Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 116

Search results for: cores

116 An Audit of Local Guidance Compliance For Stereotactic Core Biopsy For DCIS In The Breast Screening Programme

Authors: Aisling Eves, Andrew Pieri, Ross McLean, Nerys Forester

Abstract:

Background: The breast unit local guideline recommends that 12 cores should be used in a stereotactic-guided biopsy to diagnose DCIS. Twelve cores are regarded to provide good diagnostic value without removing more breast tissue than necessary. This study aimed to determine compliance with guidelines and investigated how the number of cores impacted upon the re-excision rate and size discrepancies. Methods: This single-centre retrospective cohort study of 72 consecutive breast screened patients with <15mm DCIS on radiological report underwent stereotactic-guided core biopsy and subsequent surgical excision. Clinical, radiological, and histological data were collected over 5 years, and ASCO guidelines for margin involvement of <2mm was used to guide the need for re-excision. Results: Forty-six (63.9%) patients had <12 cores taken, and 26 (36.1%) patients had ≥12 cores taken. Only six (8.3%) patients had 12 cores taken in their stereotactic biopsy. Incomplete surgical excision was seen in 17 patients overall (23.6%), and of these patients, twelve (70.6%) had fewer than 12 cores taken (p=0.55 for the difference between groups). Mammogram and biopsy underestimated the size of the DCIS in this subgroup by a median of 15mm (range: 6-135mm). Re-excision was required in 9 patients (12.5%), and five patients (6.9%) were found to have invasive ductal carcinoma on excision (80% had <12 cores, p=0.43). Discussion: There is poor compliance with the breast unit local guidelines and higher rates of re-excision in patients who did not have ≥12 cores taken. Taking ≥12 cores resulted in fewer missed invasive cancers lower incomplete excision and re-excision rates.

Keywords: stereotactic core biopsy, DCIS, breast screening, Re-excision rates, core biopsy

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
115 Bending Effect on POF Splitter Performance for Different Thickness of Fiber Cores

Authors: L. S. Supian, Mohd Syuhaimi Ab-Rahman, Norhana Arsad

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Experimental study has been done to study the performance on polymer optical fiber splitter characterization when different bending radii are applied on splitters with different fiber cores. The splitters with different cores pair are attached successively to splitter platform of ellipse-shape geometrical blocks of several bending radii. A force is exerted upon the blocks thus the splitter in order to encourage the splitting of energy between the two fibers. The aim of this study is to investigate which fiber core pair gives the optimum performance that goes with each bending radius in order to develop an effective splitter.

Keywords: splitter, macro-bending, cores, geometrical blocks

Procedia PDF Downloads 581
114 Core Number Optimization Based Scheduler to Order/Mapp Simulink Application

Authors: Asma Rebaya, Imen Amari, Kaouther Gasmi, Salem Hasnaoui

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Over these last years, the number of cores witnessed a spectacular increase in digital signal and general use processors. Concurrently, significant researches are done to get benefit from the high degree of parallelism. Indeed, these researches are focused to provide an efficient scheduling from hardware/software systems to multicores architecture. The scheduling process consists on statically choose one core to execute one task and to specify an execution order for the application tasks. In this paper, we describe an efficient scheduler that calculates the optimal number of cores required to schedule an application, gives a heuristic scheduling solution and evaluates its cost. Our proposal results are evaluated and compared with Preesm scheduler results and we prove that ours allows better scheduling in terms of latency, computation time and number of cores.

Keywords: computation time, hardware/software system, latency, optimization, multi-cores platform, scheduling

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
113 Flexural Test of Diversing Foam Core Sandwich Composites

Authors: Santhana Krishnan R, Preetha C

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Sandwich construction with strong and stiffness facing and light weight cores is increasingly cores being used in structures where the predominant loads are flexural. The objective of this study is to improve the flexural performances of foam core sandwich composite via structural core modifications considering the ease of application. The performances of single core perforated and divided core perforated sandwich composites are compared with each other. The future demands of sandwich composites in recent years on aeronautics and marine industries are being increasing in their research needs and these materials has their superior properties for upgrading engineering products.

Keywords: sandwich composites, perforated cores, flexural test, single and divided core perforated

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
112 Jurrasic Deposit Ichnofossil Study of Cores from Bintuni Basin, Eastern Indonesia

Authors: Aswan Aswan

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Ichnofossils were examined based on two wells cores of Jurassic sediment from Bintuni Basin, West Papua, Indonesia. The cores are the Jurassic interval and known as the potential reservoir interval in this area. Representative of 18 ichnogenera was recorded including forms assigned to Arenicolites, Asterosoma, Bergaueria, Chondrites, cryptic bioturbation, Glossifungites, Lockeia, Ophiomorpha, Palaeophycus, Phycosiphon, Planolites, Rhizocorallium, Rosselia, root structure, Skolithos, Teichicnus, Thalassinoides, and Zoophycos. The two cores represent a depositional system that is dominated by tidal flat, shallow marine shelf continuum possibly crossed by estuaries or tidal shoals channels. From the first core identified two deepening cycles. The shallow one is a shallow marine with tidal influence while the deeper one attached to the shelf. Shallow interval usually indicates by appearances of Ophiomorpha and Glossifungites while the deeper shallow marine interval signs by the abundance of Phycosiphon. The second core reveals eight deepening cycles.

Keywords: ichnofossil, Jurassic, sediment, reservoir, Bintuni, Indonesia, West Papua

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111 Distribution and Historical Trends of PAHs Deposition in Recent Sediment Cores of the Imo River, SE Nigeria

Authors: Miranda I. Dosunmu, Orok E. Oyo-Ita, Inyang O. Oyo-Ita

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Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of priority listed organic pollutants due to their carcinogenicity, mutagenity, acute toxicity and persistency in the environment. The distribution and historical changes of PAHs contamination in recent sediment cores from the Imo River were investigated using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer. The concentrations of total PAHs (TPAHs) ranging from 402.37 ng/g dry weight (dw) at the surface layer of the Estuary zone (ESC6; 0-5 cm) to 92,388.59 ng/g dw at the near surface layer of the Afam zone (ASC5; 5-10 cm) indicate that PAHs contamination was localized not only between sample sites but also within the same cores. Sediment-depth profiles for the four (Afam, Mangrove, Estuary and illegal Petroleum refinery) cores revealed irregular distribution patterns in the TPAH concentrations except the fact that these levels became maximized at the near surface layers (5-10 cm) corresponding to a geological time-frame of about 1996-2004. This time scale coincided with the period of intensive bunkering and oil pipeline vandalization by the Niger Delta militant groups. Also a general slight decline was found in the TPAHs levels from near the surface layers (5-10 cm) to the most recent top layers (0-5 cm) of the cores, attributable to the recent effort by the Nigerian government in clamping down the illegal activity of the economic saboteurs. Therefore, the recent amnesty period granted to the militant groups should be extended. Although mechanism of perylene formation still remains enigmatic, examination of its distributions down cores indicates natural biogenic, pyrogenic and petrogenic origins for the compound at different zones. Thus, the characteristic features of the Imo River environment provide a means of tracing diverse origins for perylene.

Keywords: perylene, historical trend, distribution, origin, Imo River

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110 An Efficient Hardware/Software Workflow for Multi-Cores Simulink Applications

Authors: Asma Rebaya, Kaouther Gasmi, Imen Amari, Salem Hasnaoui

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Over these last years, applications such as telecommunications, signal processing, digital communication with advanced features (Multi-antenna, equalization..) witness a rapid evaluation accompanied with an increase of user exigencies in terms of latency, the power of computation… To satisfy these requirements, the use of hardware/software systems is a common solution; where hardware is composed of multi-cores and software is represented by models of computation, synchronous data flow (SDF) graph for instance. Otherwise, the most of the embedded system designers utilize Simulink for modeling. The issue is how to simplify the c code generation, for a multi-cores platform, of an application modeled by Simulink. To overcome this problem, we propose a workflow allowing an automatic transformation from the Simulink model to the SDF graph and providing an efficient schedule permitting to optimize the number of cores and to minimize latency. This workflow goes from a Simulink application and a hardware architecture described by IP.XACT language. Based on the synchronous and hierarchical behavior of both models, the Simulink block diagram is automatically transformed into an SDF graph. Once this process is successfully achieved, the scheduler calculates the optimal cores’ number needful by minimizing the maximum density of the whole application. Then, a core is chosen to execute a specific graph task in a specific order and, subsequently, a compatible C code is generated. In order to perform this proposal, we extend Preesm, a rapid prototyping tool, to take the Simulink model as entry input and to support the optimal schedule. Afterward, we compared our results to this tool results, using a simple illustrative application. The comparison shows that our results strictly dominate the Preesm results in terms of number of cores and latency. In fact, if Preesm needs m processors and latency L, our workflow need processors and latency L'< L.

Keywords: hardware/software system, latency, modeling, multi-cores platform, scheduler, SDF graph, Simulink model, workflow

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
109 Using the SMT Solver to Minimize the Latency and to Optimize the Number of Cores in an NoC-DSP Architectures

Authors: Imen Amari, Kaouther Gasmi, Asma Rebaya, Salem Hasnaoui

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The problem of scheduling and mapping data flow applications on multi-core architectures is notoriously difficult. This difficulty is related to the rapid evaluation of Telecommunication and multimedia systems accompanied by a rapid increase of user requirements in terms of latency, execution time, consumption, energy, etc. Having an optimal scheduling on multi-cores DSP (Digital signal Processors) platforms is a challenging task. In this context, we present a novel technic and algorithm in order to find a valid schedule that optimizes the key performance metrics particularly the Latency. Our contribution is based on Satisfiability Modulo Theories (SMT) solving technologies which is strongly driven by the industrial applications and needs. This paper, describe a scheduling module integrated in our proposed Workflow which is advised to be a successful approach for programming the applications based on NoC-DSP platforms. This workflow transform automatically a Simulink model to a synchronous dataflow (SDF) model. The automatic transformation followed by SMT solver scheduling aim to minimize the final latency and other software/hardware metrics in terms of an optimal schedule. Also, finding the optimal numbers of cores to be used. In fact, our proposed workflow taking as entry point a Simulink file (.mdl or .slx) derived from embedded Matlab functions. We use an approach which is based on the synchronous and hierarchical behavior of both Simulink and SDF. Whence, results of running the scheduler which exist in the Workflow mentioned above using our proposed SMT solver algorithm refinements produce the best possible scheduling in terms of latency and numbers of cores.

Keywords: multi-cores DSP, scheduling, SMT solver, workflow

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108 The Influence of Different Flux Patterns on Magnetic Losses in Electric Machine Cores

Authors: Natheer Alatawneh

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The finite element analysis of magnetic fields in electromagnetic devices shows that the machine cores experience different flux patterns including alternating and rotating fields. The rotating fields are generated in different configurations range between circular and elliptical with different ratios between the major and minor axis of the flux locus. Experimental measurements on electrical steel exposed to different flux patterns disclose different magnetic losses in the samples under test. Consequently, electric machines require special attention during the cores loss calculation process to consider the flux patterns. In this study, a circular rotational single sheet tester is employed to measure the core losses in electric steel sample of M36G29. The sample was exposed to alternating field, circular field, and elliptical fields with axis ratios of 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8. The measured data was implemented on 6-4 switched reluctance motor at three different frequencies of interest to the industry as 60 Hz, 400 Hz, and 1 kHz. The results disclose a high margin of error that may occur during the loss calculations if the flux patterns issue is neglected. The error in different parts of the machine associated with considering the flux patterns can be around 50%, 10%, and 2% at 60Hz, 400Hz, and 1 kHz, respectively. The future work will focus on the optimization of machine geometrical shape which has a primary effect on the flux pattern in order to minimize the magnetic losses in machine cores.

Keywords: alternating core losses, electric machines, finite element analysis, rotational core losses

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107 Application of NBR 14861: 2011 for the Design of Prestress Hollow Core Slabs Subjected to Shear

Authors: Alessandra Aparecida Vieira França, Adriana de Paula Lacerda Santos, Mauro Lacerda Santos Filho

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The purpose of this research i to study the behavior of precast prestressed hollow core slabs subjected to shear. In order to achieve this goal, shear tests were performed using hollow core slabs 26,5cm thick, with and without a concrete cover of 5 cm, without cores filled, with two cores filled and three cores filled with concrete. The tests were performed according to the procedures recommended by FIP (1992), the EN 1168:2005 and following the method presented in Costa (2009). The ultimate shear strength obtained within the tests was compared with the values of theoretical resistant shear calculated in accordance with the codes, which are being used in Brazil, noted: NBR 6118:2003 and NBR 14861:2011. When calculating the shear resistance through the equations presented in NBR 14861:2011, it was found that provision is much more accurate for the calculation of the shear strength of hollow core slabs than the NBR 6118 code. Due to the large difference between the calculated results, even for slabs without cores filled, the authors consulted the committee that drafted the NBR 14861:2011 and found that there is an error in the text of the standard, because the coefficient that is suggested, actually presents the double value than the needed one! The ABNT, later on, soon issued an amendment of NBR 14861:2011 with the necessary corrections. During the tests for the present study, it was confirmed that the concrete filling the cores contributes to increase the shear strength of hollow core slabs. But in case of slabs 26,5 cm thick, the quantity should be limited to a maximum of two cores filled, because most of the results for slabs with three cores filled were smaller. This confirmed the recommendation of NBR 14861:2011which is consistent with standard practice. After analyzing the configuration of cracking and failure mechanisms of hollow core slabs during the shear tests, strut and tie models were developed representing the forces acting on the slab at the moment of rupture. Through these models the authors were able to calculate the tensile stress acting on the concrete ties (ribs) and scaled the geometry of these ties. The conclusions of the research performed are the experiments results have shown that the mechanism of failure of the hollow-core slabs can be predicted using the strut-and-tie procedure, within a good range of accuracy. In addition, the needed of the correction of the Brazilian standard to review the correction factor σcp duplicated (in NBR14861/2011), and the limitation of the number of cores (Holes) to be filled with concrete, to increase the strength of the slab for the shear resistance. It is also suggested the increasing the amount of test results with 26.5 cm thick, and a larger range of thickness slabs, in order to obtain results of shear tests with cores concreted after the release of prestressing force. Another set of shear tests on slabs must be performed in slabs with cores filled and cover concrete reinforced with welded steel mesh for comparison with results of theoretical values calculated by the new revision of the standard NBR 14861:2011.

Keywords: prestressed hollow core slabs, shear, strut, tie models

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106 Soil Mixed Constructed Permeable Reactive Barrier for Groundwater Remediation: Field Observation

Authors: Ziyda Abunada

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In-situ remediation of contaminated land with deep mixing can deliver a multi-technique remedial strategy. A field trail includes permeable reactive barrier (PRB) took place at a severely contaminated site in Yorkshire to the north of the UK through the SMiRT (Soil Mix Remediation Technology) project in May 2011. SMiRT involved the execution of the largest research field trials in the UK to provide field validation. Innovative modified bentonite materials in combination with zeolite and organoclay were used to construct six different walls of a hexagonal PRB. Field monitoring, testing and site cores were collected from the PRB twice: once 2 months after the construction and again in March 2014 (almost 34 months later).This paper presents an overview of the results of the PRB materials’ relative performance with some initial 3-year time-related assessment. Results from the monitoring program and the site cores are presented. Some good correlations are seen together with some clear difference among the materials’ efficiency. These preliminary observations represent a potential for further investigations and highlighted the main lessons learned in a filed scale.

Keywords: in-situ remediation, groundwater, permeable reactive barrier, site cores

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
105 Formation of Microcapsules in Microchannel through Droplet Merging

Authors: Md. Danish Eqbal, Venkat Gundabala

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Microparticles and microcapsules are basically used as a carrier for cells, tissues, drugs, and chemicals. Due to its biocompatibility, non-toxicity and biodegradability, alginate based microparticles have numerous applications in drug delivery, tissue engineering, organ repair and transplantation, etc. The production of uniform monodispersed microparticles was a challenge for the past few decades. However, emergence of microfluidics has provided controlled methods for the generation of the uniform monodispersed microparticles. In this work, we present a successful method for the generation of both microparticles and microcapsules (single and double core) using merging approach of two droplets, completely inside the microfluidic device. We have fabricated hybrid glass- PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) based microfluidic device which has coflow geometry as well as the T junction channel. Coflow is used to generate the single as well as double oil-alginate emulsion in oil and T junction helps to form the calcium chloride droplets in oil. The basic idea is to match the frequency of the alginate droplets and calcium chloride droplets perfectly for controlled generation. Using the merging of droplets technique, we have successfully generated the microparticles and the microcapsules having single core as well as double and multiple cores. The cores in the microcapsules are very stable, well separated from each other and very intact as seen through cross-sectional confocal images. The size and the number of the cores along with the thickness of the shell can be easily controlled by controlling the flowrate of the liquids.

Keywords: double-core, droplets, microcapsules, microparticles

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104 Concentrations and History of Heavy Metals in Sediment Cores: Geochemistry and Geochronology Using 210Pb

Authors: F. Fernandes, C. Poleto

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This paper aims at assessing the concentrations of heavy metals and the isotopic composition of lead 210Pb in different fractions of sediment produced in the watershed that makes up the Mãe d'água dam and thus characterizing the distribution of metals along the sedimentary column and inferencing in the urbanization of the same process. Sample collection was carried out in June 2014; eight sediment cores were sampled in the lake of the dam. For extraction of the sediments core, a core sampler “Piston Core” was used. The trace metal concentrations were determined by conventional atomic absorption spectrophotometric methods. The samples were subjected to radiochemical analysis of 210Po. 210Pb activity was obtained by measuring 210Po activity. The chronology was calculated using the constant rate of supply (CRS). 210Pb is used to estimate the sedimentation rate.

Keywords: ²¹⁰Pb dating method, heavy metal, lakes urban, pollution history

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103 Paleoproductivity during the Younger Dryas off Northeastern Luzon, Philippines

Authors: Jay Mar D. Quevedo, Fernando P. Siringan, Cesar L. Villanoy

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The influence of the Younger Dryas (YD) event on primary production off the northeast shelf of Luzon, Philippines is examined using sediment cores from two deep sea sites north of the Bicol shelf and with varying relative influence from terrestrial sediment input and the Kuroshio Current. Core A is immediately west of the Kuroshio feeder current and is off the slope while Core B is from a bathymetric high located almost west of Core A. XRF-, CHN- and LOI- derived geochemical proxies are utilized for reconstruction. A decrease in sediment input from ~12.9 to ~11.6 kyr BP corresponding to the YD event is indicated by the proxies, Ti, Al, and Al/Ti, in both cores. This is consistent with the drier climate during this period. Primary productivity indicators in the cores show opposing trends during the YD; Core A shows an increasing trend while Core B shows a decreasing trend. The decreasing trend in Core B can be due to a decrease in terrestrial nutrient input due to a decrease in precipitation. On the other hand, the increasing trend in Core A can be due to a swifter Kuroshio Current caused by a swifter and more southerly NEC bifurcation which in turn is due to a southerly shift of the ITCZ during YD. A stronger Kuroshio feeder would have enhanced upwelling induced by steeper sea surface across the current and by more intense cyclonic gyres due to flow separation where the shelf width suddenly decreases north of the Bicol Shelf.

Keywords: paleoproductivity, younger dryas, Philippines, northeastern Luzon

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102 Towards the Modeling of Lost Core Viability in High-Pressure Die Casting: A Fluid-Structure Interaction Model with 2-Phase Flow Fluid Model

Authors: Sebastian Kohlstädt, Michael Vynnycky, Stephan Goeke, Jan Jäckel, Andreas Gebauer-Teichmann

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This paper summarizes the progress in the latest computational fluid dynamics research towards the modeling in of lost core viability in high-pressure die casting. High-pressure die casting is a process that is widely employed in the automotive and neighboring industries due to its advantages in casting quality and cost efficiency. The degrees of freedom are however somewhat limited as it has been so far difficult to use lost cores in the process. This is right now changing and the deployment of lost cores is considered a future growth potential for high-pressure die casting companies. The use of this technology itself is difficult though. The strength of the core material, as chiefly salt is used, is limited and experiments have shown that the cores will not hold under all circumstances and process designs. For this purpose, the publicly available CFD library foam-extend (OpenFOAM) is used, and two additional fluid models for incompressible and compressible two-phase flow are implemented as fluid solver models into the FSI library. For this purpose, the volume-of-fluid (VOF) methodology is used. The necessity for the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) approach is shown by a simple CFD model geometry. The model is benchmarked against analytical models and experimental data. Sufficient agreement is found with the analytical models and good agreement with the experimental data. An outlook on future developments concludes the paper.

Keywords: CFD, fluid-structure interaction, high-pressure die casting, multiphase flow

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101 Natural Emergence of a Core Structure in Networks via Clique Percolation

Authors: A. Melka, N. Slater, A. Mualem, Y. Louzoun

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Networks are often presented as containing a “core” and a “periphery.” The existence of a core suggests that some vertices are central and form the skeleton of the network, to which all other vertices are connected. An alternative view of graphs is through communities. Multiple measures have been proposed for dense communities in graphs, the most classical being k-cliques, k-cores, and k-plexes, all presenting groups of tightly connected vertices. We here show that the edge number thresholds for such communities to emerge and for their percolation into a single dense connectivity component are very close, in all networks studied. These percolating cliques produce a natural core and periphery structure. This result is generic and is tested in configuration models and in real-world networks. This is also true for k-cores and k-plexes. Thus, the emergence of this connectedness among communities leading to a core is not dependent on some specific mechanism but a direct result of the natural percolation of dense communities.

Keywords: cliques, core structure, percolation, phase transition

Procedia PDF Downloads 94
100 Flexural Response of Sandwiches with Micro Lattice Cores Manufactured via Selective Laser Sintering

Authors: Emre Kara, Ali Kurşun, Halil Aykul

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The lightweight sandwiches obtained with the use of various core materials such as foams, honeycomb, lattice structures etc., which have high energy absorbing capacity and high strength to weight ratio, are suitable for several applications in transport industry (automotive, aerospace, shipbuilding industry) where saving of fuel consumption, load carrying capacity increase, safety of vehicles and decrease of emission of harmful gases are very important aspects. While the sandwich structures with foams and honeycombs have been applied for many years, there is a growing interest on a new generation sandwiches with micro lattice cores. In order to produce these core structures, various production methods were created with the development of the technology. One of these production technologies is an additive manufacturing technique called selective laser sintering/melting (SLS/SLM) which is very popular nowadays because of saving of production time and achieving the production of complex topologies. The static bending and the dynamic low velocity impact tests of the sandwiches with carbon fiber/epoxy skins and the micro lattice cores produced via SLS/SLM were already reported in just a few studies. The goal of this investigation was the analysis of the flexural response of the sandwiches consisting of glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) skins and the micro lattice cores manufactured via SLS under thermo-mechanical loads in order to compare the results in terms of peak load and absorbed energy values respect to the effect of core cell size, temperature and support span length. The micro lattice cores were manufactured using SLS technology that creates the product drawn by a 3D computer aided design (CAD) software. The lattice cores which were designed as body centered cubic (BCC) model having two different cell sizes (d= 2 and 2.5 mm) with the strut diameter of 0.3 mm were produced using titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) powder. During the production of all the core materials, the same production parameters such as laser power, laser beam diameter, building direction etc. were kept constant. Vacuum Infusion (VI) method was used to produce skin materials, made of [0°/90°] woven S-Glass prepreg laminates. The combination of the core and skins were implemented under VI. Three point bending tests were carried out by a servo-hydraulic test machine with different values of support span distances (L = 30, 45, and 60 mm) under various temperature values (T = 23, 40 and 60 °C) in order to analyze the influences of support span and temperature values. The failure mode of the collapsed sandwiches has been investigated using 3D computed tomography (CT) that allows a three-dimensional reconstruction of the analyzed object. The main results of the bending tests are: load-deflection curves, peak force and absorbed energy values. The results were compared according to the effect of cell size, support span and temperature values. The obtained results have particular importance for applications that require lightweight structures with a high capacity of energy dissipation, such as the transport industry, where problems of collision and crash have increased in the last years.

Keywords: light-weight sandwich structures, micro lattice cores, selective laser sintering, transport application

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99 Comparison between Radiocarbon and Dendrochronology Ages Obtained on a 700 Years Tree-Ring Sequence from Northern Romania

Authors: G. Sava, I. Popa, T. Sava, A. Ion, M. Ilie, C. Manailescu, A. Robu

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At the RoAMS laboratory in Bucharest we have looked for a head-to-head meeting between AMS radiocarbon dating and dendrochronology dating, aiming to point out and explain any differences or similarities that might appear between their output results. As a subject of this investigation, we have fixed our attention on a sequence of tree rings spanning on a period of 700 years, starting with 1000 AD. The samples were collected from the northern Romanian territory within Moldavia region, and were provided by the ‘Marin Dracea - National Institute for Research and Development in Forestry’. All the 23 single ring wood samples were radiocarbon dated using alpha-cellulose extraction, followed by graphitization in an AGE3 installation. A wiggle matching procedure was applied to reduce the radiocarbon uncertainties for the calibrated ages. The results showed a good agreement on 3 out of 4 wood cores, the age-shifting of one of the wood cores being interpreted as an uncertain dendrochronology matching, which was further corrected.

Keywords: wiggle matching, tree-ring radiocarbon dating, dendrochronology, AMS radiocarbon dating, radiocarbon dating in Romania

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98 Concrete Compressive Strengths of Major Existing Buildings in Kuwait

Authors: Zafer Sakka, Husain Al-Khaiat

Abstract:

Due to social and economic considerations, owners all over the world desire to keep and use existing structures, including aging ones. However, these structures, especially those that are dear, need accurate condition assessment, and proper safety evaluation. More than half of the budget spent on construction activities in developed countries is related to the repair and maintenance of these reinforced concrete (R/C) structures. Also, periodical evaluation and assessment of relatively old concrete structures are vital and imperative. If the evaluation and assessment of structural components of a particular aging R/C structure reveal that repairs are essential for these components, these repairs should not be delayed. Delaying the repairs has the potential of losing serviceability of the whole structure and/or causing total failure and collapse of the structure. In addition, if repairs are delayed, the cost of maintenance will skyrocket as well. It can also be concluded from the above that the assessment of existing needs to receive more consideration and thought from the structural engineering societies and professionals. Ten major existing structures in Kuwait city that were constructed in the 1970s were assessed for structural reliability and integrity. Numerous concrete samples were extracted from the structural systems of the investigated buildings. This paper presents the results of the compressive strength tests that were conducted on the extracted cores. The results are compared for the buildings’ columns and beams elements and compared with the design strengths. The collected data were statistically analyzed. The average compressive strengths of the concrete cores that were extracted from the ten buildings had a large variation. The lowest average compressive strength for one of the buildings was 158 kg/cm². This building was deemed unsafe and economically unfeasible to be repaired; accordingly, it was demolished. The other buildings had an average compressive strengths fall in the range 215-317 kg/cm². Poor construction practices were the main cause for the strengths. Although most of the drawings and information for these buildings were lost during the invasion of Kuwait in 1990, however, information gathered indicated that the design strengths of the beams and columns for most of these buildings were in the range of 280-400 kg/cm². Following the study, measures were taken to rehabilitate the buildings for safety. The mean compressive strength for all cores taken from beams and columns of the ten buildings was 256.7 kg/cm². The values range was 139 to 394 kg/cm². For columns, the mean was 250.4 kg/cm², and the values ranged from 137 to 394 kg/cm². However, the mean compressive strength for the beams was higher than that of columns. It was 285.9 kg/cm², and the range was 181 to 383 kg/cm². In addition to the concrete cores that were extracted from the ten buildings, the 28-day compressive strengths of more than 24,660 concrete cubes were collected from a major ready-mixed concrete supplier in Kuwait. The data represented four different grades of ready-mix concrete (250, 300, 350, and 400 kg/cm²) manufactured between the year 2003 and 2018. The average concrete compressive strength for the different concrete grades (250, 300, 350 and 400 kg/cm²) was found to be 318, 382, 453 and 504 kg/cm², respectively, and the coefficients of variations were found to be 0.138, 0.140, 0.157 and 0.131, respectively.

Keywords: concrete compressive strength, concrete structures, existing building, statistical analysis.

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97 Measurement Technologies for Advanced Characterization of Magnetic Materials Used in Electric Drives and Automotive Applications

Authors: Lukasz Mierczak, Patrick Denke, Piotr Klimczyk, Stefan Siebert

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Due to the high complexity of the magnetization in electrical machines and influence of the manufacturing processes on the magnetic properties of their components, the assessment and prediction of hysteresis and eddy current losses has remained a challenge. In the design process of electric motors and generators, the power losses of stators and rotors are calculated based on the material supplier’s data from standard magnetic measurements. This type of data does not include the additional loss from non-sinusoidal multi-harmonic motor excitation nor the detrimental effects of residual stress remaining in the motor laminations after manufacturing processes, such as punching, housing shrink fitting and winding. Moreover, in production, considerable attention is given to the measurements of mechanical dimensions of stator and rotor cores, whereas verification of their magnetic properties is typically neglected, which can lead to inconsistent efficiency of assembled motors. Therefore, to enable a comprehensive characterization of motor materials and components, Brockhaus Measurements developed a range of in-line and offline measurement technologies for testing their magnetic properties under actual motor operating conditions. Multiple sets of experimental data were obtained to evaluate the influence of various factors, such as elevated temperature, applied and residual stress, and arbitrary magnetization on the magnetic properties of different grades of non-oriented steel. Measured power loss for tested samples and stator cores varied significantly, by more than 100%, comparing to standard measurement conditions. Quantitative effects of each of the applied measurement were analyzed. This research and applied Brockhaus measurement methodologies emphasized the requirement for advanced characterization of magnetic materials used in electric drives and automotive applications.

Keywords: magnetic materials, measurement technologies, permanent magnets, stator and rotor cores

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96 Transformation of Glycals to Chiral Fused Aromatic Cores via Annulative π-Extension Reaction with Arynes

Authors: Nazar Hussain, Debaraj Mukherjee

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Carbohydrate-derived chiral intermediates which contain arrays of defined stereocenters have found enormous applications in organic synthesis due to their inherent functional group, stereochemical and structural diversities as well as their ready availability. Stereodiversity of these classes of molecules has motivated synthetic organic chemistry over the years. One major challenge is control of relative configuration during construction of acyclic fragments. Here, we show that The Diels Alder addition of arynes to appropriately substituted vinyl/aryl glycals followed by π-extension via pyran ring opening smoothly furnished meta-disubstituted fused aromatic cores containing a stereo-defined orthogonally protected chiral side chain. The method is broad in terms of aryl homologation affording benzene, naphthalene, and phenanthrene derivatives. Base-induced deprotonation followed by cleavage of the allylic C-O bond appears to be the crucial steps leading to the development of aromaticity, which is the driving force behind the annulative π-extension process. The present protocol can be used for the synthesis of meta-disubstituted naphthalene aldehydes and substrates for aldolases.

Keywords: vinyl/C-2 aryl glycal, arynes, cyclization, ring opening

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95 Interplay of Power Management at Core and Server Level

Authors: Jörg Lenhardt, Wolfram Schiffmann, Jörg Keller

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While the feature sizes of recent Complementary Metal Oxid Semiconductor (CMOS) devices decrease the influence of static power prevails their energy consumption. Thus, power savings that benefit from Dynamic Frequency and Voltage Scaling (DVFS) are diminishing and temporal shutdown of cores or other microchip components become more worthwhile. A consequence of powering off unused parts of a chip is that the relative difference between idle and fully loaded power consumption is increased. That means, future chips and whole server systems gain more power saving potential through power-aware load balancing, whereas in former times this power saving approach had only limited effect, and thus, was not widely adopted. While powering off complete servers was used to save energy, it will be superfluous in many cases when cores can be powered down. An important advantage that comes with that is a largely reduced time to respond to increased computational demand. We include the above developments in a server power model and quantify the advantage. Our conclusion is that strategies from datacenters when to power off server systems might be used in the future on core level, while load balancing mechanisms previously used at core level might be used in the future at server level.

Keywords: power efficiency, static power consumption, dynamic power consumption, CMOS

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94 Time and Cost Prediction Models for Language Classification Over a Large Corpus on Spark

Authors: Jairson Barbosa Rodrigues, Paulo Romero Martins Maciel, Germano Crispim Vasconcelos

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This paper presents an investigation of the performance impacts regarding the variation of five factors (input data size, node number, cores, memory, and disks) when applying a distributed implementation of Naïve Bayes for text classification of a large Corpus on the Spark big data processing framework. Problem: The algorithm's performance depends on multiple factors, and knowing before-hand the effects of each factor becomes especially critical as hardware is priced by time slice in cloud environments. Objectives: To explain the functional relationship between factors and performance and to develop linear predictor models for time and cost. Methods: the solid statistical principles of Design of Experiments (DoE), particularly the randomized two-level fractional factorial design with replications. This research involved 48 real clusters with different hardware arrangements. The metrics were analyzed using linear models for screening, ranking, and measurement of each factor's impact. Results: Our findings include prediction models and show some non-intuitive results about the small influence of cores and the neutrality of memory and disks on total execution time, and the non-significant impact of data input scale on costs, although notably impacts the execution time.

Keywords: big data, design of experiments, distributed machine learning, natural language processing, spark

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93 Preparation of Magnetothermally Responsive Polymer Multilayer Films for Controlled Release Applications from Surfaces

Authors: Eda Cagli, Irem Erel Goktepe

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Externally triggered and effective release of therapeutics from polymer nanoplatforms is one of the key issues in cancer treatment. In this study, we aim to prepare polymer multilayer films which are stable at physiological conditions (little or no drug release) but release drug molecules at acidic pH and via application of AC magnetic field. First, novel stimuli responsive diblock copolymers composed of pH- and temperature-responsive blocks were synthesized. Then, block copolymer micelles with pH-responsive core and temperature responsive coronae will be obtained via pH-induced self-assembly of these block copolymers in aqueous environment. A model anticancer drug, e.g. Doxorubicin will be loaded in the micellar cores. Second, superparamagnetic nanoparticles will be synthesized. Magnetic nanoparticles and drug loaded block copolymer micelles will be used as building blocks to construct the multilayers. To mimic the acidic nature of the tumor tissues, Doxorubicin release from the micellar cores will be induced at acidic conditions. Moreover, Doxorubicin release from the multilayers will be facilitated via magnetothermal trigger. Application of AC magnetic field will induce the heating of magnetic nanoparticles resulting in an increase in the temperature of the polymer platform. This increase in temperature is expected to trigger conformational changes on the temperature-responsive micelle coronae and facilitate the release of Doxorubicin from the surface. Such polymer platform may find use in biomedical applications.

Keywords: layer-by-layer films, magnetothermal trigger, smart polymers, stimuli responsive

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92 Investigations of Heavy Metals Pollution in Sediments of Small Urban Lakes in Karelia Republic

Authors: Aleksandr Medvedev, Zakhar Slukovsii

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Waterbodies, which are located either within urban areas or nearby towns, permanently undergo anthropogenic load. The extent of the load can be determined via investigations of chemical composition of both water and sediments. Lakes, as a rule, are considered as a landscape depressions, hence they are capable of natural material accumulating, which has been delivered from the catchment area through rivers as well as temporary flows. As a result, lacustrine sediments (especially closed-basin lakes sediments) are considered as perfect archives, which are served for reconstructing past sedimentation process, assessment of the modern contamination level, and prognostication of possible ways of changing in the future. The purposes of the survey are to define a heavy metals content in lake sediments cores, which were retrieved from four urban lakes located in the southern part of Karelia Republic, and to ascertain the main sources of heavy metals input to these waterbodies. It is really crucial to be aware of heavy metals content in environment, because chemical composition of a landscape may have a significant effect on living organisms and people’s health. Sediment columns were sampled in a field with 2-cm intervals by a gravitational corer called «Limnos». The sediment samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry (ICP MS) for 8 chemical elements (Pb, Cd, Zn, Cr, Ni, Cu, Mn, V). The highest concentrations of trace elements were established in the upper and middle layers of the cores. It has also been ascertained that the extent of contamination mostly depends on a remoteness of a lake from various pollution sources and features of the sources.

Keywords: bottom sediments, environmental pollution, heavy metals, lakes

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91 Distribution of Gamma-Radiation Levels in Core Sediment Samples in Gulf of İzmir, Eastern Aegean Sea, Turkey

Authors: D. Kurt, İ. F. Barut, Z. Ü. Yümün, E. Kam

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After development of the industrial revolution, industrial plants and settlements have spread widely on the sea coasts. This concentration also brings environmental pollution in the sea. This study focuses on the Gulf of İzmir where is located in West of Turkey and it is a fascinating natural gulf of the Eastern Aegean Sea. Investigating marine current sediment is extremely important to detect pollution. Natural radionuclides’ pollution of the marine environment which is also known as a significant environmental anxiety. Ground drilling cores (the depth of each sediment is variant) were collected from the Gulf of İzmir’s four different locations which were Karşıyaka, İnciraltı, Çeşmealtı and Bayraklı. These sediment cores were put in preserving bags with weight around 1 kg, and they were dried at room temperature in a week for moisture removal. Then, they were sieved with 1 mm sieve holes, and finally these powdered samples were relocation to polyethylene Marinelli beakers of 100 ml versions. Each prepared sediment was waited to reach radioactive equilibrium between uranium and thorium for 40 days. Gamma spectrometry measurements were settled using a HPG (High- Purity Germanium) semiconductor detector. Semiconductor detectors are very good at separating power of the energy, they are easily able to differentiate peaks that are pretty close to each other. That is why, gamma spectroscopy’s usage is common for the determination of the activities of U - 238, Th - 232, Ra - 226, Cr - 137 and K - 40 in Bq kg⁻¹. In this study, the results display that the average concentrations of activities’ values are in respectively; 2.2 ± 1.5 Bq/ kg⁻¹, 0.98 ± 0.02 Bq/ kg⁻¹, 8 ± 0.96 Bq/ kg⁻¹, 0.93 ± 0.14 Bq/ kg⁻¹, and 76.05 ± 0.93 Bq/ kg⁻¹. The outcomes of the study are able to be used as a criterion for forthcoming research and the obtained data would be pragmatic for radiological mapping of the precise areas.

Keywords: gamma, Gulf of İzmir (Eastern Aegean Sea-Turkey), natural radionuclides, pollution

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90 Evaluation of Iron Application Method to Remediate Coastal Marine Sediment

Authors: Ahmad Seiar Yasser

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Sediment is an important habitat for organisms and act as a store house for nutrients in aquatic ecosystems. Hydrogen sulfide is produced by microorganisms in the water columns and sediments, which is highly toxic and fatal to benthic organisms. However, the irons have the capacity to regulate the formation of sulfide by poising the redox sequence and to form insoluble iron sulfide and pyrite compounds. Therefore, we conducted two experiments aimed to evaluate the remediation efficiency of iron application to organically enrich and improve sediments environment. Experiments carried out in the laboratory using intact sediment cores taken from Mikawa Bay, Japan at every month from June to September 2017 and October 2018. In Experiment 1, after cores were collected, the iron powder or iron hydroxide were applied to the surface sediment with 5 g/ m2 or 5.6 g/ m2, respectively. In Experiment 2, we experimentally investigated the removal of hydrogen sulfide using (2mm or less and 2 to 5mm) of the steelmaking slag. Experiments are conducted both in the laboratory with the same boundary conditions. The overlying water were replaced with deoxygenated filtered seawater, and cores were sealed a top cap to keep anoxic condition with a stirrer to circulate the overlying water gently. The incubation experiments have been set in three treatments included the control, and each treatment replicated and were conducted with the same temperature of the in-situ conditions. Water samples were collected to measure the dissolved sulfide concentrations in the overlying water at appropriate time intervals by the methylene blue method. Sediment quality was also analyzed after the completion of the experiment. After the 21 days incubation, experimental results using iron powder and ferric hydroxide revealed that application of these iron containing materials significantly reduced sulfide release flux from the sediment into the overlying water. The average dissolved sulfides concentration in the overlying water of the treatment group was significantly decrease (p = .0001). While no significant difference was observed between the control group after 21 day incubation. Therefore, the application of iron to the sediment is a promising method to remediate contaminated sediments in a eutrophic water body, although ferric hydroxide has better hydrogen sulfide removal effects. Experiments using the steelmaking slag also clarified the fact that capping with (2mm or less and 2 to 5mm) of slag steelmaking is an effective technique for remediation of bottom sediments enriched organic containing hydrogen sulfide because it leads to the induction of chemical reaction between Fe and sulfides occur in sediments which did not occur in conditions naturally. Although (2mm or less) of slag steelmaking has better hydrogen sulfide removal effects. Because of economic reasons, the application of steelmaking slag to the sediment is a promising method to remediate contaminated sediments in the eutrophic water body.

Keywords: sedimentary, H2S, iron, iron hydroxide

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89 A Hybrid Multi-Pole Fe₇₈Si₁₃B₉+FeSi₃ Soft Magnetic Core for Application in the Stators of the Low-Power Permanent Magnet Brushless Direct Current Motors

Authors: P. Zackiewicz, M. Hreczka, R. Kolano, A. Kolano-Burian

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New types of materials applied as the stators in the Permanent Magnet Brushless Direct Current motors used in the heart supporting pumps are presented. The main focus of this work is the research on the fabrication of a hybrid nine-pole soft magnetic core consisting of a soft magnetic carrier ring with rectangular notches, made from the FeSi3 strip, and nine soft magnetic poles. This soft magnetic core is made in three stages: (a) preparation of the carrier rings from soft magnetic material with the lowest possible power losses and suitable stiffness, (b) preparation of trapezoidal soft magnetic poles from Metglas 2605 SA1 type ribbons, and (c) making durable connection between the poles and the carrier ring, capable of withstanding a four-times greater tearing force than that present during normal operation of the motor pump. All magnetic properties measurements were made using Remacomp C-1200 (Magnet Physik, Germany) and 450 Gaussometer (Lake Shore, USA) and the electrical characteristics were measured using laboratory generator DF1723009TC (NDN, Poland). Specific measurement techniques used to determine properties of the hybrid cores were presented. Obtained results allow developing the fabrication technology with an account of the intended application of these cores in the stators of the low-power PMBLDC motors used in implanted heart operation supporting pumps. The proposed measurement methodology is appropriate for assessing the quality of the stators.

Keywords: amorphous materials, heart supporting pump, PMBLDC motor, soft magnetic materials

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88 Assessment of Heavy Metal Contamination for the Sustainable Management of Vulnerable Mangrove Ecosystem, the Sundarbans

Authors: S. Begum, T. Biswas, M. A. Islam

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The present research investigates the distribution and contamination of heavy metals in core sediments collected from three locations of the Sundarbans mangrove forest. In this research, quality of the analysis is evaluated by analyzing certified reference materials IAEA-SL-1 (lake sediment), IAEA-Soil-7, and NIST-1633b (coal fly ash). Total concentrations of 28 heavy metals (Na, Al, K, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, Ga, As, Sb, Cs, La, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Yb, Hf, Ta, Th, and U) have determined in core sediments of the Sundarbans mangrove by neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique. When compared with upper continental crustal (UCC) values, it is observed that mean concentrations of K, Ti, Zn, Cs, La, Ce, Sm, Hf, and Th show elevated values in the research area is high. In this research, the assessments of metal contamination levels using different environmental contamination indices (EF, Igeo, CF) indicate that Ti, Sb, Cs, REEs, and Th have minor enrichment of the sediments of the Sundarbans. The modified degree of contamination (mCd) of studied samples of the Sundarbans ecosystem show low contamination. The pollution load index (PLI) values for the cores suggested that sampling points are moderately polluted. The possible sources of the deterioration of the sediment quality can be attributed to the different chemical carrying cargo accidents, port activities, ship breaking, agricultural and aquaculture run-off of the area. Pearson correlation matrix (PCM) established relationships among elements. The PCM indicates that most of the metal's distributions have been controlled by the same factors such as Fe-oxy-hydroxides and clay minerals, and also they have a similar origin. The poor correlations of Ca with most of the elements in the sediment cores indicate that calcium carbonate has a less significant role in this mangrove sediment. Finally, the data from this research will be used as a benchmark for future research and help to quantify levels of metal pollutions, as well as to manage future ecological risks of the vulnerable mangrove ecosystem, the Sundarbans.

Keywords: contamination, core sediment, trace element, sundarbans, vulnerable

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87 Tracing the Courtyard Typology from the Past: Highlighting a Need for Conservation in Case of Historic Settlement in Historic Town of Gwalior

Authors: Shivani Dolas, A. Richa Mishra

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The existence of Courtyards in India can be traced back to ‘Indus valley civilization’ and various layers of history bearing implications like socio-cultural, traditional, religious, climatic, etc., moreover serving as a breathing space in case of historical core areas. Over time, with the overlay of various historic layers within the historic urban cores and the present high density populace, the cores are getting congested day by day. In this case, courtyards may emerge out as an efficient medium to provide quality of life through livable spaces. Presently, with the growing population of the historic town of Gwalior, town in Madhya Pradesh holds remarkable essence of courtyards with its multiple concepts over time. Its scale and function varies from an imposing grand appearance in palatial form, up to functional practices as residential. Its privilege can also be drawn in urban forms, in sharing single space by multiple dwellings and in temples which can be sketched specifically in the region. Moreover, the effectiveness of courtyards has proven balance and control of micro-climate in such composite climate region. The research paper aims to underline the concept of courtyards in case of a mixed use neighborhood, Naya bazar, in Lashkar area of Gwalior, which developed during 19th century, highlighting the need of its preservation. The paper also elaborates its various implications on user-space relationship as in the present context, and growing congestion in the area, user and space relationship is seen lost. The noticeable change in the behavioral context in buildings and users can be noticed with the downfall of courtyards, isolating users with land. Also, a concern has been expressed on negligence of courtyard planning in future development, suggesting recommendations on preserving the courtyard typology as heritage.

Keywords: courtyards, Gwalior, historic settlement, heritage

Procedia PDF Downloads 61