Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 2335

Search results for: fin wave angle

2335 Determination of Optimum Fin Wave Angle and Its Effect on the Performance of an Intercooler

Authors: Mahdi Hamzehei, Seyyed Amin Hakim, Nahid Taherian


Fins play an important role in increasing the efficiency of compact shell and tube heat exchangers by increasing heat transfer. The objective of this paper is to determine the optimum fin wave angle, as one of the geometric parameters affecting the efficiency of the heat exchangers. To this end, finite volume method is used to model and simulate the flow in heat exchanger. In this study, computational fluid dynamics simulations of wave channel are done. The results show that the wave angle affects the temperature output of the heat exchanger.

Keywords: fin wave angle, tube, intercooler, optimum, performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 282
2334 Evaluation of Internal Friction Angle in Overconsolidated Granular Soil Deposits Using P- and S-Wave Seismic Velocities

Authors: Ehsan Pegah, Huabei Liu


Determination of the internal friction angle (φ) in natural soil deposits is an important issue in geotechnical engineering. The main objective of this study was to examine the evaluation of this parameter in overconsolidated granular soil deposits by using the P-wave velocity and the anisotropic components of S-wave velocity (i.e., both the vertical component (SV) and the horizontal component (SH) of S-wave). To this end, seventeen pairs of P-wave and S-wave seismic refraction profiles were carried out at three different granular sites in Iran using non-invasive seismic wave methods. The acquired shot gathers were processed, from which the P-wave, SV-wave and SH-wave velocities were derived. The reference values of φ and overconsolidation ratio (OCR) in the soil deposits were measured through laboratory tests. By assuming cross-anisotropy of the soils, the P-wave and S-wave velocities were utilized to develop an equation for calculating the coefficient of lateral earth pressure at-rest (K₀) based on the theory of elasticity for a cross-anisotropic medium. In addition, to develop an equation for OCR estimation in granular geomaterials in terms of SH/SV velocity ratios, a general regression analysis was performed on the resulting information from this research incorporated with the respective data published in the literature. The calculated K₀ values coupled with the estimated OCR values were finally employed in the Mayne and Kulhawy formula to evaluate φ in granular soil deposits. The results showed that reliable values of φ could be estimated based on the seismic wave velocities. The findings of this study may be used as the appropriate approaches for economic and non-invasive determination of in-situ φ in granular soil deposits using the surface seismic surveys.

Keywords: angle of internal friction, overconsolidation ratio, granular soils, P-wave velocity, SV-wave velocity, SH-wave velocity

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2333 Mathematical Analysis of Variation in Inlet Shock Wave Angle on Specific Impulse of Scramjet Engine

Authors: Shrikant Ghadage


Study of shock waves generated in the Scramjet engine is typically restricted to pressure, temperature, density, entropy and Mach number variation across the shock wave. The present work discusses the impact of inlet shock wave angles on the specific impulse of the Scramjet engine. A mathematical analysis has done for the isentropic hypersonic flow of air flowing through a Scramjet with hydrogen fuel at an altitude of 30 km. Analysis has been done in order to get optimum shock wave angle to achieve maximum impulse. Since external drag has excluded from the analysis, the losses due to friction are not considered for the present analysis. When Mach number of the airflow at the entry of the nozzle reaches unity, then that flow is choked. This condition puts limitations on increasing the inlet shock wave angle. As inlet shock wave angle increases, speed of the flow entering into the nozzle decreases, which results in an increase in the specific impulse of the engine. When the speed of the flow at the entry of the nozzle reduces below sonic speed, then there is no further increase in the specific impulse of the engine. Here the Conclusion is the thrust and specific impulse of a scramjet engine, which increases gradually with an increase in inlet shock wave angle up to the condition when airflow speed reaches sonic velocity at the exit of the combustor. In addition to that, variation in drag force at the inlet of the scramjet and variation in hypersonic flow conditions at every stage of the scramjet also studied in order to understand variation on flow characteristics with respect to flow deflection angle. Essentially, it helps in designing inlet profile for the Scramjet engine to achieve optimum specific impulse.

Keywords: hypersonic flow, scramjet, shock waves, specific impulse, mathematical analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 86
2332 Wave Pressure Metering with the Specific Instrument and Measure Description Determined by the Shape and Surface of the Instrument including the Number of Sensors and Angle between Them

Authors: Branimir Jurun, Elza Jurun


Focus of this paper is description and functioning manner of the instrument for wave pressure metering. Moreover, an essential component of this paper is the proposal of a metering unit for the direct wave pressure measurement determined by the shape and surface of the instrument including the number of sensors and angle between them. Namely, far applied instruments by means of height, length, direction, wave time period and other components determine wave pressure on a particular area. This instrument, allows the direct measurement i.e. measurement without additional calculation, of the wave pressure expressed in a standardized unit of measure. That way the instrument has a standardized form, surface, number of sensors and the angle between them. In addition, it is made with the status that follows the wave and always is on the water surface. Database quality which is listed by the instrument is made possible by using the Arduino chip. This chip is programmed for receiving by two data from each of the sensors each second. From these data by a pre-defined manner a unique representative value is estimated. By this procedure all relevant wave pressure measurement results are directly and immediately registered. Final goal of establishing such a rich database is a comprehensive statistical analysis that ranges from multi-criteria analysis across different modeling and parameters testing to hypothesis accepting relating to the widest variety of man-made activities such as filling of beaches, security cages for aquaculture, bridges construction.

Keywords: instrument, metering, water, waves

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
2331 Analysis of Reflection of Elastic Waves in Three Dimensional Model Comprised with Viscoelastic Anisotropic Medium

Authors: Amares Chattopadhyay, Akanksha Srivastava


A unified approach to study the reflection of a plane wave in three-dimensional model comprised of the triclinic viscoelastic medium. The phase velocities of reflected qP, qSV and qSH wave have been calculated for the concerned medium by using the eigenvalue approach. The generalized method has been implemented to compute the complex form of amplitude ratios. Further, we discussed the nature of reflection coefficients of qP, qSV and qSH wave. The viscoelastic parameter, polar angle and azimuthal angle are found to be strongly influenced by amplitude ratios. The research article is particularly focused to study the effect of viscoelasticity associated with highly anisotropic media which exhibits the notable information about the reflection coefficients of qP, qSV, and qSH wave. The outcomes may further useful to the better exploration of all types of hydrocarbon reservoir and advancement in the field of reflection seismology.

Keywords: amplitude ratios, three dimensional, triclinic, viscoelastic

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
2330 Case-Wise Investigation of Body-Wave Propagation in a Cross-Anisotropic Soil Exhibiting Inhomogeneity along Depth

Authors: Sumit Kumar Vishawakarma, Tapas Ranjan Panihari


The article investigates the propagation behavior of SV-wave, SH-wave, and P-wave in a continuously inhomogeneous cross-anisotropic material, where the material properties such as Young's moduli, shear modulus, and density vary as an arbitrary continuous function of depth. In the considered model, Hook's law, strain-displacement relations along with equilibrium equations have been used to derive the governing equation. The mathematical formulation of this physical problem gives rise to an eigenvalue problem with displacement components as fundamental variables. This leads to achieving the closed-form expressions for quasi-wave velocities of SV-wave, SH-wave, and P-wave in the considered framework. These characteristics of wave propagation along with the above-stated variation have been scrutinized based on their numerical results. This parametric study reveals that wave velocity remarkably fluctuates as the magnitude of inhomogeneity parameters increases and decreases. The prominent effect has been shown depicting the dependence of wave velocity on the degree of material anisotropy. The influence of phase angle and depth of the medium has been remarkably established. The present study may facilitate the theoretical foundation and practical application in the field of earthquake source mechanisms.

Keywords: cross-anisotropic, inhomogeneity, P-wave, SH-wave, SV-wave, shear modulus, Young’s modulus

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
2329 Thrust Enhancement on a Two Dimensional Elliptic Airfoil in a Forward Flight

Authors: S. M. Dash, K. B. Lua, T. T. Lim


This paper presents results of numerical and experimental studies on a two-dimensional (2D) flapping elliptic airfoil in a forward flight condition at Reynolds number of 5000. The study is motivated from an earlier investigation which shows that the deterioration in thrust performance of a sinusoidal heaving and pitching 2D (NACA0012) airfoil at high flapping frequency can be recovered by changing the effective angle of attack profile to square wave, sawtooth, or cosine wave shape. To better understand why such modifications lead to superior thrust performance, we take a closer look at the transient aerodynamic force behavior of an airfoil when the effective angle of attack profile changes gradually from a generic smooth trapezoidal profile to a sinusoid shape by modifying the base length of the trapezoid. The choice of using a smooth trapezoidal profile is to avoid the infinite acceleration condition encountered in the square wave profile. Our results show that the enhancement in the time-averaged thrust performance at high flapping frequency can be attributed to the delay and reduction in the drag producing valley region in the transient thrust force coefficient when the effective angle of attack profile changes from sinusoidal to trapezoidal.

Keywords: two-dimensional flapping airfoil, thrust performance, effective angle of attack, CFD, experiments

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
2328 Angular Correlation and Independent Particle Model in Two-Electron Atomic Systems

Authors: Tokuei Sako


The ground and low-lying singly-excited states of He and He-like atomic ions have been studied by the Full Configuration Interaction (FCI) method focusing on the angular correlation between two electrons in the studied systems. The two-electron angle density distribution obtained by integrating the square-modulus of the FCI wave function over the coordinates other than the interelectronic angle shows a distinct trend between the singlet-triplet pair of states for different values of the nuclear charge Zn. Further, both of these singlet and triplet distributions tend to show an increasingly stronger dependence on the interelectronic angle as Zn increases, in contrast to the well-known fact that the correlation energy approaches towards zero for increasing Zn. This controversial observation has been rationalized on the basis of the recently introduced concept of so-called conjugate Fermi holes.

Keywords: He-like systems, angular correlation, configuration interaction wave function, conjugate Fermi hole

Procedia PDF Downloads 347
2327 Wave Interaction with Single and Twin Vertical and Sloped Porous Walls

Authors: Mohamad Alkhalidi, S. Neelamani, Noor Alanjari


The main purpose of harbors and marinas is to create a calm and safe docking space for marine vessels. Standard rubble mound breakwaters, although widely used, occupy port space and require large amounts of stones or rocks. Kuwait does not have good quality stone, so they are imported at a very high cost. Therefore, there is a need for a new wave energy dissipating structure where stones and rocks are scarce. While permeable slotted vertical walls have been proved to be a suitable alternative to rubble mound breakwaters, the introduction of sloped slotted walls may be more efficient in dissipating wave energy. For example, two slotted barriers with 60degree inclination may be equivalent to three vertical slotted barriers from wave energy dissipation point of view. A detailed physical model study is carried out to determine the effects of slope angle, porosity, and a number of walls on wave energy dissipation for a wide range of random and regular waves. The results of this study can be used to improve and optimize energy dissipation and reduce construction cost.

Keywords: porosity, slope, wave reflection, wave transmission

Procedia PDF Downloads 222
2326 Effect of Scarp Topography on Seismic Ground Motion

Authors: Haiping Ding, Rongchu Zhu, Zhenxia Song


Local irregular topography has a great impact on earthquake ground motion. For scarp topography, using numerical simulation method, the influence extent and scope of the scarp terrain on scarp's upside and downside ground motion are discussed in case of different vertical incident SV waves. The results show that: (1) The amplification factor of scarp's upside region is greater than that of the free surface, while the amplification factor of scarp's downside part is less than that of the free surface; (2) When the slope angle increases, for x component, amplification factors of the scarp upside also increase, while the downside part decrease with it. For z component, both of the upside and downside amplification factors will increase; (3) When the slope angle changes, the influence scope of scarp's downside part is almost unchanged, but for the upside part, it slightly becomes greater with the increase of slope angle; (4) Due to the existence of the scarp, the z component ground motion appears at the surface. Its amplification factor increases for larger slope angle, and the peaks of the surface responses are related with incident waves. However, the input wave has little effects on the x component amplification factors.

Keywords: scarp topography, ground motion, amplification factor, vertical incident wave

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2325 Study on the Non-Contact Sheet Resistance Measuring of Silver Nanowire Coated Film Using Terahertz Wave

Authors: Dong-Hyun Kim, Wan-Ho Chung, Hak-Sung Kim


In this work, non-destructive evaluation was conducted to measure the sheet resistance of silver nanowire coated film and find a damage of that film using terahertz (THz) wave. Pulse type THz instrument was used, and the measurement was performed under transmission and pitch-catch reflection modes with 30 degree of incidence angle. In the transmission mode, the intensity of the THz wave was gradually increased as the conductivity decreased. Meanwhile, the intensity of THz wave was decreased as the conductivity decreased in the pitch-catch reflection mode. To confirm the conductivity of the film, sheet resistance was measured by 4-point probe station. Interaction formula was drawn from a relation between the intensity and the sheet resistance. Through substituting sheet resistance to the formula and comparing the resultant value with measured maximum THz wave intensity, measurement of sheet resistance using THz wave was more suitable than that using 4-point probe station. In addition, the damage on the silver nanowire coated film was detected by applying the THz image system. Therefore, the reliability of the entire film can be also be ensured. In conclusion, real-time monitoring using the THz wave can be applied in the transparent electrodes with detecting the damaged area as well as measuring the sheet resistance.

Keywords: terahertz wave, sheet resistance, non-destructive evaluation, silver nanowire

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2324 Surface Motion of Anisotropic Half Space Containing an Anisotropic Inclusion under SH Wave

Authors: Yuanda Ma, Zhiyong Zhang, Zailin Yang, Guanxixi Jiang


Anisotropy is very common in underground media, such as rock, sand, and soil. Hence, the dynamic response of anisotropy medium under elastic waves is significantly different from the isotropic one. Moreover, underground heterogeneities and structures, such as pipelines, cylinders, or tunnels, are usually made by composite materials, leading to the anisotropy of these heterogeneities and structures. Both the anisotropy of the underground medium and the heterogeneities have an effect on the surface motion of the ground. Aiming at providing theoretical references for earthquake engineering and seismology, the surface motion of anisotropic half-space with a cylindrical anisotropic inclusion embedded under the SH wave is investigated in this work. Considering the anisotropy of the underground medium, the governing equation with three elastic parameters of SH wave propagation is introduced. Then, based on the complex function method and multipolar coordinates system, the governing equation in the complex plane is obtained. With the help of a pair of transformation, the governing equation is transformed into a standard form. By means of the same methods, the governing equation of SH wave propagation in the cylindrical inclusion with another three elastic parameters is normalized as well. Subsequently, the scattering wave in the half-space and the standing wave in the inclusion is deduced. Different incident wave angle and anisotropy are considered to obtain the reflected wave. Then the unknown coefficients in scattering wave and standing wave are solved by utilizing the continuous condition at the boundary of the inclusion. Through truncating finite terms of the scattering wave and standing wave, the equation of boundary conditions can be calculated by programs. After verifying the convergence and the precision of the calculation, the validity of the calculation is verified by degrading the model of the problem as well. Some parameters which influence the surface displacement of the half-space is considered: dimensionless wave number, dimensionless depth of the inclusion, anisotropic parameters, wave number ratio, shear modulus ratio. Finally, surface displacement amplitude of the half space with different parameters is calculated and discussed.

Keywords: anisotropy, complex function method, sh wave, surface displacement amplitude

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2323 Solution of the Nonrelativistic Radial Wave Equation of Hydrogen Atom Using the Green's Function Approach

Authors: F. U. Rahman, R. Q. Zhang


This work aims to develop a systematic numerical technique which can be easily extended to many-body problem. The Lippmann Schwinger equation (integral form of the Schrodinger wave equation) is solved for the nonrelativistic radial wave of hydrogen atom using iterative integration scheme. As the unknown wave function appears on both sides of the Lippmann Schwinger equation, therefore an approximate wave function is used in order to solve the equation. The Green’s function is obtained by the method of Laplace transform for the radial wave equation with excluded potential term. Using the Lippmann Schwinger equation, the product of approximate wave function, the Green’s function and the potential term is integrated iteratively. Finally, the wave function is normalized and plotted against the standard radial wave for comparison. The outcome wave function converges to the standard wave function with the increasing number of iteration. Results are verified for the first fifteen states of hydrogen atom. The method is efficient and consistent and can be applied to complex systems in future.

Keywords: Green’s function, hydrogen atom, Lippmann Schwinger equation, radial wave

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2322 Effects of Positron Concentration and Temperature on Ion-Acoustic Solitons in Magnetized Electron-Positron-Ion Plasma

Authors: S. K. Jain, M. K. Mishra


Oblique propagation of ion-acoustic solitons in magnetized electron-positron-ion (EPI) plasma with warm adiabatic ions and isothermal electrons has been studied. Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation using reductive perturbation method has been derived for the system, which admits an obliquely propagating soliton solution. It is found that for the selected set of parameter values, the system supports only compressive solitons. Investigations reveal that an increase in positron concentration diminishes the amplitude as well as the width of the soliton. It is also found that the temperature ratio of electron to positron (γ) affects the amplitude of the solitary wave. An external magnetic field do not affect the amplitude of ion-acoustic solitons, but obliqueness angle (θ), the angle between wave vector and magnetic field affects the amplitude. The amplitude of the ion-acoustic solitons increases with increase in angle of obliqueness. Magnetization and obliqueness drastically affect the width of the soliton. An increase in ionic temperature decreases the amplitude and width. For the fixed set of parameters, profiles have been drawn to study the combined effect with variation of two parameters on the characteristics of the ion-acoustic solitons (i.e., amplitude and width). The result may be applicable to plasma in the laboratory as well as in the magnetospheric region of the earth.

Keywords: ion-acoustic solitons, Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation, magnetized electron-positron-ion (EPI) plasma, reductive perturbation method

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2321 Performance Improvement of Photovoltaic Module at Different Tilt Angle in Kuwait

Authors: Hussain Bunyan, Wesam Ali


In this paper we will study the performance of a Silicon Photovoltaic (PV) system with different tilt angle arrangement in Kuwait (latitude 30˚ N). In this study the PV system is installed facing south, collecting maximum solar radiation at noon, and their angles are from 00 to 900 respectively, during full year at the Solstice and Equinox periods and aiming for a higher angle than 300 with competitive output power. The results show that the performance and the output power of the PV system with 50˚ tilt angle, is equivalent to the latitude tilt angle (30˚) during a full year.

Keywords: photovoltaic model, tilt angle, solar collector, PV system performance, State of Kuwait

Procedia PDF Downloads 329
2320 Non-Destructive Technique for Detection of Voids in the IC Package Using Terahertz-Time Domain Spectrometer

Authors: Sung-Hyeon Park, Jin-Wook Jang, Hak-Sung Kim


In recent years, Terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy (TDS) imaging method has been received considerable interest as a promising non-destructive technique for detection of internal defects. In comparison to other non-destructive techniques such as x-ray inspection method, scanning acoustic tomograph (SAT) and microwave inspection method, THz-TDS imaging method has many advantages: First, it can measure the exact thickness and location of defects. Second, it doesn’t require the liquid couplant while it is very crucial to deliver that power of ultrasonic wave in SAT method. Third, it didn’t damage to materials and be harmful to human bodies while x-ray inspection method does. Finally, it exhibits better spatial resolution than microwave inspection method. However, this technology couldn’t be applied to IC package because THz radiation can penetrate through a wide variety of materials including polymers and ceramics except of metals. Therefore, it is difficult to detect the defects in IC package which are composed of not only epoxy and semiconductor materials but also various metals such as copper, aluminum and gold. In this work, we proposed a special method for detecting the void in the IC package using THz-TDS imaging system. The IC package specimens for this study are prepared by Packaging Engineering Team in Samsung Electronics. Our THz-TDS imaging system has a special reflection mode called pitch-catch mode which can change the incidence angle in the reflection mode from 10 o to 70 o while the others have transmission and the normal reflection mode or the reflection mode fixed at certain angle. Therefore, to find the voids in the IC package, we investigated the appropriate angle as changing the incidence angle of THz wave emitter and detector. As the results, the voids in the IC packages were successfully detected using our THz-TDS imaging system.

Keywords: terahertz, non-destructive technique, void, IC package

Procedia PDF Downloads 388
2319 Investigation of Stoneley Waves in Multilayered Plates

Authors: Bing Li, Tong Lu, Lei Qiang


Stoneley waves are interface waves that propagate at the interface between two solid media. In this study, the dispersion characteristics and wave structures of Stoneley waves in elastic multilayered plates are displayed and investigated. With a perspective of bulk wave, a reasonable assumption of the potential function forms of the expansion wave and shear wave in nth layer medium is adopted, and the characteristic equation of Stoneley waves in a three-layered plate is given in a determinant form. The dispersion curves and wave structures are solved and presented in both numerical and simulation results. It is observed that two Stoneley wave modes exist in a three-layered plate, that conspicuous dispersion occurs on low frequency band, that the velocity of each Stoneley wave mode approaches the corresponding Stoneley wave velocity at interface between two half infinite spaces. The wave structures reveal that the in-plane displacement of Stoneley waves are relatively high at interfaces, which shows great potential for interface defects detection.

Keywords: characteristic equation, interface waves, potential function, Stoneley waves, wave structure

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2318 Effect of Blade Layout on Unidirectional Rotation of a Vertical-Axis Rotor in Waves

Authors: Yingchen Yang


Ocean waves are a rich renewable energy source that is nearly untapped to date, even though many wave energy conversion (WEC) technologies are currently under development. The present work discusses a vertical-axis WEC rotor for power generation. The rotor was specially designed to allow easy rearrangement of the same blades to achieve different rotor configurations and result in different wave-rotor interaction behaviors. These rotor configurations were tested in a wave tank under various wave conditions. The testing results indicate that all the rotor configurations perform unidirectional rotation about the vertical axis in waves, but the response characteristics are somewhat different. The rotor's unidirectional rotation about its vertical axis is essential in wave energy harvesting since it makes the rotor respond well in a wide range of the wave frequency and in any wave propagation directions. Result comparison among different configurations leads to a preferred rotor design for further hydrodynamic optimization.

Keywords: unidirectional rotation, vertical axis rotor, wave energy conversion, wave-rotor interaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
2317 Interaction between Trapezoidal Hill and Subsurface Cavity under SH Wave Incidence

Authors: Yuanrui Xu, Zailin Yang, Yunqiu Song, Guanxixi Jiang


It is an important subject of seismology on the influence of local topography on ground motion during earthquake. In mountainous areas with complex terrain, the construction of the tunnel is often the most effective transportation scheme. In these projects, the local terrain can be simplified into hills with different shapes, and the underground tunnel structure can be regarded as a subsurface cavity. The presence of the subsurface cavity affects the strength of the rock mass and changes the deformation and failure characteristics. Moreover, the scattering of the elastic waves by underground structures usually interacts with local terrains, which leads to a significant influence on the surface displacement of the terrains. Therefore, it is of great practical significance to study the surface displacement of local terrains with underground tunnels in earthquake engineering and seismology. In this work, the region is divided into three regions by the method of region matching. By using the fractional Bessel function and Hankel function, the complex function method, and the wave function expansion method, the wavefield expression of SH waves is introduced. With the help of a constitutive relation between the displacement and the stress components, the hoop stress and radial stress is obtained subsequently. Then, utilizing the continuous condition at different region boundaries, the undetermined coefficients in wave fields are solved by the Fourier series expansion and truncation of the finite term. Finally, the validity of the method is verified, and the surface displacement amplitude is calculated. The surface displacement amplitude curve is discussed in the numerical results. The results show that different parameters, such as radius and buried depth of the tunnel, wave number, and incident angle of the SH wave, have a significant influence on the amplitude of surface displacement. For the underground tunnel, the increase of buried depth will make the response of surface displacement amplitude increases at first and then decreases. However, the increase of radius leads the response of surface displacement amplitude to appear an opposite phenomenon. The increase of SH wave number can enlarge the amplitude of surface displacement, and the change of incident angle can obviously affect the amplitude fluctuation.

Keywords: method of region matching, scattering of SH wave, subsurface cavity, trapezoidal hill

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2316 Solar Wind Turbulence and the Role of Circularly Polarized Dispersive Alfvén Wave

Authors: Swati Sharma, R. P. Sharma


We intend to study the nonlinear evolution of the parallel propagating finite frequency Alfvén wave (also called Dispersive Alfvén wave/Hall MHD wave) propagating in the solar wind regime of the solar region when a perpendicularly propagating magnetosonic wave is present in the background. The finite frequency Alfvén wave behaves differently from the usual non-dispersive behavior of the Alfvén wave. To study the nonlinear processes (such as filamentation) taking place in the solar regions such as solar wind, the dynamical equation of both the waves are derived. Numerical simulation involving finite difference method for the time domain and pseudo spectral method for the spatial domain is then performed to analyze the transient evolution of these waves. The power spectra of the Dispersive Alfvén wave is also investigated. The power spectra shows the distribution of the magnetic field intensity of the Dispersive Alfvén wave over different wave numbers. For DAW the spectra shows a steepening for scales larger than the proton inertial length. This means that the wave energy gets transferred to the solar wind particles as the wave reaches higher wave numbers. This steepening of the power spectra can be explained on account of the finite frequency of the Alfvén wave. The obtained results are consistent with the observations made by CLUSTER spacecraft.

Keywords: solar wind, turbulence, dispersive alfven wave

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2315 Aerodynamic Investigation of Rear Vehicle by Geometry Variations on the Backlight Angle

Authors: Saud Hassan


This paper shows simulation for the prediction of the flow around the backlight angle of the passenger vehicle. The CFD simulations are carried out on different car models. The Ahmed model “bluff body” used as the stander model to study aerodynamics of the backlight angle. This paper described the airflow over the different car models with different backlight angles and also on the Ahmed model to determine the trailing vortices with the varying backlight angle of a passenger vehicle body. The CFD simulation is carried out with the Ahmed body which has simplified car model mainly used in automotive industry to investigate the flow over the car body surface. The main goal of the simulation is to study the behavior of trailing vortices of these models. In this paper the air flow over the slant angle of 0,5o, 12.5o, 20o, 30o, 40o are considered. As investigating on the rear backlight angle two dimensional flows occurred at the rear slant, on the other hand when the slant angle is 30o the flow become three dimensional. Above this angle sudden drop occurred in drag.

Keywords: aerodynamics, Ahemd vehicle , backlight angle, finite element method

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2314 A FE-Based Scheme for Computing Wave Interaction with Nonlinear Damage and Generation of Harmonics in Layered Composite Structures

Authors: R. K. Apalowo, D. Chronopoulos


A Finite Element (FE) based scheme is presented for quantifying guided wave interaction with Localised Nonlinear Structural Damage (LNSD) within structures of arbitrary layering and geometric complexity. The through-thickness mode-shape of the structure is obtained through a wave and finite element method. This is applied in a time domain FE simulation in order to generate time harmonic excitation for a specific wave mode. Interaction of the wave with LNSD within the system is computed through an element activation and deactivation iteration. The scheme is validated against experimental measurements and a WFE-FE methodology for calculating wave interaction with damage. Case studies for guided wave interaction with crack and delamination are presented to verify the robustness of the proposed method in classifying and identifying damage.

Keywords: layered structures, nonlinear ultrasound, wave interaction with nonlinear damage, wave finite element, finite element

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2313 Definition of Service Angle of Android’S Robot Hand by Method of Small Movements of Gripper’S Axis Synthesis by Speed Vector

Authors: Valeriy Nebritov


The paper presents a generalized method for determining the service solid angle based on the assigned gripper axis orientation with a stationary grip center. Motion synthesis in this work is carried out in the vector of velocities. As an example, a solid angle of the android robot arm is determined, this angle being formed by the longitudinal axis of a gripper. The nature of the method is based on the study of sets of configuration positions, defining the end point positions of the unit radius sphere sweep, which specifies the service solid angle. From this the spherical curve specifying the shape of the desired solid angle was determined. The results of the research can be used in the development of control systems of autonomous android robots.

Keywords: android robot, control systems, motion synthesis, service angle

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2312 Experimental Investigation for the Overtopping Wave Force of the Vertical Breakwater

Authors: Jin Song Gui, Han Li, Rui Jin Zhang, Heng Jiang Cai


There is a large deviation between the measured wave power at the vertical breast wall and the calculated one according to current specification in the case of overtopping. In order to investigate the reasons for the deviation, the wave forces of vertical breast wall under overtopping conditions have been measured through physical model experiment and compared with the calculated results. The effect of water depth, period and the wave height on the wave forces of the vertical breast wall have been also investigated. The distribution of wave pressure under different wave actions was tested based on the force sensor which is installed in the vertical breakwater. By comparing and analyzing the measured values and norms calculated values, the applicability of the existing norms recommended method were discussed and a reference for the design of vertical breakwater was provided. Experiment results show that with the decrease of the water depth, the gap is growing between the actual wave forces and the specification values, and there are no obvious regulations between these two values with the variation of period while wave force greatly reduces with the overtopping reducing. The amount of water depth and wave overtopping has a significant impact on the wave force of overtopping section while the period has no obvious influence on the wave force. Finally, some favorable recommendations for the overtopping wave force design of the vertical breakwater according to the model experiment results are provided.

Keywords: overtopping wave, physical model experiment, vertical breakwater, wave forces

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
2311 35 MHz Coherent Plane Wave Compounding High Frequency Ultrasound Imaging

Authors: Chih-Chung Huang, Po-Hsun Peng


Ultrasound transient elastography has become a valuable tool for many clinical diagnoses, such as liver diseases and breast cancer. The pathological tissue can be distinguished by elastography due to its stiffness is different from surrounding normal tissues. An ultrafast frame rate of ultrasound imaging is needed for transient elastography modality. The elastography obtained in the ultrafast system suffers from a low quality for resolution, and affects the robustness of the transient elastography. In order to overcome these problems, a coherent plane wave compounding technique has been proposed for conventional ultrasound system which the operating frequency is around 3-15 MHz. The purpose of this study is to develop a novel beamforming technique for high frequency ultrasound coherent plane-wave compounding imaging and the simulated results will provide the standards for hardware developments. Plane-wave compounding imaging produces a series of low-resolution images, which fires whole elements of an array transducer in one shot with different inclination angles and receives the echoes by conventional beamforming, and compounds them coherently. Simulations of plane-wave compounding image and focused transmit image were performed using Field II. All images were produced by point spread functions (PSFs) and cyst phantoms with a 64-element linear array working at 35MHz center frequency, 55% bandwidth, and pitch of 0.05 mm. The F number is 1.55 in all the simulations. The simulated results of PSFs and cyst phantom which were obtained using single, 17, 43 angles plane wave transmission (angle of each plane wave is separated by 0.75 degree), and focused transmission. The resolution and contrast of image were improved with the number of angles of firing plane wave. The lateral resolutions for different methods were measured by -10 dB lateral beam width. Comparison of the plane-wave compounding image and focused transmit image, both images exhibited the same lateral resolution of 70 um as 37 angles were performed. The lateral resolution can reach 55 um as the plane-wave was compounded 47 angles. All the results show the potential of using high-frequency plane-wave compound imaging for realizing the elastic properties of the microstructure tissue, such as eye, skin and vessel walls in the future.

Keywords: plane wave imaging, high frequency ultrasound, elastography, beamforming

Procedia PDF Downloads 423
2310 Estimation of Fourier Coefficients of Flux Density for Surface Mounted Permanent Magnet (SMPM) Generators by Direct Search Optimization

Authors: Ramakrishna Rao Mamidi


It is essential for Surface Mounted Permanent Magnet (SMPM) generators to determine the performance prediction and analyze the magnet’s air gap flux density wave shape. The flux density wave shape is neither a pure sine wave or square wave nor a combination. This is due to the variation of air gap reluctance between the stator and permanent magnets. The stator slot openings and the number of slots make the wave shape highly complicated. To reduce the complexity of analysis, approximations are made to the wave shape using Fourier analysis. In contrast to the traditional integration method, the Fourier coefficients, an and bn, are obtained by direct search method optimization. The wave shape with optimized coefficients gives a wave shape close to the desired wave shape. Harmonics amplitudes are worked out and compared with initial values. It can be concluded that the direct search method can be used for estimating Fourier coefficients for irregular wave shapes.

Keywords: direct search, flux plot, fourier analysis, permanent magnets

Procedia PDF Downloads 132
2309 3-D Numerical Model for Wave-Induced Seabed Response around an Offshore Pipeline

Authors: Zuodong Liang, Dong-Sheng Jeng


Seabed instability around an offshore pipeline is one of key factors that need to be considered in the design of offshore infrastructures. Unlike previous investigations, a three-dimensional numerical model for the wave-induced soil response around an offshore pipeline is proposed in this paper. The numerical model was first validated with 2-D experimental data available in the literature. Then, a parametric study will be carried out to examine the effects of wave, seabed characteristics and confirmation of pipeline. Numerical examples demonstrate significant influence of wave obliquity on the wave-induced pore pressures and the resultant seabed liquefaction around the pipeline, which cannot be observed in 2-D numerical simulation.

Keywords: pore pressure, 3D wave model, seabed liquefaction, pipeline

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
2308 Numerical Investigation of Wave Run-Up on Curved Dikes

Authors: Suba Periyal Subramaniam, Babette Scheres, Altomare Corrado, Holger Schuttrumpf


Due to the climatic change and the usage of coastal areas, there is an increasing risk of dike failures along the coast worldwide. Wave run-up plays a key role in planning and design of a coastal structure. The coastal dike lines are bent either due to geological characteristics or due to influence of anthropogenic activities. The effect of the curvature of coastal dikes on wave run-up and overtopping is not yet investigated. The scope of this research is to find the effects of the dike curvature on wave run-up by employing numerical model studies for various dike opening angles. Numerical simulation is carried out using DualSPHysics, a meshless method, and OpenFOAM, a mesh-based method. The numerical results of the wave run-up on a curved dike and the wave transformation process for various opening angles, wave attacks, and wave parameters will be compared and discussed. This research aims to contribute a more precise analysis and understanding the influence of the curvature in the dike line and thus ensuring a higher level of protection in the future development of coastal structures.

Keywords: curved dikes, DualSPHysics, OpenFOAM, wave run-up

Procedia PDF Downloads 77
2307 Near Shore Wave Manipulation for Electricity Generation

Authors: K. D. R. Jagath-Kumara, D. D. Dias


The sea waves carry thousands of GWs of power globally. Although there are a number of different approaches to harness offshore energy, they are likely to be expensive, practically challenging and vulnerable to storms. Therefore, this paper considers using the near shore waves for generating mechanical and electrical power. It introduces two new approaches, the wave manipulation and using a variable duct turbine, for intercepting very wide wave fronts and coping with the fluctuations of the wave height and the sea level, respectively. The first approach effectively allows capturing much more energy yet with a much narrower turbine rotor. The second approach allows using a rotor with a smaller radius but captures energy of higher wave fronts at higher sea levels yet preventing it from totally submerging. To illustrate the effectiveness of the approach, the paper contains a description and the simulation results of a scale model of a wave manipulator. Then, it includes the results of testing a physical model of the manipulator and a single duct, axial flow turbine, in a wave flume in the laboratory. The paper also includes comparisons of theoretical predictions, simulation results and wave flume tests with respect to the incident energy, loss in wave manipulation, minimal loss, brake torque and the angular velocity.

Keywords: near-shore sea waves, renewable energy, wave energy conversion, wave manipulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 399
2306 Performance of Photovoltaic Module at Different Tilt Angles

Authors: Hussain Bunyan, Wesam Ali


In this paper we will study the performance of a Silicon Photovoltaic (PV) system with different tilt angle arrangement in Kuwait (latitude 30˚ N). In the study the PV system is installed facing South, collecting maximum solar radiation at noon, and their angles are from 00 to 900 respectively, during full year at the Solstice and Equinox periods, aiming for a higher angle than 300 with competitive output power. The results show that the performance and the output power of the PV system with 50˚ tilt angle, is equivalent to the latitude tilt angle (30˚) during a full year.

Keywords: photovoltaic model, tilt angle, solar collector, PV system performance, State of Kuwait

Procedia PDF Downloads 407