Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 39

Search results for: miRNAs

39 miCoRe: Colorectal Cancer miRNAs Database

Authors: Rahul Agarwal, Ashutosh Singh


Colorectal cancer (CRC) also refers as bowel cancer or colon cancer. It involves the development of abnormal growth of cells in colon or rectum part of the body. This work leads to the development of a miRNA database in colorectal cancer. We named this database- miCoRe. This database comprises of all validated colon-rectal cancer miRNAs information from various published literature with an effectual knowledge based information retrieval system. miRNAs have been collected from various published literature reports. MySQL is used for main-framework of miCoRe while the front-end was developed in PHP script. The aim of developing miCoRe is to create a comprehensive central repository of colorectal carcinoma miRNAs with all germane information of miRNAs and their target genes. The current version of miCoRe consists of 238 miRNAs which are known to be implicated in malignancy of CRC. Alongside with miRNA information, miCoRe also contains the information related to the target genes of these miRNA. miCoRe furnishes the information about the mechanism of incidence and progression of the disease, which would further help the researchers to look for colorectal specific miRNAs therapies and CRC specific targeted drug designing. Moreover, it will also help in development of biomarkers for the better and early detection of CRC and will help in better clinical management of the disease.

Keywords: colorectal cancer, database, miCoRe, miRNAs

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38 MicroRNA Expression Distinguishes Neutrophil Subtypes

Authors: R. I. You, C. L. Ho, M. S. Dai, H. M. Hung, S. F. Yen, C. S. Chen, T. Y. Chao


Neutrophils are the most abundant innate immune cells to against invading microorganisms. Numerous data shown neutrophils have plasticity in response to physiological and pathological conditions. Tumor-associated neutrophils (TAN) exist in distinct types of tumor and play an important role in cancer biology. Different transcriptomic profiles of neutrophils in tumor and non-tumor samples have been identified. Several miRNAs have been recognized as regulators of gene expression in neutrophil, which may have key roles in neutrophil activation. However, the miRNAs expression patterns in TAN are not well known. To address this question, magnetic bead isolated neutrophils from tumor-bearing mice were used in this study. We analyzed production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by luminol-dependent chemiluminescence assay. The expression of miRNAs targeting NADPH oxidase, ROS generation and autophagy was explored using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Our data suggest that tumor environment influence neutrophil develop to differential states of activation via miRNAs regulation.

Keywords: tumor-associated neutrophil, miRNAs, neutrophil, ROS

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37 Identification of miRNA-miRNA Interactions between Virus and Host in Human Cytomegalovirus Infection

Authors: Kai-Yao Huang, Tzong-Yi Lee, Pin-Hao Ho, Tzu-Hao Chang, Cheng-Wei Chang


Background: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infects much people around the world, and there were many researches mention that many diseases were caused by HCMV. To understand the mechanism of HCMV lead to diseases during infection. We observe a microRNA (miRNA) – miRNA interaction between HCMV and host during infection. We found HCMV miRNA sequence component complementary with host miRNA precursors, and we also found that the host miRNA abundances were decrease in HCMV infection. Hence, we focus on the host miRNA which may target by the other HCMV miRNA to find theirs target mRNAs expression and analysis these mRNAs affect what kind of signaling pathway. Interestingly, we found the affected mRNA play an important role in some diseases related pathways, and these diseases had been annotated by HCMV infection. Results: From our analysis procedure, we found 464 human miRNAs might be targeted by 26 HCMV miRNAs and there were 291 human miRNAs shows the concordant decrease trend during HCMV infection. For case study, we found hcmv-miR-US22-5p may regulate hsa-mir-877 and we analysis the KEGG pathway which built by hsa-mir-877 validate target mRNA. Additionally, through survey KEGG Disease database found that these mRNA co-regulate some disease related pathway for instance cancer, nerve disease. However, there were studies annotated that HCMV infection casuse cancer and Alzheimer. Conclusions: This work supply a different scenario of miRNA target interactions(MTIs). In previous study assume miRNA only target to other mRNA. Here we wonder there is possibility that miRNAs might regulate non-mRNA targets, like other miRNAs. In this study, we not only consider the sequence similarity with HCMV miRNAs and human miRNA precursors but also the expression trend of these miRNAs. Then we analysis the human miRNAs validate target mRNAs and its associated KEGG pathway. Finally, we survey related works to validate our investigation.

Keywords: human cytomegalovirus, HCMV, microRNA, miRNA

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36 Prediction of Solanum Lycopersicum Genome Encoded microRNAs Targeting Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus

Authors: Muhammad Shahzad Iqbal, Zobia Sarwar, Salah-ud-Din


Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) belongs to the genus Tospoviruses (family Bunyaviridae). It is one of the most devastating pathogens of tomato (Solanum Lycopersicum) and heavily damages the crop yield each year around the globe. In this study, we retrieved 329 mature miRNA sequences from two microRNA databases (miRBase and miRSoldb) and checked the putative target sites in the downloaded-genome sequence of TSWV. A consensus of three miRNA target prediction tools (RNA22, miRanda and psRNATarget) was used to screen the false-positive microRNAs targeting sites in the TSWV genome. These tools calculated different target sites by calculating minimum free energy (mfe), site-complementarity, minimum folding energy and other microRNA-mRNA binding factors. R language was used to plot the predicted target-site data. All the genes having possible target sites for different miRNAs were screened by building a consensus table. Out of these 329 mature miRNAs predicted by three algorithms, only eight miRNAs met all the criteria/threshold specifications. MC-Fold and MC-Sym were used to predict three-dimensional structures of miRNAs and further analyzed in USCF chimera to visualize the structural and conformational changes before and after microRNA-mRNA interactions. The results of the current study show that the predicted eight miRNAs could further be evaluated by in vitro experiments to develop TSWV-resistant transgenic tomato plants in the future.

Keywords: tomato spotted wild virus (TSWV), Solanum lycopersicum, plant virus, miRNAs, microRNA target prediction, mRNA

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35 MicroRNA in Bovine Corpus Luteum during Early Pregnancy

Authors: Rreze Gecaj, Corina Schanzenbach, Benedikt Kirchner, Michael Pfaffl, Bajram Berisha


The maintenance of corpus lutem (CL) during early pregnancy in cattle is a critical and multifarious process. A luteotrophic mechanism originating from the embryo is widely accepted as the triggering signal for the CL maintenance. In the cattle, it is the interferon-tau (IFNT) secretion form conceptus that prevents CL regression and ensures progesterone production for the establishment of pregnancy. In addition to endocrine and paracrine signals, microRNA (miRNA) can also support CL sustainability during early pregnancy. MiRNA are small non-coding nucleic acids that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally and are shown to be involved in the modulation of CL function. However, the examination of miRNAs in corpus luteum function at the early pregnancy still remains largely uncovered. This study aims at profiling the expression of miRNA in CL during the early pregnancy in cattle by comparing it with the CL form late cycle and with the regressed CL. Corpora lutea were assigned in two different groups during the cycle (C13 group, late CL: days 13-18 and C18, regressed CL group: day >18) and during the early pregnancy (group P: 1-2 month). The estrous cycle was determined by macroscopic examination and to age the fetus crown-rump length measurement was applied. A total of 9 corpora lutea from individual animals were included in the study, three corpora lutea for each group. MiRNAs population was profiled using small RNA next-generation sequencing and biologically significant miRNAs were evaluated for their differential expression using the DESeq2-methodology. We show that 6 differentially expressed miRNAs (bta-mir-2890, -2332, -2441-3p, -148b, -1248 and -29c) are common to both comparisons, P vs C13 and P vs C18. While for each stage individually we have identified unique miRNAs differentially expressed only for the given comparison. bta-miR-23a and -769 were unique miRNAs differentially expressed in P vs C13, whereas forty-four unique miRNAs were identified as differentially expressed in P vs C18. These data confirm that miRNAs are highly abundant in luteal tissue during early pregnancy and potentially regulate the CL maintenance at this stage of fetus development.

Keywords: bovine, corpus luteum, microRNA, pregnancy, RNA-Seq

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34 MicroRNA Profiling Reveals Novel Circulating Biomarkers in Acute Phase of Myocardial Infarction

Authors: A. Maciejak, M. Kiliszek, G. Opolski, D. Tulacz, A. Segiet, K. Matlak, S. Dobrzycki, G. Sygitowicz, B. Burzynska, M. Gora


Introduction and aims: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is one of the most severe cardiovascular diseases affecting millions of patients each year worldwide. An early and accurate diagnosis of AMI is essential for optimal treatment. Therefore, new approaches that can complement and improve current strategies for AMI diagnosis are urgently needed. Recent studies have revealed the presence of stable circulating myocardial-derived microRNAs (miRNAs) in human peripheral blood, suggesting that such miRNAs could serve as potential biomarkers of infarction. The present study aimed to identify differentially expressed circulating miRNAs in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients. Materials and methods: miRNA expression profile analysis was performed using Exiqon Serum/Plasma Focus microRNA PCR panel in plasma samples of n=16 patients on the first day of AMI (admission) and in samples from the same patients collected six months after AMI. Selected miRNAs were validated by RT-qPCR using serum samples from an independent set of n=14 AMI patients. Results: The profiling study identified 46 species of plasma miRNAs that were differentially expressed (p < 0.05) on admission compared to six months after AMI. The validation in the independent group of patients confirmed that miR-133b and miR-22-5p were significantly up-regulated upon AMI. Conclusions: Our results suggest that miRNA expression profiling provides better understanding of the changes that occur in the acute phase of MI in the myocardium and could be useful in determination of the potential role of extracellular miRNAs as paracrine signaling molecules. miR-22-5p represents a novel promising biomarker for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction.

Keywords: acute myocardial infarction, circulating microRNAs, microRNA expression profiling, miR-22-5p

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33 Micro RNAs (194 and 135a) as Biomarkers and Therapeutic Targets in Type 2 Diabetic Rats

Authors: H. Haseena Banu, D. Karthick, R. Stalin, E. Nandha Kumar, T. P. Sachidanandam, P. Shanthi


Background of the study: Type 2 diabetes is emerging as the predominant metabolic disorder in the world among adults characterized mainly by the resistance of the insulin sensitive tissues towards insulin followed by the decrease in the insulin secretion. The treatment for this disease usually involves treatment with oral synthetic drugs which are known to cause several side effects. Therefore, identification of new biomarkers as therapeutic target is the need of the hour. miRNAs are small, non–protein-coding RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression by promoting degradation and/or inhibit the translation of target mRNAs and have emerged as biomarkers in predicting diabetes mellitus. Objective of the study: To elucidate the therapeutic role of gallic acid in modulating the alterations in glucose metabolism induced by miRNAs 194 and 135a in Type 2 diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: T2D was induced in rats by feeding them with a high fat diet for 2 weeks followed by intraperitoneal injection of 35 mg/kg/body weight (b.wt.) of streptozotocin. Microarrays were used to assess the expression of miRNAs in control, diabetic and gallic acid treated rats. Gene expression studies were carried out by RT PCR analysis. Results: Forty one miRNAs were differentially expressed in Type 2 diabetic rats. Among these, the expression of miRNA 194 was significantly decreased whereas miRNA 135a was significantly increased in Type 2 diabetic rats. The glucose metabolism was also altered significantly in skeletal muscle of Type 2 diabetic rats. Conclusion: T2D is associated with alterations in the expression of miRNAs in skeletal muscle. Both these miRNAs 194 and 135a play an important role in glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle of diabetic rats. Gallic acid effectively ameliorated the alterations in glucose metabolism. Hence, both these miRNAs can serve as biomarkers and therapeutic targets in diabetes mellitus. The study also establishes the role of gallic acid as therapeutic agent. Acknowledgment: The financial assistance provided in the form of ICMR women scientist by ICMR DHR INDIA is gratefully acknowledged here.

Keywords: gallic acid, high fat diet, type 2 diabetes mellitus, miRNAs

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32 Let-7 Mirnas Regulate Inflammatory Cytokine Production in Bovine Endometrial Cells after Lipopolysaccharide Challenge by Targeting TNFα

Authors: S. Ibrahim, D. Salilew-Wondim, M. Hoelker, C. Looft, E. Tholen, C. Grosse-Brinkhaus, K. Schellander, C. Neuhoff, D. Tesfaye


Bovine endometrial cells appear to have a key role in innate immune defense of the female genital tract. A better understanding of molecular changes in microRNAs (miRNAs) and their target genes expression may identify reliable prognostic indicators for cows that will resolve inflammation and resume cyclicity. In the current study, we hypothesized that let-7 miRNAs family has a primary role in the innate immune defence of the endometrium tissue against bacterial infection, which is partly achieved via regulating mRNA stability of pro-inflammatory cytokines at the post-transcriptional level. Therefore, we conducted two experiments. In the first experiment, primary bovine endometrial cells were challenged with clinical (3.0 μg/ml) and sub-clinical (0.5 μg/ml) doses of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for 24h. In the 2nd experiment, we have investigated the potential role of let-7 miRNAs (let-7a and let-7f) using gain and loss of function approaches. Additionally, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), transforming growth factor beta 1 induced transcript 1 (TGFB1I1) and serum deprivation response (SDPR) genes were validated using reporter assay. Here we addressed for the first time that let-7 miRNAs have a precise role in bovine endometrium, where LPS dysregulated let-7 miRNAs family expression was associated with an increased pro-inflammatory cytokine level by directly/indirectly targeting the TNFα, interleukin 6 (IL6), nuclear factor kappa-light-chain enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB), TGFβ1I1 and SDPR genes. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing that TNFα, TGFβ1I1 and SDPR were identified and validated as novel let-7 miRNAs targets and could have a distinct role in inflammatory immune response of LPS challenged bovine endometrial cells. Our data represent a new finding by which uterine homeostasis is maintained through functional regulation of let-7a by down-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines expression (TNFα and IL6) at the mRNA and protein levels. These findings suggest that LPS serves as a negative regulator of let-7 miRNAs expression and provides a mechanism for the persistent pro-inflammatory phenotype, which is a hallmark of bovine subclinical endometritis.

Keywords: bovine endometrial cells, let-7, lipopolysaccharide, pro-inflammatory cytokines

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31 MicroRNA-1246 Expression Associated with Resistance to Oncogenic BRAF Inhibitors in Mutant BRAF Melanoma Cells

Authors: Jae-Hyeon Kim, Michael Lee


Intrinsic and acquired resistance limits the therapeutic benefits of oncogenic BRAF inhibitors in melanoma. MicroRNAs (miRNA) regulate the expression of target mRNAs by repressing their translation. Thus, we investigated miRNA expression patterns in melanoma cell lines to identify candidate biomarkers for acquired resistance to BRAF inhibitor. Here, we used Affymetrix miRNA V3.0 microarray profiling platform to compare miRNA expression levels in three cell lines containing BRAF inhibitor-sensitive A375P BRAF V600E cells, their BRAF inhibitor-resistant counterparts (A375P/Mdr), and SK-MEL-2 BRAF-WT cells with intrinsic resistance to BRAF inhibitor. The miRNAs with at least a two-fold change in expression between BRAF inhibitor-sensitive and –resistant cell lines, were identified as differentially expressed. Averaged intensity measurements identified 138 and 217 miRNAs that were differentially expressed by 2 fold or more between: 1) A375P and A375P/Mdr; 2) A375P and SK-MEL-2, respectively. The hierarchical clustering revealed differences in miRNA expression profiles between BRAF inhibitor-sensitive and –resistant cell lines for miRNAs involved in intrinsic and acquired resistance to BRAF inhibitor. In particular, 43 miRNAs were identified whose expression was consistently altered in two BRAF inhibitor-resistant cell lines, regardless of intrinsic and acquired resistance. Twenty five miRNAs were consistently upregulated and 18 downregulated more than 2-fold. Although some discrepancies were detected when miRNA microarray data were compared with qPCR-measured expression levels, qRT-PCR for five miRNAs (miR-3617, miR-92a1, miR-1246, miR-1936-3p, and miR-17-3p) results showed excellent agreement with microarray experiments. To further investigate cellular functions of miRNAs, we examined effects on cell proliferation. Synthetic oligonucleotide miRNA mimics were transfected into three cell lines, and proliferation was quantified using a colorimetric assay. Of the 5 miRNAs tested, only miR-1246 altered cell proliferation of A375P/Mdr cells. The transfection of miR-1246 mimic strongly conferred PLX-4720 resistance to A375P/Mdr cells, implying that miR-1246 upregulation confers acquired resistance to BRAF inhibition. We also found that PLX-4720 caused much greater G2/M arrest in A375P/Mdr cells transfected with miR-1246mimic than that seen in scrambled RNA-transfected cells. Additionally, miR-1246 mimic partially caused a resistance to autophagy induction by PLX-4720. These results indicate that autophagy does play an essential death-promoting role inPLX-4720-induced cell death. Taken together, these results suggest that miRNA expression profiling in melanoma cells can provide valuable information for a network of BRAF inhibitor resistance-associated miRNAs.

Keywords: microRNA, BRAF inhibitor, drug resistance, autophagy

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30 A Kernel-Based Method for MicroRNA Precursor Identification

Authors: Bin Liu


MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNA molecules, functioning in transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression. The discrimination of the real pre-miRNAs from the false ones (such as hairpin sequences with similar stem-loops) is necessary for the understanding of miRNAs’ role in the control of cell life and death. Since both their small size and sequence specificity, it cannot be based on sequence information alone but requires structure information about the miRNA precursor to get satisfactory performance. Kmers are convenient and widely used features for modeling the properties of miRNAs and other biological sequences. However, Kmers suffer from the inherent limitation that if the parameter K is increased to incorporate long range effects, some certain Kmer will appear rarely or even not appear, as a consequence, most Kmers absent and a few present once. Thus, the statistical learning approaches using Kmers as features become susceptible to noisy data once K becomes large. In this study, we proposed a Gapped k-mer approach to overcome the disadvantages of Kmers, and applied this method to the field of miRNA prediction. Combined with the structure status composition, a classifier called imiRNA-GSSC was proposed. We show that compared to the original imiRNA-kmer and alternative approaches. Trained on human miRNA precursors, this predictor can achieve an accuracy of 82.34 for predicting 4022 pre-miRNA precursors from eleven species.

Keywords: gapped k-mer, imiRNA-GSSC, microRNA precursor, support vector machine

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29 In Silico Analysis of Salivary miRNAs to Identify the Diagnostic Biomarkers for Oral Cancer

Authors: Andleeb Zahra, Itrat Rubab, Sumaira Malik, Amina Khan, Muhammad Jawad Khan, M. Qaiser Fatmi


Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide. Recent studies have highlighted the role of miRNA in disease pathology, indicating its potential use in an early diagnostic tool. miRNAs are small, double stranded, non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression by deregulating mRNAs. miRNAs play important roles in modifying various cellular processes such as cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, and immune response. Dis-regulated expression of miRNAs is known to affect the cell growth, and this may function as tumor suppressors or oncogenes in various cancers. Objectives: The main objectives of this study were to characterize the extracellular miRNAs involved in oral cancer (OC) to assist early detection of cancer as well as to propose a list of genes that can potentially be used as biomarkers of OC. We used gene expression data by microarrays already available in literature. Materials and Methods: In the first step, a total of 318 miRNAs involved in oral carcinoma were shortlisted followed by the prediction of their target genes. Simultaneously, the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) of oral carcinoma from all experiments were identified. The common genes between lists of DEGs of OC based on experimentally proven data and target genes of each miRNA were identified. These common genes are the targets of specific miRNA, which is involved in OC. Finally, a list of genes was generated which may be used as biomarker of OC. Results and Conclusion: In results, we included some of pathways in cancer to show the change in gene expression under the control of specific miRNA. Ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) provided a list of major biomarkers like CDH2, CDK7 and functional enrichment analysis identified the role of miRNA in major pathways like cell adhesion molecules pathway affected by cancer. We observed that at least 25 genes are regulated by maximum number of miRNAs, and thereby, they can be used as biomarkers of OC. To better understand the role of miRNA with respect to their target genes further experiments are required, and our study provides a platform to better understand the miRNA-OC relationship at genomics level.

Keywords: biomarkers, gene expression, miRNA, oral carcinoma

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28 Ring FingerPortein 2 (RNF2) Targeting by miRNAs in Breast Cancer Cell Lines

Authors: Ceyda Okudu, Secil Eroglu, Khandakar A. S. M. Saadat, Sibel O. Balci


Ring Finger Protein 2 (RNF2) is a member of polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1), which is one of the epigenetic regulators in the genome. When RNF2 combines with other PRC1 members, it mediates the mono-ubiquitination of Histon2A (H2A). In breast cancer, RNF2 is commonly overexpressed, and also it promotes metastasis and invasion in other aggressive tumors like melanoma, prostate, and hepatocarcinoma. The role of RNF2 in the metastasis and invasion of breast cancer has not yet been elucidated. Our aim is to observe the role of RNF2 in metastasis and invasion in this study by miRNA mediated RNF2 gene silencing in breast cancer cell lines. We selected miRNAs, targeting to RNF2 by searching online databases. miR-17-5p, miR20a-5p, and miR-106b-5p were transfected to breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, SK-BR-3, and ZR-75-1), and also we used normal breast epithelial cell line (hTERT-HME1) to compare RNF2 gene expression level. After 48-72 hours post-transfection, mRNAs were isolated from the cells, and gene expressions were measured by RT-qPCR after from cDNA syntheses. We observed that RNF2 was highly expressed in SK-BR-3 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines opposite to MCF-7 and ZR-75-1 cell lines. RNF2 was downregulated 5, 5 and 7 fold by miR17-5p, miR20a-5p and miR106b-5p respectively in MCF-7. However, in SK-BR-3 and ZR-75-1 cell lines, miRNAs did not affect significantly RNF2 gene expression level. miR20a-5p decreased RNF2 3 fold and miR17-5p and miR106b-5p did not affect MDA-MB-231. After gene expression analysis, we performed metastasis and invasion assay in MCF-7 cells. For metastasis, we used both wound healing assay and Transwell Cell Migration Assay, and we used Transwell Cell Invasion Assay for invasion. The data of this assay showed that miR17-5p and miR20a-5p decreased both invasion and metastasis level, but miR106b-5p has no effect. We would like to conclude that RNF2 can be targeted by miR17-5p, miR20a-5p and miR106b-5p in MCF-7 cells and also RNF2, which is one of the upregulated genes in aggressive tumor, can be decreased by using these miRNAs. In future, we would like to confirm these results at the protein level and also whether these miRNAs are direct target of RNF2 or not.

Keywords: breast cancer, epigenetic, microRNAs, RNF2

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27 Expression of Selected miRNAs in Placenta of the Intrauterine Restricted Growth Fetuses in Cattle

Authors: Karolina Rutkowska, Hubert Pausch, Jolanta Oprzadek, Krzysztof Flisikowski


The placenta is one of the most important organs that plays a crucial role in the fetal growth and development. Placenta dysfunction is one of the primary cause of the intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Cattle have the cotyledonary placenta which consists of two anatomical parts: fetal and maternal. In the case of cattle during the first months of pregnancy, it is very easy to separate maternal caruncle from fetal cotyledon tissue, easier in fact than removing an ordinary glove from one's hand. Which in fact make easier to conduct tissue-specific molecular studies. Typically, animal models for the study of IUGR are created using surgical methods and malnutrition of the pregnant mother or in the case of mice by genetic modifications. However, proposed cattle model with MIMT1Del/WT deletion is unique because it was created without any surgical methods what significantly distinguish it from the other animal models. The primary objective of the study was to identify differential expression of selected miRNAs in the placenta from normal and intrauterine growth restricted fetuses. There was examined the expression of miRNA in the fetal and maternal part of the placenta from 24 fetuses (12 samples from the fetal part of the placenta and 12 samples from maternal part of the placenta). In the study, there was done miRNAs sequencing in the placenta of MIMT1Del/WT fetuses and MIMT1WT/WT fetuses. Then, there were selected miRNAs that are involved in fetal growth and development. Analysis of miRNAs expression was conducted on ABI7500 machine. miRNAs expression was analyzed by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). As the reference gene was used SNORD47. The results were expressed as 2ΔΔCt: ΔΔCt = (Ctij − CtSNORD47j) − (Cti1 − CtSNORD471). Where Ctij and CtSNORD47j are the Ct values for gene i and for SNORD47 in a sample (named j); Cti1 and CtSNORD471 are the Ct values in sample 1. Differences between groups were evaluated with analysis of variance by using One-Way ANOVA. Bonferroni’s tests were used for interpretation of the data. All normalised miRNA expression values are expressed on a value of natural logarithm. The data were expressed as least squares mean with standard errors. Significance was declared when P < 0.05. The study shows that miRNAs expression depends on the part of the placenta where they origin (fetal or maternal) and on the genotype of the animal. miRNAs offer a particularly new approach to study IUGR. Corresponding tissue samples were collected according to the standard veterinary protocols according to the European Union Normative for Care and Use of Experimental Animals. All animal experiments were approved by the Animal Ethics Committee of the State Provincial Office of Southern Finland (ESAVI-2010-08583/YM-23).

Keywords: placenta, intrauterine growth restriction, miRNA, cattle

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26 Real-Time Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay for the Detection of microRNAs Using Bi-Directional Extension Sequences

Authors: Kyung Jin Kim, Jiwon Kwak, Jae-Hoon Lee, Soo Suk Lee


MicroRNAs (miRNA) are a class of endogenous, single-stranded, small, and non-protein coding RNA molecules typically 20-25 nucleotides long. They are thought to regulate the expression of other genes in a broad range by binding to 3’- untranslated regions (3’-UTRs) of specific mRNAs. The detection of miRNAs is very important for understanding of the function of these molecules and in the diagnosis of variety of human diseases. However, detection of miRNAs is very challenging because of their short length and high sequence similarities within miRNA families. So, a simple-to-use, low-cost, and highly sensitive method for the detection of miRNAs is desirable. In this study, we demonstrate a novel bi-directional extension (BDE) assay. In the first step, a specific linear RT primer is hybridized to 6-10 base pairs from the 3’-end of a target miRNA molecule and then reverse transcribed to generate a cDNA strand. After reverse transcription, the cDNA was hybridized to the 3’-end which is BDE sequence; it played role as the PCR template. The PCR template was amplified in an SYBR green-based quantitative real-time PCR. To prove the concept, we used human brain total RNA. It could be detected quantitatively in the range of seven orders of magnitude with excellent linearity and reproducibility. To evaluate the performance of BDE assay, we contrasted sensitivity and specificity of the BDE assay against a commercially available poly (A) tailing method using miRNAs for let-7e extracted from A549 human epithelial lung cancer cells. The BDE assay displayed good performance compared with a poly (A) tailing method in terms of specificity and sensitivity; the CT values differed by 2.5 and the melting curve showed a sharper than poly (A) tailing methods. We have demonstrated an innovative, cost-effective BDE assay that allows improved sensitivity and specificity in detection of miRNAs. Dynamic range of the SYBR green-based RT-qPCR for miR-145 could be represented quantitatively over a range of 7 orders of magnitude from 0.1 pg to 1.0 μg of human brain total RNA. Finally, the BDE assay for detection of miRNA species such as let-7e shows good performance compared with a poly (A) tailing method in terms of specificity and sensitivity. Thus BDE proves a simple, low cost, and highly sensitive assay for various miRNAs and should provide significant contributions in research on miRNA biology and application of disease diagnostics with miRNAs as targets.

Keywords: bi-directional extension (BDE), microRNA (miRNA), poly (A) tailing assay, reverse transcription, RT-qPCR

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25 Mirna Expression Profile is Different in Human Amniotic Mesenchymal Stem Cells Isolated from Obese Respect to Normal Weight Women

Authors: Carmela Nardelli, Laura Iaffaldano, Valentina Capobianco, Antonietta Tafuto, Maddalena Ferrigno, Angela Capone, Giuseppe Maria Maruotti, Maddalena Raia, Rosa Di Noto, Luigi Del Vecchio, Pasquale Martinelli, Lucio Pastore, Lucia Sacchetti


Maternal obesity and nutrient excess in utero increase the risk of future metabolic diseases in the adult life. The mechanisms underlying this process are probably based on genetic, epigenetic alterations and changes in foetal nutrient supply. In mammals, the placenta is the main interface between foetus and mother, it regulates intrauterine development, modulates adaptive responses to sub optimal in uterus conditions and it is also an important source of human amniotic mesenchymal stem cells (hA-MSCs). We previously highlighted a specific microRNA (miRNA) profiling in amnion from obese (Ob) pregnant women, here we compared the miRNA expression profile of hA-MSCs isolated from (Ob) and control (Co) women, aimed to search for any alterations in metabolic pathways that could predispose the new-born to the obese phenotype. Methods: We isolated, at delivery, hA-MSCs from amnion of 16 Ob- and 7 Co-women with pre-pregnancy body mass index (mean/SEM) 40.3/1.8 and 22.4/1.0 kg/m2, respectively. hA-MSCs were phenotyped by flow cytometry. Globally, 384 miRNAs were evaluated by the TaqMan Array Human MicroRNA Panel v 1.0 (Applied Biosystems). By the TargetScan program we selected the target genes of the miRNAs differently expressed in Ob- vs Co-hA-MSCs; further, by KEGG database, we selected the statistical significant biological pathways. Results: The immunophenotype characterization confirmed the mesenchymal origin of the isolated hA-MSCs. A large percentage of the tested miRNAs, about 61.4% (232/378), was expressed in hA-MSCs, whereas 38.6% (146/378) was not. Most of the expressed miRNAs (89.2%, 207/232) did not differ between Ob- and Co-hA-MSCs and were not further investigated. Conversely, 4.8% of miRNAs (11/232) was higher and 6.0% (14/232) was lower in Ob- vs Co-hA-MSCs. Interestingly, 7/232 miRNAs were obesity-specific, being expressed only in hA-MSCs isolated from obese women. Bioinformatics showed that these miRNAs significantly regulated (P<0.001) genes belonging to several metabolic pathways, i.e. MAPK signalling, actin cytoskeleton, focal adhesion, axon guidance, insulin signaling, etc. Conclusions: Our preliminary data highlight an altered miRNA profile in Ob- vs Co-hA-MSCs and suggest that an epigenetic miRNA-based mechanism of gene regulation could affect pathways involved in placental growth and function, thereby potentially increasing the newborn’s risk of metabolic diseases in the adult life.

Keywords: hA-MSCs, obesity, miRNA, biosystem

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24 Prediction of MicroRNA-Target Gene by Machine Learning Algorithms in Lung Cancer Study

Authors: Nilubon Kurubanjerdjit, Nattakarn Iam-On, Ka-Lok Ng


MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNA found in many different species. They play crucial roles in cancer such as biological processes of apoptosis and proliferation. The identification of microRNA-target genes can be an essential first step towards to reveal the role of microRNA in various cancer types. In this paper, we predict miRNA-target genes for lung cancer by integrating prediction scores from miRanda and PITA algorithms used as a feature vector of miRNA-target interaction. Then, machine-learning algorithms were implemented for making a final prediction. The approach developed in this study should be of value for future studies into understanding the role of miRNAs in molecular mechanisms enabling lung cancer formation.

Keywords: microRNA, miRNAs, lung cancer, machine learning, Naïve Bayes, SVM

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23 Urinary Exosome miR-30c-5p as a Biomarker for Early-Stage Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma

Authors: Shangqing Song, Bin Xu, Yajun Cheng, Zhong Wang


miRNAs derived from exosomes exist in a body fluid such as urine were regarded as potential biomarkers for various human cancers diagnosis and prognosis, as mature miRNAs can be steadily preserved by exosomes. However, its potential value in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) diagnosis and prognosis remains unclear. In the present study, differentially expressed miRNAs from urinal exosomes were identified by next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology. The 16 differentially expressed miRNAs were identified between ccRCC patients and healthy donors. To explore the specific diagnosis biomarker of ccRCC, we validated these urinary exosomes from 70 early-stage renal cancer patients, 30 healthy people and other urinary system cancers, including 30 early-stage prostate cancer patients and 30 early-stage bladder cancer patients by qRT-PCR. The results showed that urinary exosome miR-30c-5p could be stably amplified and meanwhile the expression of miR-30c-5p has no significant difference between other urinary system cancers and healthy control, however, expression level of miR-30c-5p in urinary exosomal of ccRCC patients was lower than healthy people and receiver operation characterization (ROC) curve showed that the area under the curve (AUC) values was 0.8192 (95% confidence interval was 0.7388-0.8996, P= 0.0000). In addition, up-regulating miR-30c-5p expression could inhibit renal cell carcinoma cells growth. Lastly, HSP5A was found as a direct target gene of miR-30c-5p. HSP5A depletion reversed the promoting effect of ccRCC growth casued by miR-30c-5p inhibitor, respectively. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that urinary exosomal miR-30c-5p is readily accessible as diagnosis biomarker of early-stage ccRCC, and miR-30c-5p might modulate the expression of HSPA5, which correlated with the progression of ccRCC.

Keywords: clear cell renal cell carcinoma, exosome, HSP5A, miR-30c-5p

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22 The Role of Micro-Ribonucleic Acid-182 and Micro-Ribonucleic Acid-214 in Cisplatin Resistance of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cells

Authors: Bahadir Batar, Elif Serdal, Berna Erdal, Hasan Ogul


Micro-ribonucleic acids (miRNAs) are small short non-coding ribonucleic acid molecules about 22 nucleotides long. miRNAs play a key role in response to chemotherapeutic agents. WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) gene encodes a tumor suppressor protein. Loss or reduction of Wwox protein is observed in many breast cancer cases. WWOX protein deficiency is increased in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). TNBC is a heterogeneous, highly aggressive, and difficult to treat tumor type. WWOX loss contributes to resistance to cisplatin therapy in patients with TNBC. Here, the aim of the study was to investigate the potential role of miRNAs in cisplatin therapy resistance of WWOX-deficient TNBC cells. This was a cell culture study. miRNA expression profiling was analyzed by LightCycler 480 system. miRNA Set Enrichment Analysis tool was used to integrate experimental data with literature-based biological knowledge to infer a new hypothesis. Increased miR-182 and decreased miR-214 were significantly correlated with cisplatin resistance in WWOX-deficient TNBC cells. miR-182 and miR-214 may involve in cisplatin resistance of WWOX-deficient TNBC cells by deregulating the DNA repair, apoptosis, or protein kinase B signaling pathways. These data highlight the mechanism by which WWOX regulates cisplatin resistance of TNBC and the potential use of WWOX as a predictor biomarker for cisplatin resistance.

Keywords: cisplatin, microRNA, triple-negative breast cancer, WWOX

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21 Ensemble-Based SVM Classification Approach for miRNA Prediction

Authors: Sondos M. Hammad, Sherin M. ElGokhy, Mahmoud M. Fahmy, Elsayed A. Sallam


In this paper, an ensemble-based Support Vector Machine (SVM) classification approach is proposed. It is used for miRNA prediction. Three problems, commonly associated with previous approaches, are alleviated. These problems arise due to impose assumptions on the secondary structural of premiRNA, imbalance between the numbers of the laboratory checked miRNAs and the pseudo-hairpins, and finally using a training data set that does not consider all the varieties of samples in different species. We aggregate the predicted outputs of three well-known SVM classifiers; namely, Triplet-SVM, Virgo and Mirident, weighted by their variant features without any structural assumptions. An additional SVM layer is used in aggregating the final output. The proposed approach is trained and then tested with balanced data sets. The results of the proposed approach outperform the three base classifiers. Improved values for the metrics of 88.88% f-score, 92.73% accuracy, 90.64% precision, 96.64% specificity, 87.2% sensitivity, and the area under the ROC curve is 0.91 are achieved.

Keywords: MiRNAs, SVM classification, ensemble algorithm, assumption problem, imbalance data

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20 Identification of microRNAs in Early and Late Onset of Parkinson’s Disease Patient

Authors: Ahmad Rasyadan Arshad, A. Rahman A. Jamal, N. Mohamed Ibrahim, Nor Azian Abdul Murad


Introduction: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a complex and asymptomatic disease where patients are usually diagnosed at late stage where about 70% of the dopaminergic neurons are lost. Therefore, identification of molecular biomarkers is crucial for early diagnosis of PD. MicroRNA (miRNA) is a short nucleotide non-coding small RNA which regulates the gene expression in post-translational process. The involvement of these miRNAs in neurodegenerative diseases includes maintenance of neuronal development, necrosis, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Thus, miRNA could be a potential biomarkers for diagnosis of PD. Objective: This study aim to identify the miRNA involved in Late Onset PD (LOPD) and Early Onset PD (EOPD) compared to the controls. Methods: This is a case-control study involved PD patients in the Chancellor Tunku Muhriz Hospital at the UKM Medical Centre. miRNA samples were extracted using miRNeasy serum/plasma kit from Qiagen. The quality of miRNA extracted was determined using Agilent RNA 6000 Nano kit in the Bioanalyzer. miRNA expression was performed using GeneChip miRNA 4.0 chip from Affymetrix. Microarray was performed in EOPD (n= 7), LOPD (n=9) and healthy control (n=11). Expression Console and Transcriptomic Analyses Console were used to analyze the microarray data. Result: miR-129-5p was significantly downregulated in EOPD compared to LOPD with -4.2 fold change (p = <0.050. miR-301a-3p was upregulated in EOPD compared to healthy control (fold = 10.3, p = <0.05). In LOPD versus healthy control, miR-486-3p (fold = 15.28, p = <0.05), miR-29c-3p (fold = 12.21, p = <0.05) and miR-301a-3p (fold = 10.01, p =< 0.05) were upregulated. Conclusion: Several miRNA have been identified to be differentially expressed in EOPD compared to LOPD and PD versus control. These miRNAs could serve as the potential biomarkers for early diagnosis of PD. However, these miRNAs need to be validated in a larger sample size.

Keywords: early onset PD, late onset PD, microRNA (miRNA), microarray

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19 Autophagy Suppresses Tumorigenesis through Upregulation of MiR-449a in Colorectal Cancer

Authors: Sheng-Hui Lan, Shan-Ying Wu, Shu-Ching Lin, Wei-Chen Wang, Hsiao-Sheng Liu


Autophagy is an essential mechanism to maintain cellular homeostasis through its degradation function, and the autophagy deficiency is related various diseases including tumorigenesis in several cancers. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small none coding RNAs, which regulate gene expression through degradation of mRNA or inhibition of translation. However, the relationship between autophagy deficiency and dysregulated miRNAs is still unclear. We revealed a mechanism that autophagy up-regulates miR-449a expression at the transcriptional level through activation of forkhead transcription factor family member FoxO1 and then suppresses tumorigenesis in CRC. Our data showed that the autophagic activity and miR-449a expression were lower in colorectal cancer (CRC) and has a positive correlation. We further reveal that autophagy degrades p300 expression and then suppresses acetylation of FoxO1. Under autophagic induction conditions, FoxO1 is transported from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and binds to the miR-449a promoter and then promotes miR-449a expression. In addition, either miR-449a overexpression or amiodarone-induced autophagy inhibits cell cycle progression, proliferation, colony formation migration, invasion, and tumor formation of SW480 cells. Our findings indicate that autophagy inducers may have the potential to be used for prevention and treatment of CRC through upregulation of miR-449a expression.

Keywords: autophagy, MiR-449a, FoxO1, colorectal cancer

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18 Intra-miR-ExploreR, a Novel Bioinformatics Platform for Integrated Discovery of MiRNA:mRNA Gene Regulatory Networks

Authors: Surajit Bhattacharya, Daniel Veltri, Atit A. Patel, Daniel N. Cox


miRNAs have emerged as key post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression, however identification of biologically-relevant target genes for this epigenetic regulatory mechanism remains a significant challenge. To address this knowledge gap, we have developed a novel tool in R, Intra-miR-ExploreR, that facilitates integrated discovery of miRNA targets by incorporating target databases and novel target prediction algorithms, using statistical methods including Pearson and Distance Correlation on microarray data, to arrive at high confidence intragenic miRNA target predictions. We have explored the efficacy of this tool using Drosophila melanogaster as a model organism for bioinformatics analyses and functional validation. A number of putative targets were obtained which were also validated using qRT-PCR analysis. Additional features of the tool include downloadable text files containing GO analysis from DAVID and Pubmed links of literature related to gene sets. Moreover, we are constructing interaction maps of intragenic miRNAs, using both micro array and RNA-seq data, focusing on neural tissues to uncover regulatory codes via which these molecules regulate gene expression to direct cellular development.

Keywords: miRNA, miRNA:mRNA target prediction, statistical methods, miRNA:mRNA interaction network

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17 Implementation of a PDMS Microdevice for the Improved Purification of Circulating MicroRNAs

Authors: G. C. Santini, C. Potrich, L. Lunelli, L. Vanzetti, S. Marasso, M. Cocuzza, C. Pederzolli


The relevance of circulating miRNAs as non-invasive biomarkers for several pathologies is nowadays undoubtedly clear, as they have been found to have both diagnostic and prognostic value able to add fundamental information to patients’ clinical picture. The availability of these data, however, relies on a time-consuming process spanning from the sample collection and processing to the data analysis. In light of this, strategies which are able to ease this procedure are in high demand and considerable effort have been made in developing Lab-on-a-chip (LOC) devices able to speed up and standardise the bench work. In this context, a very promising polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based microdevice which integrates the processing of the biological sample, i.e. purification of extracellular miRNAs, and reverse transcription was previously developed in our lab. In this study, we aimed at the improvement of the miRNA extraction performances of this micro device by increasing the ability of its surface to absorb extracellular miRNAs from biological samples. For this purpose, we focused on the modulation of two properties of the material: roughness and charge. PDMS surface roughness was modulated by casting with several templates (terminated with silicon oxide coated by a thin anti-adhesion aluminum layer), followed by a panel of curing conditions. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was employed to estimate changes at the nanometric scale. To introduce modifications in surface charge we functionalized PDMS with different mixes of positively charged 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilanes (APTMS) and neutral poly(ethylene glycol) silane (PEG). The surface chemical composition was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and the number of exposed primary amines was quantified with the reagent sulfosuccinimidyl-4-o-(4,4-dimethoxytrityl) butyrate (s-SDTB). As our final end point, the adsorption rate of all these different conditions was assessed by fluorescence microscopy by incubating a synthetic fluorescently-labeled miRNA. Our preliminary analysis identified casting on thermally grown silicon oxide, followed by a curing step at 85°C for 1 hour, as the most efficient technique to obtain a PDMS surface roughness in the nanometric scaleable to trap miRNA. In addition, functionalisation with 0.1% APTMS and 0.9% PEG was found to be a necessary step to significantly increase the amount of microRNA adsorbed on the surface, therefore, available for further steps as on-chip reverse transcription. These findings show a substantial improvement in the extraction efficiency of our PDMS microdevice, ultimately leading to an important step forward in the development of an innovative, easy-to-use and integrated system for the direct purification of less abundant circulating microRNAs.

Keywords: circulating miRNAs, diagnostics, Lab-on-a-chip, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)

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16 Increase in Specificity of MicroRNA Detection by RT-qPCR Assay Using a Specific Extension Sequence

Authors: Kyung Jin Kim, Jiwon Kwak, Jae-Hoon Lee, Soo Suk Lee


We describe an innovative method for highly specific detection of miRNAs using a specially modified method of poly(A) adaptor RT-qPCR. We use uniquely designed specific extension sequence, which plays important role in providing an opportunity to affect high specificity of miRNA detection. This method involves two steps of reactions as like previously reported and which are poly(A) tailing and reverse-transcription followed by real-time PCR. Firstly, miRNAs are extended by a poly(A) tailing reaction and then converted into cDNA. Here, we remarkably reduced the reaction time by the application of short length of poly(T) adaptor. Next, cDNA is hybridized to the 3’-end of a specific extension sequence which contains miRNA sequence and results in producing a novel PCR template. Thereafter, the SYBR Green-based RT-qPCR progresses with a universal poly(T) adaptor forward primer and a universal reverse primer. The target miRNA, miR-106b in human brain total RNA, could be detected quantitatively in the range of seven orders of magnitude, which demonstrate that the assay displays a dynamic range of at least 7 logs. In addition, the better specificity of this novel extension-based assay against well known poly(A) tailing method for miRNA detection was confirmed by melt curve analysis of real-time PCR product, clear gel electrophoresis and sequence chromatogram images of amplified DNAs.

Keywords: microRNA(miRNA), specific extension sequence, RT-qPCR, poly(A) tailing assay, reverse transcription

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15 The Generation of Insulin Producing Cells from Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells by miR-375 and Anti-miR-9

Authors: Arefeh Jafarian, Mohammad Taghikani, Saied Abroun, Amir Allahverdi, Masoud Soleimani


Introduction: The miRNAs have key roles in control of pancreatic islet development and insulin secretion. In this regards, current study investigated the pancreatic differentiation of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) by up-regulation of miR-375 and down-regulation of miR-9 by lentiviruses containing miR-375 and anti-miR-9. Findings: After 21 days of induction, islet-like clusters containing insulin producing cells (IPCs) were confirmed by dithizone (DTZ) staining. The IPCs and β cell specific related genes and proteins were detected using qRT-PCR and immunofluorescence on days 7, 14 and 21 of differentiation. Glucose challenge test was performed at different concentrations of glucose as well as extracellular and intracellular insulin and C-peptide were assayed using ELISA kit. In derived IPCs by miR-375 alone are capable to express insulin and other endocrine specific transcription factors, the cells lack the machinery to respond to glucose. The differentiated hMSCs by miR-375 and anti-miR-9 lentiviruses could secrete insulin and c-peptide in a glucose-regulated manner. Conclusion: It was found that over-expression of miR-375 led to a reduction in levels of Mtpn protein in derived IPCs, while treatment with anti-miR-9 following miR-375 over-expression had synergistic effects on MSCs differentiation and insulin secretion in a glucose-regulated manner. The researchers reported that silencing of miR-9 increased OC-2 protein in IPCs that may contribute to the observed glucose-regulated insulin secretion. These findings highlight miRNAs functions in stem cells differentiation and suggest that they could be used as therapeutic tools for gene-based therapy in diabetes mellitus.

Keywords: diabetes, differentiation, MSCs, insulin producing cells, miR-375, miR-9

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14 The MicroRNA-2110 Suppressed Cell Proliferation and Migration Capacity in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells

Authors: Pelin Balcik Ercin


Introduction: ZEB transcription factor family member ZEB2, has a role in epithelial to mesenchymal transition during development and metastasis. The altered circulating extracellular miRNAs expression is observed in diseases, and extracellular miRNAs have an important role in cancer cell microenvironment. In ChIP-Seq study, the expression of miR-2110 was found to be regulated by ZEB2. In this study, the effects of miR2110 on cell proliferation and migration of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells were examined. Material and Methods: SNU398 cells transfected with mimic miR2110 (20nM) (HMI0375, Sigma-Aldrich) and negative control miR (HMC0002, Sigma-Aldrich). MicroRNA isolation was accomplished with miRVANA isolation kit according to manufacturer instructions. cDNA synthesis was performed expression, respectively, and calibrated with Ct of controls. The real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) reaction was performed using the TaqMan Fast Advanced Master Mix (Thermo Sci.). Ct values of miR2110 were normalized to miR-186-5p and miR16-5p for the intracellular gene. Cell proliferation analysis was analyzed with the xCELLigence RTCA System. Wound healing assay was analyzed with the ImageJ program and relative fold change calculated. Results: The mimic-miR-2110 transfected SNU398 cells nearly nine-fold (log2) more miR-2110 expressed compared to negative control transfected cells. The mimic-miR-2110 transfected HCC cell proliferation significantly inhibited compared to the negative control cells. Furthermore, miR-2110-SNU398 cell migration capacity was relatively four-fold decreased compared to negative control-miR-SNU398 cells. Conclusion: Our results suggest the miR-2110 inhibited cell proliferation and also miR-2110 negatively affect cell migration compared to control groups in HCC cells. These data suggest the complexity of microRNA EMT transcription factors regulation. These initial results are pointed out the predictive biomarker capacity of miR-2110 in HCC.

Keywords: epithelial to mesenchymal transition, EMT, hepatocellular carcinoma cells, micro-RNA-2110, ZEB2

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13 Use of Pig as an Animal Model for Assessing the Differential MicroRNA Profiling in Kidney after Aristolochic Acid Intoxication

Authors: Daniela E. Marin, Cornelia Braicu, Gina C. Pistol, Roxana Cojocneanu-Petric, Ioana Berindan Neagoe, Mihail A. Gras, Ionelia Taranu


Aristolochic acid (AA) is a carcinogenic, mutagenic, and nephrotoxic compound commonly found in the Aristolochiaceae family of plants. AA is frequently associated with urothelial carcinoma of the upper urinary tract in human and animals and is considered as being responsible for Balkan Endemic Nephropathy. The pig provides a good animal model because the porcine urological system is very similar to that of humans, both in aspects of physiology and anatomy. MicroRNA (miRNA) are small non-coding RNAs that have an impact on a wide range of biological processes by regulating gene expression at post-transcriptional level. The objective of this study was to analyze the miRNA profiling in the kidneys of AA intoxicated swine. For this purpose, ten TOPIGS-40 crossbred weaned piglets, 4-week-old, male and females with an initial average body weight of 9.83 ± 0.5 kg were studied for 28 days. They were given ad libitum access to water and feed and randomly allotted to one of the following groups: control group (C) or aristolochic acid group (AA). They were fed a maize-soybean-meal-based diet contaminated or not with 0.25mgAA/kg. To profile miRNA in the kidneys of pigs, microarrays and bioinformatics approaches were applied to analyze the miRNA in the kidney of control and AA intoxicated pigs. After normalization, our results have shown that a total of 5 known miRNAs and 4 novel miRNAs had different profiling in the kidney of intoxicated animals versus control ones. Expression of miR-32-5p, miR-497-5p, miR-423-3p, miR-218-5p, miR-128-3p were up-regulated by 0.25mgAA/kg feed, while the expression of miR-9793-5p, miR-9835-3p, miR-9840-3p, miR-4334-5p was down-regulated. The microRNA profiling in kidney of intoxicated animals was associated with modified expression of target genes as: RICTOR, LASP1, SFRP2, DKK2, BMI1, RAF1, IGF1R, MAP2K1, WEE1, HDGF, BCL2, EIF4E etc, involved in cell division cycle, apoptosis, cell differentiation and cell migration, cell signaling, cancer etc. In conclusion, this study provides new data concerning the microRNA profiling in kidney after aristolochic acid intoxications with important implications for human and animal health.

Keywords: aristolochic acid, kidney, microRNA, swine

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12 Oncogenic Role of MicroRNA-346 in Human Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer by Regulation of XPC/ERK/Snail/E-Cadherin Pathway

Authors: Cheng-Cao Sun, Shu-Jun Li, De-Jia Li


Determinants of growth and metastasis in cancer remain of great interest to define. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have frequently emerged as tumor metastatic regulator by acting on multiple signaling pathways. Here, we report the definition of miR-346 as an oncogenic microRNA that facilitates non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell growth and metastasis. XPC, an important DNA damage recognition factor in nucleotide excision repair was defined as a target for down-regulation by miR-346, functioning through direct interaction with the 3'-UTR of XPC mRNA. Blocking miR-346 by an antagomiR was sufficient to inhibit NSCLC cell growth and metastasis, an effect that could be phenol-copied by RNAi-mediated silencing of XPC. In vivo studies established that miR-346 overexpression was sufficient to promote tumor growth by A549 cells in xenografts mice, relative to control cells. Overall, our results defined miR-346 as an oncogenic miRNA in NSCLC, the levels of which contributed to tumor growth and invasive aggressiveness.

Keywords: microRNA-346, miR-346, XPC, non-small cell lung cancer, oncogenesis

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11 Design and Fabrication of Optical Nanobiosensors for Detection of MicroRNAs Involved in Neurodegenerative Diseases

Authors: Mahdi Rahaie


MicroRNAs are a novel class of small RNAs which regulate gene expression by translational repression or degradation of messenger RNAs. To produce sensitive, simple and cost-effective assays for microRNAs, detection is in urgent demand due to important role of these biomolecules in progression of human disease such as Alzheimer’s, Multiple sclerosis, and some other neurodegenerative diseases. Herein, we report several novel, sensitive and specific microRNA nanobiosensors which were designed based on colorimetric and fluorescence detection of nanoparticles and hybridization chain reaction amplification as an enzyme-free amplification. These new strategies eliminate the need for enzymatic reactions, chemical changes, separation processes and sophisticated equipment whereas less limit of detection with most specify are acceptable. The important features of these methods are high sensitivity and specificity to differentiate between perfectly matched, mismatched and non-complementary target microRNAs and also decent response in the real sample analysis with blood plasma. These nanobiosensors can clinically be used not only for the early detection of neuro diseases but also for every sickness related to miRNAs by direct detection of the plasma microRNAs in real clinical samples, without a need for sample preparation, RNA extraction and/or amplification.

Keywords: hybridization chain reaction, microRNA, nanobiosensor, neurodegenerative diseases

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10 Association of miRNA146a rs2910164 Polymorphism and Helicobacter pylori Infection in Colorectal Cancer

Authors: Zahra Solgi, Hossein Rassi


Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a multi-step disease, and chronic gastric infection with H. pylori could play a role in one or more of the steps in this pathogenic process. Polymorphisms in several miRNAs are considered to increase the risk for the development of CRC by controlling proliferation, apoptosis and H. pylori pathogenesis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate miRNA146a rs2910164 polymorphism and Helicobacter pylori infection in CRC. A total of 65 patients with CRC were divided into 2 groups: 28 patients < 50 years of age and 37 patients ≥ 50 years of age. DNA was extracted from all samples by a standard method and H. pylori cagA and miRNA146a rs2910164 genotypes were determined by PCR method. The results show that there was no significant difference in the frequency of H. pylori cagA gene between the two groups but there was a significant difference in the distribution of rs2910164 genotypes in patients < 50 years of age with the p-value of 0.05 and odds ratio equal to 2.69. On other hand, patients < 50 years of age with genotype CC of miRNA146a showed a significant difference in CRC risk. Furthermore, there was a significant correlation between rs2910164 CC genotype with Helicobacter pylori infection in patients < 50 years of age. The present study suggests that the CC genotype of miRNA146a in combination with H. pylori infection can be effective as risk factors and molecular markers for early diagnosis and treatment of CRC.

Keywords: colorectal cancer, Helicobacter pylori, miRNA146a, rs2910164 polymorphism

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