Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 147

Search results for: Rita Magdalena

147 Biomass Enhancement of Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni) Shoot Culture in Temporary Immersion System (TIS) RITA® Bioreactor Optimized in Two Different Immersion Periods

Authors: Agustine Melviana, Rizkita Esyanti

Abstract:

Stevia plant contains steviol glycosides which is estimated to be 300 times sweeter than sucrose. However in Indonesia, conventional (in vivo) propagation of Stevia rebaudiana was not effective due to a poor result. Therefore, alternative methods to propagate S. rebaudiana plants is needed, one of it is using in vitro method. Multiplication with a large quantity of stevia biomass in relatively short period can be conducted by using TIS RITA® (Recipient for Automated Temporary Immersion System). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of immersion period of the medium on growth and the medium bioconversion into the production of shoot biomass. The study was conducted to determine the effect of different intensity period of medium to enhance biomass of stevia shoots. Shoot culture of S. rebaudiana was grown in full strength MS medium supplemented with 1 ppm Kinetin. RITA® bioreactors were set up with two different immersion periods, 15 min (RITA® 15) and 30 min (RITA® 30), scheduled every 6 hours and incubated for 21 days. The result indicated that immersion period affected the biomass and growth rate (µ). Thirty-minutes immersion showed greater percentage of shoot multiplication (93.44 ± 0.83%), percentage of leaf growth (85.24 ± 5.99%), growth rate (0.042 ± 0.001 g/day), and productivity (0.066 g/L medium/day) compared to that immersed in RITA® 15 min (76.90 ± 4.85%; 79.73 ± 7.76; 0.045 ± 0.004 g/day, and 0.045 g/L medium/day respectively). Enhancement of biomass in RITA® 30 reached 1,702 ± 0,114 gr, whereas in RITA® 15 only 0,953 ± 0,093 gr. Additionally, the pattern of sucrose, mineral, and inorganic compounds consumption followed the growth of plant biomass for both systems. In conclusion, the bioconversion efficiency from medium to biomass in RITA® 30 is better than RITA® 15.

Keywords: intensity period, shoot culture, Stevia rebaudiana, TIS RITA®

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146 Stimulation of Stevioside Accumulation on Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) Shoot Culture Induced with Red LED Light in TIS RITA® Bioreactor System

Authors: Vincent Alexander, Rizkita Esyanti

Abstract:

Leaves of Stevia rebaudiana contain steviol glycoside which mainly comprise of stevioside, a natural sweetener compound that is 100-300 times sweeter than sucrose. Current cultivation method of Stevia rebaudiana in Indonesia has yet to reach its optimum efficiency and productivity to produce stevioside as a safe sugar substitute sweetener for people with diabetes. An alternative method that is not limited by environmental factor is in vitro temporary immersion system (TIS) culture method using recipient for automated immersion (RITA®) bioreactor. The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of red LED light induction towards shoot growth and stevioside accumulation in TIS RITA® bioreactor system, as an endeavour to increase the secondary metabolite synthesis. The result showed that the stevioside accumulation in TIS RITA® bioreactor system induced with red LED light for one hour during night was higher than that in TIS RITA® bioreactor system without red LED light induction, i.e. 71.04 ± 5.36 μg/g and 42.92 ± 5.40 μg/g respectively. Biomass growth rate reached as high as 0.072 ± 0.015/day for red LED light induced TIS RITA® bioreactor system, whereas TIS RITA® bioreactor system without induction was only 0.046 ± 0.003/day. Productivity of Stevia rebaudiana shoots induced with red LED light was 0.065 g/L medium/day, whilst shoots without any induction was 0.041 g/L medium/day. Sucrose, salt, and inorganic consumption in both bioreactor media increased as biomass increased. It can be concluded that Stevia rebaudiana shoot in TIS RITA® bioreactor induced with red LED light produces biomass and accumulates higher stevioside concentration, in comparison to bioreactor without any light induction.

Keywords: LED, Stevia rebaudiana, Stevioside, TIS RITA

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
145 Comparison of Growth Medium Efficiency into Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni) Shoot Biomass and Stevioside Content in Thin-Layer System, TIS RITA® Bioreactor, and Bubble Column Bioreactor

Authors: Nurhayati Br Tarigan, Rizkita Rachmi Esyanti

Abstract:

Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni) has a great potential to be used as a natural sweetener because it contains steviol glycoside, which is approximately 100 - 300 times sweeter than sucrose, yet low calories. Vegetative and generative propagation of S. rebaudiana is inefficient to produce stevia biomass and stevioside. One of alternative for stevia propagation is in vitro shoot culture. This research was conducted to optimize the best medium for shoot growth and to compare the bioconversion efficiency and stevioside production of S. rebaudiana shoot culture cultivated in thin layer culture (TLC), recipient for automated temporary immersion system (TIS RITA®) bioreactor, and bubble column bioreactor. The result showed that 1 ppm of Kinetin produced a healthy shoot and the highest number of leaves compared to BAP. Shoots were then cultivated in TLC, TIS RITA® bioreactor, and bubble column bioreactor. Growth medium efficiency was determined by yield and productivity. TLC produced the highest growth medium efficiency of S. rebaudiana, the yield was 0.471 ± 0.117 gbiomass.gsubstrate-1, and the productivity was 0.599 ± 0.122 gbiomass.Lmedium-1.day-1. While TIS RITA® bioreactor produced the lowest yield and productivity, 0.182 ± 0.024 gbiomass.gsubstrate-1 and 0.041 ± 0.0002 gbiomass.Lmedium-1.day-1 respectively. The yield of bubble column bioreactor was 0.354 ± 0.204 gbiomass.gsubstrate-1 and the productivity was 0,099 ± 0,009 gbiomass.Lmedium-1.day-1. The stevioside content from the highest to the lowest was obtained from stevia shoot which was cultivated on TLC, TIS RITA® bioreactor, and bubble column bioreactor; the content was 93,44 μg/g, 42,57 μg/g, and 23,03 μg/g respectively. All three systems could be used to produce stevia shoot biomass, but optimization on the number of nutrition and oxygen intake was required in each system.

Keywords: bubble column, growth medium efficiency, Stevia rebaudiana, stevioside, TIS RITA®, TLC

Procedia PDF Downloads 159
144 Sustainability and Promotion of Inland Waterway Transportation Projects in Colombia: Case of the Magdalena River

Authors: David Julian Bernal Melgarejo

Abstract:

Inland Waterway Transportation (IWT) is playing an important role in national transport systems, water transportation is considered to be safe, energy efficient and environmentally friendly mode of transport, considering all the benefits of IWT the Colombian government is planning to restore the Magdalena’s River navigability, embrace waterway transportation in Colombia could strength competitiveness while reduce most of the transport externalities. However, the current situation of the Magdalena deplorable, the most important river of Colombia has been abandoned for decades and the solution is beyond of a single administrative entity. This paper analyzes the outcomes of the Navigation And Inland Waterway Action and Development in Europe (NAIADES) program as a prospective to develop a sustainable program in Colombia. In order to guarantee the long-term future, and the adaptability of the program a research based on individual interviews with stakeholders and policy experts were carried out, findings support the idea of lack of integration within governmental institution, develop marketing strategies and human resources.

Keywords: inland waterway transportation, logistics, sustainability, multimodal transport systems, water transportation

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143 Morphology Operation and Discrete Wavelet Transform for Blood Vessels Segmentation in Retina Fundus

Authors: Rita Magdalena, N. K. Caecar Pratiwi, Yunendah Nur Fuadah, Sofia Saidah, Bima Sakti

Abstract:

Vessel segmentation of retinal fundus is important for biomedical sciences in diagnosing ailments related to the eye. Segmentation can simplify medical experts in diagnosing retinal fundus image state. Therefore, in this study, we designed a software using MATLAB which enables the segmentation of the retinal blood vessels on retinal fundus images. There are two main steps in the process of segmentation. The first step is image preprocessing that aims to improve the quality of the image to be optimum segmented. The second step is the image segmentation in order to perform the extraction process to retrieve the retina’s blood vessel from the eye fundus image. The image segmentation methods that will be analyzed in this study are Morphology Operation, Discrete Wavelet Transform and combination of both. The amount of data that used in this project is 40 for the retinal image and 40 for manually segmentation image. After doing some testing scenarios, the average accuracy for Morphology Operation method is 88.46 % while for Discrete Wavelet Transform is 89.28 %. By combining the two methods mentioned in later, the average accuracy was increased to 89.53 %. The result of this study is an image processing system that can segment the blood vessels in retinal fundus with high accuracy and low computation time.

Keywords: discrete wavelet transform, fundus retina, morphology operation, segmentation, vessel

Procedia PDF Downloads 108
142 Principle Component Analysis on Colon Cancer Detection

Authors: N. K. Caecar Pratiwi, Yunendah Nur Fuadah, Rita Magdalena, R. D. Atmaja, Sofia Saidah, Ocky Tiaramukti

Abstract:

Colon cancer or colorectal cancer is a type of cancer that attacks the last part of the human digestive system. Lymphoma and carcinoma are types of cancer that attack human’s colon. Colon cancer causes deaths about half a million people every year. In Indonesia, colon cancer is the third largest cancer case for women and second in men. Unhealthy lifestyles such as minimum consumption of fiber, rarely exercising and lack of awareness for early detection are factors that cause high cases of colon cancer. The aim of this project is to produce a system that can detect and classify images into type of colon cancer lymphoma, carcinoma, or normal. The designed system used 198 data colon cancer tissue pathology, consist of 66 images for Lymphoma cancer, 66 images for carcinoma cancer and 66 for normal / healthy colon condition. This system will classify colon cancer starting from image preprocessing, feature extraction using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and classification using K-Nearest Neighbor (K-NN) method. Several stages in preprocessing are resize, convert RGB image to grayscale, edge detection and last, histogram equalization. Tests will be done by trying some K-NN input parameter setting. The result of this project is an image processing system that can detect and classify the type of colon cancer with high accuracy and low computation time.

Keywords: carcinoma, colorectal cancer, k-nearest neighbor, lymphoma, principle component analysis

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141 Alwadei Syndrome - A Genetic Cause Of Intellectual Disability

Authors: Mafalda Moreira, Diana Alba, Inês Paiva Ferreira, Rita Calejo, Ana Rita Soares, Leonilde Machado

Abstract:

Intellectual disability (ID) is characterized by deficits in intellectualfunctioningassociatedwithalterations in the adaptive behaviour, whose onset is inthedevelopmentalperiod. Itaffects 3% of the population, ofwhich 10% have a geneticaetiology. One of those causes isAlwadeiSyndrome, with 3 cases describedworldwide. It results from a homozygous nonsense mutation in theRUSC2 gene andisassociatedwithintellectualdisabilityanddysmorphic facialfeatures. Theauthorsreportthe case of a 5-year-old-boy, born to a healthymotherafter a full-termuneventfulpregnancy, thatwasreferred to Neurodevelopmentalconsultationdue toglobal developmentaldelay. Familyhistoryrevealedlearningdifficulties in the paternal brotherhood. Milddismorphicfeatureswereevidentsuch as darkinfraorbitalregion, low-set ears, beakednose, retrognathism, high-archedpalateandjointhyperlaxity. WechslerIntelligenceScale for Children III fullscaleIQ quoted 61. Karyotypeandchromosomalmicroarrayanalysiswerenormal, as well as the fragile X molecular study. DNA sequencingwasthenperformedandallowedtheidentificationof amutation in the RUSC2 gene. Theetiologicaldiagnosisof ID remains unknown in up to 80% of cases, creatinguncertainty in children’sfamilies. Theadvances in DNA sequencingtechnologieshaveincreasedourknowledgeofthegeneticdiseasesinvolved, as theAlwadeisyndromewasonlydescribedsince 2016. Thegeneticdiagnosisof ID allowsfamilygeneticcounselingandenablesthedevelopmentof target therapeutic approaches.

Keywords: intellectual disability, genetic aetiology, alwadei syndrome, RUSC2

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140 Posttranslational Modifications of Histone H3 in Tumor Tissue Isolated from Silver and Gold Nanoparticles Treated Mice

Authors: Lucyna Kapka-Skrzypczak, Barbara Sochanowicz, Magdalena Matysiak-Kucharek, Magdalena Czajka, Krzysztof Sawicki, Marcin Kruszewski

Abstract:

Due to the strong antimicrobial activity silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are widely used in various medical and general applications, among others, in cosmetics, odour resistant textiles, etc. The aim of this study was to compare effect of AgNPs and gold NPs (AuNPs) on histones posttranslational modifications. Histone molecule posttranscriptional modifications are responsible for chromatin compaction and repackaging. In this study, BALB/c mice were inoculated with murine mammary carcinoma 4T1 cells and treated with AgNPs coated with citrate (AgNPs(cit) or PEG (AgNPs(PEG), or AuNPs. Thereafter the histone H3 acetylation on Lys9 and H3 methylation on Lys4, Lys9, Lys29 was investigated. All NPs tested decreased H3 methylation, while no effect was observed for H3 acetylation. Modification of histone H3 methylation dependent on type of NPs used its coating, site of methylation and treatment used. Conclusion, epigenetic effects of nanomaterials depend on nanomaterial composition, its coating, and way of application. This work was supported by National Science Centre grant No. 2014/15/B/NZ7/01036 (MK, LKS, MMK, MC, KS), statutory funding for INTC (BS).

Keywords: gold nanoparticles, histone, methylation, silver nanoparticles

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139 PEG-b-poly(4-vinylbenzyl phosphonate) Coated Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles as Drug Carrier System: Biological and Physicochemical Characterization

Authors: Magdalena Hałupka-Bryl, Magdalena Bednarowicz, Ryszard Krzyminiewski, Yukio Nagasaki

Abstract:

Due to their unique physical properties, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are increasingly used in medical applications. They are very useful carriers for delivering antitumor drugs in targeted cancer treatment. Magnetic nanoparticles (PEG-PIONs/DOX) with chemotherapeutic were synthesized by coprecipitation method followed by coating with biocompatible polymer PEG-derivative (poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(4-vinylbenzylphosphonate). Complete physicochemical characterization was carried out (ESR, HRTEM, X-ray diffraction, SQUID analysis) to evaluate the magnetic properties of obtained PEG-PIONs/DOX. Nanoparticles were investigated also in terms of their stability, drug loading efficiency, drug release and antiproliferative effect on cancer cells. PEG-PIONs/DOX have been successfully used for the efficient delivery of an anticancer drug into the tumor region. Fluorescent imaging showed the internalization of PEG-PIONs/DOX in the cytoplasm. Biodistribution studies demonstrated that PEG-PIONs/DOX preferentially accumulate in tumor region via the enhanced permeability and retention effect. The present findings show that synthesized nanosystem is promising tool for potential magnetic drug delivery.

Keywords: targeted drug delivery, magnetic properties, iron oxide nanoparticles, biodistribution

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138 The Stereotypical Images of Marginalized Women in the Poetry of Rita Dove

Authors: Wafaa Kamal Isaac

Abstract:

This paper attempts to shed light upon the stereotypical images of marginalized black women as shown through the poetry of Rita Dove. Meanwhile, it explores how stereotypical images held by the society and public perceptions perpetuate the marginalization of black women. Dove is considered one of the most fundamental African-American poets who devoted her writings to explore the problem of identity that confronted marginalized women in America. Besides tackling the issue of black women’s stereotypical images, this paper focuses upon the psychological damage which the black women had suffered from due to their stripped identity. In ‘Thomas and Beulah’, Dove reflects the black woman’s longing for her homeland in order to make up for her lost identity. This poem represents atavistic feelings deal with certain recurrent images, both aural and visual, like the image of Beulah who represents the African-American woman who searches for an identity, as she is being denied and humiliated one in the newly founded society. In an attempt to protest against the stereotypical mule image that had been imposed upon black women in America, Dove in ‘On the Bus with Rosa Parks’ tries to ignite the beaten spirits to struggle for their own rights by revitalizing the rebellious nature and strong determination of the historical figure ‘Rosa Parks’ that sparked the Civil Rights Movement. In ‘Daystar’, Dove proves that black women are subjected to double-edged oppression; firstly, in terms of race as a black woman in an unjust white society that violates her rights due to her black origins and secondly, in terms of gender as a member of the female sex that is meant to exist only to serve man’s needs. Similarly, in the ‘Adolescence’ series, Dove focuses on the double marginalization which the black women had experienced. It concludes that the marginalization of black women has resulted from the domination of the masculine world and the oppression of the white world. Moreover, Dove’s ‘Beauty and the Beast’ investigates the African-American women’s problem of estrangement and identity crisis in America. It also sheds light upon the psychological consequences that resulted from the violation of marginalized women’s identity. Furthermore, this poem shows the black women’s self-debasement, helplessness, and double consciousness that emanate from the sense of uprootedness. Finally, this paper finds out that the negative, debased and inferior stereotypical image held by the society did not only contribute to the marginalization of black women but also silenced and muted their voices.

Keywords: stereotypical images, marginalized women, Rita Dove, identity

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137 Soil Degradation Processes in Marginal Uplands of Samar Island, Philippines

Authors: Dernie Taganna Olguera

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Marginal uplands are fragile ecosystems in the tropics that need to be evaluated for sustainable utilization and land degradation mitigation. Thus, this study evaluated the dominant soil degradation processes in selected marginal uplands of Samar Island, Philippines; evaluated the important factors influencing soil degradation in the selected sites and identified the indicators of soil degradation in marginal uplands of the tropical landscape of Samar Island, Philippines. Two (2) sites were selected (Sta. Rita, Samar and Salcedo, Eastern, Samar) representing the western and eastern sides of Samar Island respectively. These marginal uplands represent different agro-climatic zones suitable for the study. Soil erosion is the major soil degradation process in the marginal uplands studied. It resulted in not only considerable soil losses but nutrient losses as well. Soil erosion varied with vegetation cover and site. It was much higher in the sweetpotato, cassava, and gabi crops than under natural vegetation. In addition, soil erosion was higher in Salcedo than in Sta. Rita, which is related to climatic and soil characteristics. Bulk density, porosity, aggregate stability, soil pH, organic matter, and carbon dioxide evolution are good indicators of soil degradation. The dominance of Saccharum spontaneum Linn., Imperata cylindrica Linn, Melastoma malabathricum Linn. and Psidium guajava Linn indicated degraded soil condition. Farmer’s practices particularly clean culture and organic fertilizer application influenced the degree of soil degradation in the marginal uplands of Samar Island, Philippines.

Keywords: soil degradation, soil erosion, marginal uplands, Samar island, Philippines

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136 MR Enterography Findings in Pediatric and Adult Patients with Crohn's Disease

Authors: Karolina Siejka, Monika Piekarska, Monika Zbroja, Weronika Cyranka, Maryla Kuczynska, Magdalena Grzegorczyk, Malgorzata Nowakowska, Agnieszka Brodzisz, Magdalena Maria Wozniak

Abstract:

Crohn’s disease is one of chronic inflammatory bowel diseases. It is increasing in prevalence worldwide, especially with young people. The disease usually occurs in the second to the fourth decade of life. Traditionally is diagnosed by clinical indicates, endoscopic, and histological findings. Magnetic Resonance Enterography (MRE) can demonstrate mural and extramural inflammatory signs and complications, which make it a valuable diagnostic modality. The study included 76 adults and 36 children diagnosed with Crohn’s disease. Each patient underwent MRE with intravenous administration of a contrast agent. All the studies were performed using Siemens Aera 1.5T scanner according to a local study protocol. Whenever applicable, MR Enterography findings were verified with endoscopy. Forty adults and all 36 children had an active phase of Crohn’s disease; five adults had a chronic phase of the disease; one adult had both chronic and active inflammatory features. Thirty adults have no sings of pathology. In both adult and pediatric groups the most commonly observed manifestation of active disease was thickened edematous ileum wall (26 adults and 36 children). Adults had Bauhin’s valve edema in 58% cases (n=23) and mesenteric changes in 34% cases (n=9). To compare, 32 children had Bauhin’s valve edema (89%) and, in 23 cases, was found inflammatory infiltration of the peri-intestinal fat (64%). The involvement of the large intestine was more common among children (100%). Complications of Crohn’s disease were found commonly in adults (40% of adults, 22% of children). There were observed 18 fistulas (14 adults, four children) and six abscesses (2 adults, four children). MRE is a reliable method in the evaluation of Crohn’s disease activity, especially of its complications. The lack of radiations makes MRE well-tolerated modality, which can be often repeated, particularly in young patients. The disease had different medical sings depending on age – children often had a more active inflammatory process, but there were more complications in the adult group.

Keywords: Crohn's disease, diagnostics, inflammatory bowel disease, magnetic resonance enterography, MRE

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135 Effect of Bilateral and Unilateral Castration on Feed Utilization and Carcass Characteristics of Growers Rabbit (Orytolagus cunniculus)

Authors: A. H. Dikko, D. N Tsado, M. S. T. Rita, D. S. Umar

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This study was conducted on eighteen (18) New Zealand and chinchilla breeds of rabbits were used. The rabbits were allotted to 3 treatments with each treatment having six (6) animals with two (2) replicates. T1 were castrated, which both testes was removed (Bilateral); T2 were castrated, which only one testes was removed (unilateral) and T3 were not castrated (control). In nutrient digestibility, T1 and T2 (p>0.05) has a higher rate than T3. There was no significant (p<0.05) difference in live weight and dressing weight among the treatment groups. There is a significant (p > 0.05) difference in visceral organs in the treatment groups.

Keywords: New Zealand, chinchilla, castration, bilateral, unilateral

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134 Media Engagement and Ethnic Identity: The Case of the Aeta Ambala of Pastolan Village

Authors: Kriztine R. Viray, Chona Rita R. Cruz

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The paper explores the engagement of indigenous group, Aeta Ambala with different media and how this engagement affects their perception of their own ethnic identity. The researchers employed qualitative research as their approach and descriptive research method as their design. The paper integrates two theories. These are communication theory of identity by Michael Hecht and the Uses and Gratification Theory of Katz, Blumler, and Gurevitch. Among others, the paper exposes that the engagement of the Aeta-Ambala with the various forms of media certainly affected the way they perceived the outside world and their own ethnic group.

Keywords: Aeta Ambala, culture, ethnic, media engagement, Philippines

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133 A Further Insight to Foaming in Anaerobic Digester

Authors: Ifeyinwa Rita Kanu, Thomas Aspray, Adebayo J. Adeloye

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As a result of the ambiguity and complexity surrounding anaerobic digester foaming, efforts have been made by various researchers to understand the process of anaerobic digester foaming so as to proffer a solution that can be universally applied rather than site specific. All attempts ranging from experimental analysis to comparative review of other process has been futile at explaining explicitly the conditions and process of foaming in anaerobic digester. Studying the available knowledge on foam formation and relating it to anaerobic digester process and operating condition, this study presents a succinct and enhanced understanding of foaming in anaerobic digesters as well as introducing a simple and novel method to identify the onset of anaerobic digester foaming based on analysis of historical data from a field scale system.

Keywords: anaerobic digester, foaming, biogas, surfactant, wastewater

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132 Assessment of Mediation of Community-Based Disputes in Selected Barangays of Batangas City

Authors: Daisyree S. Arrieta

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The purpose of this study was to assess the mediation process applied on community-based disputes in the selected barangays of Batangas City, namely: Barangay Sta. Rita Karsada, Barangay Bolbok, and Barangay Alangilan. The researcher initially speculated that the required procedures under Republic Act No. 7160 were not religiously followed and satisfied by the Lupong Tagapamayapa members in most of the barangays in the subject locality and this prompted the researcher to conduct an investigation about this research topic. In this study, the subject barangays and their Lupon members still resorted to mediation processes to amicably settle conflicts among community members. It can also be appreciated among the Lupon Tagapamayapa members that they are aware of the purpose and processes required in the mediation of cases brought before them. However, the manner in which they conduct this mediation processes seems to be dependent on the general characteristics of their respective barangays and of the people situated therein. It also very noticeable that the strategies applied by the Lupon members on these cases depend on the ways and means the parties in dispute may arrive into agreements and conciliations. It is concluded by the researcher that the Lupong Tagapamayapa members in Barangay Sta. Rita Karsada, Barangay Bolbok, and Barangay Alangilan are aware and are applying the objectives and procedures of mediation. Also, the success and failure of the mediation processes applied by the Lupong Tagapamayapa members of the subject barangays on community-based disputes brought before them are generally attributed on the attitude and perspective of the parties in dispute towards the entire process of mediation and not on the capacity or capability of the Lupon members to subject them into amicable settlements. In view of the above, the researcher humbly recommends the following: (1) that the composition of the Lupong Tagapamayapa should include individuals from various sectors of the barangay; (2) that the Lupong Tagapamayapa members should undergo various trainings that may enhance their capability to mediate any type of community-based disputes at the expense of the barangay fund or budget; (3) that the Punong Barangay and the Sangguniang Pambarangay, in their own discretion, should allocate budget that will consistently provide regular honoraria for the Lupong Tagapamayapa members; (4) that the Punong Barangay and the Sangguniang Pambarangay should provide an ideal venue for the hearing of community-based disputes; (5) that the City/ Municipal Governments should allocate necessary financial assistance to the barangays under their jurisdiction in honing eligible Lupong Tagapamayapa members; and (6) that the Punong Barangay and other officials should initiate series of information campaigns for their constituents to be informed on the objectives, advantages, and procedures of mediation.

Keywords: amicable settlement, community-based disputes, dispute resolution, mediation

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131 Antiulcer Potential of Heme Oxygenase-1 Inducers

Authors: Gaweł Magdalena, Lipkowska Anna, Olbert Magdalena, Frąckiewicz Ewelina, Librowski Tadeusz, Nowak Gabriel, Pilc Andrzej

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Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), also known as heat shock protein 32 (HSP32), has been shown to be implicated in cytoprotection in various organs. Its activation plays a significant role in acute and chronic inflammation, protecting cells from oxidative injury and apoptosis. This inducible isoform of HO catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step in heme degradation to produce equimolar quantities of biologically active products: carbon monoxide (CO), free iron and biliverdin. CO has been reported to possess anti-apoptotic properties. Moreover, it inhibits the production of proinflammatory cytokines and stimulates the synthesis of the anti-inflammatory interleukin-10 (IL-10), as well as promotes vasodilatation at sites of inflammation. The second product of catalytic HO-1 activity, free cytotoxic iron, is promptly sequestered into the iron storage protein ferritin, which lowers the pro-oxidant state of the cell. The third product, biliverdin, is subsequently converted by biliverdin reductase into the bile pigment bilirubin, the most potent endogenous antioxidant among the constituents of human serum, which modulates immune effector functions and suppresses inflammatory response. Furthermore, being one of the so-called stress proteins, HO-1 adaptively responds to different stressors, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), inflammatory cytokines and heavy metals and thus protects cells against such conditions as ischemia, hemorrhagic shock, heat shock or hypoxia. It is suggested that pharmacologic modulation of HO-1 may represent an effective strategy for prevention of stress and drug-induced gastrointestinal toxicity. HO-1 is constitutively expressed in normal gastric, intestinal and colonic mucosa and up-regulated during inflammation. It has been proven that HO-1 up-regulated by hemin, heme and cobalt-protoporphyrin ameliorates experimental colitis. In addition, the up-regulation of HO-1 partially explains the mechanism of action of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), which is used clinically as an anti-colitis agent. In 2009 Ueda et al. has reported for the first time that mucosal protection by Polaprezinc, a chelate compound of zinc and L-carnosine used as an anti-ulcer drug in Japan, is also attributed to induction of HO-1 in the stomach. Since then, inducers of HO-1 are desired subject of research, as they may constitute therapeutically effective anti-ulcer drugs.

Keywords: heme oxygenase-1, gastric lesions, gastroprotection, Polaprezinc

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130 Modelling of Meandering River Dynamics in Colombia: A Case Study of the Magdalena River

Authors: Laura Isabel Guarin, Juliana Vargas, Philippe Chang

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The analysis and study of Open Channel flow dynamics for River applications has been based on flow modelling using discreet numerical models based on hydrodynamic equations. The overall spatial characteristics of rivers, i.e. its length to depth to width ratio generally allows one to correctly disregard processes occurring in the vertical or transverse dimensions thus imposing hydrostatic pressure conditions and considering solely a 1D flow model along the river length. Through a calibration process an accurate flow model may thus be developed allowing for channel study and extrapolation of various scenarios. The Magdalena River in Colombia is a large river basin draining the country from South to North with 1550 km with 0.0024 average slope and 275 average width across. The river displays high water level fluctuation and is characterized by a series of meanders. The city of La Dorada has been affected over the years by serious flooding in the rainy and dry seasons. As the meander is evolving at a steady pace repeated flooding has endangered a number of neighborhoods. This study has been undertaken in pro of correctly model flow characteristics of the river in this region in order to evaluate various scenarios and provide decision makers with erosion control measures options and a forecasting tool. Two field campaigns have been completed over the dry and rainy seasons including extensive topographical and channel survey using Topcon GR5 DGPS and River Surveyor ADCP. Also in order to characterize the erosion process occurring through the meander, extensive suspended and river bed samples were retrieved as well as soil perforation over the banks. Hence based on DEM ground digital mapping survey and field data a 2DH flow model was prepared using the Iber freeware based on the finite volume method in a non-structured mesh environment. The calibration process was carried out comparing available historical data of nearby hydrologic gauging station. Although the model was able to effectively predict overall flow processes in the region, its spatial characteristics and limitations related to pressure conditions did not allow for an accurate representation of erosion processes occurring over specific bank areas and dwellings. As such a significant helical flow has been observed through the meander. Furthermore, the rapidly changing channel cross section as a consequence of severe erosion has hindered the model’s ability to provide decision makers with a valid up to date planning tool.

Keywords: erosion, finite volume method, flow dynamics, flow modelling, meander

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129 Bonding Capacity of GFRP Sheet on Strengthen Concrete Beams After Influenced the Marine Environment

Authors: Mufti Amir Sultan, Rudy Djamaluddin, Rita Irmawaty

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Structures built in aggressive environments such as in the sea/marine environment need to be carefully designed, due to the possibility of chloride ion penetration into the concrete. One way to reduce the strength degradation in such environment is to use FRP, which is attached to the surface of reinforced concrete using epoxy. A series of the specimen of reinforced concrete beams with dimension 100×120×600 mm were casted. Beams were immersed in the sea for 3 months (BL3), 6 months (BL6), and 12 months (BL12). Three specimens were prepared control beam without immersion to the sea (B0). The study presented is focused on determining the effect of the marine environment to the capacity of GFRP as flexural external reinforcement elements. The result indicated that the bonding capacity of BL3, BL6, and BL12 compared to B0 decreased for 7.91%, 11.99%, and 37.83%, respectively. The decreasing was caused by the weakening of the bonding capacity GFRP due to the influence of the marine environment.

Keywords: flexural, GFRP, marine environment, bonding capacity

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128 Comparison of Quality of Life One Year after Bariatric Intervention: Systematic Review of the Literature with Bayesian Network Meta-Analysis

Authors: Piotr Tylec, Alicja Dudek, Grzegorz Torbicz, Magdalena Mizera, Natalia Gajewska, Michael Su, Tanawat Vongsurbchart, Tomasz Stefura, Magdalena Pisarska, Mateusz Rubinkiewicz, Piotr Malczak, Piotr Major, Michal Pedziwiatr

Abstract:

Introduction: Quality of life after bariatric surgery is an important factor when evaluating the final result of the treatment. Considering the vast surgical options, we tried to globally compare available methods in terms of quality of following the surgery. The aim of the study is to compare the quality of life a year after bariatric intervention using network meta-analysis methods. Material and Methods: We performed a systematic review according to PRISMA guidelines with Bayesian network meta-analysis. Inclusion criteria were: studies comparing at least two methods of weight loss treatment of which at least one is surgical, assessment of the quality of life one year after surgery by validated questionnaires. Primary outcomes were quality of life one year after bariatric procedure. The following aspects of quality of life were analyzed: physical, emotional, general health, vitality, role physical, social, mental, and bodily pain. All questionnaires were standardized and pooled to a single scale. Lifestyle intervention was considered as a referenced point. Results: An initial reference search yielded 5636 articles. 18 studies were evaluated. In comparison of total score of quality of life, we observed that laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) (median (M): 3.606, Credible Interval 97.5% (CrI): 1.039; 6.191), laparoscopic Roux en-Y gastric by-pass (LRYGB) (M: 4.973, CrI: 2.627; 7.317) and open Roux en-Y gastric by-pass (RYGB) (M: 9.735, CrI: 6.708; 12.760) had better results than other bariatric intervention in relation to lifestyle interventions. In the analysis of the physical aspects of quality of life, we notice better results in LSG (M: 3.348, CrI: 0.548; 6.147) and in LRYGB procedure (M: 5.070, CrI: 2.896; 7.208) than control intervention, and worst results in open RYGB (M: -9.212, CrI: -11.610; -6.844). Analyzing emotional aspects, we found better results than control intervention in LSG, in LRYGB, in open RYGB, and laparoscopic gastric plication. In general health better results were in LSG (M: 9.144, CrI: 4.704; 13.470), in LRYGB (M: 6.451, CrI: 10.240; 13.830) and in single-anastomosis gastric by-pass (M: 8.671, CrI: 1.986; 15.310), and worst results in open RYGB (M: -4.048, CrI: -7.984; -0.305). In social and vital aspects of quality of life, better results were observed in LSG and LRYGB than control intervention. We did not find any differences between bariatric interventions in physical role, mental and bodily aspects of quality of life. Conclusion: The network meta-analysis revealed that better quality of life in total score one year after bariatric interventions were after LSG, LRYGB, open RYGB. In physical and general health aspects worst quality of life was in open RYGB procedure. Other interventions did not significantly affect the quality of life after a year compared to dietary intervention.

Keywords: bariatric surgery, network meta-analysis, quality of life, one year follow-up

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127 Unconventional Dating of Old Peepal Tree of Chandigarh (India) Using Optically Stimulated Luminescence

Authors: Rita Rani, Ramesh Kumar

Abstract:

The intend of the current study is to date an old grand Peepal tree that is still alive. The tree is situated in Kalibard village, Sector 9, Chandigarh (India). Due to its huge structure, it has got the status of ‘Heritage tree.’ Optically Stimulated Luminescence of sediments beneath the roots is used to determine the age of the tree. Optical dating is preferred over conventional dating methods due to more precession. The methodology includes OSL of quartz grain using SAR protocol for accumulated dose measurement. The age determination of an alive tree using sedimentary quartz is in close agreement with the approximated age provided by the related agency. This is the first attempt at using optically stimulated luminescence in the age determination of alive trees in this region. The study concludes that the Luminescence dating of alive trees is the nondestructive and more precise method.

Keywords: luminescence, dose rate, optical dating, sediments

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126 Characteristics of Cement Pastes Incorporating Different Amounts of Waste Cellular Concrete Powder

Authors: Mohammed Abed, Rita Nemes

Abstract:

In this study different amounts of waste cellular concrete powder (WCCP) as replacement of cement have been investigated as an attempt to produce green binder, which is useful for sustainable construction applications. From zero to up to 60% of WCCP by mass replacement amounts of cement has been conducted. Consistency, compressive strength, bending strength and the activity index of WCCP through seven to ninety days old specimens have been examined, where the optimum WCCP replacement was up to 30%, depending on which the activity index still increased to the end of test period (90 days) and this could be an evidence for its continuity to increase for longer age. Also up to 30% of WCCP increased the bending strength to be higher than the control one. The main point in the present study that there is a possibility of replacing cement by 30% of WCCP, however, it is preferable to be less than this amount.

Keywords: cellular concrete powder, waste cellular concrete powder (WCCP), supplementary cementatious material, SCM, activity index, mechanical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 131
125 An Exploration of the Provision of Government-Subsidised Housing without Title Deeds: A Recipient’s Interpretation of Security of Tenure

Authors: Maléne Maria Magdalena Campbell, Jeremiah Mholo

Abstract:

Low-income households earning less than 3,500 ZAR (about 175 GBP) per month can apply to the South African government, through the National Housing Subsidy, for fully subsidised houses. An objective of this subsidy is to enable low-income households’ participation in the formal housing market; however, the beneficiaries received houses without title deeds. As such, if the beneficiaries did not have a secured tenure at the time of their death then surviving family may face possible eviction. Therefore, an aim of this research was to determine how these beneficiaries interpret tenure security. The research focused on government subsidised housing in the Dithlake settlement of a rural hamlet named Koffiefontein, in the Letsemeng Local Municipality of South Africa. Quantitative data on the beneficiaries were collected from the local municipality, while qualitative data were collected from a sample of 45 beneficiaries.

Keywords: low-income families, subsidised housing, titling, housing market

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124 Competitive Advantage: Sustainable or Transient

Authors: Pallavi Thacker, H. P. Mathur

Abstract:

This paper tries to find out from the available literature the status of Competitive Advantage. It has been stated a number of times that firms must strive to attain sustainable competitive advantage; but is the concept of sustainability of advantage still valid in this new diversified and too-rapidly changing world? The paper reaches a conclusion that the answer is “no”. Gone is the time when once attained position could easily be retained forever or at-least for a substantial amount of time. We live in a time which is very much globalised. We are used to a high level of competition from all directions. Technological advances, developed human capital, flexibility and end number of factors make the sustenance of competitive advantage difficult. This paper analyses competitive advantage from the view points of Michael Porter (who talks about sustainability) and Rita Gunther McGrath (who says competitive advantage can no more be sustained). It uses many examples and evidences from papers, journals and news. A research in this area is very much required (especially in a developing country like India) so that industries, firms and people can find out the suitable strategies that match with the changing times.

Keywords: competitive advantage, sustainable, transient, globalisation

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
123 On the Optimality of Blocked Main Effects Plans

Authors: Rita SahaRay, Ganesh Dutta

Abstract:

In this article, experimental situations are considered where a main effects plan is to be used to study m two-level factors using n runs which are partitioned into b blocks, not necessarily of same size. Assuming the block sizes to be even for all blocks, for the case n ≡ 2 (mod 4), optimal designs are obtained with respect to type 1 and type 2 optimality criteria in the class of designs providing estimation of all main effects orthogonal to the block effects. In practice, such orthogonal estimation of main effects is often a desirable condition. In the wider class of all available m two level even sized blocked main effects plans, where the factors do not occur at high and low levels equally often in each block, E-optimal designs are also characterized. Simple construction methods based on Hadamard matrices and Kronecker product for these optimal designs are presented.

Keywords: design matrix, Hadamard matrix, Kronecker product, type 1 criteria, type 2 criteria

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122 Metal (Loids) Speciation Using HPLC-ICP-MS Technique in Klodnica River, Upper Silesia, Poland

Authors: Magdalena Jabłońska-Czapla

Abstract:

The work allowed gaining knowledge about redox and speciation changes of As, Cr, and Sb ionic forms in Klodnica River water. This kind of studies never has been conducted in this region of Poland. In study optimized and validated previously HPLC-ICP-MS methods for determination of As, Sb and Cr was used. Separation step was done using high-performance liquid chromatograph equipped with ion-exchange column followed by ICP-MS spectrometer detector. Preliminary studies included determination of the total concentration of As, Sb and Cr, pH, Eh, temperature and conductivity of the water samples. The study was conducted monthly from March to August 2014, at six points on the Klodnica River. The results indicate that exceeded at acceptable concentration of total Cr and Sb was observed in Klodnica River and we should qualify Klodnica River waters below the second purity class. In Klodnica River waters dominates oxidized antimony and arsenic forms, as well as the two forms of chromium Cr(VI) and Cr(III). Studies have also shown the methyl derivative of arsenic's presence.

Keywords: antimony, arsenic, chromium, HPLC-ICP-MS, river water, speciation

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
121 Evaluation Synthesis of Private Sector Engagement in International Development

Authors: Valerie Habbel, Magdalena Orth, Johanna Richter, Steffen Schimko

Abstract:

Cooperation between development actors and the private sector is becoming increasingly important, as it is expected to mobilize additional resources to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), among other things. However, whether the goals of cooperation are achieved has so far only been explored in evaluations and studies of individual projects and instruments. The evaluation synthesis attempts to close this gap by systematically analyzing existing evidence (evaluations and academic studies) from national and international development cooperation on private sector engagement. Overall, the evaluations and studies considered report mainly positive effects on investors and donors, intermediaries, partner countries, and target groups. However, various analyses, including on the quality of the evaluations, point to a positive bias in the results. The evaluation synthesis makes recommendations on the definition of indicators, the measurement and evaluation of impacts and additionality, knowledge management, and the consideration of transaction costs in cooperation with private actors.

Keywords: evaluation synthesis, private sector engagement, international development, sustainable development

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120 Should Local Governments Expect Benefits from Special Economic Zones: The Case of Poland

Authors: Radosław Pastusiak, Anna Kaźmierska, Magdalena Jasiniak

Abstract:

The impact of Special Economic Zones (SEZs) has been analyzed for many years by researchers. There are lot of theoretical studies proving the SEZs importance for regional development, however, there is lack of empirical studies (and they are mainly focused on China market) that are based on available data. The theoretical studies indicate the various impacts of enterprises operating within SEZs on the economy. The article proves that, in case of Poland, locating SEZs in municipalities is an important part of increasing municipalities’ income. Therefore SEZs have a positive impact on regional development. Municipality income is understood as taxes paid by taxpayers who depend on SEZ companies’ performance. The analysis includes the Corporate Income Tax (CIT), Personal Income Tax (PIT) and real estate tax. The effects of SEZs on regional development were narrowed to a few variables that are most significant for the financial system. The analysis indicates the significant impact of SEZs on the amount of taxes influencing the municipality budget.

Keywords: special economic zone, local finance, municipal finance, government

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
119 Physical-Chemical Parameters of Latvian Apple Juices and Their Suitability for Cider Production

Authors: Rita Riekstina-Dolge, Zanda Kruma, Daina Karklina, Fredijs Dimins

Abstract:

Apple juice is the main raw material for cider production. In this study apple juices obtained from 14 dessert and crab variety apples grown in Latvia were investigated. For all samples soluble solids, titratable acidity, pH and sugar content were determined. Crab apples produce more dry matter, total sugar and acid content compared to the dessert apples but it depends on the apple variety. Total sugar content of crab apple juices was 1.3 to 1.8 times larger than in dessert apple juices. Titratable acidity of dessert apple juices is in the range of 4.1g L-1 to 10.83g L-1 and in crab apple juices titratable acidity is from 7.87g L-1 to 19.6g L-1. Fructose was detected as the main sugar whereas glucose level varied depending on the variety. The highest titratable acidity and content of sugars was detected in ‘Cornelia’ apples juice.

Keywords: apple juice, hierarchical cluster analysis, sugars, titratable acidity

Procedia PDF Downloads 155
118 Experimental Assessment of Micromechanical Models for Mechanical Properties of Recycled Short Fiber Composites

Authors: Mohammad S. Rouhi, Magdalena Juntikka

Abstract:

Processing of polymer fiber composites has a remarkable influence on their mechanical performance. These mechanical properties are even more influenced when using recycled reinforcement. Therefore, we place particular attention on the evaluation of micromechanical models to estimate the mechanical properties and compare them against the experimental results of the manufactured composites. For the manufacturing process, an epoxy matrix and carbon fiber production cut-offs as reinforcing material are incorporated using a vacuum infusion process. In addition, continuous textile reinforcement in combination with the epoxy matrix is used as reference material to evaluate the kick-down in mechanical performance of the recycled composite. The experimental results show less degradation of the composite stiffness compared to the strength properties. Observations from the modeling also show the same trend as the error between the theoretical and experimental results is lower for stiffness comparisons than the strength calculations. Yet still, good mechanical performance for specific applications can be expected from these materials.

Keywords: composite recycling, carbon fibers, mechanical properties, micromechanics

Procedia PDF Downloads 54