Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 19516

Search results for: critical path method

19516 The Effect of Critical Activity on Critical Path and Project Duration in Precedence Diagram Method

Authors: J. Nisar, S. Halim

Abstract:

The additional relationships i.e., start-to-start, finish-to-finish, and start-to-finish, between activity in Precedence Diagram Method (PDM) provides a more flexible schedule than traditional Critical Path Method (CPM). But, changing the duration of critical activities in the PDM network will have an anomalous effect on the critical path and the project completion date. In this study, we classified the critical activities in two groups i.e., 1. activity on single critical path and 2. activity on multi-critical paths, and six classes i.e., normal, reverse, neutral, perverse, decrease-reverse and increase-normal, based on their effects on project duration in PDM. Furthermore, we determined the maximum float of time by which the duration each type of critical activities can be changed without effecting the project duration. This study would help the project manager to clearly understand the behavior of each critical activity on critical path, and he/she would be able to change the project duration by shortening or lengthening activities based on project budget and project deadline.

Keywords: construction management, critical path method, project scheduling network, precedence diagram method

Procedia PDF Downloads 98
19515 Critical Activity Effect on Project Duration in Precedence Diagram Method

Authors: Salman Ali Nisar, Koshi Suzuki

Abstract:

Precedence Diagram Method (PDM) with its additional relationships i.e., start-to-start, finish-to-finish, and start-to-finish, between activities provides more flexible schedule than traditional Critical Path Method (CPM). But, changing the duration of critical activities in PDM network will have anomalous effect on critical path. Researchers have proposed some classification of critical activity effects. In this paper, we do further study on classifications of critical activity effect and provide more information in detailed. Furthermore, we determine the maximum amount of time for each class of critical activity effect by which the project managers can control the dynamic feature (shortening/lengthening) of critical activities and project duration more efficiently.

Keywords: construction project management, critical path method, project scheduling, precedence diagram method

Procedia PDF Downloads 437
19514 Critical Path Segments Method for Scheduling Technique

Authors: Sherif M. Hafez, Remon F. Aziz, May S. A. Elalim

Abstract:

Project managers today rely on scheduling tools based on the Critical Path Method (CPM) to determine the overall project duration and the activities’ float times which lead to greater efficiency in planning and control of projects. CPM was useful for scheduling construction projects, but researchers had highlighted a number of serious drawbacks that limit its use as a decision support tool and lacks the ability to clearly record and represent detailed information. This paper discusses the drawbacks of CPM as a scheduling technique and presents a modified critical path method (CPM) model which is called critical path segments (CPS). The CPS scheduling mechanism addresses the problems of CPM in three ways: decomposing the activity duration of separated but connected time segments; all relationships among activities are converted into finish–to–start relationship; and analysis and calculations are made with forward path. Sample cases are included to illustrate the shortages in CPM, CPS full analysis and calculations are explained in details, and how schedules can be handled better with the CPS technique.

Keywords: construction management, scheduling, critical path method, critical path segments, forward pass, float, project control

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
19513 Construction Project Planning Using Fuzzy Critical Path Approach

Authors: Omar M. Aldenali

Abstract:

Planning is one of the most important phases of the management science and network planning, which represents the project activities relationship. Critical path is one of the project management techniques used to plan and control the execution of a project activities. The objective of this paper is to implement a fuzzy logic approach to arrange network planning on construction projects. This method is used to finding out critical path in the fuzzy construction project network. The trapezoidal fuzzy numbers are used to represent the activity construction project times. A numerical example that represents a house construction project is introduced. The critical path method is implemented on the fuzzy construction network activities, and the results showed that this method significantly affects the completion time of the construction projects.

Keywords: construction project, critical path, fuzzy network project, planning

Procedia PDF Downloads 69
19512 An Approach for Determining and Reducing Vehicle Turnaround Time for Outbound Logistics by Using Critical Path Method

Authors: Prajakta M. Wazat, D. N. Raut

Abstract:

The study consists of a fast moving consumer goods (FMCG) beverage company wherein a portion of the supply chain which deals with outbound logistics is taken for improvement in order to reduce its logistics cost by using critical path method (CPM) method. Logistics is a major portion of the supply chain where customers are not willing to pay as it adds cost to product without adding value. In this study, it is necessary to ensure that products are delivered to clients at the right time while preserving high-quality standards from the beginning to the end of the supply chain. CPM is a logical sequencing method where in the most efficient route is achieved by arranging the series of events. CPM enables to identify a critical factor in order to minimize the delays and interruption by providing a feasible solution.

Keywords: FMCG, supply chain, outbound logistics, vehicle turnaround time, critical path method, cost reduction

Procedia PDF Downloads 100
19511 The Role of Self-Confidence, Adversity Quotient, and Self-Efficacy Critical Thinking: Path Model

Authors: Bayu Dwi Cahyo, Ekohariadi, Theodorus Wiyanto Wibowo, I. G. P. Asto Budithahjanto, Eppy Yundra

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to examine the effects of self-confidence, adversity quotient, and self-efficacy variables on critical thinking. This research's participants are 137 cadets of Aviation Polytechnics of Surabaya with the sampling technique that was purposive sampling. In this study, the data collection method used a questionnaire with Linkert-scale and distributed or given to respondents by the specified number of samples. The SPSS AMOS v23 was used to test a number of a priori multivariate growth curve models and examining relationships between the variables via path analysis. The result of path analysis was (χ² = 88.463, df= 71, χ² /df= 1.246, GFI= .914, CFI= .988, P= .079, AGFI= .873, TLI= .985, RMSEA= .043). According to the analysis, there is a positive and significant relationship between self-confidence, adversity quotient, and self-efficacy variables on critical thinking.

Keywords: self-confidence, adversity quotient, self-efficacy variables, critical thinking

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
19510 The Use of Ward Linkage in Cluster Integration with a Path Analysis Approach

Authors: Adji Achmad Rinaldo Fernandes

Abstract:

Path analysis is an analytical technique to study the causal relationship between independent and dependent variables. In this study, the integration of Clusters in the Ward Linkage method was used in a variety of clusters with path analysis. The variables used are character (x₁), capacity (x₂), capital (x₃), collateral (x₄), and condition of economy (x₄) to on time pay (y₂) through the variable willingness to pay (y₁). The purpose of this study was to compare the Ward Linkage method cluster integration in various clusters with path analysis to classify willingness to pay (y₁). The data used are primary data from questionnaires filled out by customers of Bank X, using purposive sampling. The measurement method used is the average score method. The results showed that the Ward linkage method cluster integration with path analysis on 2 clusters is the best method, by comparing the coefficient of determination. Variable character (x₁), capacity (x₂), capital (x₃), collateral (x₄), and condition of economy (x₅) to on time pay (y₂) through willingness to pay (y₁) can be explained by 58.3%, while the remaining 41.7% is explained by variables outside the model.

Keywords: cluster integration, linkage, path analysis, compliant paying behavior

Procedia PDF Downloads 88
19509 The Application of the Security Audit Method on the Selected Objects of Critical Infrastructure

Authors: Michaela Vašková

Abstract:

The paper is focused on the application of the security audit method on the selected objects of the critical infrastructure. The emphasis is put on security audit method to find gaps in the critical infrastructure security. The theoretical part describes objects of the critical infrastructure. The practical part describes using the security audit method. The main emphasis was put on the protection of the critical infrastructure in the Czech Republic.

Keywords: crisis management, critical infrastructure, object of critical infrastructure, security audit, extraordinary event

Procedia PDF Downloads 342
19508 Quantum Mechanism Approach for Non-Ruin Probability and Comparison of Path Integral Method and Stochastic Simulations

Authors: Ahmet Kaya

Abstract:

Quantum mechanism is one of the most important approaches to calculating non-ruin probability. We apply standard Dirac notation to model given Hamiltonians. By using the traditional method and eigenvector basis, non-ruin probability is found for several examples. Also, non-ruin probability is calculated for two different Hamiltonian by using the tensor product. Finally, the path integral method is applied to the examples and comparison is made for stochastic simulations and path integral calculation.

Keywords: quantum physics, Hamiltonian system, path integral, tensor product, ruin probability

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
19507 Generalized Central Paths for Convex Programming

Authors: Li-Zhi Liao

Abstract:

The central path has played the key role in the interior point method. However, the convergence of the central path may not be true even in some convex programming problems with linear constraints. In this paper, the generalized central paths are introduced for convex programming. One advantage of the generalized central paths is that the paths will always converge to some optimal solutions of the convex programming problem for any initial interior point. Some additional theoretical properties for the generalized central paths will be also reported.

Keywords: central path, convex programming, generalized central path, interior point method

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
19506 Investigated Optimization of Davidson Path Loss Model for Digital Terrestrial Television (DTTV) Propagation in Urban Area

Authors: Pitak Keawbunsong, Sathaporn Promwong

Abstract:

This paper presents an investigation on the efficiency of the optimized Davison path loss model in order to look for a suitable path loss model to design and planning DTTV propagation for small and medium urban areas in southern Thailand. Hadyai City in Songkla Province is chosen as the case study to collect the analytical data on the electric field strength. The optimization is conducted through the least square method while the efficiency index is through the statistical value of relative error (RE). The result of the least square method is the offset and slop of the frequency to be used in the optimized process. The statistical result shows that RE of the old Davidson model is at the least when being compared with the optimized Davison and the Hata models. Thus, the old Davison path loss model is the most accurate that further becomes the most optimized for the plan on the propagation network design.

Keywords: DTTV propagation, path loss model, Davidson model, least square method

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
19505 Concrete Cracking Simulation Using Vector Form Intrinsic Finite Element Method

Authors: R. Z. Wang, B. C. Lin, C. H. Huang

Abstract:

This study proposes a new method to simulate the crack propagation under mode-I loading using Vector Form Intrinsic Finite Element (VFIFE) method. A new idea which is expected to combine both VFIFE and J-integral is proposed to calculate the stress density factor as the crack critical in elastic crack. The procedure of implement the cohesive crack propagation in VFIFE based on the fictitious crack model is also proposed. In VFIFIE, the structure deformation is described by numbers of particles instead of elements. The strain energy density and the derivatives of the displacement vector of every particle is introduced to calculate the J-integral as the integral path is discrete by particles. The particle on the crack tip separated into two particles once the stress on the crack tip satisfied with the crack critical and then the crack tip propagates to the next particle. The internal force and the cohesive force is applied to the particles.

Keywords: VFIFE, crack propagation, fictitious crack model, crack critical

Procedia PDF Downloads 262
19504 Retraction Free Motion Approach and Its Application in Automated Robotic Edge Finishing and Inspection Processes

Authors: M. Nemer, E. I. Konukseven

Abstract:

In this paper, a motion generation algorithm for a six Degrees of Freedom (DoF) robotic hand in a static environment is presented. The purpose of developing this method is to be used in the path generation of the end-effector for edge finishing and inspection processes by utilizing the CAD model of the considered workpiece. Nonetheless, the proposed algorithm may be extended to be applicable for other similar manufacturing processes. A software package programmed in the application programming interface (API) of SolidWorks generates tool path data for the robot. The proposed method significantly simplifies the given problem, resulting in a reduction in the CPU time needed to generate the path, and offers an efficient overall solution. The ABB IRB2000 robot is chosen for executing the generated tool path.

Keywords: CAD-based tools, edge deburring, edge scanning, offline programming, path generation

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
19503 Graphical Theoretical Construction of Discrete time Share Price Paths from Matroid

Authors: Min Wang, Sergey Utev

Abstract:

The lessons from the 2007-09 global financial crisis have driven scientific research, which considers the design of new methodologies and financial models in the global market. The quantum mechanics approach was introduced in the unpredictable stock market modeling. One famous quantum tool is Feynman path integral method, which was used to model insurance risk by Tamturk and Utev and adapted to formalize the path-dependent option pricing by Hao and Utev. The research is based on the path-dependent calculation method, which is motivated by the Feynman path integral method. The path calculation can be studied in two ways, one way is to label, and the other is computational. Labeling is a part of the representation of objects, and generating functions can provide many different ways of representing share price paths. In this paper, the recent works on graphical theoretical construction of individual share price path via matroid is presented. Firstly, a study is done on the knowledge of matroid, relationship between lattice path matroid and Tutte polynomials and ways to connect points in the lattice path matroid and Tutte polynomials is suggested. Secondly, It is found that a general binary tree can be validly constructed from a connected lattice path matroid rather than general lattice path matroid. Lastly, it is suggested that there is a way to represent share price paths via a general binary tree, and an algorithm is developed to construct share price paths from general binary trees. A relationship is also provided between lattice integer points and Tutte polynomials of a transversal matroid. Use this way of connection together with the algorithm, a share price path can be constructed from a given connected lattice path matroid.

Keywords: combinatorial construction, graphical representation, matroid, path calculation, share price, Tutte polynomial

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
19502 Indoor Localization by Pattern Matching Method Based on Extended Database

Authors: Gyumin Hwang, Jihong Lee

Abstract:

This paper studied the CSS-based indoor localization system which is easy to implement, inexpensive to compose the systems, additionally CSS-based indoor localization system covers larger area than other system. However, this system has problem which is affected by reflected distance data. This problem in localization is caused by the multi-path effect. Error caused by multi-path is difficult to be corrected because the indoor environment cannot be described. In this paper, in order to solve the problem by multi-path, we have supplemented the localization system by using pattern matching method based on extended database. Thereby, this method improves precision of estimated. Also this method is verified by experiments in gymnasium. Database was constructed by 1 m intervals, and 16 sample data were collected from random position inside the region of DB points. As a result, this paper shows higher accuracy than existing method through graph and table.

Keywords: chirp spread spectrum, indoor localization, pattern-matching, time of arrival, multi-path, mahalanobis distance, reception rate, simultaneous localization and mapping, laser range finder

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
19501 Memetic Algorithm for Solving the One-To-One Shortest Path Problem

Authors: Omar Dib, Alexandre Caminada, Marie-Ange Manier

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to introduce a novel approach to solve the one-to-one shortest path problem. A directed connected graph is assumed in which all edges’ weights are positive. Our method is based on a memetic algorithm in which we combine a genetic algorithm (GA) and a variable neighborhood search method (VNS). We compare our approximate method with two exact algorithms Dijkstra and Integer Programming (IP). We made experimentations using random generated, complete and real graph instances. In most case studies, numerical results show that our method outperforms exact methods with 5% average gap to the optimality. Our algorithm’s average speed is 20-times faster than Dijkstra and more than 1000-times compared to IP. The details of the experimental results are also discussed and presented in the paper.

Keywords: shortest path problem, Dijkstra’s algorithm, integer programming, memetic algorithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 399
19500 The On-Board Critical Message Transmission Design for Navigation Satellite Delay/Disruption Tolerant Network

Authors: Ji-yang Yu, Dan Huang, Guo-ping Feng, Xin Li, Lu-yuan Wang

Abstract:

The navigation satellite network, especially the Beidou MEO Constellation, can relay data effectively with wide coverage and is applied in navigation, detection, and position widely. But the constellation has not been completed, and the amount of satellites on-board is not enough to cover the earth, which makes the data-relay disrupted or delayed in the transition process. The data-relay function needs to tolerant the delay or disruption in some extension, which make the Beidou MEO Constellation a delay/disruption-tolerant network (DTN). The traditional DTN designs mainly employ the relay table as the basic of data path schedule computing. But in practical application, especially in critical condition, such as the war-time or the infliction heavy losses on the constellation, parts of the nodes may become invalid, then the traditional DTN design could be useless. Furthermore, when transmitting the critical message in the navigation system, the maximum priority strategy is used, but the nodes still inquiry the relay table to design the path, which makes the delay more than minutes. Under this circumstances, it needs a function which could compute the optimum data path on-board in real-time according to the constellation states. The on-board critical message transmission design for navigation satellite delay/disruption-tolerant network (DTN) is proposed, according to the characteristics of navigation satellite network. With the real-time computation of parameters in the network link, the least-delay transition path is deduced to retransmit the critical message in urgent conditions. First, the DTN model for constellation is established based on the time-varying matrix (TVM) instead of the time-varying graph (TVG); then, the least transition delay data path is deduced with the parameters of the current node; at last, the critical message transits to the next best node. For the on-board real-time computing, the time delay and misjudges of constellation states in ground stations are eliminated, and the residual information channel for each node can be used flexibly. Compare with the minute’s delay of traditional DTN; the proposed transmits the critical message in seconds, which improves the re-transition efficiency. The hardware is implemented in FPGA based on the proposed model, and the tests prove the validity.

Keywords: critical message, DTN, navigation satellite, on-board, real-time

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
19499 Converting Scheduling Time into Calendar Date Considering Non-Interruptible Construction Tasks

Authors: Salman Ali Nisar, Suzuki Koji

Abstract:

In this paper we developed a new algorithm to convert the project scheduling time into calendar date in order to handle non-interruptible activities not to be split by non-working days (such as weekend and holidays). In a construction project some activities might require not to be interrupted even on non-working days, or to be finished on the end day of business days. For example, concrete placing work might be required to be completed by the end day of weekdays i.e. Friday, and curing in the weekend. This research provides an algorithm that imposes time constraint for start and finish times of non-interruptible activities. The algorithm converts working days, which is obtained by Critical Path Method (CPM), to calendar date with consideration of the start date of a project. After determining the interruption by non-working days, the start time of a certain activity should be postponed, if there is enough total float value. Otherwise, the duration is shortened by hiring additional resources capacity or/and using overtime work execution. Then, time constraints are imposed to start time and finish time of the activity. The algorithm is developed in Excel Spreadsheet for microcomputer and therefore we can easily get a feasible, calendared construction schedule for such a construction project with some non-interruptible activities.

Keywords: project management, scheduling, critical path method, time constraint, non-interruptible tasks

Procedia PDF Downloads 428
19498 Challenges in Developing a World Class Sustainable Food Organization

Authors: Baskar Kotte

Abstract:

Many organizations are constantly striving to implement numerous techniques for long-term sustainability, for food related organizations it is imperative to conceptualize the critical concepts which constitute food safety sustainability. This presentation provides three critical pillars to develop a sustainable organization. Financial sustainability, regulatory sustainability and excellence standards sustainability are the three components which practiced and implemented effectively with process performance metrics defined objectives and targets lead to sustainable and safe food organizations. The participants take away a well-developed concept diagram with all elements impacting sustainability. Proven disciplined path which worked to achieve desired results is presented for effective implementation. Effective implementation of this proven disciplined path positions organizations to achieve world class status with bottomline improvement. Additionally, this presentation highlights critical terms, principles and implementation difficulties related to using the proven disciplined path. This presentation is beneficial for business leaders, food safety compliance managers, food safety practitioners, financial managers, Lean & Six sigma continual improvement managers, BRC/SQF/ IFS / FSSC 22000 practitioners and food manufacturing personnel.

Keywords: food safety, sustainability, regulatory, lean, six sigma, bottom-line improvement disciplined path

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
19497 Passive Non-Prehensile Manipulation on Helix Path Based on Mechanical Intelligence

Authors: Abdullah Bajelan, Adel Akbarimajd

Abstract:

Object manipulation techniques in robotics can be categorized in two major groups including manipulation with grasp and manipulation without grasp. The original aim of this paper is to develop an object manipulation method where in addition to being grasp-less, the manipulation task is done in a passive approach. In this method, linear and angular positions of the object are changed and its manipulation path is controlled. The manipulation path is a helix track with constant radius and incline. The method presented in this paper proposes a system which has not the actuator and the active controller. So this system requires a passive mechanical intelligence to convey the object from the status of the source along the specified path to the goal state. This intelligent is created based on utilizing the geometry of the system components. A general set up for the components of the system is considered to satisfy the required conditions. Then after kinematical analysis, detailed dimensions and geometry of the mechanism is obtained. The kinematical results are verified by simulation in ADAMS.

Keywords: mechanical intelligence, object manipulation, passive mechanism, passive non-prehensile manipulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 418
19496 Eliminating Cutter-Path Deviation For Five-Axis Nc Machining

Authors: Alan C. Lin, Tsong Der Lin

Abstract:

This study proposes a deviation control method to add interpolation points to numerical control (NC) codes of five-axis machining in order to achieve the required machining accuracy. Specific research issues include: (1) converting machining data between the CL (cutter location) domain and the NC domain, (2) calculating the deviation between the deviated path and the linear path, (3) finding interpolation points, and (4) determining tool orientations for the interpolation points. System implementation with practical examples will also be included to highlight the applicability of the proposed methodology.

Keywords: CAD/CAM, cutter path, five-axis machining, numerical control

Procedia PDF Downloads 359
19495 Algorithm for Path Recognition in-between Tree Rows for Agricultural Wheeled-Mobile Robots

Authors: Anderson Rocha, Pedro Miguel de Figueiredo Dinis Oliveira Gaspar

Abstract:

Machine vision has been widely used in recent years in agriculture, as a tool to promote the automation of processes and increase the levels of productivity. The aim of this work is the development of a path recognition algorithm based on image processing to guide a terrestrial robot in-between tree rows. The proposed algorithm was developed using the software MATLAB, and it uses several image processing operations, such as threshold detection, morphological erosion, histogram equalization and the Hough transform, to find edge lines along tree rows on an image and to create a path to be followed by a mobile robot. To develop the algorithm, a set of images of different types of orchards was used, which made possible the construction of a method capable of identifying paths between trees of different heights and aspects. The algorithm was evaluated using several images with different characteristics of quality and the results showed that the proposed method can successfully detect a path in different types of environments.

Keywords: agricultural mobile robot, image processing, path recognition, hough transform

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
19494 Determine the Optimal Path of Content Adaptation Services with Max Heap Tree

Authors: Shilan Rahmani Azr, Siavash Emtiyaz

Abstract:

Recent development in computing and communicative technologies leads to much easier mobile accessibility to the information. Users can access to the information in different places using various deceives in which the care variety of abilities. Meanwhile, the format and details of electronic documents are changing each day. In these cases, a mismatch is created between content and client’s abilities. Recently the service-oriented content adaption has been developed which the adapting tasks are dedicated to some extended services. In this method, the main problem is to choose the best appropriate service among accessible and distributed services. In this paper, a method for determining the optimal path to the best services, based on the quality control parameters and user preferences, is proposed using max heap tree. The efficiency of this method in contrast to the other previous methods of the content adaptation is related to the determining the optimal path of the best services which are measured. The results show the advantages and progresses of this method in compare of the others.

Keywords: service-oriented content adaption, QoS, max heap tree, web services

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
19493 Resource Constrained Time-Cost Trade-Off Analysis in Construction Project Planning and Control

Authors: Sangwon Han, Chengquan Jin

Abstract:

Time-cost trade-off (TCTO) is one of the most significant part of construction project management. Despite the significance, current TCTO analysis, based on the Critical Path Method, does not consider resource constraint, and accordingly sometimes generates an impractical and/or infeasible schedule planning in terms of resource availability. Therefore, resource constraint needs to be considered when doing TCTO analysis. In this research, genetic algorithms (GA) based optimization model is created in order to find the optimal schedule. This model is utilized to compare four distinct scenarios (i.e., 1) initial CPM, 2) TCTO without considering resource constraint, 3) resource allocation after TCTO, and 4) TCTO with considering resource constraint) in terms of duration, cost, and resource utilization. The comparison results identify that ‘TCTO with considering resource constraint’ generates the optimal schedule with the respect of duration, cost, and resource. This verifies the need for consideration of resource constraint when doing TCTO analysis. It is expected that the proposed model will produce more feasible and optimal schedule.

Keywords: time-cost trade-off, genetic algorithms, critical path, resource availability

Procedia PDF Downloads 110
19492 Path Planning for Orchard Robot Using Occupancy Grid Map in 2D Environment

Authors: Satyam Raikwar, Thomas Herlitzius, Jens Fehrmann

Abstract:

In recent years, the autonomous navigation of orchard and field robots is an emerging technology of the mobile robotics in agriculture. One of the core aspects of autonomous navigation builds upon path planning, which is still a crucial issue. Generally, for simple representation, the path planning for a mobile robot is performed in a two-dimensional space, which creates a path between the start and goal point. This paper presents the automatic path planning approach for robots used in orchards and vineyards using occupancy grid maps with field consideration. The orchards and vineyards are usually structured environment and their topology is assumed to be constant over time; therefore, in this approach, an RGB image of a field is used as a working environment. These images undergone different image processing operations and then discretized into two-dimensional grid matrices. The individual grid or cell of these grid matrices represents the occupancy of the space, whether it is free or occupied. The grid matrix represents the robot workspace for motion and path planning. After the grid matrix is described, a probabilistic roadmap (PRM) path algorithm is used to create the obstacle-free path over these occupancy grids. The path created by this method was successfully verified in the test area. Furthermore, this approach is used in the navigation of the orchard robot.

Keywords: orchard robots, automatic path planning, occupancy grid, probabilistic roadmap

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19491 An Exponential Field Path Planning Method for Mobile Robots Integrated with Visual Perception

Authors: Magdy Roman, Mostafa Shoeib, Mostafa Rostom

Abstract:

Global vision, whether provided by overhead fixed cameras, on-board aerial vehicle cameras, or satellite images can always provide detailed information on the environment around mobile robots. In this paper, an intelligent vision-based method of path planning and obstacle avoidance for mobile robots is presented. The method integrates visual perception with a new proposed field-based path-planning method to overcome common path-planning problems such as local minima, unreachable destination and unnecessary lengthy paths around obstacles. The method proposes an exponential angle deviation field around each obstacle that affects the orientation of a close robot. As the robot directs toward, the goal point obstacles are classified into right and left groups, and a deviation angle is exponentially added or subtracted to the orientation of the robot. Exponential field parameters are chosen based on Lyapunov stability criterion to guarantee robot convergence to the destination. The proposed method uses obstacles' shape and location, extracted from global vision system, through a collision prediction mechanism to decide whether to activate or deactivate obstacles field. In addition, a search mechanism is developed in case of robot or goal point is trapped among obstacles to find suitable exit or entrance. The proposed algorithm is validated both in simulation and through experiments. The algorithm shows effectiveness in obstacles' avoidance and destination convergence, overcoming common path planning problems found in classical methods.

Keywords: path planning, collision avoidance, convergence, computer vision, mobile robots

Procedia PDF Downloads 107
19490 An Improved Dynamic Window Approach with Environment Awareness for Local Obstacle Avoidance of Mobile Robots

Authors: Baoshan Wei, Shuai Han, Xing Zhang

Abstract:

Local obstacle avoidance is critical for mobile robot navigation. It is a challenging task to ensure path optimality and safety in cluttered environments. We proposed an Environment Aware Dynamic Window Approach in this paper to cope with the issue. The method integrates environment characterization into Dynamic Window Approach (DWA). Two strategies are proposed in order to achieve the integration. The local goal strategy guides the robot to move through openings before approaching the final goal, which solves the local minima problem in DWA. The adaptive control strategy endows the robot to adjust its state according to the environment, which addresses path safety compared with DWA. Besides, the evaluation shows that the path generated from the proposed algorithm is safer and smoother compared with state-of-the-art algorithms.

Keywords: adaptive control, dynamic window approach, environment aware, local obstacle avoidance, mobile robots

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19489 A Novel Machining Method and Tool-Path Generation for Bent Mandrel

Authors: Hong Lu, Yongquan Zhang, Wei Fan, Xiangang Su

Abstract:

Bent mandrel has been widely used as precise mould in automobile industry, shipping industry and aviation industry. To improve the versatility and efficiency of turning method of bent mandrel with fixed rotational center, an instantaneous machining model based on cutting parameters and machine dimension is prospered in this paper. The spiral-like tool path generation approach in non-axisymmetric turning process of bent mandrel is developed as well to deal with the error of part-to-part repeatability in existed turning model. The actual cutter-location points are calculated by cutter-contact points, which are obtained from the approach of spiral sweep process using equal-arc-length segment principle in polar coordinate system. The tool offset is set to avoid the interference between tool and work piece is also considered in the machining model. Depend on the spindle rotational angle, synchronization control of X-axis, Z-axis and C-axis is adopted to generate the tool-path of the turning process. The simulation method is developed to generate NC program according to the presented model, which includes calculation of cutter-location points and generation of tool-path of cutting process. With the approach of a bent mandrel taken as an example, the maximum offset of center axis is 4mm in the 3D space. Experiment results verify that the machining model and turning method are appropriate for the characteristics of bent mandrel.

Keywords: bent mandrel, instantaneous machining model, simulation method, tool-path generation

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
19488 Three-Dimensional Optimal Path Planning of a Flying Robot for Terrain Following/Terrain Avoidance

Authors: Amirreza Kosari, Hossein Maghsoudi, Malahat Givar

Abstract:

In this study, the three-dimensional optimal path planning of a flying robot for Terrain Following / Terrain Avoidance (TF/TA) purposes using Direct Collocation has been investigated. To this purpose, firstly, the appropriate equations of motion representing the flying robot translational movement have been described. The three-dimensional optimal path planning of the flying vehicle in terrain following/terrain avoidance maneuver is formulated as an optimal control problem. The terrain profile, as the main allowable height constraint has been modeled using Fractal Generation Method. The resulting optimal control problem is discretized by applying Direct Collocation numerical technique, and then transformed into a Nonlinear Programming Problem (NLP). The efficacy of the proposed method is demonstrated by extensive simulations, and in particular, it is verified that this approach could produce a solution satisfying almost all performance and environmental constraints encountering a low-level flying maneuver

Keywords: path planning, terrain following, optimal control, nonlinear programming

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19487 A Case Study on Problems Originated from Critical Path Method Application in a Governmental Construction Project

Authors: Mohammad Lemar Zalmai, Osman Hurol Turkakin, Cemil Akcay, Ekrem Manisali

Abstract:

In public construction projects, determining the contract period in the award phase is one of the most important factors. The contract period establishes the baseline for creating the cash flow curve and progress payment planning in the post-award phase. If overestimated, project duration causes losses for both the owner and the contractor. Therefore, it is essential to base construction project duration on reliable forecasting. In Turkey, schedules are usually built using the bar chart (Gantt) schedule, especially for governmental construction agencies. The usage of these schedules is limited for bidding purposes. Although the bar-chart schedule is useful in some cases, it lacks logical connections between activities; it would be harder to obtain the activities that have more effects than others on the project's total duration, especially in large complex projects. In this study, a construction schedule is prepared with Critical Path Method (CPM) that addresses the above-mentioned discrepancies. CPM is a simple and effective method that displays project time and critical paths, showing results of forward and backward calculations with considering the logic relationships between activities; it is a powerful tool for planning and managing all kinds of construction projects and is a very convenient method for the construction industry. CPM provides a much more useful and precise approach than traditional bar-chart diagrams that form the basis of construction planning and control. CPM has two main application utilities in the construction field; the first one is obtaining project duration, which is called an as-planned schedule that includes as-planned activity durations with relationships between subsequent activities. Another utility is during the project execution; each activity is tracked, and their durations are recorded in order to obtain as-built schedule, which is named as a black box of the project. The latter is more useful for delay analysis, and conflict resolutions. These features of CPM have been popular around the world. However, it has not been yet extensively used in Turkey. In this study, a real construction project is investigated as a case study; CPM-based scheduling is used for establishing both of as-built and as-planned schedules. Problems that emerged during the construction phase are identified and categorized. Subsequently, solutions are suggested. Two scenarios were considered. In the first scenario, project progress was monitored based as CPM was used to track and manage progress; this was carried out based on real-time data. In the second scenario, project progress was supposedly tracked based on the assumption that the Gantt chart was used. The S-curves of the two scenarios are plotted and interpreted. Comparing the results, possible faults of the latter scenario are highlighted, and solutions are suggested. The importance of CPM implementation has been emphasized and it has been proposed to make it mandatory for preparation of construction schedule based on CPM for public construction projects contracts.

Keywords: as-built, case-study, critical path method, Turkish government sector projects

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