Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15727

Search results for: high resolution

15727 Design and Implementation of Image Super-Resolution for Myocardial Image

Authors: M. V. Chidananda Murthy, M. Z. Kurian, H. S. Guruprasad


Super-resolution is the technique of intelligently upscaling images, avoiding artifacts or blurring, and deals with the recovery of a high-resolution image from one or more low-resolution images. Single-image super-resolution is a process of obtaining a high-resolution image from a set of low-resolution observations by signal processing. While super-resolution has been demonstrated to improve image quality in scaled down images in the image domain, its effects on the Fourier-based technique remains unknown. Super-resolution substantially improved the spatial resolution of the patient LGE images by sharpening the edges of the heart and the scar. This paper aims at investigating the effects of single image super-resolution on Fourier-based and image based methods of scale-up. In this paper, first, generate a training phase of the low-resolution image and high-resolution image to obtain dictionary. In the test phase, first, generate a patch and then difference of high-resolution image and interpolation image from the low-resolution image. Next simulation of the image is obtained by applying convolution method to the dictionary creation image and patch extracted the image. Finally, super-resolution image is obtained by combining the fused image and difference of high-resolution and interpolated image. Super-resolution reduces image errors and improves the image quality.

Keywords: image dictionary creation, image super-resolution, LGE images, patch extraction

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15726 Improved Super-Resolution Using Deep Denoising Convolutional Neural Network

Authors: Pawan Kumar Mishra, Ganesh Singh Bisht


Super-resolution is the technique that is being used in computer vision to construct high-resolution images from a single low-resolution image. It is used to increase the frequency component, recover the lost details and removing the down sampling and noises that caused by camera during image acquisition process. High-resolution images or videos are desired part of all image processing tasks and its analysis in most of digital imaging application. The target behind super-resolution is to combine non-repetition information inside single or multiple low-resolution frames to generate a high-resolution image. Many methods have been proposed where multiple images are used as low-resolution images of same scene with different variation in transformation. This is called multi-image super resolution. And another family of methods is single image super-resolution that tries to learn redundancy that presents in image and reconstruction the lost information from a single low-resolution image. Use of deep learning is one of state of art method at present for solving reconstruction high-resolution image. In this research, we proposed Deep Denoising Super Resolution (DDSR) that is a deep neural network for effectively reconstruct the high-resolution image from low-resolution image.

Keywords: resolution, deep-learning, neural network, de-blurring

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15725 Application on Metastable Measurement with Wide Range High Resolution VDL Circuit

Authors: Po-Hui Yang, Jing-Min Chen, Po-Yu Kuo, Chia-Chun Wu


This paper proposed a high resolution Vernier Delay Line (VDL) measurement circuit with coarse and fine detection mechanism, which improved the trade-off problem between high resolution and less delay cells in traditional VDL circuits. And the measuring time of proposed measurement circuit is also under the high resolution requests. At first, the testing range of input signal which proposed high resolution delay line is detected by coarse detection VDL. Moreover, the delayed input signal is transmitted to fine detection VDL for measuring value with better accuracy. This paper is implemented at 0.18μm process, operating frequency is 100 MHz, and the resolution achieved 2.0 ps with only 16-stage delay cells. The test range is 170ps wide, and 17% stages saved compare with traditional single delay line circuit.

Keywords: vernier delay line, D-type flip-flop, DFF, metastable phenomenon

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15724 Transfer Learning for Protein Structure Classification at Low Resolution

Authors: Alexander Hudson, Shaogang Gong


Structure determination is key to understanding protein function at a molecular level. Whilst significant advances have been made in predicting structure and function from amino acid sequence, researchers must still rely on expensive, time-consuming analytical methods to visualise detailed protein conformation. In this study, we demonstrate that it is possible to make accurate (≥80%) predictions of protein class and architecture from structures determined at low (>3A) resolution, using a deep convolutional neural network trained on high-resolution (≤3A) structures represented as 2D matrices. Thus, we provide proof of concept for high-speed, low-cost protein structure classification at low resolution, and a basis for extension to prediction of function. We investigate the impact of the input representation on classification performance, showing that side-chain information may not be necessary for fine-grained structure predictions. Finally, we confirm that high resolution, low-resolution and NMR-determined structures inhabit a common feature space, and thus provide a theoretical foundation for boosting with single-image super-resolution.

Keywords: transfer learning, protein distance maps, protein structure classification, neural networks

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15723 Potential Contribution of Combined High-Resolution and Fluorescence Remote Sensing to Coastal Ecosystem Service Assessments

Authors: Yaner Yan, Ning Li, Yajun Qiao, Shuqing An


Although most studies have focused on assessing and mapping terrestrial ecosystem services, there is still a knowledge gap on coastal ecosystem services and an urgent need to assess them. Lau (2013) clearly defined five types of costal ecosystem services: carbon sequestration, shoreline protection, fish nursery, biodiversity, and water quality. While high-resolution remote sensing can provide the more direct, spatially estimates of biophysical parameters, such as species distribution relating to biodiversity service, and Fluorescence information derived from remote sensing direct relate to photosynthesis, availing in estimation of carbon sequestration and the response to environmental changes in coastal wetland. Here, we review the capabilities of high-resolution and fluorescence remote sesing for describing biodiversity, vegetation condition, ecological processes and highlight how these prodicts may contribute to costal ecosystem service assessment. In so doing, we anticipate rapid progress to combine the high-resolution and fluorescence remote sesing to estimate the spatial pattern of costal ecosystem services.

Keywords: ecosystem services, high resolution, remote sensing, chlorophyll fluorescence

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15722 A Hybrid Image Fusion Model for Generating High Spatial-Temporal-Spectral Resolution Data Using OLI-MODIS-Hyperion Satellite Imagery

Authors: Yongquan Zhao, Bo Huang


Spatial, Temporal, and Spectral Resolution (STSR) are three key characteristics of Earth observation satellite sensors; however, any single satellite sensor cannot provide Earth observations with high STSR simultaneously because of the hardware technology limitations of satellite sensors. On the other hand, a conflicting circumstance is that the demand for high STSR has been growing with the remote sensing application development. Although image fusion technology provides a feasible means to overcome the limitations of the current Earth observation data, the current fusion technologies cannot enhance all STSR simultaneously and provide high enough resolution improvement level. This study proposes a Hybrid Spatial-Temporal-Spectral image Fusion Model (HSTSFM) to generate synthetic satellite data with high STSR simultaneously, which blends the high spatial resolution from the panchromatic image of Landsat-8 Operational Land Imager (OLI), the high temporal resolution from the multi-spectral image of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and the high spectral resolution from the hyper-spectral image of Hyperion to produce high STSR images. The proposed HSTSFM contains three fusion modules: (1) spatial-spectral image fusion; (2) spatial-temporal image fusion; (3) temporal-spectral image fusion. A set of test data with both phenological and land cover type changes in Beijing suburb area, China is adopted to demonstrate the performance of the proposed method. The experimental results indicate that HSTSFM can produce fused image that has good spatial and spectral fidelity to the reference image, which means it has the potential to generate synthetic data to support the studies that require high STSR satellite imagery.

Keywords: hybrid spatial-temporal-spectral fusion, high resolution synthetic imagery, least square regression, sparse representation, spectral transformation

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15721 Frame Camera and Event Camera in Stereo Pair for High-Resolution Sensing

Authors: Khen Cohen, Daniel Yankelevich, David Mendlovic, Dan Raviv


We present a 3D stereo system for high-resolution sensing in both the spatial and the temporal domains by combining a frame-based camera and an event-based camera. We establish a method to merge both devices into one unite system and introduce a calibration process, followed by a correspondence technique and interpolation algorithm for 3D reconstruction. We further provide quantitative analysis about our system in terms of depth resolution and additional parameter analysis. We show experimentally how our system performs temporal super-resolution up to effectively 1ms and can detect fast-moving objects and human micro-movements that can be used for micro-expression analysis. We also demonstrate how our method can extract colored events for an event-based camera without any degradation in the spatial resolution, compared to a colored filter array.

Keywords: DVS-CIS stereo vision, micro-movements, temporal super-resolution, 3D reconstruction

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15720 The Principle Probabilities of Space-Distance Resolution for a Monostatic Radar and Realization in Cylindrical Array

Authors: Anatoly D. Pluzhnikov, Elena N. Pribludova, Alexander G. Ryndyk


In conjunction with the problem of the target selection on a clutter background, the analysis of the scanning rate influence on the spatial-temporal signal structure, the generalized multivariate correlation function and the quality of the resolution with the increase pulse repetition frequency is made. The possibility of the object space-distance resolution, which is conditioned by the range-to-angle conversion with an increased scanning rate, is substantiated. The calculations for the real cylindrical array at high scanning rate are presented. The high scanning rate let to get the signal to noise improvement of the order of 10 dB for the space-time signal processing.

Keywords: antenna pattern, array, signal processing, spatial resolution

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15719 A Method for Quantifying Arsenolipids in Sea Water by HPLC-High Resolution Mass Spectrometry

Authors: Muslim Khan, Kenneth B. Jensen, Kevin A. Francesconi


Trace amounts (ca 1 µg/L, 13 nM) of arsenic are present in sea water mostly as the oxyanion arsenate. In contrast, arsenic is present in marine biota (animals and algae) at very high levels (up to100,000 µg/kg) a significant portion of which is present as lipid-soluble compounds collectively termed arsenolipids. The complex nature of sea water presents an analytical challenge to detect trace compounds and monitor their environmental path. We developed a simple method using liquid-liquid extraction combined with HPLC-High Resolution Mass Spectrometer capable of detecting trace of arsenolipids (99 % of the sample matrix while recovering > 80 % of the six target arsenolipids with limit of detection of 0.003 µg/L.)

Keywords: arsenolipids, sea water, HPLC-high resolution mass spectrometry

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15718 A High-Resolution Refractive Index Sensor Based on a Magnetic Photonic Crystal

Authors: Ti-An Tsai, Chun-Chih Wang, Hung-Wen Wang, I-Ling Chang, Lien-Wen Chen


In this study, we demonstrate a high-resolution refractive index sensor based on a magnetic photonic crystal (MPC) composed of a triangular lattice array of air holes embedded in Si matrix. A microcavity is created by changing the radius of an air hole in the middle of the photonic crystal. The cavity filled with gyrotropic materials can serve as a refractive index sensor. The shift of the resonant frequency of the sensor is obtained numerically using finite difference time domain method under different ambient conditions having refractive index from n = 1.0 to n = 1.1. The numerical results show that a tiny change in refractive index of Δn = 0.0001 is distinguishable. In addition, the spectral response of the MPC sensor is studied while an external magnetic field is present. The results show that the MPC sensor exhibits a dramatic improvement in resolution.

Keywords: magnetic photonic crystal, refractive index sensor, sensitivity, high-resolution

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15717 Design and Performance Analysis of Advanced B-Spline Algorithm for Image Resolution Enhancement

Authors: M. Z. Kurian, M. V. Chidananda Murthy, H. S. Guruprasad


An approach to super-resolve the low-resolution (LR) image is presented in this paper which is very useful in multimedia communication, medical image enhancement and satellite image enhancement to have a clear view of the information in the image. The proposed Advanced B-Spline method generates a high-resolution (HR) image from single LR image and tries to retain the higher frequency components such as edges in the image. This method uses B-Spline technique and Crispening. This work is evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively using Mean Square Error (MSE) and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR). The method is also suitable for real-time applications. Different combinations of decimation and super-resolution algorithms in the presence of different noise and noise factors are tested.

Keywords: advanced b-spline, image super-resolution, mean square error (MSE), peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR), resolution down converter

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15716 High Fidelity Interactive Video Segmentation Using Tensor Decomposition, Boundary Loss, Convolutional Tessellations, and Context-Aware Skip Connections

Authors: Anthony D. Rhodes, Manan Goel


We provide a high fidelity deep learning algorithm (HyperSeg) for interactive video segmentation tasks using a dense convolutional network with context-aware skip connections and compressed, 'hypercolumn' image features combined with a convolutional tessellation procedure. In order to maintain high output fidelity, our model crucially processes and renders all image features in high resolution, without utilizing downsampling or pooling procedures. We maintain this consistent, high grade fidelity efficiently in our model chiefly through two means: (1) we use a statistically-principled, tensor decomposition procedure to modulate the number of hypercolumn features and (2) we render these features in their native resolution using a convolutional tessellation technique. For improved pixel-level segmentation results, we introduce a boundary loss function; for improved temporal coherence in video data, we include temporal image information in our model. Through experiments, we demonstrate the improved accuracy of our model against baseline models for interactive segmentation tasks using high resolution video data. We also introduce a benchmark video segmentation dataset, the VFX Segmentation Dataset, which contains over 27,046 high resolution video frames, including green screen and various composited scenes with corresponding, hand-crafted, pixel-level segmentations. Our work presents a improves state of the art segmentation fidelity with high resolution data and can be used across a broad range of application domains, including VFX pipelines and medical imaging disciplines.

Keywords: computer vision, object segmentation, interactive segmentation, model compression

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15715 An Alternative Framework of Multi-Resolution Nested Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory Schemes for Solving Euler Equations with Adaptive Order

Authors: Zhenming Wang, Jun Zhu, Yuchen Yang, Ning Zhao


In the present paper, an alternative framework is proposed to construct a class of finite difference multi-resolution nested weighted essentially non-oscillatory (WENO) schemes with an increasingly higher order of accuracy for solving inviscid Euler equations. These WENO schemes firstly obtain a set of reconstruction polynomials by a hierarchy of nested central spatial stencils, and then recursively achieve a higher order approximation through the lower-order precision WENO schemes. The linear weights of such WENO schemes can be set as any positive numbers with a requirement that their sum equals one and they will not pollute the optimal order of accuracy in smooth regions and could simultaneously suppress spurious oscillations near discontinuities. Numerical results obtained indicate that these alternative finite-difference multi-resolution nested WENO schemes with different accuracies are very robust with low dissipation and use as few reconstruction stencils as possible while maintaining the same efficiency, achieving the high-resolution property without any equivalent multi-resolution representation. Besides, its finite volume form is easier to implement in unstructured grids.

Keywords: finite-difference, WENO schemes, high order, inviscid Euler equations, multi-resolution

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15714 Application of MRI in Radioembolization Imaging and Dosimetry

Authors: Salehi Zahabi Saleh, Rajabi Hosaien, Rasaneh Samira


Yttrium-90 (90Y) radioembolisation(RE) is increasingly used for the treatment of patients with unresectable primary or metastatic liver tumours. Image-based approaches to assess microsphere distribution after RE have gained interest but are mostly hampered by the limited imaging possibilities of the Isotope 90Y. Quantitative 90Y-SPECT imaging has limited spatial resolution because it is based on 90Y Bremsstrahlung whereas 90Y-PET has better spatial resolution but low sensitivity. As a consequence, new alternative methods of visualizing the microspheres have been investigated, such as MR imaging of iron-labelled microspheres. It was also shown that MRI combines high sensitivity with high spatial and temporal resolution and with superior soft tissue contrast and thus can be used to cover a broad range of clinically interesting imaging parameters.The aim of the study in this article was to investigate the capability of MRI to measure the intrahepatic microsphere distribution in order to quantify the absorbed radiation dose in RE.

Keywords: radioembolisation, MRI, imaging, dosimetry

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15713 Disaggregation the Daily Rainfall Dataset into Sub-Daily Resolution in the Temperate Oceanic Climate Region

Authors: Mohammad Bakhshi, Firas Al Janabi


High resolution rain data are very important to fulfill the input of hydrological models. Among models of high-resolution rainfall data generation, the temporal disaggregation was chosen for this study. The paper attempts to generate three different rainfall resolutions (4-hourly, hourly and 10-minutes) from daily for around 20-year record period. The process was done by DiMoN tool which is based on random cascade model and method of fragment. Differences between observed and simulated rain dataset are evaluated with variety of statistical and empirical methods: Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (K-S), usual statistics, and Exceedance probability. The tool worked well at preserving the daily rainfall values in wet days, however, the generated data are cumulated in a shorter time period and made stronger storms. It is demonstrated that the difference between generated and observed cumulative distribution function curve of 4-hourly datasets is passed the K-S test criteria while in hourly and 10-minutes datasets the P-value should be employed to prove that their differences were reasonable. The results are encouraging considering the overestimation of generated high-resolution rainfall data.

Keywords: DiMoN Tool, disaggregation, exceedance probability, Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, rainfall

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15712 Automatic Change Detection for High-Resolution Satellite Images of Urban and Suburban Areas

Authors: Antigoni Panagiotopoulou, Lemonia Ragia


High-resolution satellite images can provide detailed information about change detection on the earth. In the present work, QuickBird images of spatial resolution 60 cm/pixel and WorldView images of resolution 30 cm/pixel are utilized to perform automatic change detection in urban and suburban areas of Crete, Greece. There is a relative time difference of 13 years among the satellite images. Multiindex scene representation is applied on the images to classify the scene into buildings, vegetation, water and ground. Then, automatic change detection is made possible by pixel-per-pixel comparison of the classified multi-temporal images. The vegetation index and the water index which have been developed in this study prove effective. Furthermore, the proposed change detection approach not only indicates whether changes have taken place or not but also provides specific information relative to the types of changes. Experimentations with other different scenes in the future could help optimize the proposed spectral indices as well as the entire change detection methodology.

Keywords: change detection, multiindex scene representation, spectral index, QuickBird, WorldView

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15711 PET Image Resolution Enhancement

Authors: Krzysztof Malczewski


PET is widely applied scanning procedure in medical imaging based research. It delivers measurements of functioning in distinct areas of the human brain while the patient is comfortable, conscious and alert. This article presents the new compression sensing based super-resolution algorithm for improving the image resolution in clinical Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scanners. The issue of motion artifacts is well known in Positron Emission Tomography (PET) studies as its side effect. The PET images are being acquired over a limited period of time. As the patients cannot hold breath during the PET data gathering, spatial blurring and motion artefacts are the usual result. These may lead to wrong diagnosis. It is shown that the presented approach improves PET spatial resolution in cases when Compressed Sensing (CS) sequences are used. Compressed Sensing (CS) aims at signal and images reconstructing from significantly fewer measurements than were traditionally thought necessary. The application of CS to PET has the potential for significant scan time reductions, with visible benefits for patients and health care economics. In this study the goal is to combine super-resolution image enhancement algorithm with CS framework to achieve high resolution PET output. Both methods emphasize on maximizing image sparsity on known sparse transform domain and minimizing fidelity.

Keywords: PET, super-resolution, image reconstruction, pattern recognition

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15710 Sub-Pixel Mapping Based on New Mixed Interpolation

Authors: Zeyu Zhou, Xiaojun Bi


Due to the limited environmental parameters and the limited resolution of the sensor, the universal existence of the mixed pixels in the process of remote sensing images restricts the spatial resolution of the remote sensing images. Sub-pixel mapping technology can effectively improve the spatial resolution. As the bilinear interpolation algorithm inevitably produces the edge blur effect, which leads to the inaccurate sub-pixel mapping results. In order to avoid the edge blur effect that affects the sub-pixel mapping results in the interpolation process, this paper presents a new edge-directed interpolation algorithm which uses the covariance adaptive interpolation algorithm on the edge of the low-resolution image and uses bilinear interpolation algorithm in the low-resolution image smooth area. By using the edge-directed interpolation algorithm, the super-resolution of the image with low resolution is obtained, and we get the percentage of each sub-pixel under a certain type of high-resolution image. Then we rely on the probability value as a soft attribute estimate and carry out sub-pixel scale under the ‘hard classification’. Finally, we get the result of sub-pixel mapping. Through the experiment, we compare the algorithm and the bilinear algorithm given in this paper to the results of the sub-pixel mapping method. It is found that the sub-pixel mapping method based on the edge-directed interpolation algorithm has better edge effect and higher mapping accuracy. The results of the paper meet our original intention of the question. At the same time, the method does not require iterative computation and training of samples, making it easier to implement.

Keywords: remote sensing images, sub-pixel mapping, bilinear interpolation, edge-directed interpolation

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15709 High-Resolution Spatiotemporal Retrievals of Aerosol Optical Depth from Geostationary Satellite Using Sara Algorithm

Authors: Muhammad Bilal, Zhongfeng Qiu


Aerosols, suspended particles in the atmosphere, play an important role in the earth energy budget, climate change, degradation of atmospheric visibility, urban air quality, and human health. To fully understand aerosol effects, retrieval of aerosol optical properties such as aerosol optical depth (AOD) at high spatiotemporal resolution is required. Therefore, in the present study, hourly AOD observations at 500 m resolution were retrieved from the geostationary ocean color imager (GOCI) using the simplified aerosol retrieval algorithm (SARA) over the urban area of Beijing for the year 2016. The SARA requires top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) reflectance, solar and sensor geometry information and surface reflectance observations to retrieve an accurate AOD. For validation of the GOCI retrieved AOD, AOD measurements were obtained from the aerosol robotic network (AERONET) version 3 level 2.0 (cloud-screened and quality assured) data. The errors and uncertainties were reported using the root mean square error (RMSE), relative percent mean error (RPME), and the expected error (EE = ± (0.05 + 0.15AOD). Results showed that the high spatiotemporal GOCI AOD observations were well correlated with the AERONET AOD measurements with a correlation coefficient (R) of 0.92, RMSE of 0.07, and RPME of 5%, and 90% of the observations were within the EE. The results suggested that the SARA is robust and has the ability to retrieve high-resolution spatiotemporal AOD observations over the urban area using the geostationary satellite.

Keywords: AEORNET, AOD, SARA, GOCI, Beijing

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15708 Heritage 3D Digitalization Combining High Definition Photogrammetry with Metrologic Grade Laser Scans

Authors: Sebastian Oportus, Fabrizio Alvarez


3D digitalization of heritage objects is widely used nowadays. However, the most advanced 3D scanners in the market that capture topology and texture at the same time, and are specifically made for this purpose, don’t deliver the accuracy that is needed for scientific research. In the last three years, we have developed a method that combines the use of Metrologic grade laser scans, that allows us to work with a high accuracy topology up to 15 times more precise and combine this mesh with a texture obtained from high definition photogrammetry with up to 100 times more pixel concentrations. The result is an accurate digitalization that promotes heritage preservation, scientific study, high detail reproduction, and digital restoration, among others. In Chile, we have already performed 478 digitalizations of high-value heritage pieces and compared the results with up to five different digitalization methods; the results obtained show a considerable better dimensional accuracy and texture resolution. We know the importance of high precision and resolution for academics and museology; that’s why our proposal is to set a worldwide standard using this open source methodology.

Keywords: 3D digitalization, digital heritage, heritage preservation, digital restauration, heritage reproduction

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15707 Enhancing the Spectral Resolution of Alsat-2b with Landsat-8 Based on Deep Learning

Authors: Achraf Djerida


ALSAT-2B is an earth observation satellite that has 4 spectral bands (RGB+NIR) with spatial resolution around 2.5m using its panchromatic band. Although these characteristics are important for several applications, yet its spectral resolution is very low. To solve this issue, the paper proposes a spectral super-resolution method based on deep learning which shows powerful performance on several applications. The proposed method learns the mapping between RGB and other bands using LANDSAT-8 images. Algeria is selected as a case study, where several LANDSAT-8 images covering different cities are used. The pixel-based approach is selected rather than patch-based in order to reduce the learning complexity. The learned model is then applied to ALSAT-2B images to boost its spectral resolution. To assess the impact of the results, land use/ land cover classification is employed. The experiments reveal that the classification accuracy is improved by more than 5%.

Keywords: spectral resolution, super-resolution, land use/ land cover classification, LANDSAT-8 , ALSAT-2B

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15706 A High Time Resolution Digital Pulse Width Modulator Based on Field Programmable Gate Array’s Phase Locked Loop Megafunction

Authors: Jun Wang, Tingcun Wei


The digital pulse width modulator (DPWM) is the crucial building block for digitally-controlled DC-DC switching converter, which converts the digital duty ratio signal into its analog counterpart to control the power MOSFET transistors on or off. With the increase of switching frequency of digitally-controlled DC-DC converter, the DPWM with higher time resolution is required. In this paper, a 15-bits DPWM with three-level hybrid structure is presented; the first level is composed of a7-bits counter and a comparator, the second one is a 5-bits delay line, and the third one is a 3-bits digital dither. The presented DPWM is designed and implemented using the PLL megafunction of FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Arrays), and the required frequency of clock signal is 128 times of switching frequency. The simulation results show that, for the switching frequency of 2 MHz, a DPWM which has the time resolution of 15 ps is achieved using a maximum clock frequency of 256MHz. The designed DPWM in this paper is especially useful for high-frequency digitally-controlled DC-DC switching converters.

Keywords: DPWM, digitally-controlled DC-DC switching converter, FPGA, PLL megafunction, time resolution

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15705 Empirical Research on Preference for Conflict Resolution Styles of Owners and Contractors in China

Authors: Junqi Zhao, Yongqiang Chen


The preference for different conflict resolution styles are influenced by cultural background and power distance of two parties involving in conflict. This research put forward 7 hypotheses and tested the preference differences of the five conflict resolution styles between Chinese owner and contractor as well as the preference differences concerning the same style between two parties. The research sample includes 202 practitioners from construction enterprises in mainland China. Research result found that theories concerning conflict resolution styles could be applied in the Chinese construction industry. Some results of this research were not in line with former research, and this research also gave explanation to the differences from the characteristics of construction projects. Based on the findings, certain suggestions were made to serve as a guidance for managers to choose appropriate conflict resolution styles for a better handling of conflict.

Keywords: Chinese owner and contractor, conflict, construction project, conflict resolution styles

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15704 Adaptive Target Detection of High-Range-Resolution Radar in Non-Gaussian Clutter

Authors: Lina Pan


In non-Gaussian clutter of a spherically invariant random vector, in the cases that a certain estimated covariance matrix could become singular, the adaptive target detection of high-range-resolution radar is addressed. Firstly, the restricted maximum likelihood (RML) estimates of unknown covariance matrix and scatterer amplitudes are derived for non-Gaussian clutter. And then the RML estimate of texture is obtained. Finally, a novel detector is devised. It is showed that, without secondary data, the proposed detector outperforms the existing Kelly binary integrator.

Keywords: non-Gaussian clutter, covariance matrix estimation, target detection, maximum likelihood

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15703 Study on Construction of 3D Topography by UAV-Based Images

Authors: Yun-Yao Chi, Chieh-Kai Tsai, Dai-Ling Li


In this paper, a method of fast 3D topography modeling using the high-resolution camera images is studied based on the characteristics of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) system for low altitude aerial photogrammetry and the need of three dimensional (3D) urban landscape modeling. Firstly, the existing high-resolution digital camera with special design of overlap images is designed by reconstructing and analyzing the auto-flying paths of UAVs, which improves the self-calibration function to achieve the high precision imaging by software, and further increased the resolution of the imaging system. Secondly, several-angle images including vertical images and oblique images gotten by the UAV system are used for the detail measure of urban land surfaces and the texture extraction. Finally, the aerial photography and 3D topography construction are both developed in campus of Chang-Jung University and in Guerin district area in Tainan, Taiwan, provide authentication model for construction of 3D topography based on combined UAV-based camera images from system. The results demonstrated that the UAV system for low altitude aerial photogrammetry can be used in the construction of 3D topography production, and the technology solution in this paper offers a new, fast, and technical plan for the 3D expression of the city landscape, fine modeling and visualization.

Keywords: 3D, topography, UAV, images

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15702 Accurate HLA Typing at High-Digit Resolution from NGS Data

Authors: Yazhi Huang, Jing Yang, Dingge Ying, Yan Zhang, Vorasuk Shotelersuk, Nattiya Hirankarn, Pak Chung Sham, Yu Lung Lau, Wanling Yang


Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) typing from next generation sequencing (NGS) data has the potential for applications in clinical laboratories and population genetic studies. Here we introduce a novel technique for HLA typing from NGS data based on read-mapping using a comprehensive reference panel containing all known HLA alleles and de novo assembly of the gene-specific short reads. An accurate HLA typing at high-digit resolution was achieved when it was tested on publicly available NGS data, outperforming other newly-developed tools such as HLAminer and PHLAT.

Keywords: human leukocyte antigens, next generation sequencing, whole exome sequencing, HLA typing

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15701 Light-Weight Network for Real-Time Pose Estimation

Authors: Jianghao Hu, Hongyu Wang


The effective and efficient human pose estimation algorithm is an important task for real-time human pose estimation on mobile devices. This paper proposes a light-weight human key points detection algorithm, Light-Weight Network for Real-Time Pose Estimation (LWPE). LWPE uses light-weight backbone network and depthwise separable convolutions to reduce parameters and lower latency. LWPE uses the feature pyramid network (FPN) to fuse the high-resolution, semantically weak features with the low-resolution, semantically strong features. In the meantime, with multi-scale prediction, the predicted result by the low-resolution feature map is stacked to the adjacent higher-resolution feature map to intermediately monitor the network and continuously refine the results. At the last step, the key point coordinates predicted in the highest-resolution are used as the final output of the network. For the key-points that are difficult to predict, LWPE adopts the online hard key points mining strategy to focus on the key points that hard predicting. The proposed algorithm achieves excellent performance in the single-person dataset selected in the AI (artificial intelligence) challenge dataset. The algorithm maintains high-precision performance even though the model only contains 3.9M parameters, and it can run at 225 frames per second (FPS) on the generic graphics processing unit (GPU).

Keywords: depthwise separable convolutions, feature pyramid network, human pose estimation, light-weight backbone

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15700 Automatic Extraction of Arbitrarily Shaped Buildings from VHR Satellite Imagery

Authors: Evans Belly, Imdad Rizvi, M. M. Kadam


Satellite imagery is one of the emerging technologies which are extensively utilized in various applications such as detection/extraction of man-made structures, monitoring of sensitive areas, creating graphic maps etc. The main approach here is the automated detection of buildings from very high resolution (VHR) optical satellite images. Initially, the shadow, the building and the non-building regions (roads, vegetation etc.) are investigated wherein building extraction is mainly focused. Once all the landscape is collected a trimming process is done so as to eliminate the landscapes that may occur due to non-building objects. Finally the label method is used to extract the building regions. The label method may be altered for efficient building extraction. The images used for the analysis are the ones which are extracted from the sensors having resolution less than 1 meter (VHR). This method provides an efficient way to produce good results. The additional overhead of mid processing is eliminated without compromising the quality of the output to ease the processing steps required and time consumed.

Keywords: building detection, shadow detection, landscape generation, label, partitioning, very high resolution (VHR) satellite imagery

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15699 Plot Scale Estimation of Crop Biophysical Parameters from High Resolution Satellite Imagery

Authors: Shreedevi Moharana, Subashisa Dutta


The present study focuses on the estimation of crop biophysical parameters like crop chlorophyll, nitrogen and water stress at plot scale in the crop fields. To achieve these, we have used high-resolution satellite LISS IV imagery. A new methodology has proposed in this research work, the spectral shape function of paddy crop is employed to get the significant wavelengths sensitive to paddy crop parameters. From the shape functions, regression index models were established for the critical wavelength with minimum and maximum wavelengths of multi-spectrum high-resolution LISS IV data. Moreover, the functional relationships were utilized to develop the index models. From these index models crop, biophysical parameters were estimated and mapped from LISS IV imagery at plot scale in crop field level. The result showed that the nitrogen content of the paddy crop varied from 2-8%, chlorophyll from 1.5-9% and water content variation observed from 40-90% respectively. It was observed that the variability in rice agriculture system in India was purely a function of field topography.

Keywords: crop parameters, index model, LISS IV imagery, plot scale, shape function

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15698 HR MRI CS Based Image Reconstruction

Authors: Krzysztof Malczewski


Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) reconstruction algorithm using compressed sensing is presented in this paper. It is exhibited that the offered approach improves MR images spatial resolution in circumstances when highly undersampled k-space trajectories are applied. Compressed Sensing (CS) aims at signal and images reconstructing from significantly fewer measurements than were conventionally assumed necessary. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a fundamental medical imaging method struggles with an inherently slow data acquisition process. The use of CS to MRI has the potential for significant scan time reductions, with visible benefits for patients and health care economics. In this study the objective is to combine super-resolution image enhancement algorithm with CS framework benefits to achieve high resolution MR output image. Both methods emphasize on maximizing image sparsity on known sparse transform domain and minimizing fidelity. The presented algorithm considers the cardiac and respiratory movements.

Keywords: super-resolution, MRI, compressed sensing, sparse-sense, image enhancement

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