Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 28

Search results for: Hsiu-I Hsueh

28 Characteristics of Photoluminescence in Resonant Quasiperiodic Double-period Quantum Wells

Authors: C. H. Chang, R. Z. Qiu, C. W. Tsao, Y. H. Cheng, C. H. Chen, W. J. Hsueh


Characteristics of photoluminescence (PL) in a resonant quasi-periodic double-period quantum wells (DPQW) are demonstrated. The maximum PL intensity in the DPQW is remarkably greater than that in a traditional periodic QW (PQW) under the Bragg or anti-Bragg conditions. The optimal PL spectrum in the DPQW has an asymmetrical form instead of the symmetrical form in the PQW. Moreover, there are two large values of PL intensity in the DPQW, which also differs from the PQW.

Keywords: Photoluminescence, quantum wells, quasiperiodic structure

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27 The Investigation of LPG Injector Control Circuit on a Motorcycle

Authors: Bin-Wen Lan, Ying-Xin Chen, Hsueh-Cheng Yang


Liquefied petroleum gas is a fuel that has high octane number and low carbon number. This paper uses MSC-51 controller to investigate the effect of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) on exhaust emissions for different engine speeds in a single cylinder, four-stroke and spark ignition engine. The results indicate that CO, CO2 and NOX exhaust emissions are lower with the use of LPG compared to the use of unleaded gasoline by using the developed controller. The open-loop in the LPG injection system was controlled by MCS-51 single chip. The results show that if a SI engine is operated with LPG fuel rather than gasoline fuel under the same conditions, significant reduction in exhaust emissions can be achieved. In summary, LPG has positive effects on main exhaust emissions such as CO, CO2 and NOX.

Keywords: LPG, control circuit, emission, MCS-51

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26 A Simple Low-Cost 2-D Optical Measurement System for Linear Guideways

Authors: Wen-Yuh Jywe, Bor-Jeng Lin, Jing-Chung Shen, Jeng-Dao Lee, Hsueh-Liang Huang, Tung-Hsien Hsieh


In this study, a simple 2-D measurement system based on optical design was developed to measure the motion errors of the linear guideway. Compared with the transitional methods about the linear guideway for measuring the motion errors, our proposed 2-D optical measurement system can simultaneously measure horizontal and vertical running straightness errors for the linear guideway. The performance of the 2-D optical measurement system is verified by experimental results. The standard deviation of the 2-D optical measurement system is about 0.4 μm in the measurement range of 100 mm. The maximum measuring speed of the proposed automatic measurement instrument is 1 m/sec.

Keywords: 2-D measurement, linear guideway, motion errors, running straightness

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25 Creative Self-efficacy and Innovation Speed of New Ventures: The Mediating Role of Entrepreneurial Bricolage

Authors: Yi-Wen Chen, Hsueh-Liang Fan


Evidence shows that start-ups success is positively correlated with innovation speed. However, new ventures are seldom able to acquire abundant resources for new product development (NPD), which means that entrepreneurs may depend on personal creativity instead of physical investments to achieve and accelerate speed of first product launch. This study accentuates the role of entrepreneurial bricolage, which defined as making do by applying combinations of the resources at hand to new problems and opportunities, in the relations of creative self-efficacy and innovation speed. This study uses structural equation modeling to test the hypotheses in a sample of 203 start-ups operating various creative markets. Results reveal that creative self-efficacy is positively and directly associated with innovation speed, whereas entrepreneurial bricolage plays a full mediator. These findings offer important theoretical and practical implications.

Keywords: creative self-efficacy, innovation speed, entrepreneurial bricolage, new ventures

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24 Mathematical Model of a Compound Gear Pump

Authors: Hsueh-Cheng Yang


The generation and design of compound involute spur gearings can be used in gear pump. A compound rack cutter with asymmetric involute teeth is presented for determining the mathematical model of compound gear pumps. This paper covers the following topics: (a) generation and geometry of compound rack cutter is presented and used to generate a compound gear and a compound pinion. (b) Based on the developed compound gears, stress analysis was performed for the symmetric gears and the asymmetric gears. Comparing the results of the stress analysis for the asymmetric involute teeth is superior to the symmetric involute teeth. A numerical example that illustrates the developed compound rack cutter is represented.

Keywords: compound, involute teeth, gear pump, rack cutter

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23 Connections among Personality, Teacher-Student Relationship, Belief in a Just World for Others and Teacher Bullying

Authors: Hui-Yu Peng, Hsiu-I Hsueh, Li-Ming Chen


Most studies focused on bullying behaviors among students, however few research concerns about teachers’ bullying behaviors against students. In order to have more understandings and reduce teacher bullying, it is important to examine what factors may affect teachers’ bullying behaviors. This study aimed to explore the connections between different psychological variables and teacher bullying. Four variables, neuroticism, extraversion, teacher-student relationship, and belief in a just world for others (BJW-others), were selected in this study. Four hundred and five elementary and secondary school teachers in Taiwan endorsed the self-reported surveys. Multiple regression method was used to analyze data. Results revealed that teachers’ BJW-others and extraversion did not have significant correlations with teacher bullying scores. However, closed teacher-student relationship and neuroticism can negatively and positively predict teachers’ bullying behaviors against students, respectively. Implications for preventing teacher bullying were discussed at the end of this study.

Keywords: belief in a just world for others, big five personality traits, teacher bullying, teacher-student relationship

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22 Unraveling Biostimulation of Decolorized Mediators for Microbial Fuel Cell-Aided Textile Dye Decontamination

Authors: Pei-Lin Yueh, Bor-Yann Chen, Chuan-Chung Hsueh


This first-attempt study revealed that decolorized intermediates of azo dyes could act as redox mediators to assist wastewater (WW) decolorization due to enhancement of electron-transport phenomena. Electrochemical impedance spectra indicated that hydroxyl and amino-substituent(s) were functional group(s) as redox-mediator(s). As azo dyes are usually multiple benzene rings structured, their derived decolorized intermediates are likely to play roles of electron shuttles due to lower barrier of energy gap for electron shuttling. According to cyclic voltammetric profiles, redox-mediating characteristics of decolorized intermediates of azo dyes (e.g., RBu171, RR198, RR141, and RBk5) were clearly disclosed. With supplementation of biodecolorized metabolites of RR141 and 198, decolorization performance of could be evidently augmented. This study also suggested the optimal modes of microbial fuel cell (MFC)-assisted WW decolorization would be plug-flow or batch mode of operation with no mix. Single chamber-MFCs would be more favourable than double chamber MFCs due to non-mixing contacting reactor scheme for operation.

Keywords: redox mediators, dye decolorization, bioelectricity generation, microbial fuel cells

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21 Exploring the Physical Environment and Building Features in Earthquake Disaster Areas

Authors: Chang Hsueh-Sheng, Chen Tzu-Ling


Earthquake is an unpredictable natural disaster and intensive earthquakes have caused serious impacts on social-economic system, environmental and social resilience. Conventional ways to mitigate earthquake disaster are to enhance building codes and advance structural engineering measures. However, earthquake-induced ground damage such as liquefaction, land subsidence, landslide happen on places nearby earthquake prone or poor soil condition areas. Therefore, this study uses spatial statistical analysis to explore the spatial pattern of damaged buildings. Afterwards, principle components analysis (PCA) is applied to categorize the similar features in different kinds of clustered patterns. The results show that serious landslide prone area, close to fault, vegetated ground surface and mudslide prone area are common in those highly damaged buildings. In addition, the oldest building might not be directly referred to the most vulnerable one. In fact, it seems that buildings built between 1974 and 1989 become more fragile during the earthquake. The incorporation of both spatial statistical analyses and PCA can provide more accurate information to subsidize retrofit programs to enhance earthquake resistance in particular areas.

Keywords: earthquake disaster, spatial statistic analysis, principle components analysis (pca), clustered patterns

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20 Autophagy Regulates Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Tumorigenesis through Selective Degradation of Cyclin D1

Authors: Shan-Ying Wu, Sheng-Hui Lan, Xi-Zhang Lin, Ih-Jen Su, Ting-Fen Tsai, Chia-Jui Yen, Tsung-Hsueh Lu, Fu-Wen Liang, Huey-Jen Su, Chun-Li Su, Hsiao-Sheng Liu


In hepatocelluar carcinoma (HCC), dysregulated expression of cyclin D1 and impaired autophagy has been reported separately. However, the relationship between them has not been explored. In this study, we demonstrated that autophagy was inversely correlated with cyclin D1 expression in 147 paired HCC patient specimens. HCC specimen with highly expression of cyclin D1 shows correlation with poor overall survival rate. Furthermore, induction of autophagy by amiodarone (antiarrhythmic drug) in Hep 3B cells, cyclin D1 was recruited into autophagosomes demonstrated by immune-gold labeling of cyclin D1 after extraction of autophagosomes. We further demonstrated that autophagy suppresses Hep 3B cell proliferation, and further analysis revealed that cell cycle was arrested at G1 phase. The interaction between LC3 (maker of autophagy) and cyclin D1 was increased after autophagy induction. In addition, ubiquitinated-cyclin D1 was also increased after autophagy induction, which is selectively degraded by autophagosome through binding with SQSTM1/p62 (an adaptor protein). In vivo study showed that amiodarone induced autophagy suppresses liver tumor formation in xenograft mouse and orthotopic rat model through decreasing cyclin D1 expression and inhibition of cell proliferation. Altogether, we reveal a novel mechanism that ubiquitinated cyclin D1 degraded by autophagic pathway by p62 and amiodarone is a promising drug for targeting cyclin D1 in liver cancer therapy.

Keywords: autophagy, cyclin D1, hepatocellular carcinoma, amiodarone

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19 Mackerel (Scomber Australasicus) Reproduction in Northeastern Taiwan

Authors: Sunarti Sinaga, Hsueh-Jung Lu, Jia-Rong Lin


Blue mackerel (Scomber australasicus) is a crucial target species for Taiwan coastal fisheries and has maintained its status as the highest-produced species. Timely measurement of spawning status is crucial for determining the correct management strategy for this species. The objective of this study was to determine size at maturity, fecundity, batch fecundity, and spawning frequency on the basis of samples collected from Nan-Fang-Ao fishing port in Yilan during the spawning season from 2017 to 2019. Histological sections indicated that the blue mackerel are multiple spawners. A higher percentage of female fish spawned at the peak of the gonadosomatic index. The 50% sizes at maturity were 32.02, 32.13, and 29.64 cm. Mean total fecundity (batch fecundity) was 165 (103), 229 (96), and 210 (68) oocytes per ovary-free weight (g) for 2017, 2018, and 2019, respectively; fecundity was determined through observation of postovulatory follicles (POFs). The spawning frequencies (spawning fraction) in 2017, 2018, and 2019 were 3–10 days (0.13), 4–14 days (0.08), and 4–12 days (0.08), respectively. The spawning frequencies determined through the 3 estimated methods, namely the sums of (a) hydrated and Day 0 POFs; (b) Day 1+ POFs, and (c) all data combined, were 1 spawning event per 8, 10, and 9 days, respectively. The reproduction of the blue mackerel was greater in 2017 than it was in 2018 or 2019, as indicated by the higher batch fecundity and shorter spawning seasons. Environmental factors should also be considered as a major factor influencing successful reproduction and the spawning season.

Keywords: scomber australasicus, spawning frequency, batch fecundity, fecundity

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18 NprRX Regulation on Surface Spreading Motility in Bacillus cereus

Authors: Yan-Shiang Chiou, Yi-Huang Hsueh


Bacillus cereus is a foodborne pathogen that causes two types of foodborne illness, the emetic and diarrheal syndromes. B. cereus consistently ranks among the top three among bacterial foodborne outbreaks in the ten years of 2001 to 2010 in Taiwan. Foodborne outbreak caused by B. cereus has been increased, and recently it ranks second foodborne pathogen after Vibrio parahaemolyticus. This pathogen is difficult to control due to its ubiquitousness in the environment, the psychrotrophic nature of many strains, and the heat resistance of their spores. Because complete elimination of biofilms is difficult, a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of biofilm formation by B. cereus will help to develop better strategies to control this pathogen. Surface translocation can be an important factor in biofilm formation. In B. cereus, NprR is a quorum sensor, and its apo NprR is a dimer and changes to a tetramer in the presence of NprX. The small peptide NprX may induce conformational change allowing the apo dimer to switch to an active tetramer specifically recognizing target DNA sequences. Our result showed that mutation of nprRX causes surface spreading deficiency. Mutation of flagella, pili and surfactant genes (flgAB, bcpAB, krsABC), did not abolish spreading motility. Under nprRX mutant, mutation of spo0A restored the spreading deficiency. This suggests that spreading motility is not related surfactant, pili and flagella but other unknown mechanism and Spo0A, a sporulation initiation protein, inhibits spreading motility.

Keywords: Bacillus cereus, nprRX, spo0A, spreading motility

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17 Bringing the Confidence Intervals into Choropleth Mortality Map: An Example of Tainan, Taiwan

Authors: Tzu-Jung Tseng, Pei-Hsuen Han, Tsung-Hsueh Lu


Background: Choropleth mortality map is commonly used to identify areas with higher mortality risk. However, the use of choropleth map alone might result in the misinterpretation of differences in mortality rates between areas. Two areas with different color shades might not actually have a significant difference in mortality rates. The mortality rates estimated for an area with a small population would be less stable. We suggest of bringing the 95% confidence intervals (CI) into the choropleth mortality map to help users interpret the areal mortality rate difference more properly. Method: In the first choropleth mortality map, we used only three color to indicate standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for each district in Tainan, Taiwan. The red color denotes that the SMR of that district was significantly higher than the Tainan average; on the contrary, the green color suggests that the SMR of that district was significantly lower than the Tainan average. The yellow color indicates that the SMR of that district was not statistically significantly different from the Tainan average. In the second choropleth mortality map, we used traditional sequential color scheme (color ramp) for different SMR in 37 districts in Tainan City with bar chart of each SMR with 95% CI in which the users could examine if the line of 95% CI of SMR of two districts overlapped (nonsignificant difference). Results: The all-causes SMR of each district in Tainan for 2008 to 2013 ranged from 0.77 (95% CI 0.75 to 0.80) in East District to 1.39 Beimen (95% CI 1.25 to 1.52). In the first choropleth mortality map, only 16 of 37 districts had red color and 8 districts had green color. For different causes of death, the number of districts with red color differed. In the first choropleth mortality map we added a bar chart with line of 95% CI of SMR in each district, in which the users could visualize the SMR differences between districts. Conclusion: Through the use of 95% CI the users could interpret the aral mortality differences more properly.

Keywords: choropleth map, small area variation, standardized mortality ratio (SMR), Taiwan

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16 Message Authentication Scheme for Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks under Sparse RSUs Environment

Authors: Wen Shyong Hsieh, Chih Hsueh Lin


In this paper, we combine the concepts of chameleon hash function (CHF) and identification based cryptography (IBC) to build a message authentication environment for VANET under sparse RSUs. Based on the CHF, TA keeps two common secrets that will be embedded to all identities to be as the evidence of mutual trusting. TA will issue one original identity to every RSU and vehicle. An identity contains one public ID and one private key. The public ID, includes three components: pseudonym, random key, and public key, is used to present one entity and can be verified to be a legal one. The private key is used to claim the ownership of the public ID. Based on the concept of IBC, without any negotiating process, a CHF pairing key multiplied by one private key and other’s public key will be used for mutually trusting and to be utilized as the session key of secure communicating between RSUs and vehicles. To help the vehicles to do message authenticating, the RSUs are assigned to response the vehicle’s temple identity request using two short time secretes that are broadcasted by TA. To light the loading of request information, one day is divided into M time slots. At every time slot, TA will broadcast two short time secretes to all valid RSUs for that time slot. Any RSU can response the temple identity request from legal vehicles. With the collected announcement of public IDs from the neighbor vehicles, a vehicle can set up its neighboring set, which includes the information about the neighbor vehicle’s temple public ID and temple CHF pairing key that can be derived by the private key and neighbor’s public key and will be used to do message authenticating or secure communicating without the help of RSU.

Keywords: Internet of Vehicles (IOV), Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANETs), Chameleon Hash Function (CHF), message authentication

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15 Efficiency and Scale Elasticity in Network Data Envelopment Analysis: An Application to International Tourist Hotels in Taiwan

Authors: Li-Hsueh Chen


Efficient operation is more and more important for managers of hotels. Unlike the manufacturing industry, hotels cannot store their products. In addition, many hotels provide room service, and food and beverage service simultaneously. When efficiencies of hotels are evaluated, the internal structure should be considered. Hence, based on the operational characteristics of hotels, this study proposes a DEA model to simultaneously assess the efficiencies among the room production division, food and beverage production division, room service division and food and beverage service division. However, not only the enhancement of efficiency but also the adjustment of scale can improve the performance. In terms of the adjustment of scale, scale elasticity or returns to scale can help to managers to make decisions concerning expansion or contraction. In order to construct a reasonable approach to measure the efficiencies and scale elasticities of hotels, this study builds an alternative variable-returns-to-scale-based two-stage network DEA model with the combination of parallel and series structures to explore the scale elasticities of the whole system, room production division, food and beverage production division, room service division and food and beverage service division based on the data of international tourist hotel industry in Taiwan. The results may provide valuable information on operational performance and scale for managers and decision makers.

Keywords: efficiency, scale elasticity, network data envelopment analysis, international tourist hotel

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14 The Nursing Experience for an Intestinal Perforation Elderly with a Temporary Enterostomy

Authors: Hsiu-Chuan Hsueh, Kuei-Feng Shen Jr., Chia-Ling Chao, Hui-Chuan Pan


This article described a 75 years old woman who has suffered from intestinal perforation and accepted surgery with temporary enterostomy, the operation makes her depressed, refused relatives and friend's care, facing low willingness to participate in various activities due to fear of changing body appearance caused by surgery and leave enterostomy. The author collected information through observation talks, physical evaluation, and medical records during the period of care from November 14 to November 30, 2016, we used the four aspects of physiology, psychology, society and spirituality as a whole sexual assessment to establish the nursing problems of patient, included of acute pain, disturbance of body image,coping ineffective individual. For patient care issues, to encouraged case to express their inner feelings and take part in self-care programs through providing good therapeutic interpersonal relationships with their families. However, it provided clear information about the disease and follow-up treatment plan, give compliments in a timely manner, enhanced self-confidence of individual cases and their motivation to participate in self-care of stoma, further face the disease in a positive manner. At the same time, cross-section team care model and individual care measures were developed to enhance the care skills after returning home and at the same time assist the individual in facing the psychological impact caused by stoma. Hope to provide this experience, as a reference for the future care of the disease.

Keywords: enterostomy, intestinal perforation, nursing experience, ostomy

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13 Assessing the Accessibility to Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

Authors: Tzu-Jung Tseng, Pei-Hsuen Han, Tsung-Hsueh Lu


Background: Ensuring patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) access to hospitals that could perform percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in time is an important concern of healthcare managers. One commonly used the method to assess the coverage of population access to PCI hospital is the use GIS-estimated linear distance (crow's fly distance) between the district centroid and the nearest PCI hospital. If the distance is within a given distance (such as 20 km), the entire population of that district is considered to have appropriate access to PCI. The premise of using district centroid to estimate the coverage of population resident in that district is that the people live in the district are evenly distributed. In reality, the population density is not evenly distributed within the administrative district, especially in rural districts. Fortunately, the Taiwan government released basic statistical area (on average 450 population within the area) recently, which provide us an opportunity to estimate the coverage of population access to PCI services more accurate. Objectives: We aimed in this study to compare the population covered by a give PCI hospital according to traditional administrative district versus basic statistical area. We further examined if the differences between two geographic units used would be larger in a rural area than in urban area. Method: We selected two hospitals in Tainan City for this analysis. Hospital A is in urban area, hospital B is in rural area. The population in each traditional administrative district and basic statistical area are obtained from Taiwan National Geographic Information System, Ministry of Internal Affairs. Results: Estimated population live within 20 km of hospital A and B was 1,515,846 and 323,472 according to traditional administrative district and was 1,506,325 and 428,556 according to basic statistical area. Conclusion: In urban area, the estimated access population to PCI services was similar between two geographic units. However, in rural areas, the access population would be overestimated.

Keywords: accessibility, basic statistical area, modifiable areal unit problem (MAUP), percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)

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12 Ambulatory Care Utilization of Individuals with Cerebral Palsy in Taiwan- A Country with Universal Coverage and No Gatekeeper Regulation

Authors: Ming-Juei Chang, Hui-Ing Ma, Tsung-Hsueh Lu


Introduction: Because of the advance of medical care (e.g., ventilation techniques and gastrostomy feeding), more and more children with CP can live to adulthood. However, little is known about the use of health care services from children to adults who have CP. The patterns of utilization of ambulatory care are heavily influenced by insurance coverage and primary care gatekeeper regulation. The purpose of this study was to examine patterns of ambulatory care utilization among individuals with CP in Taiwan, a country with universal coverage and no gatekeeper regulation. Methods: A representative sample of one million patients (about 1/23 of total population) covered by Taiwan’s National Health Insurance was used to analyze the ambulatory care utilization in individuals with CP. Data were analyzed by 3 different age groups (children, youth and adults) during 2000 to 2003. Participants were identified by the presence of CP diagnosis made by pediatricians or physicians of physical and rehabilitation medicine and stated at least three times in claims data. Results: Annual rates of outpatient physician visits were 31680 for children, 16492 for youth, and 28617 for adults with CP (per 1000 persons). Individuals with CP received over 50% of their outpatient care from hospital outpatient department. Higher use of specialist physician services was found in children (54.7%) than in the other two age groups (28.4% in youth and 18.8% in adults). Diseases of respiratory system were the most frequent diagnoses for visits in both children and youth with CP. Diseases of the circulatory system were the main reasons (24.3%) that adults with CP visited hospital outpatient care department or clinics. Conclusion: This study showed different patterns of ambulatory care utilization among different age groups. It appears that youth and adults with CP continue to have complex health issues and rely heavily on the health care system. Additional studies are needed to determine the factors which influence ambulatory care utilization among individuals with CP.

Keywords: cerebral palsy, health services, lifespan, universal coverage

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11 The Effect of Branched-Chain Amino Acids, Arginine, and Citrulline on Repeated Swimming Performance

Authors: Chun-Fang Hsueh, Chen-Kang Chang


Introduction: Branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) could reduce cerebral uptake of tryptophan, leading to decreased synthesis of serotonin in the brain. Arginine and citrulline could reduce exercise-induced hyperammonemia by increasing nitric oxide synthesis and the urea cycle. The combination of these supplements could reduce exercise-induced central fatigue. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of BCAA, arginine, and citrulline supplementation on repeated swimming performance in teenage athletes. Methods: Eight male and eight female high school swimmers ingested 0.085 g/kg BCAA, 0.05 g/kg arginine and 0.05 g/kg citrulline (AA trial) or placebo (PL trial) in a randomized cross-over design. One hour after the ingestion, the subjects performed a 50 m sprint with their best style every 2 min for 8 times in an indoor 25 m pool. The subjects were asked to swim with their maximal effort each time. The time, stroke frequency and stroke length in each sprint were recorded. Venous blood samples were collected before and after the exercise. The time for each sprint was analyzed by 2-way analysis of variance with repeated measurement. Results: When all subjects were pooled together, total time for the AA trial was significantly faster than the PL trial (AA: 244.02 ± 22.94 s; PL: 247.55 ± 24.17 s, p < .001). Individual sprint time showed significant trial (p= .001) and trial x time (p= .004) effects. The post-hoc analysis revealed that the AA trial was significantly faster than the PL trial in the 2nd, 5th, and 6th sprint. In female subjects, there is a significant trial effect (p= .004) with the AA trial being faster in the 1st, 2nd, and 5th sprint. On the other hand, the trial effect was not significant (p= .072) in male subjects. Conclusions: The combined supplementation could improve 8 x 50 m performance in high school swimmers. The blood parameters including BCAA, tryptophan, NH₃, nitric oxide, and urea, as well as the stroke frequency and length in each sprint, are being analyzed. The results will be presented in the conference.

Keywords: central fatigue, hyperammonemia, tryptophan, urea

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10 Plasma Selenium Concentration and Polymorphism of Selenoprotein and Prostate Cancer

Authors: Yu-Mei Hsueh, Cheng-Shiuan Tsai, Chao-Yuan Huang


Prostate Cancer (PC) is a malignant tumor originated in prostate and is a second common male’s cancer in the world. Incidence of PC in Asia countries, have still been rising over the past few decades. As an antioxidant, selenium can slow down prostate cancer tumor progression, but the association between plasma selenium levels and risk of aggressive prostate cancer may be modified by different genotype of selenoprotein. The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between plasma selenium, polymorphism of selenoprotein, urinaty total arsenic, and prostate cancer. Two hundred ninety five pathologically-confirmed cases of PC and 295 cancer-free controls were individually matched to case subjects by age (± 5 years) were recruited from Department of Urology of National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei Municipal Wan Fang Hospital and Taipei Medical University Hospital. Personal interview and biospeciment of urine and blood collection from participants were conducted by well-trained interviewers after participants’ informed consent was obtained. Plasma selenium was measured by an inductively coupled plasma mass. Urinary arsenic concentration was detected using high-performance liquid chromatography-linked hydride generator and atomic absorption spectrometry. The polymorphism of SEPP1rs3797310 and SEP15 rs5859 were determined using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. The higher plasma selenium was the lower OR of PC with a dose-response relationship. Prostate cancer patients with high plasma selenium had low tumor stage and grade. Participants carried SEPP1rs3797310 CT+TT genotype compared to those with CC genotype had a lower OR of PC in crude model; then this relationship was disappeared after confounder was adjusted. Prostate cancer patients with high urinary total arsenic concentration had high tumor stage and grade. Urinary total arsenic concentration was significantly positively related with plasma selenium and prostate specific antigen concentration. Participants with lower plasma selenium concentration and higher urinary total arsenic concentration compared to those with higher plasma selenium concentration and lower urinary total arsenic concentration had a higher OR of PC with a dose-response relationship.

Keywords: prostate cancer, plasma selenium concentration, urinary arsenic concentration, prostate specific antigen

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9 Refusal Speech Acts in French Learners of Mandarin Chinese

Authors: Jui-Hsueh Hu


This study investigated various models of refusal speech acts among three target groups: French learners of Mandarin Chinese (FM), Taiwanese native Mandarin speakers (TM), and native French speakers (NF). The refusal responses were analyzed in terms of their options, frequencies, and sequences and the contents of their semantic formulas. This study also examined differences in refusal strategies, as determined by social status and social distance, among the three groups. The difficulties of refusal speech acts encountered by FM were then generalized. The results indicated that Mandarin instructors of NF should focus on the different reasons for the pragmatic failure of French learners and should assist these learners in mastering refusal speech acts that rely on abundant cultural information. In this study, refusal policies were mainly classified according to the research of Beebe et al. (1990). Discourse completion questionnaires were collected from TM, FM, and NF, and their responses were compared to determine how refusal policies differed among the groups. This study not only emphasized the dissimilarities of refusal strategies between native Mandarin speakers and second-language Mandarin learners but also used NF as a control group. The results of this study demonstrated that regarding overall strategies, FM were biased toward NF in terms of strategy choice, order, and content, resulting in pragmatic transfer under the influence of social factors such as 'social status' and 'social distance,' strategy choices of FM were still closer to those of NF, and the phenomenon of pragmatic transfer of FM was revealed. Regarding the refusal difficulties among the three groups, the F-test in the analysis of variance revealed statistical significance was achieved for Role Playing Items 13 and 14 (P < 0.05). A difference was observed in the average number of refusal difficulties between the participants. However, after multiple comparisons, it was found that item 13 (unrecognized heterosexual junior colleague requesting contacts) was significantly more difficult for NF than for TM and FM; item 14 (contacts requested by an unrecognized classmate of the opposite sex) was significantly more difficult to refuse for NF than for TM. This study summarized the pragmatic language errors that most FM often perform, including the misuse or absence of modal words, hedging expressions, and empty words at the end of sentences, as the reasons for pragmatic failures. The common social pragmatic failures of FM include inaccurately applying the level of directness and formality.

Keywords: French Mandarin, interlanguage refusal, pragmatic transfer, speech acts

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8 The Willingness to Pay of People in Taiwan for Flood Protection Standard of Regions

Authors: Takahiro Katayama, Hsueh-Sheng Chang


Due to the global climate change, it has increased the extreme rainfall that led to serious floods around the world. In recent years, urbanization and population growth also tend to increase the number of impervious surfaces, resulting in significant loss of life and property during floods especially for the urban areas of Taiwan. In the past, the primary governmental response to floods was structural flood control and the only flood protection standards in use were the design standards. However, these design standards of flood control facilities are generally calculated based on current hydrological conditions. In the face of future extreme events, there is a high possibility to surpass existing design standards and cause damages directly and indirectly to the public. To cope with the frequent occurrence of floods in recent years, it has been pointed out that there is a need for a different standard called FPSR (Flood Protection Standard of Regions) in Taiwan. FPSR is mainly used for disaster reduction and used to ensure that hydraulic facilities draining regional flood immediately under specific return period. FPSR could convey a level of flood risk which is useful for land use planning and reflect the disaster situations that a region can bear. However, little has been reported on FPSR and its impacts to the public in Taiwan. Hence, this study proposes a quantity procedure to evaluate the FPSR. This study aimed to examine FPSR of the region and public perceptions of and knowledge about FPSR, as well as the public’s WTP (willingness to pay) for FPSR. The research is conducted via literature review and questionnaire method. Firstly, this study will review the domestic and international research on the FPSR, and provide the theoretical framework of FPSR. Secondly, CVM (Contingent Value Method) has been employed to conduct this survey and using double-bounded dichotomous choice, close-ended format elicits households WTP for raising the protection level to understand the social costs. The samplings of this study are citizens living in Taichung city, Taiwan and 700 samplings were chosen in this study. In the end, this research will continue working on surveys, finding out which factors determining WTP, and provide some recommendations for adaption policies for floods in the future.

Keywords: climate change, CVM (Contingent Value Method), FPSR (Flood Protection Standard of Regions), urban flooding

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7 Exploring Coexisting Opportunity of Earthquake Risk and Urban Growth

Authors: Chang Hsueh-Sheng, Chen Tzu-Ling


Earthquake is an unpredictable natural disaster and intensive earthquakes have caused serious impacts on social-economic system, environmental and social resilience, and further increase vulnerability. Due to earthquakes do not kill people, buildings do. When buildings located nearby earthquake-prone areas and constructed upon poorer soil areas might result in earthquake-induced ground damage. In addition, many existing buildings built before any improved seismic provisions began to be required in building codes and inappropriate land usage with highly dense population might result in much serious earthquake disaster. Indeed, not only do earthquake disaster impact seriously on urban environment, but urban growth might increase the vulnerability. Since 1980s, ‘Cutting down risks and vulnerability’ has been brought up in both urban planning and architecture and such concept has way beyond retrofitting of seismic damages, seismic resistance, and better anti-seismic structures, and become the key action on disaster mitigation. Land use planning and zoning are two critical non-structural measures on controlling physical development while it is difficult for zoning boards and governing bodies restrict development of questionable lands to uses compatible with the hazard without credible earthquake loss projection. Therefore, identifying potential earthquake exposure, vulnerability people and places, and urban development areas might become strongly supported information for decision makers. Taiwan locates on the Pacific Ring of Fire where a seismically active zone is. Some of the active faults have been found close by densely populated and highly developed built environment in the cities. Therefore, this study attempts to base on the perspective of carrying capacity and draft out micro-zonation according to both vulnerability index and urban growth index while considering spatial variances of multi factors via geographical weighted principle components (GWPCA). The purpose in this study is to construct supported information for decision makers on revising existing zoning in high-risk areas for a more compatible use and the public on managing risks.

Keywords: earthquake disaster, vulnerability, urban growth, carrying capacity, /geographical weighted principle components (GWPCA), bivariate spatial association statistic

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6 The Flooding Management Strategy in Urban Areas: Reusing Public Facilities Land as Flood-Detention Space for Multi-Purpose

Authors: Hsiao-Ting Huang, Chang Hsueh-Sheng


Taiwan is an island country which is affected by the monsoon deeply. Under the climate change, the frequency of extreme rainstorm by typhoon becomes more and more often Since 2000. When the extreme rainstorm comes, it will cause serious damage in Taiwan, especially in urban area. It is suffered by the flooding and the government take it as the urgent issue. On the past, the land use of urban planning does not take flood-detention into consideration. With the development of the city, the impermeable surface increase and most of the people live in urban area. It means there is the highly vulnerability in the urban area, but it cannot deal with the surface runoff and the flooding. However, building the detention pond in hydraulic engineering way to solve the problem is not feasible in urban area. The land expropriation is the most expensive construction of the detention pond in the urban area, and the government cannot afford it. Therefore, the management strategy of flooding in urban area should use the existing resource, public facilities land. It can archive the performance of flood-detention through providing the public facilities land with the detention function. As multi-use public facilities land, it also can show the combination of the land use and water agency. To this purpose, this research generalizes the factors of multi-use for public facilities land as flood-detention space with literature review. The factors can be divided into two categories: environmental factors and conditions of public facilities. Environmental factors including three factors: the terrain elevation, the inundation potential and the distance from the drainage system. In the other hand, there are six factors for conditions of public facilities, including area, building rate, the maximum of available ratio etc. Each of them will be according to it characteristic to given the weight for the land use suitability analysis. This research selects the rules of combination from the logical combination. After this process, it can be classified into three suitability levels. Then, three suitability levels will input to the physiographic inundation model for simulating the evaluation of flood-detention respectively. This study tries to respond the urgent issue in urban area and establishes a model of multi-use for public facilities land as flood-detention through the systematic research process of this study. The result of this study can tell which combination of the suitability level is more efficacious. Besides, The model is not only standing on the side of urban planners but also add in the point of view from water agency. Those findings may serve as basis for land use indicators and decision-making references for concerned government agencies.

Keywords: flooding management strategy, land use suitability analysis, multi-use for public facilities land, physiographic inundation model

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5 Integrating Geographic Information into Diabetes Disease Management

Authors: Tsu-Yun Chiu, Tsung-Hsueh Lu, Tain-Junn Cheng


Background: Traditional chronic disease management did not pay attention to effects of geographic factors on the compliance of treatment regime, which resulted in geographic inequality in outcomes of chronic disease management. This study aims to examine the geographic distribution and clustering of quality indicators of diabetes care. Method: We first extracted address, demographic information and quality of care indicators (number of visits, complications, prescription and laboratory records) of patients with diabetes for 2014 from medical information system in a medical center in Tainan City, Taiwan, and the patients’ addresses were transformed into district- and village-level data. We then compared the differences of geographic distribution and clustering of quality of care indicators between districts and villages. Despite the descriptive results, rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated for indices of care in order to compare the quality of diabetes care among different areas. Results: A total of 23,588 patients with diabetes were extracted from the hospital data system; whereas 12,716 patients’ information and medical records were included to the following analysis. More than half of the subjects in this study were male and between 60-79 years old. Furthermore, the quality of diabetes care did indeed vary by geographical levels. Thru the smaller level, we could point out clustered areas more specifically. Fuguo Village (of Yongkang District) and Zhiyi Village (of Sinhua District) were found to be “hotspots” for nephropathy and cerebrovascular disease; while Wangliau Village and Erwang Village (of Yongkang District) would be “coldspots” for lowest proportion of ≥80% compliance to blood lipids examination. On the other hand, Yuping Village (in Anping District) was the area with the lowest proportion of ≥80% compliance to all laboratory examination. Conclusion: In spite of examining the geographic distribution, calculating rate ratios and their 95% CI could also be a useful and consistent method to test the association. This information is useful for health planners, diabetes case managers and other affiliate practitioners to organize care resources to the areas most needed.

Keywords: catchment area of healthcare, chronic disease management, Geographic information system, quality of diabetes care

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4 Bioresorbable Medicament-Eluting Grommet Tube for Otitis Media with Effusion

Authors: Chee Wee Gan, Anthony Herr Cheun Ng, Yee Shan Wong, Subbu Venkatraman, Lynne Hsueh Yee Lim


Otitis media with effusion (OME) is the leading cause of hearing loss in children worldwide. Surgery to insert grommet tube into the eardrum is usually indicated for OME unresponsive to antimicrobial therapy. It is the most common surgery for children. However, current commercially available grommet tubes are non-bioresorbable, not drug-treated, with unpredictable duration of retention on the eardrum to ventilate middle ear. Their functionality is impaired when clogged or chronically infected, requiring additional surgery to remove/reinsert grommet tubes. We envisaged that a novel fully bioresorbable grommet tube with sustained antibiotic release technology could address these drawbacks. In this study, drug-loaded bioresorbable poly(L-lactide-co-ε-caprolactone)(PLC) copolymer grommet tubes were fabricated by microinjection moulding technique. In vitro drug release and degradation model of PLC tubes were studied. Antibacterial property was evaluated by incubating PLC tubes with P. aeruginosa broth. Surface morphology was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. A preliminary animal study was conducted using guinea pigs as an in vivo model to evaluate PLC tubes with and without drug, with commercial Mini Shah grommet tube as comparison. Our in vitro data showed sustained drug release over 3 months. All PLC tubes revealed exponential degradation profiles over time. Modeling predicted loss of tube functionality in water to be approximately 14 weeks and 17 weeks for PLC with and without drug, respectively. Generally, PLC tubes had less bacteria adherence, which were attributed to the much smoother tube surfaces compared to Mini Shah. Antibiotic from PLC tube further made bacteria adherence on surface negligible. They showed neither inflammation nor otorrhea after 18 weeks post-insertion in the eardrums of guinea pigs, but had demonstrated severe degree of bioresorption. Histology confirmed the new PLC tubes were biocompatible. Analyses on the PLC tubes in the eardrums showed bioresorption profiles close to our in vitro degradation models. The bioresorbable antibiotic-loaded grommet tubes showed good predictability in functionality. The smooth surface and sustained release technology reduced the risk of tube infection. Tube functional duration of 18 weeks allowed sufficient ventilation period to treat OME. Our ongoing studies include modifying the surface properties with protein coating, optimizing the drug dosage in the tubes to enhance their performances, evaluating their functional outcome on hearing after full resoption of grommet tube and healing of eardrums, and developing animal model with OME to further validate our in vitro models.

Keywords: bioresorbable polymer, drug release, grommet tube, guinea pigs, otitis media with effusion

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3 Effects of Bipolar Plate Coating Layer on Performance Degradation of High-Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

Authors: Chen-Yu Chen, Ping-Hsueh We, Wei-Mon Yan


Over the past few centuries, human requirements for energy have been met by burning fossil fuels. However, exploiting this resource has led to global warming and innumerable environmental issues. Thus, finding alternative solutions to the growing demands for energy has recently been driving the development of low-carbon and even zero-carbon energy sources. Wind power and solar energy are good options but they have the problem of unstable power output due to unpredictable weather conditions. To overcome this problem, a reliable and efficient energy storage sub-system is required in future distributed-power systems. Among all kinds of energy storage technologies, the fuel cell system with hydrogen storage is a promising option because it is suitable for large-scale and long-term energy storage. The high-temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell (HT-PEMFC) with metallic bipolar plates is a promising fuel cell system because an HT-PEMFC can tolerate a higher CO concentration and the utilization of metallic bipolar plates can reduce the cost of the fuel cell stack. However, the operating life of metallic bipolar plates is a critical issue because of the corrosion phenomenon. As a result, in this work, we try to apply different coating layer on the metal surface and to investigate the protection performance of the coating layers. The tested bipolar plates include uncoated SS304 bipolar plates, titanium nitride (TiN) coated SS304 bipolar plates and chromium nitride (CrN) coated SS304 bipolar plates. The results show that the TiN coated SS304 bipolar plate has the lowest contact resistance and through-plane resistance and has the best cell performance and operating life among all tested bipolar plates. The long-term in-situ fuel cell tests show that the HT-PEMFC with TiN coated SS304 bipolar plates has the lowest performance decay rate. The second lowest is CrN coated SS304 bipolar plate. The uncoated SS304 bipolar plate has the worst performance decay rate. The performance decay rates with TiN coated SS304, CrN coated SS304 and uncoated SS304 bipolar plates are 5.324×10⁻³ % h⁻¹, 4.513×10⁻² % h⁻¹ and 7.870×10⁻² % h⁻¹, respectively. In addition, the EIS results indicate that the uncoated SS304 bipolar plate has the highest growth rate of ohmic resistance. However, the ohmic resistance with the TiN coated SS304 bipolar plates only increases slightly with time. The growth rate of ohmic resistances with TiN coated SS304, CrN coated SS304 and SS304 bipolar plates are 2.85×10⁻³ h⁻¹, 3.56×10⁻³ h⁻¹, and 4.33×10⁻³ h⁻¹, respectively. On the other hand, the charge transfer resistances with these three bipolar plates all increase with time, but the growth rates are all similar. In addition, the effective catalyst surface areas with all bipolar plates do not change significantly with time. Thus, it is inferred that the major reason for the performance degradation is the elevated ohmic resistance with time, which is associated with the corrosion and oxidation phenomena on the surface of the stainless steel bipolar plates.

Keywords: coating layer, high-temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell, metallic bipolar plate, performance degradation

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2 Awareness and Willingness of Signing 'Consent Form in Palliative Care' in Elderly Patients with End Stage Renal Disease

Authors: Hsueh Ping Peng


End-stage renal disease most commonly occurs in the elderly population. Elderly people are approaching the end of their lives, and when facing major life-threatening situations, apart from aggressive medical treatment, they can also choose treatment methods such as hospice care to improve their quality of life. The purpose of this study was to investigate factors associated with the awareness and willingness to sign hospice and palliative care consent forms in elderly with end-stage renal disease. This study used both quantitative, cross-sectional study designs. In the quantitative section, 110 elderly patients (aged 65 or above) with end-stage renal disease receiving conventional hemodialysis were recruited as study participants from a medical center in Taipei City. Data were collected using structured questionnaires. Study tools included basic demographic data, questionnaires on the awareness and perception of hospice and palliative care, etc. After collecting the data, data analysis was conducted using SPSS 20.0 statistical software, including descriptive statistics, chi-square test, logistic regression, and other inferential statistics. The results showed that the average age of participants was 71.6 years old, more males than females, average years of dialysis was 6.1 years and most subjects rated their self-perceived health status as fair. Results of the study are summarized as follows: Elderly people with end-stage renal disease did not have sufficient knowledge and awareness about hospice and palliative care. Influencing factors included level of education, marital status, years of dialysis and age, etc. Demographic factors influencing the signing of consent forms included gender, marital status, and age, which all showed significant impacts. Factors taken into consideration when signing consent forms included awareness of hospice care, understanding the relevant definitions of hospice care, and understanding that consent may be modified or cancelled at any time; it was predicted that people who knew more about ways to receive hospice care or more related definitions were more willing to sign the consent forms. In the qualitative study section, 10 participants who signed the consent form, five male, and 5 female, between the ages of 65-90, have completed the semi-structured interviews. Analysis of the interviews revealed six themes: (1) passing away peacefully, (2) autonomy on arrangements of life and death, (3) unwillingness to increase family and social burden, (4) friends and relatives’ experience influencing the decision to give consent, (5) sharing information to facilitate the giving of consent, (6) facing each day with ease, to reflect the experience and factors of consideration for elderly with end-stage renal disease when signing consent forms. The results of this study provides the awareness, thoughts and feelings of elderly with end-stage renal disease on signing consent forms, and serve as a future reference for the dialysis unit to enhance the promotion of hospice and palliative care and related caregiving measures, thereby improving the quality of life and care for elderly people with end-stage renal disease.

Keywords: end-stage renal disease, hemodialysis, hospice and palliative care, awareness, willingness

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1 The Association between Gene Polymorphisms of GPX, SEPP1, and SEP15, Plasma Selenium Levels, Urinary Total Arsenic Concentrations, and Prostate Cancer

Authors: Yu-Mei Hsueh, Wei-Jen Chen, Yung-Kai Huang, Cheng-Shiuan Tsai, Kuo-Cheng Yeh


Prostate cancer occurs in men over the age of 50, and rank sixth of the top ten cancers in Taiwan, and the incidence increased gradually over the past decade in Taiwan. Arsenic is confirmed as a carcinogen by International Agency for Research on (IARC). Arsenic induces oxidative stress may be a risk factor for prostate cancer, but the mechanism is not clear. Selenium is an important antioxidant element. Whether the association between plasma selenium levels and risk of prostate cancer are modified by different genotype of selenoprotein is still unknown. Glutathione peroxidase, selenoprotein P (SEPP1) and 15 kDa selenoprotein (SEP 15) are selenoprotein and regulates selenium transport and the oxidation and reduction reaction. However, the association between gene polymorphisms of selenoprotein and prostate cancer is not yet clear. The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between plasma selenium, polymorphism of selenoprotein, urinary total arsenic concentration and prostate cancer. This study is a hospital-based case-control study. Three hundred twenty-two cases of prostate cancer and age (±5 years) 1:1 matched 322 control group were recruited from National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei Medical University Hospital, and Wan Fang Hospital. Well-trained personnel carried out standardized personal interviews based on a structured questionnaire. Information collected included demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, lifestyle and disease history. Blood and urine samples were also collected at the same time. The Research Ethics Committee of National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, approved the study. All patients provided informed consent forms before sample and data collection. Buffy coat was to extract DNA, and the polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) was used to measure the genotypes of SEPP1 rs3797310, SEP15 rs5859, GPX1 rs1050450, GPX2 rs4902346, GPX3 rs4958872, and GPX4 rs2075710. Plasma concentrations of selenium were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).Urinary arsenic species concentrations were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography links hydride generator and atomic absorption spectrometer (HPLC-HG-AAS). Subject with high education level compared to those with low educational level had a lower prostate cancer odds ratio (OR) Mainland Chinese and aboriginal people had a lower OR of prostate cancer compared to Fukien Taiwanese. After adjustment for age, educational level, subjects with GPX1 rs1050450 CT and TT genotype compared to the CC genotype have lower, OR of prostate cancer, the OR and 95% confidence interval (Cl) was 0.53 (0.31-0.90). SEPP1 rs3797310 CT+TT genotype compared to those with CC genotype had a marginally significantly lower OR of PC. The low levels of plasma selenium and the high urinary total arsenic concentrations had the high OR of prostate cancer in a significant dose-response manner, and SEPP1 rs3797310 genotype modified this joint association.

Keywords: prostate cancer, plasma selenium concentration, urinary total arsenic concentrations, glutathione peroxidase, selenoprotein P, selenoprotein 15, gene polymorphism

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