetables. The predictive ability of such models is well over 80% as compared to 20% for typical regression models. A radial basic function network reflects good predicting accuracy and correlation coefficients between soil properties and metal content in vegetables much better than the back-propagation method. Neural Networking / soft computing can support the decision-making processes at different levels, including agro ecology, to improve crop management based on monitoring data and risk assessment of metal transfer from soils to vegetables.

Keywords: soft computing approach, total concentrations, heavy metals, agricultural soils

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