Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 36

Search results for: Evelyn P. Esteban

36 Effect of Vermicompost and Vermitea on the Growth and Yield of Selected Vegetable Crops

Authors: Josephine R. Migalbin, Jurhamid C. Imlan, Evelyn P. Esteban

Abstract:

A study was conducted to determine the effect of vermicompost and vermitea as organic fertilizers on the growth and yield of selected vegetable crops specifically eggplant, tomatoes and sweet pepper. The study was laid-out in Randomized Complete Block Design with 4 treatments replicated 4 times. The treatments were as follows: Treatment I (control), Treatment II (vermitea), Treatment III (vermicompost with buffalo manure), and Treatment IV (vermicompost with goat and sheep manure). In all the vegetable crops, almost all parameters significantly increased compared with the control except for number of fruits in eggplant and plant height in tomatoes where no significant difference was observed among treatments. The highest marketable fruit yield (tons/ha) was obtained from plants applied with vermicompost with goat and sheep manure but comparable with plants applied with vermicompost with buffalo manure and vermitea while the control plots received the lowest yield. The 28 spotted beetle (Epilachna philippinensis), and shoot and fruit borer (Leucinodes orbonalis) were the serious pests observed in the study on eggplant.

Keywords: vegetable crops, vermicompost, marketable fruit yield, vermitea

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35 A Shift-Share Analysis: Manufacturing Employment Specialisation at uMhlathuze Local Municipality, South Africa

Authors: Mlondi Ndovela

Abstract:

Globally, the manufacturing employment has been declining and the South African manufacturing sector experiences the very same trend. Despite the commonality between the global and South African manufacturing trend, there is an understanding that local areas provide distinct contributions to the provincial/national economy. Therefore, the growth/decline of a particular manufacturing division in one local area may not be evident in another area since economic performances vary from region to region. In view of the above, the study employed the Esteban-Marquillas model of shift-share analysis (SSA) to conduct an empirical analysis of manufacturing employment performance at uMhlathuze Local Municipality in the KwaZulu-Natal province. The study set out two objectives; those are, to quantify uMhlathuze manufacturing jobs that are attributed to the provincial manufacturing employment trends and identify manufacturing divisions are growing/declining in terms of employment. To achieve these objectives, the study sampled manufacturing employment data from 2010 to 2017 and this data was categorised into ten manufacturing divisions. Furthermore, the Esteban-Marquillas model calculated manufacturing employment in terms of two effects, namely; provincial growth effect (PGE) and industrial mix effect (IME). The results show that even though uMhlathuze manufacturing sector has a positive PGE (+230), the municipality performed poorly in terms of IME (-291). A further analysis included other economic sectors of the municipality to draw employment performance comparison and the study found that agriculture; construction; trade, catering and accommodation; and transport, storage and communication, performed well above manufacturing sector in terms of PGE (+826) and IME (+532). This suggests that uMhlathuze manufacturing sector is not necessarily declining; however, other economic sectors are growing faster and bigger than it is, therefore, reducing the employment share of the manufacturing sector. To promote manufacturing growth from a policy standpoint, the government could create favourable macroeconomic policies such as import substitution policies and support labour-intensive manufacturing divisions. As a result, these macroeconomic policies can help to protect local manufacturing firms and stimulate the growth of manufacturing employment.

Keywords: allocation effect, Esteban-Marquillas model, manufacturing employment, regional competitive effect, shift-share analysis

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34 Investigating Water-Oxidation Using a Ru(III) Carboxamide Water Coordinated Complex

Authors: Yosra M. Badiei, Evelyn Ortiz, Marisa Portenti, David Szalda

Abstract:

Water-oxidation half-reaction is a critical reaction that can be driven by a sustainable energy source (e.g., solar or wind) and be coupled with a chemical fuel making reaction which stores the released electrons and protons from water (e.g., H₂ or methanol). The use of molecular water-oxidation catalysts (WOC) allow the rationale design of redox active metal centers and provides a better understanding of their structure-activity-relationship. Herein, the structure of a Ru(III) complex bearing a doubly deprotonated N,N'-bis(aryl)pyridine-2,6-dicarboxamide ligand which contains a water molecule in its primary coordination sphere was elucidated by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Further spectroscopic experimental data and pH-dependent electrochemical studies reveal its water-oxidation reactivity. Emphasis on mechanistic details for O₂ formation of this complex will be addressed.

Keywords: Catalysis, Artificial Photosynthesis, ruthenium, water-oxidation

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33 Lean: A Sustainable Approach to Design and Construction for Environmental Sustainability

Authors: Evelyn Lami Ashelo Allu, Fidelis A. Emuze

Abstract:

This study aims to contribute to the pursuit of environmental sustainability through the built environment practices of design and construction. Activities within the built environment and particularly within the construction industry have a significant role in ensuring environmental sustainability. The adoption of Lean principles and approaches would ensure that project deliverables are sustainable. This is because the processes that integrate lean principles reduce waste, add value to productivity, ensures customer satisfaction and are mindful of future productivity. Additionally, the lean principles for development are sustainable in themselves and thus promotes environmental sustainability. The study encourages further research with other methodologies and recommends the development of monitoring and evaluation mechanisms in order to promote the global concern for environmental sustainability.

Keywords: Design, Construction, Built Environment, Sustainability, Lean

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32 Implementation of a Low-Cost Instrumentation for an Open Cycle Wind Tunnel to Evaluate Pressure Coefficient

Authors: Cristian P. Topa, Esteban A. Valencia, Victor H. Hidalgo, Marco A. Martinez

Abstract:

Wind tunnel experiments for aerodynamic profiles display numerous advantages, such as: clean steady laminar flow, controlled environmental conditions, streamlines visualization, and real data acquisition. However, the experiment instrumentation usually is expensive, and hence, each test implies a incremented in design cost. The aim of this work is to select and implement a low-cost static pressure data acquisition system for a NACA 2412 airfoil in an open cycle wind tunnel. This work compares wind tunnel experiment with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation and parametric analysis. The experiment was evaluated at Reynolds of 1.65 e5, with increasing angles from -5° to 15°. The comparison between the approaches show good enough accuracy, between the experiment and CFD, additional parametric analysis results differ widely from the other methods, which complies with the lack of accuracy of the lateral approach due its simplicity.

Keywords: Wind Tunnel, CFD simulation, experimental testing, low cost instrumentation

Procedia PDF Downloads 37
31 Benchmarking of Pentesting Tools

Authors: Ana Lucila Sandoval Orozco, Luis Javier García Villalba, Esteban Alejandro Armas Vega

Abstract:

The benchmarking of tools for dynamic analysis of vulnerabilities in web applications is something that is done periodically, because these tools from time to time update their knowledge base and search algorithms, in order to improve their accuracy. Unfortunately, the vast majority of these evaluations are made by software enthusiasts who publish their results on blogs or on non-academic websites and always with the same evaluation methodology. Similarly, academics who have carried out this type of analysis from a scientific approach, the majority, make their analysis within the same methodology as well the empirical authors. This paper is based on the interest of finding answers to questions that many users of this type of tools have been asking over the years, such as, to know if the tool truly test and evaluate every vulnerability that it ensures do, or if the tool, really, deliver a real report of all the vulnerabilities tested and exploited. This kind of questions have also motivated previous work but without real answers. The aim of this paper is to show results that truly answer, at least on the tested tools, all those unanswered questions. All the results have been obtained by changing the common model of benchmarking used for all those previous works.

Keywords: cybersecurity, Security, IDS, web scanners, web vulnerabilities

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30 Emerging Issues in Early Childhood Care and Development in Nigeria

Authors: Evelyn Fabian

Abstract:

The focus of this discussion centres on the emerging issues in Early Childhood Care and development in Nigeria. Early childhood care is the bedrock of Nigeria’s educational system. However, there are critical issues that had not been addressed and it is frustrating the entire educational process. Thus, this paper will show the inter-connectedness between these issues such as poor funding, trained skillful teachers that would supervise the learning process of the kids, unconducive learning environment and lack of relevant facilities. For a clear grasp of these issues, the researcher visited 36 early childhood centres distributed across the 36 spates of Nigeria. The findings which were expressed in simple percentages revealed a near total absence or government neglect of these critical areas. The findings equally showed a misplaced priority in the government allocation of funds to early child care education and development. The study concludes that this mismatch in the training of these categories of pupils, government should expedite action in addressing these emerging issues in early childhood care and development in Nigeria.

Keywords: Education, Early Childhood, ECCE, emerging issues

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29 Failure Analysis of a Hydrocarbon Carrying/Piping System

Authors: Esteban Morales Murillo, Ephraim Mokgothu

Abstract:

This paper presents the findings of a study conducted to investigate the wall thinning in a piping system carrying a mix of hydrocarbons in a petrochemical plant. A detailed investigation including optical inspection and several characterisation techniques such as optical microscopy, SEM/EDX, and XRF/C-S analyses was conducted. The examinations revealed that the wall thinning in the piping system was a result of high-temperature H2/H2S corrosion caused by a susceptible material for this mechanism and operating parameters and effluent concentrations beyond the prescribed limits. The sulfide layers found to testify to the large amounts of H2S that led to material degradation. Deposit analysis revealed that it consisted primarily of carbon, oxygen, iron, chromium and sulfur. Metallographic examinations revealed that the attack initiated from the internal surface and that spheroidization of carbides did occur. The article discusses in detail the contribution failure factors on the Couper-Gorman H2/H2S curves to draw conclusions. Recommendations based on the above findings are also discussed.

Keywords: Corrosion, Couper-Gorman, high-temperature corrosion, sulfidation, wall thinning, piping system

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
28 Effect of Marine Stress Starvation Conditions on Survival and Retention of the Properties of Potential Probiotic Bacillus Strains

Authors: Abdelkarim Mahdhi, Fdhila Kais, Faouzi Lamari, Zeineb Hmila, Fathi Kamoun, Maria Ángeles Esteban, Amina Bakhrouf

Abstract:

Pathogenic bacteria are considered to be responsible for several infectious diseases in aquaculture. To overcome diseases in fish culture, the use of antimicrobial drugs as strategy, have been adopted. The use of probiotic was a promising approach to avoid the risk associated to pathogenic bacteria. To find a biological control treatment against pathogens, we undertook this investigation to study the maintain of the probiotic properties of Bacillus sp., such as viability, adhesive ability to abiotic surface, antibacterial activity and pathogenicity/toxicity, under marine starvation conditions. Our data revealed that the tested strains maintained their capacity to inhibit pathogens in vivo and in vitro conditions. These strains maintain their adhesive capacity to polystyrene and do not demonstrate the pathogenic or toxic effect to the host. The obtained results give insight about the effect of starvation conditions on the physiological responses of these Bacillus strains that can be considered as a potential candidate’s probiotic.

Keywords: bacillus, probiotic, cell viability, starvation conditions

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27 The Juxtaposition of Home in Toni Morrison's Home: Ironic Functions as Trauma and Healing

Authors: Imas Istiani

Abstract:

The concept of home is usually closely related to the place of safety and security. For people who have travelled far and long, they long to be united with home to feel safe, secure and comfortable. However, for some people, especially for veterans, home cannot offer them those feelings, on the contrary, it can give them the sense of insecurity as well as guilty. Thus, its juxtaposed concept can also put home as an uncanny place that represses and haunt its occupant. As for veterans, 'survivor guilt' overpowers them in the way that it will be hard for them to embrace the comfort that home offers. In Home, Toni Morrison poignantly depicts Frank’s life upon returning from the war. Burdened with his traumatic experiences, Frank finds home full with terror, guilt, fear, grief, and loss. Using Dominick laCapra’s 'Trauma Theory,' the study finds that Frank works through his trauma by being able to distinguish between past and present so that he can overcome those repressed feelings. Aside from his inner healing power, Frank digests the process of working through with the help of home and community, as proposed by Evelyn Jaffe Schreiber claiming that community can help survivors to heal from traumatic experiences. Thus, Home has two juxtaposed functions; both as traumatizing and healing place.

Keywords: Trauma, Healing, trauma theory, home

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26 The Continuing Saga of Poverty Reduction and Food Security in the Philippines

Authors: Shienna Marie Esteban

Abstract:

The economic growth experience of the Philippines is one of the fastest in Asia. However, the said growth has not yet trickled down to every Filipino. This is evident to agricultural-dependent population. Moreover, the contribution of the agriculture sector to GDP has been dwindling while large number of labor force is still dependent on a relatively small share of GDP. As a result, poverty incidence worsened among rural poor causing hunger and malnutrition. Therefore, the existing agricultural policies in the Philippines are pushing to achieve greater food production and productivity to alleviate poverty and food insecurity. Through a review of related literature and collection and analysis of secondary data from DA, DBM, BAS - CountrySTAT, PSA, NSCB, PIDS, IRRI, UN-FAO, IFPRI, and World Bank among others, the study revealed that Philippines is still far from its goals of poverty reduction and food security. In addition, the agricultural sector is underperforming. The productivity growth of the sector comes out mediocre. The common observation is that weakness is attributed to the failures of policy and institutional environments of the agriculture sector. The policy environment failed to create a structure appropriate for the rapid growth of the sector due to institutional and governance weaknesses. A recommendation is to go through institutional and policy reforms through legislative or executive mandates should take form to improve the implementation and enforcement of existing policies.

Keywords: Food Security, Agriculture, Policy, Poverty

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25 Energy Potential of Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste - Colombian Housing

Authors: Esteban Hincapie

Abstract:

The growing climate change, global warming and population growth have contributed to the energy crisis, aggravated by the generation of organic solid waste, as a material with high energy potential. From the context of waste generation in the Metropolitan Area of the Aburrá Valley, was evaluated the potential of energy content in organic solid waste generated in La Herradura housing complex, through anaerobic digestion process in batch reactors, with mixtures of substrate, water and inoculum 1: 3: 0.2 and 1: 3: 0, reaching a total biogas production of 0,2 m³/Kg y 0,14 m³/Kg respectively, in a period of 38 days under temperature conditions of 24°C. The volume of biogas obtained was equivalent to the monthly consumption of natural gas for 75 apartments or 1.856 Kw of electric power. For the Metropolitan Area of the Aburrá Valley, a production of 7.152Kw of electric power was estimated for a month, from the treatment of 22.319 tons of organic solid waste that would not be taken to the landfill. The results indicate that the treatment of organic waste from anaerobic digestion is a sustainable option to reduce pollution, contribute to the production of alternative energies and improve the efficiency of urban metabolism.

Keywords: Waste Management, Sustainable Construction, Solid Waste, Anaerobic Digestion, Urban Metabolism, alternative energies

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24 Survey of Selected Pathogenic Bacteria in Chickens from Rural Households in Limpopo Province

Authors: Ignatious Ncube, M. Lizzy Madiwani, Evelyn Madoroba

Abstract:

This study was designed to determine the distribution of pathogenic bacteria in household raised chickens and study their virulence and antibiotic profiles. For this purpose, 40 chickens were purchased from families in the Capricorn district and sacrificed for sampling. Tissues were cultured on different bacteriological media followed by biotyping using Matrix-assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-time of Flight (MALDI-TOF). Disk diffusion test was performed to determine the antibiotic susceptibility profiles of these bacteria. Out of a total of 160 tissue samples evaluated, E. coli and Salmonella were detected in these tissues. Furthermore, determination of the pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella strains at species level using primer sets that target selected genes of interest in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was employed. The invA gene, a confirmatory gene of Salmonella was detected in all the Salmonella isolates. The study revealed that there is a high distribution of Salmonella and pathogenic E. coli in these chickens. Therefore, further studies on identification at the species level are highly recommended to provide management and sanitation practices to lower this prevalence. The antimicrobial susceptibly data generated from this study can be a valuable reference to veterinarians for treating bacterial diseases in poultry.

Keywords: Antimicrobial, Pathogens, Escherichia coli, salmonella

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23 Enhancement of Higher Order Thinking Skills among Teacher Trainers by Fun Game Learning Approach

Authors: Malathi Balakrishnan, Gananathan M. Nadarajah, Saraswathy Vellasamy, Evelyn Gnanam William George

Abstract:

The purpose of the study is to explore how the fun game-learning approach enhances teacher trainers’ higher order thinking skills. Two-day fun filled fun game learning-approach was introduced to teacher trainers as a Continuous Professional Development Program (CPD). 26 teacher trainers participated in this Transformation of Teaching and Learning Fun Way Program, organized by Institute of Teacher Education Malaysia. Qualitative research technique was adopted as the researchers observed the participants’ higher order thinking skills developed during the program. Data were collected from observational checklist; interview transcriptions of four participants and participants’ reflection notes. All the data were later analyzed with NVivo data analysis process. The finding of this study presented five main themes, which are critical thinking, hands on activities, creating, application and use of technology. The studies showed that the teacher trainers’ higher order thinking skills were enhanced after the two-day CPD program. Therefore, Institute of Teacher Education will have more success using the fun way game-learning approach to develop higher order thinking skills among its teacher trainers who can implement these skills to their trainee teachers in future. This study also added knowledge to Constructivism learning theory, which will further highlight the prominence of the fun way learning approach to enhance higher order thinking skills.

Keywords: constructivism, teacher trainer, game-learning approach, higher order thinking skill

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22 Efficacy of Different Pest Control Strategies against Citrus Rind Borer (Prays Eendolemma Diakonoff) Infesting Pummelo (Citrus maxima)

Authors: Jesryl B. Paulite, Larry V. Aceres, Emelie M. Pelicano, J. A. Esteban, Mamangun

Abstract:

Citrus rind borer still the most important pest infesting pummelo in the Philippines particularly in the Davao region. Hence, management of the pest is very important for successful pummelo production. This study was conducted to assess the effectiveness of the different control strategies against citrus rind borer; to determine the best treatment in controlling citrus rind borer; and to calculate the profitability of the various treatments in pummelo production. The experiment was laid-out in Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with five treatments replicated three times. The treatments were: T1- curry tree leaf leachate, T2- neem tree leaf leachate, T3- bagging with an ordinary net, T4- treated check (chlorpyrifos & betacyflutrin) and T5- untreated check. Data were analyzed using the Analysis of Variance and the differences among treatment means were computed using the Tukey’s Honest Significant Difference. The results of the study revealed that the curry tree leaf leachate and bagging treatments provide significant protection to the pummelo fruits which is comparable with the treated check (chlorpyrifos & betacyflutrin). Neem tree leaf leachate is not effective in controlling citrus rind borer which is comparable with the untreated check. In cost and return analysis, the most economical and effective is the bagging treatment using ordinary net.

Keywords: Bagging, curry tree, neem tree, citrus rind borer

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21 The Application and Relevance of Costing Techniques in Service-Oriented Business Organizations a Review of the Activity-Based Costing (ABC) Technique

Authors: Udeh Nneka Evelyn

Abstract:

The shortcoming of traditional costing system in terms of validity, accuracy, consistency, and Relevance increased the need for modern management accounting system. Activity –Based Costing (ABC) can be used as a modern tool for planning, Control and decision making for management. Past studies on ABC system have focused on manufacturing firms thereby making the studies on service firms scanty to some extent. This paper reviewed the application and relevance of activity-based costing technique in service oriented business organizations by employing a qualitative research method which relied heavily on literature review of past and current relevant articles focusing on ABC. Findings suggest that ABC is not only appropriate for use in a manufacturing environment; it is also most appropriate for service organizations such as financial institutions, the healthcare industry and government organization. In fact, some banking and financial institutions have been applying the concept for years under other names. One of them is unit costing, which is used to calculate the cost of banking services by determining the cost and consumption of each unit of output of functions required to deliver the service. ABC in very basic terms may provide very good payback for businesses. Some of the benefits that relate directly to the financial services industry are: identification the most profitable customers: more accurate product and service pricing: increase product profitability: Well organized process costs.

Keywords: Business, Planning, Techniques, Organizations, costing

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20 Analysis to the Characterization of Self-Esteem of Students in Eulogio 'Amang' Rodriguez Institute of Science and Technology: A Foundation of Conceptualizing Substantial Plan of Action

Authors: Eriberto R. Astorga Jr., Herbert D. Vertucio, Evelyn M. Polison

Abstract:

This study was conducted in order to determine the analysis with regards to the Characterization of Self-Esteem of EARIST Students according to their origin of self-esteem and low self-esteem as well as its causes. The respondents of this study are three thousand three hundred twenty three (3,323) randomly selected students from eight colleges of EARIST such as Arts and Sciences, Education, Public Administration and Criminology, Business Administration, Hospitality Management, Architecture and Fine Arts, Engineering, and Industrial Technology. A survey was conducted by using a validated questionnaire for information gathering about respondents profile and different factors relating to self-esteem of students such as self-origin, familial and social relationship, financial situation and education. Frequency, percentage, ranking and standards deviation, standard t-test and ANOVA were applied to investigate the differences of the answers of the respondents to the origin of their self-esteem and the reasons for low self-esteem. The results revealed that there are no significant differences in the origin of their self-esteem and the reasons of low esteem as to the eight group of respondent’s. Moreover, most causes of low esteem are caused by hearing a comment or experiencing an incident that has a negative impact student mentally and emotionally, poor health, being bullied, lack of support from family, friends, and job loss, experiencing verbal and sexual abuse and are in a violent relationship, feelings of isolation, divorce, dysfunctional family, death and lack of achievement at work and at school, trying to conform to stereotypes and prove our independence from our parents.

Keywords: Characterization, profile, self-esteem, plan of action

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19 The Application and Relevance of Costing Techniques in Service Oriented Business Organisations: A Review of the Activity-Based Costing (ABC) Technique

Authors: Udeh Nneka Evelyn

Abstract:

The shortcomings of traditional costing system, in terms of validity, accuracy, consistency and relevance increased the need for modern management accounting system. ABC (Activity-Based Costing) can be used as a modern tool for planning, control and decision making for management. Past studies on activity-based costing (ABC) system have focused on manufacturing firms thereby making the studies on service firms scanty to some extent. This paper reviewed the application and relevance of activity-based costing techniques in service oriented business organisations by employing a qualitative research method which relied heavily on literature review of past and current relevant articles focusing on activity-based costing (ABC). Findings suggest that ABC is not only appropriate for use in a manufacturing environment; it is also most appropriate for service organizations such as financial institutions, the healthcare industry, and government organizations. In fact, some banking and financial institutions have been applying the concept for years under other names. One of them is unit costing, which is used to calculate the cost of banking services by determining the cost and consumption of each unit of output of functions required to deliver the service. ABC in very basic terms may provide very good payback for businesses. Some of the benefits that relate directly to the financial services industry are: Identification of the most profitable customers; more accurate product and service pricing; increase product profitability; well-organized process costs.

Keywords: Management Accounting, Manufacture, Profitability, activity-based costing (ABC)

Procedia PDF Downloads 458
18 Ultraviolet Radiation and Chromosomal Damage in Human Lymphocytes

Authors: Lina María Martínez Sánchez, Natalia Vargas Grisales, Isabel Cristina Ortiz Trujillo, Camilo Andrés Agudelo Vélez, Felipe Osorio Ospina, Maria Adelaida Mejia Arango, Esteban Onésimo Vallejo Agudelo, Victoria Lucía Dávila Osorio, Ángela Maria Londoño García

Abstract:

Excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation, has shown to be a risk factor for photodamage, alteration of the immune mechanisms to recognize malignant cells and cutaneous pro-inflamatorios states and skin cancers. Objective: To identify the time of exposure to ultraviolet radiation for the production of chromosomal damage in human lymphocytes. Methodology: We conducted an in vitro study serial, in which samples were taken from the heparinized blood of healthy people, who do not submit exposure to agents that could induce chromosomal alterations. The samples were cultured in RPMI-1640 medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum, penicillin, and streptomycin antibiotic. Subsequently, they were grouped and exposed to ultraviolet light for 1 to 20 seconds. At the end of the treatments, cytology samples were prepared, and it was colored with Giemsa (5%). Reading was carried out in an optical microscope and 100 metaphases analysed by treatment for posting chromosomal alterations. Each treatment was conducted at three separate times and each became two replicas. Results: We only presented chromosomal alterations in lymphocytes exposed to UV for groups 1 to 3 seconds (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Exposure to ultraviolet radiation generates visible damage in chromosomes from human lymphocytes observed in light microscopy, the highest rates of injury was observed between two and three seconds, and above this value, the reduction in the number of mitotic cells was evident.

Keywords: Lymphocytes, ultraviolet rays, chromosome breakpoints, photodamage

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17 Chromosomal Damage in Human Lymphocytes by Ultraviolet Radiation

Authors: Lina María Martínez Sánchez, Natalia Vargas Grisales, Isabel Cristina Ortiz Trujillo, Camilo Andrés Agudelo Vélez, Felipe Osorio Ospina, Maria Adelaida Mejia Arango, Esteban Onésimo Vallejo Agudelo, Victoria Lucía Dávila Osorio, Ángela Maria Londoño García

Abstract:

Excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation, has shown to be a risk factor for photodamage, alteration of the immune mechanisms to recognize malignant cells and cutaneous pro-inflamatorios States and skin cancers. Objective: Identify the time of exposure to ultraviolet radiation for the production of chromosomal damage in human lymphocytes. Methodology: We conducted an in vitro study serial, in which samples were taken from heparinized blood of healthy people, who do not submit exposure to agents that could induce chromosomal alterations. The samples were cultured in RPMI-1640 medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum, penicillin and streptomycin antibiotic. Subsequently, they were grouped and exposed to ultraviolet light for 1 to 20 seconds. At the end of the treatments, cytology samples were prepared, and it was colored with Giemsa (5%). Reading was carried out in an optical microscope and 100 metaphases analysed by treatment for posting chromosomal alterations. Each treatment was conducted at three separate times and each became two replicas. Results: We only presented chromosomal alterations in lymphocytes exposed to UV for a groups 1 to 3 seconds (p<0.05). Conclusions: Exposure to ultraviolet radiation generates visible damage in chromosomes from human lymphocytes observed in light microscopy, the highest rates of injury was observed between two and three seconds, and above this value, the reduction in the number of mitotic cells was evident.

Keywords: Lymphocytes, ultraviolet rays, chromosome breakpoints, photodamage

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16 [Keynote Talk]: Uptake of Co(II) Ions from Aqueous Solutions by Low-Cost Biopolymers and Their Hybrid

Authors: Abel E. Navarro, Kateryna Zhdanova, Evelyn Szeinbaum, Michelle Lo, Yeonjae Jo

Abstract:

Alginate hydrogel beads (AB), spent peppermint leaf (PM), and a hybrid adsorbent of these two materials (ABPM) were studied as potential biosorbents of Cobalt (II) ions from aqueous solutions. Cobalt ion is a commonly underestimated pollutant that is responsible for several health problems. Discontinuous batch experiments were conducted at room temperature to evaluate the effect of solution acidity, mass of adsorbent on the adsorption of Co(II) ions. The interfering effect of salinity, the presence of surfactants, an organic dye, and Pb(II) ions were also studied to resemble the application of these adsorbents in real wastewater. Equilibrium results indicate that Co(II) uptake is maximized at pH values higher than 5, with adsorbent doses of 200 mg, 200 mg, and 120 mg for AB, PM, and ABPM, respectively. Co(II) adsorption followed the trend AB > ABPM > PM with Adsorption percentages of 77%, 71% and 64%, respectively. Salts had a strong negative effect on the adsorption due to the increase of the ionic strength and the competition for adsorption sites. The presence of Pb(II) ions, surfactant, and dye BY57 had a slightly negative effect on the adsorption, apparently due to their interaction with different adsorption sites that do not interfere with the removal of Co(II). A polar-electrostatic adsorption mechanism is proposed based on the experimental results. Scanning electron microscopy indicates that adsorbent has appropriate morphological and textural properties, and also that ABPM encapsulated most of the PM inside of the hydrogel beads. These experimental results revealed that AB, PM, and ABPM are promising adsorbents for the elimination of Co(II) ions from aqueous solutions under different experimental conditions. These biopolymers are proposed as eco-friendly alternatives for the removal of heavy metal ions at lower costs than the conventional techniques.

Keywords: Adsorption, spent peppermint leaf, Co(II) ions, alginate hydrogel beads

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15 Egg Yolk and Serum Cholesterol Reducing Effect of Garlic and Natural Cocoa Powder Using Laying Birds as Model

Authors: Onyimonyi Anselm Ego, Obi-Keguna Christy, Dim Emmanuel Chinonso, Ugwuanyi Evelyn, Uzochukwu Ifeanyi Emmanuel

Abstract:

A total of 144 Shaver Brown Layers in their sixteenth week of lay were used in a twelve weeks study to evaluate the egg yolk and serum cholesterol of the birds when fed varying dietary combinations of garlic and natural cocoa powder. The birds were randomly assigned into nine dietary treatments with 16 birds per treatment. Each bird was housed separately in a cage measuring 45 cm x 35 cm in an open sided battery cage house typical of the tropics. A standard poultry mash diet with 16.5% CP and 2800 KcalME/kg was formulated as the basal ration which also served as the control diet. Garlic and natural cocoa powder were incorporated in varying combinations (50 g or 100 g/100 kg of feed) in the remaining eight treatments. Weekly data of egg weight, egg length, egg diameter, yolk weight, albumen weight and hen day egg production were kept. Egg yolk and serum cholesterol levels were determined using a Randox kit. Results showed that birds receiving garlic and natural cocoa powder had significantly (P<0.05) reduced egg and albumen weight as compared to control birds. Hen day production of the birds was also significantly higher than control birds. Egg yolk and serum cholesterol of birds receiving the garlic and natural cocoa powder were significantly (P<0.05) lower than the control. Serum cholesterol levels showed decline in the birds receiving garlic and natural cocoa powder. The least yolk cholesterol level of 160 mg/dl was observed in birds receiving 50g garlic and 50 g natural cocoa powder (Treatment 5). Control birds had an egg cholesterol level of 245.45 mg/dl. It was concluded that incorporating garlic and natural cocoa powder in the diets of laying hens can result in a significant reduction in the egg and serum cholesterol levels.

Keywords: cholesterol, serum, garlic, egg

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14 Resistance of Haemonchus spp. to Albendazole, Fenbendazole and Levamisole in 4 Goat Farms of Antioquia, Colombia

Authors: Jose D. Zapata-Torres, Esteban Naranjo-Gutiérrez, Angela M. Martínez-Valencia, Jenny J. Chaparro-Gutiérrez, David Villar-Argaiz

Abstract:

Reports of drug resistance have been made in every livestock host and to every anthelmintic class. In some regions of world, the extremely high prevalence of multi-drug resistance in nematodes of sheep and goats threatens the viability of small-ruminant industries. In the region of Antioquia, Colombia, no reports of nematode resistance have been documented due to a lack of veterinary diagnostic laboratories. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of albendazole, fenbendazole, and levamisole to control gastrointestinal nematodes in goat farms of Antioquia by doing fecal egg count reduction tests. A total of 139 crossbreed goats from four separate farms were sampled for feces prior to, and 14 days following anthelmintc treatments. Individual fecal egg counts were performed using the modified three chamber McMaster technique. The anthelmintics administered at day 0 were albendazole (farm 1, n=63), fenbendazole (farm 2, n=20), and levamisole (farm 3 and 4, n= 37, and 19). Larval cultures were used to identify the genus of nematodes using Baermann`s technique and the morphological keys for identification of L3 in small ruminants. There was no difference in fecal egg counts between 0 and 14, with means (±SD) of 1681,5 ± 2121,5 and 1715,12 ± 1895,4 epg (eggs per gram), respectively. The egg count reductions for each anthelmintic and farm were 25,86% for albendazole (farm 1), 0% for fenbendazole (farm 2), 0% (farm 3), and 5,5% (farm 4) for levamisole. The genus of nematodes identified was predominantly Haemonchus spp., with 70,27% and 82,81% for samples from day 0 and 14, respectively. These results provide evidence of a total state of resistance to 3 common anthelmintics. Further research is needed to design integrate management programs to control nematodes in small ruminants in Colombia.

Keywords: Resistance, Goat, anthelmintics, haemonchus

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13 Survival and Retention of the Probiotic Properties of Bacillus sp. Strains under Marine Stress Starvation Conditions and Their Potential Use as a Probiotic for Aquaculture Objectives

Authors: Abdelkarim Mahdhi, Fdhila Kais, Faouzi Lamari, Zeineb Hmila, Fathi Kamoun, Maria Ángeles Esteban, Amina Bakhrouf

Abstract:

Aquaculture is the world’s fastest growing food-production sector. However, one of the most serious problems regarding the culture of marine fishes is the mortality associated with pathogenic bacteria that occurs in the critical phases of larval development. Conventional approaches, such as the use of antimicrobial drugs to control diseases, have had limited success in the prevention or cure of aquatic diseases. Promising alternatives to antibiotics are probiotics, which are food supplements consisting of live microorganisms that benefit the host organism. In the search for more effective and environmentally friendly treatments with probionts against pathogenic species in shrimp larval culture, the probiotic properties of Bacillus strains isolated from Artemia culture such as antibacterial activity, adhesion, pathogenicity, toxicity and the effect of marine stress on viability and survival were investigated, as well as the changes occurring in their properties. Analyses showed that these bacteria corresponded to the genus Bacillus sp. Antagonism and adherence assays revealed that these strains have an inhibitory effect against pathogenic bacteria in vitro and in vivo conditions and are fairly adherent. Challenge tests performed with Artemia larvae provided evidence that the tested Bacillus strains were neither pathogenic nor toxic to the host. The tested strains maintained their viability and their probiotic properties during the period of study. The results suggest that the tested strains have suffered changes allowing them to survive in seawater in the absence of nutrients and outside their natural host, identifying them as potential probiotic candidates for Artemia culture.

Keywords: Stress Response, bacillus, probiotic, cell viability

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12 Population Dynamics and Diversity of Beneficial Arthropods in Pummelo (Citrus maxima) under Perennial Peanut, Arachis pintoi Cover Crop

Authors: Jesryl B. Paulite, Larry V. Aceres, Emelie M. Pelicano, J. A. Esteban, J. B. Anciano

Abstract:

Enhancing the population of beneficial arthropods under less diverse agroecosystem is the most sought by many researchers and plant growers. This strategy was done through the establishment of pintoi peanut, Arachis pintoi as live mulch or cover crop in pummelo orchard of the University of Southeastern Philippines (USeP), Mabini, Compostela Valley Province, Philippines. This study was conducted to compare and compute population dynamics and diversity of beneficial arthropods in pummelo in with and without Arachis pintoi cover crop. Data collections were done for the 12-month period (from June 2013 to May 2014) at the pummelo orchard of USeP Mabini Campus, COMVAL Province, Philippines and data were analyzed using the Independent Samples T-Test to compare the effect of the presence and absence of Arachis pintoi on beneficial arthropods incidence in pummelo orchard. Moreover, diversity and family richness analyses were computed using the Margalef’s diversity index for family richness; the Shannon index of general diversity and the evenness index; and the Simpson index of dominance. Results revealed numerically and statistically higher density of important beneficial arthropods such as microhymenopterans, macrohymenopterans, spiders, tachinid flies and ground beetles were recorded in pummelo orchard with Arachis pintoi than from without Arachis pintoi cover crop for the 12-month observation period. Further, the result of the study revealed the high family richness and diversity index with more or less even distribution of individuals within the family and low dominance index were documented in pummelo with Arachis pintoi cover crop than from pummelo without Arachis pintoi cover crop. The study revealed that planting A. pintoi in pummelo orchard could enhance natural enemy populations.

Keywords: Arachis pintoi, cover crop, beneficial arthropods, pummelo

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11 Microwave Freeze Drying of Fruit Foams for the Production of Healthy Snacks

Authors: Sabine Ambros, Ulrich Kulozik, Mine Oezcelik, Evelyn Dachmann

Abstract:

Nutritional quality and taste of dried fruit products is still often unsatisfactory and does not meet anymore the current consumer trends. Dried foams from fruit puree could be an attractive alternative. Due to their open-porous structure, a new sensory perception with a sudden and very intense aroma release could be generated. To make such high quality fruit snacks affordable for the consumer, a gentle but at the same time fast drying process has to be applied. Therefore, microwave-assisted freeze drying of raspberry foams was investigated in this work and compared with the conventional freeze drying technique in terms of nutritional parameters such as antioxidative capacity, anthocyanin content and vitamin C and the physical parameters colour and wettability. The following process settings were applied: 0.01 kPa chamber pressure and a maximum temperature of 30 °C for both freeze and microwave freeze drying. The influence of microwave power levels on the dried foams was investigated between 1 and 5 W/g. Intermediate microwave power settings led to the highest nutritional values, a colour appearance comparable to the undried foam and a proper wettability. A proper process stability could also be guaranteed for these power levels. By the volumetric energy input of the microwaves drying time could be reduced from 24 h in conventional freeze drying to about 6 h. The short drying times further resulted in an equally high maintenance of the above mentioned parameters in both drying techniques. Hence, microwave assisted freeze drying could lead to a process acceleration in comparison to freeze drying and be therefore an interesting alternative drying technique which on industrial scale enables higher efficiency and higher product throughput.

Keywords: raspberry, freeze drying, foam drying, fruit puree, microwave freeze drying

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10 Use of Alternative and Complementary Therapies in Patients with Chronic Pain in a Medical Institution in Medellin, Colombia, 2014

Authors: Gloria Inés Martínez Domínguez, Lina María Martínez Sánchez, María de los Ángeles Rodríguez Gázquez, Daniel Gallego Gonzalez, Juliana Molina Valencia, Esteban Vallejo Agudelo, María Isabel Pérez Palacio, Juan Ricardo Gaviria García

Abstract:

Alternative and complementary therapies constitute a vast and complex combination of interventions, philosophies, approaches, and therapies that acquire a holistic healthcare point of view, becoming an alternative for the treatment of patients with chronic pain. Objective: determine the characteristics of the use of alternative and complementary therapies in patients with chronic pain who consulted in a medical institution. Methodology: cross-sectional and descriptive study, with a population of patients that assisted to the outpatient consultation and met the eligibility criteria. Sampling was not conducted. A form was used for the collection of demographic and clinical variables and the Holistic Complementary and Alternative Medicine Questionnaire (HCAMQ) was validated. The analysis and processing of information was carried out using the SPSS program vr.19. Results: 220 people with chronic pain were included. The average age was 54.7±16.2 years, 78.2% were women, and 75.5% belonged to the socioeconomic strata 1 to 3. Musculoskeletal pain (77.7%), migraine (15%) and neuralgia (9.1%) were the most frequently types of chronic pain. 33.6% of participants have used some kind of alternative and complementary therapy; the most frequent were: homeopathy (14.5%), phytotherapy (12.7%), and acupuncture (11.4%). The total average HCAMQ score for the study group was 30.2±7.0 points, which shows a moderate attitude toward the use of complementary and alternative medicine. The highest scores according to the type of pain were: neuralgia (32.4±5.8), musculoskeletal pain (30.5±6.7), fibromyalgia (29.6±7.3) and migraine (28.5±8.8). The reliability of the HCAMQ was acceptable (Cronbach's α: 0.6). Conclusion: it was noted that the types of chronic pain and the clinical or therapeutic management of patients correspond to the data available in current literature. Despite the moderate attitude toward the use of these alternative and complementary therapies, one of every three patients uses them.

Keywords: Chronic Pain, homeopathy, complementary therapies, acupuncture analgesia

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9 Healthy Feeding and Drinking Troughs for Profitable Intensive Deep-Litter Poultry Farming

Authors: Godwin Ojochogu Adejo, Evelyn UnekwuOjo Adejo, Sunday UnenwOjo Adejo

Abstract:

The mainstream contemporary approach to controlling the impact of diseases among poultry birds rely largely on curative measures through the administration of drugs to infected birds. Most times as observed in the deep liter poultry farming system, entire flocks including uninfected birds receive the treatment they do not need. As such, unguarded use of chemical drugs and antibiotics has led to wastage and accumulation of chemical residues in poultry products with associated health hazards to humans. However, wanton and frequent drug usage in poultry is avoidable if feeding and drinking equipment are designed to curb infection transmission among birds. Using toxicological assays as guide and with efficiency and simplicity in view, two newly field-tested and recently patented equipments called 'healthy liquid drinking trough (HDT)' and 'healthy feeding trough (HFT)' that systematically eliminate contamination of the feeding and drinking channels, thereby, curbing wide-spread infection and transmission of diseases in the (intensive) deep litter poultry farming system were designed. Upon combined usage, they automatically and drastically reduced both the amount and frequency of antibiotics use in poultry by over > 50%. Additionally, they conferred optimization of feed and water utilization/elimination of wastage by > 80%, reduced labour by > 70%, reduced production cost by about 15%, and reduced chemical residues in poultry meat or eggs by > 85%. These new and cheap technologies which require no energy input are likely to elevate safety of poultry products for consumers' health, increase marketability locally and for export, and increase output and profit especially among poultry farmers and poor people who keep poultry or inevitably utilize poultry products in developing countries.

Keywords: Healthy, Poultry, trough, toxicological, assay-guided

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8 Annual August Meetings as a Stimulator for Female Empowerment: Case Study Udi Local Government Area of Enugu State, Nigeria

Authors: Nneka Evelyn Udeh

Abstract:

Women’s economic participation and empowerment are fundamental to strengthening women’s rights and enabling women to have control over their lives and exert influence in the society. The economic empowerment of women is a prerequisite for sustainable development, pro-poor growth and the achievement of all the millennium development Goals (MDGs). For women to be in development they need to be empowered morally, socially, economically, and financially and this is why women in Udi Local Government Area of Nigeria meet every August, the eighth month of the year to discuss matters relating to the pursuit of women empowerment, community welfare, and national development. This exploratory study depicts how annual august meetings serve as a stimulator for female empowerment with a case study Udi Local Government area of Enugu state, Nigeria. The paper finds that ‘August Meeting’ is a regular annual occurrence in Udi Local Government Area, Enugu State, Nigeria particularly for married women and is designed to better the lot of women, the child, family, the church, and the Community. Through this forum, with its seminars and workshops, women have the opportunity to learn everything about womanhood and how to chart new courses of action and sources of empowerment. The gathering gives women the opportunity to be integrated into their community development projects, and having women as stakeholders and not mere observers helps guarantee a speedy and steady community and overall national development progress. Funds are raised for community development projects through annual dues, levies, donations, fines, sales, income from money-yielding ventures, endowment and investiture. Annual August meeting also known as ‘Mothers Summit’ is indeed a powerful stimulator for female empowerment. Support and invigoration of this women initiative is essential for sustainable emancipation of female gender, not just in Udi Local Government Area of Nigeria but globally.

Keywords: Sustainability, Emancipation, Women Empowerment, national development, annual august meeting, Udi Lga, mothers' summit, stimulator, community welfare, millennium development goal

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7 Direct Laser Fabrication and Characterization of Cu-Al-Ni Shape Memory Alloy for Seismic Damping Applications

Authors: Gonzalo Reyes, Magdalena Walczak, Esteban Ramos-Moore, Jorge Ramos-Grez

Abstract:

Metal additive manufacture technologies have gained strong support and acceptance as a promising and alternative method to manufacture high performance complex geometry products. The main purpose of the present work is to study the microstructure and phase transformation temperatures of Cu-Al-Ni shape memory alloys fabricated from a direct laser additive process using metallic powders as precursors. The potential application is to manufacture self-centering seismic dampers for earthquake protection of buildings out of a copper based alloy by an additive process. In this process, the Cu-Al-Ni alloy is melted, inside of a high temperature and vacuum chamber with the aid of a high power fiber laser under inert atmosphere. The laser provides the energy to melt the alloy powder layer. The process allows fabricating fully dense, oxygen-free Cu-Al-Ni specimens using different laser power levels, laser powder interaction times, furnace ambient temperatures, and cooling rates as well as modifying concentration of the alloying elements. Two sets of specimens were fabricated with a nominal composition of Cu-13Al-3Ni and Cu-13Al-4Ni in wt.%, however, semi-quantitative chemical analysis using EDX examination showed that the specimens’ resulting composition was closer to Cu-12Al-5Ni and Cu-11Al-8Ni, respectively. In spite of that fact, it is expected that the specimens should still possess shape memory behavior. To confirm this hypothesis, phase transformation temperatures will be measured using DSC technique, to look for martensitic and austenitic phase transformations at 150°C. So far, metallographic analysis of the specimens showed defined martensitic microstructures. Moreover, XRD technique revealed diffraction peaks corresponding to (0 0 18) and (1 2 8) planes, which are too associated with the presence of martensitic phase. We conclude that it would be possible to obtain fully dense Cu-Al-Ni alloys having shape memory effect behavior by direct laser fabrication process, and to advance into fabrication of self centering seismic dampers by a controllable metal additive manufacturing process.

Keywords: Cu-Al-Ni alloys, direct laser fabrication, shape memory alloy, self-centering seismic dampers

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