Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 95

Search results for: bioremediation

35 Evaluation of Biosurfactant Production by a New Strain Isolated from the Lagoon of Mar Chica Degrading Gasoline

Authors: Ikram Kamal, Mohamed Blaghen

Abstract:

Pollution caused by petroleum hydrocarbons in terrestrial and aquatic environment is a common phenomenon that causes significant ecological and social problems. Biosurfactant applications in the environmental industries are promising due to their biodegradability, low toxicity and effectiveness in enhancing biodegradation and solubilization of low solubility compounds. Currently, the main application is for enhancement of oil recovery and hydrocarbon bioremediation due to their biodegradability and low critical micelle concentration (CMC). In this study we have investigated the potential of bacterial strains collected aseptically from the lagoon Marchika (water and soil) in Nador, Morocco; for the production of biosurfactants. This study also aimed to optimize the biosurfactant production process by changing the variables that influence the type and amount of biosurfactant produced by these microorganisms such as: carbon sources and also other physical and chemical parameters such as temperature and pH. Emulsification index, methylene blue test and thin layer chromatography (TLC) revealed the ability of strains used in this study to produce compounds that could emulsify gasoline. In addition a GC/MS was used to separate and identify different biosurfactants purified.

Keywords: Biodegradability, Petroleum Hydrocarbons, biosurfactant, critical micelle concentration, lagoon Marchika

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34 Combinated Effect of Cadmium and Municipal Solid Waste Compost Addition on Physicochemical and Biochemical Proprieties of Soil and Lolium Perenne Production

Authors: Sonia Mbarki Marian Brestic, Artemio Cerda Naceur Jedidi, Jose Antonnio Pascual Chedly Abdelly

Abstract:

Monitoring the effect addition bio-amendment as compost to an agricultural soil for growing plant lolium perenne irrigated with a CdCl2 solution at 50 µM on physicochemical soils characteristics and plant production in laboratory condition. Even microbial activity indexes (acid phosphatase, β-glucosidase, urease, and dehydrogenase) was determined. Basal respiration was the most affected index, while enzymatic activities and microbial biomass showed a decrease due to the cadmium treatments. We noticed that this clay soil with higher pH showed inhibition of basal respiration. Our results provide evidence for the importance of ameliorating effect compost on plant growth even when soil was added with cadmium solution at 50 µmoml.l-1. Soil heavy metal concentrations depended on heavy metals types, increased substantially with cadmium increase and with compost addition, but the recorded values were below the toxicity limits in soils and plants except for cadmium.

Keywords: Bioremediation, compost, enzymatic activity, Lolium perenne

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33 Different Tools and Complex Approach for Improving Phytoremediation Technology

Authors: T. Varazi, M. Pruidze, M. Kurashvili, N. Gagelidze, M. Sutton

Abstract:

The complex phytoremediation approach given in the presented work implies joint application of natural sorbents, microorganisms, natural biosurfactants and plants. The approach is based on using the natural mineral composites, microorganism strains with high detoxification abilities, plants-phytoremediators and natural biosurfactants for enhancing the uptake of intermediates of pollutants by plant roots. In this complex strategy of phytoremediation technology, the sorbent serves to uptake and trap the pollutants and thus restrain their emission in the environment. The role of microorganisms is to accomplish the first stage biodegradation of organic contaminants. This is followed by application of a phytoremediation technology through purposeful planting of selected plants. Thus, using of different tools will provide restoration of polluted environment and prevention of toxic compounds’ dissemination from hotbeds of pollution for a considerable length of time. The main idea and novelty of the carried out work is the development of a new approach for the ecological safety. The wide spectrum of contaminants: Organochlorine pesticide – DDT, heavy metal –Cu, oil hydrocarbon (hexadecane) and wax have been used in this work. The presented complex biotechnology is important from the viewpoint of prevention, providing total rehabilitation of soil. It is unique to chemical pollutants, ecologically friendly and provides the control of erosion of soils.

Keywords: Bioremediation, Phytoremediation, Soil Contamination, Pollutants

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32 Study of Petroleum Hydrocarbons Biodegradation and the Role of Biosurfactants Produced by Bacteria Isolated from the Lagoon of Mar Chica in This Process

Authors: Ikram Kamal, Mohamed Blaghen

Abstract:

Petroleum hydrocarbons are serious problems and global pollutants in the environment due to their toxicity, carcinogenicity and persistent organic pollutant properties. One of the approaches to enhance biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons is to use biosurfactant. Biosurfactants are amphiphilic biomolecules produced as metabolic by-products from microorganisms they received considerable attention in the field of environmental remediation processes such as bioremediation. Biosurfactants have been considered as a desirable alternative to synthetic surfactants in various applications particularly in the environmental field. In comparison with their synthetic counterparts, biosurfactants have been reported to be less toxic, biodegradable and persistent. In this study we have investigated the potential of bacterial strains collected aseptically from the lagoon Marchika (water and soil) in Nador, Morocco; for the production of biosurfactants. This study also aimed to optimize the biosurfactant production process by changing the variables that influence the type and amount of biosurfactant produced by these microorganisms such as: carbon sources and also other physical and chemical parameters such as temperature and pH. Emulsification index, methylene blue test and thin layer chromatography (TLC) revealed the ability of strains used in this study to produce compounds that could emulsify gasoline. In addition, a HPLC/MS was used to separate and identify different biosurfactants purified.

Keywords: biodegradation, Petroleum Hydrocarbons, biosurfactants, lagoon Marchika, emulsification index

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31 Analysis and Study of Growth Rates of Indigenous Phytoplankton in Enriched Spent Oil Impacted Ecosystems in South Western Nigeria Coastal Waters

Authors: Lauretta Ighedo, Bukola Okunade, Monisade Okunade

Abstract:

In order to determine the effect of spent oil on the growth rates of indigenous phytoplankton in an aquaculture pond, a study was carried out on varying concentrations of samples using the bioassay procedure for a period of 14 days. Four divisions Cyanophyta, Chlorophyta, Euglenophyta and Bacillariophyta were observed in the water samples collected from the Aquaculture pond. The growth response was measured using a microprocessor photocolorimeter at optical density of 680nm. A general assessment of spent oil contaminated samples showed either a sharp rise or fall in growth rate from day 0 to day 2 followed by increased growth response for most higher concentration of pollutants up to Day 8, then fluctuations in the growth response pattern for the other days. There was no marked significant difference in the growth response of phytoplankton in the spent oil impacted water samples. The lowest and highest phytoplankton abundance was recorded in 10/90ml and 2.5/97.5ml spent oil impacted water sample respectively. Oscillatoria limosa, Chlorella sp., Microcystis aeruginosa, Nitzschia sp. and Navicula sp. showed high tolerance to oil pollution and these species used as bioindicators of an organic polluted environment increased abundantly and can therefore be employed in the cleanup and bioremediation process of an oil polluted freshwater body.

Keywords: Pollution, phytoplankton, species abundance, environmental characteristics

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30 Phytotreatment of Polychlorinated Biphenyls Contaminated Soil by Chromolaena odorata L. King and Robinson

Authors: H. I. Atagana, R. O. Anyasi

Abstract:

In this study, phytoextraction ability of a weed on Aroclor 1254 was studied under greenhouse conditions. Chromolaena odorata plants were transplanted into soil containing 100, 200, and 500 ppm of Aroclor in 1L pots. The experiments were watered daily at 70 % moisture field capacity. Parameters such as fully expanded leaves per plant, shoot length, leaf chlorophyll content as well as root length at harvest were measured. PCB was not phytotoxic to C. odorata growth but plants in the 500 ppm treatment only showed diminished growth at the sixth week. Percentage increases in height of plant were 45.9, 39.4 and 40.0 for 100, 200 and 500 ppm treatments respectively. Such decreases were observed in the leaf numbers, root length and leaf chlorophyll concentration. The control sample showed 48.3 % increase in plant height which was not significant from the treated samples, an indication that C. odorata could survive such PCB concentration and could be used to remediate contaminated soil. Mean total PCB absorbed by C. odorata plant was between 6.40 and 64.60 ppm per kilogram of soil, leading to percentage PCB absorption of 0.03 and 17.03 % per kilogram of contaminated soil. PCBs were found mostly in the root tissues of the plants, and the Bioaccumulation factor were between 0.006-0.38. Total PCB absorbed by the plant increases as the concentration of the compound is increased. With these high BAF ensured, C. odorata could serve as a promising candidate plant in phytoextraction of PCB from a PCB-contaminated soil.

Keywords: Bioremediation, Biological treatment, Phytoremediation, Soil restoration, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), aroclor

Procedia PDF Downloads 218
29 Characterization of Biosurfactants Produced by Bacteria Degrading Gasoline

Authors: Ikram Kamal, Mohamed Blaghen

Abstract:

Biosurfactants are amphiphilic biological compounds consisting of hydrophobic and hydrophilic domains produced extracellularly or as part of the cell membrane by a variety of yeast, bacteria and filamentous fungi. Biosurfactant applications in the environmental industries are promising due to their biodegradability, low toxicity, and effectiveness in enhancing biodegradation and solubilization of low solubility compounds. Currently, the main application is for enhancement of oil recovery and hydrocarbon bioremediation due to their biodegradability and low critical micelle concentration (CMC). The use of biosurfactants has also been proposed for various industrial applications, such as in food additives, cosmetics, detergent formulations and in combinations with enzymes for wastewater treatment. In this study, we have investigated the potential of bacterial strains: Mannheimia haemolytica, Burkholderia cepacia and Serratia ficaria were collected aseptically from the lagoon Marchika (water and soil) in Nador, Morocco; for the production of biosurfactants. This study also aimed to optimize the biosurfactant production process by changing the variables that influence the type and amount of biosurfactant produced by these microorganisms such as: carbon sources and also other physical and chemical parameters such as temperature and pH. Emulsification index, methylene blue test, and thin layer chromatography (TLC) revealed the ability of strains used in this study to produce compounds that could emulsify gasoline. In addition, a GC/MS was used to separate and identify different biosurfactants purified.

Keywords: Biodegradability, biosurfactants, Mannheimia haemolytica, Burkholderia cepacia, Serratia ficaria

Procedia PDF Downloads 129
28 Deciphering Suitability of Rhamnolipids as Emulsifying Agent for Hydrophobic Pollutants

Authors: Asif Jamal, Samia Sakindar, Ramla Rehman

Abstract:

Biosurfactants are amphiphilic surface active compounds obtained from natural resources such as plants and microorganisms. Because of their diverse physicochemical characteristics biosurfactant are replacing synthetic compounds in various commercial applications. In present study, a strain of P. aeruginosa was isolated from crude oil contaminated soil as efficient biosurfactant producers. The biosurfactant production was analyzed as a function of surface tension reduction, oil spreading capacity, emulsification index and hemolysis assay. This bacterial strain showed excellent emulsion activity of EI24 85%, surface tension reduction up to 28.6 mNm-1 and 7.0 mm oil displacement zone. Physicochemical and biological properties of extracted rhamnolipid were also investigated in current study. The chemical composition of product from strain PSS was analyzed by FTIR spectroscopy. The results revealed that extracted biosurfactant was rhamnolipid type in nature having RL-1 and RL-2 homologues. The surface behavior of rhamnolipid in aqueous phase was investigated varying extreme pH, temperature, salt conditions and with various hydrocarbons. The results indicated that biosurfactant produced by strain PSS Which showed stability during high temperature up to 121 C, salt concentrations up to 20% and pH range between (4—14). The emulsification activity with different hydrocarbons was also remarkable. It was concluded that rhamnolipid biosurfactant produced by strain PSS has excellent potential as emulsifying/remediation agent for broad range of hydrophobic pollutants.

Keywords: Bioremediation, Surfactants, P. aeruginosa, rhamnolipid

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27 Utilization of Brachystegia Spiciformis Leaf Powder in the Removal of Nitrates from Wastewaters: An Equilibrium Study

Authors: Tichaona Nharingo, Isheanesu Hungwe, Munyaradzi Shumba

Abstract:

High levels of nitrates in drinking water present a potential risk to human health for it is responsible for methemoglobinemia in infants. It also gives rise to eutrophication of dams and rivers. It is, therefore, important to find ways of compating the increasing amount of nitrates in the environment. This study explored the bioremediation of nitrates from aqueous solution using Brachystegia spiciformis leaf powder (BSLP). The acid treated leaf powder was characterized using FTIR and SEM before and after nitrate biosorption and desorption experiments. Critical biosorption factors, pH, contact time and biomass dosage were optimized as 4, 30 minutes and 10 g/L respectively. The equilibrium data generated from the investigation of the effect of initial nitrate ion concentration fitted the isotherm models in the order Dudinin-Radushkevich < Halsey=Freundlich < Langmuir < Temkin model based on the correlation of determination (R2). The Freundlich’s adsorption intensity and Langmuir’s separation factors revealed the favorability of nitrate ion sorption onto BSLP biomass with maximum sorption capacity of 87.297 mg/g. About 95% of the adsorbed nitrate was removed from the biomass under alkaline conditions (pH 11) proving that the regeration of the biomass, critical in sorption-desorption cycles, was possible. It was concluded that the BSLP was a multifunctional group material characterised by both micropores and macropores that could be effectively utilised in nitrate ion removal from aqueous solutions.

Keywords: Adsorption, nitrates, methemoglobinemia, brachystegia spiciformis

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26 Bioremediation Potential in Recalcitrant Areas of PCE in Alluvial Fan Deposits

Authors: J. Herrero, D. Puigserver, I. Nijenhuis, K. Kuntze, J. M. Carmona

Abstract:

In the transition zone between aquifers and basal aquitards, the perchloroethene (PCE)-pools are more recalcitrant than those elsewhere in the aquifer. Although biodegradation of chloroethenes occur in this zone, it is a slow process and a remediation strategy is needed. The aim of this study is to demonstrate that combined strategy of biostimulation and in situ chemical reduction (ISCR) is more efficient than the two separated strategies. Four different microcosm experiments with sediment and groundwater of a selected field site where an aged pool exists at the bottom of a transition zone were designed under i) natural conditions, ii) biostimulation with lactic acid, iii) ISCR with zero-value iron (ZVI) and under iv) a combined strategy with lactic acid and ZVI. Biotic and abiotic dehalogenation, terminal electron acceptor processes and evolution of microbial communities were determined for each experiment. The main results were: i) reductive dehalogenation of PCE-pools occurs under sulfate-reducing conditions; ii) biostimulation with lactic acid supports more pronounced reductive dehalogenation of PCE and trichloroethene (TCE), but results in an accumulation of 1,2-cis-dichloroethene (cDCE); iii) ISCR with ZVI produces a sustained dehalogenation of PCE and its metabolites iv) combined strategy of biostimulation and ISCR results in a fast dehalogenation of PCE and TCE and a sustained dehalogenation of cisDCE. These findings suggest that biostimulation and ISCR with ZVI are the most suitable strategies for a complete reductive dehalogenation of PCE-pools in the transition zone and further to enable the dissolution of dense non-aqueous phase liquids.

Keywords: Biostimulation, aged PCE-pool, anaerobic microcosm experiment, in situ chemical reduction, natural attenuation

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25 Functionalized Carbon-Base Fluorescent Nanoparticles for Emerging Contaminants Targeted Analysis

Authors: Liz Diaz-Vazquez, Alexander Rodríguez-Hernández, Arnulfo Rojas-Perez

Abstract:

The rise in consumerism over the past century has resulted in the creation of higher amounts of plasticizers, personal care products and other chemical substances, which enter and accumulate in water systems. Other sources of pollutants in Neotropical regions experience large inputs of nutrients with these pollutants resulting in eutrophication of water which consume large quantities of oxygen, resulting in high fish mortality. This dilemma has created a need for the development of targeted detection in complex matrices and remediation of emerging contaminants. We have synthesized carbon nanoparticles from macro algae (Ulva fasciata) by oxidizing the graphitic carbon network under extreme acidic conditions. The resulting material was characterized by STEM, yielding a spherical 12 nm average diameter nanoparticles, which can be fixed into a polysaccharide aerogel synthesized from the same macro algae. Spectrophotometer analyses show a pH dependent fluorescent behavior varying from 450-620 nm in aqueous media. Heavily oxidized edges provide for easy functionalization with enzymes for a more targeted analysis and remediation technique. Given the optical properties of the carbon base nanoparticles and the numerous possibilities of functionalization, we have developed a selective and robust targeted bio-detection and bioremediation technique for the treatment of emerging contaminants in complex matrices like estuarine embayment.

Keywords: Aerogels, Carbon Nanoparticles, fluorescent, targeted analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 131
24 Measuring the Effect of Co-Composting Oil Sludge with Pig, Cow, Horse And Poultry Manures on the Degradation in Selected Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Concentrations

Authors: Ubani Onyedikachi, Atagana Harrison Ifeanyichukwu, Thantsha Mapitsi Silvester

Abstract:

Components of oil sludge (PAHs) are known cytotoxic, mutagenic and potentially carcinogenic compounds also bacteria and fungi have been found to degrade PAHs to innocuous compounds. This study is aimed at measuring the effect of pig, cow, horse and poultry manures on the degradation in selected PAHs present in oil sludge. Soil spiked with oil sludge was co-composted differently with each manure in a ratio of 2:1 (w/w) spiked soil: manure and wood-chips in a ratio of 2:1 (w/v) spiked soil: wood-chips. Control was set up similar as the one above but without manure. The mixtures were incubated for 10 months at room temperature. Compost piles were turned weekly and moisture level was maintained at between 50% and 70%. Moisture level, pH, temperature, CO2 evolution and oxygen consumption were measured monthly and the ash content at the end of experimentation. Highest temperature reached was 27.5 °C in all compost heaps, pH ranged from 5.5 to 7.8 and CO2 evolution was highest in poultry manure at 18.78μg/dwt/day. Microbial growth and activities were enhanced; bacteria identified were Bacillus, Arthrobacter and Staphylococcus species. Percentage reduction in PAHs was measured using automated soxhlet extractor with Dichloromethane coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Results from PAH measurements showed reduction between 77% and 99%. Co-composting of spiked soils with animal manures enhanced the reduction in PAHs.

Keywords: Bioremediation, PAHs, co-composting, oil refinery sludge, animal manures

Procedia PDF Downloads 126
23 Influence of Pseudomonas japonica on Growth and Metal Tolerance of Celosia cristata L.

Authors: Sohail Yousaf, Muhammad Umair Mushtaq, Ameena Iqbal, Muhammad Aqib Hassan Ali Khan, Ismat Nawaz, Mazhar Iqbal

Abstract:

Heavy metals are one of the priority pollutants as they pose serious health and environmental threats. They can be removed by various physiochemical methods but are costly and responsible for additional environmental problems. Bioremediation that exploits plants and their associated microbes have been referred as cost effective and environmental friendly technique. In this study, a pot experiment was conducted in a greenhouse to evaluate the potential of Celosia cristata and effects of bacteria, Pseudomonas japonica, and organic amendment moss/compost on tolerating/accumulating heavy metals. Two weeks old seedlings were transferred to soil in pots, and after four weeks they were inoculated with bacterial strain, while after growth of six weeks they were watered with a metal containing synthetic wastewater and were harvested after a growth period of nine weeks. After harvesting, morphological and physiological parameters and metal content of plants were measured. The results showed highest plant growth and biomass production in case of organic amendments while highest metal uptake has been found in non-amended pots. Positive controls have shown highest Pb uptake of 2900 mg/kg DW, while P. japonica amended pots have shown highest Cd, Cr, Ni and Cu uptake of 963.53, 1481.17, 1022.01 and 602.17 mg/kg DW, respectively. In conclusion organic amendments have strong impacts on growth enhancement while P. japonica enhances metal translocation and accumulation to aerial parts with little significant involvement in plant growth.

Keywords: Bacteria, ornamental plants, plant microbe interaction, amendments

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22 Characterization of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (Tnt)-Metabolizing Bacillus Cereus Sp TUHP2 Isolated from TNT-Polluted Soils in the Vellore District, Tamilnadu, India

Authors: S. Hannah Elizabeth, A. Panneerselvam

Abstract:

Objective: The main objective was to evaluate the degradative properties of Bacillus cereus sp TUHP2 isolated from TNT-Polluted soils in the Vellore District, Tamil Nadu, India. Methods: Among the 3 bacterial genera isolated from different soil samples, one potent TNT degrading strain Bacillus cereus sp TUHP2 was identified. The morphological, physiological and the biochemical properties of the strain Bacillus cereus sp TUHP2 was confirmed by conventional methods and genotypic characterization was carried out using 16S r-DNA partial gene amplification and sequencing. The broken down by products of DNT in the extract was determined by Gas Chromatogram- Mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Supernatant samples from the broth studied at 24 h interval were analyzed by HPLC analysis and the effect on various nutritional and environmental factors were analysed and optimized for the isolate. Results: Out of three isolates one strain TUHP2 were found to have potent efficiency to degrade TNT and revealed the genus Bacillus. 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis showed highest homology (98%) with Bacillus cereus and was assigned as Bacillus cereus sp TUHP2. Based on the energy of the predicted models, the secondary structure predicted by MFE showed the more stable structure with a minimum energy. Products of TNT Transformation showed colour change in the medium during cultivation. TNT derivates such as 2HADNT and 4HADNT were detected by HPLC chromatogram and 2ADNT, 4ADNT by GC/MS analysis. Conclusion: Hence this study presents the clear evidence for the biodegradation process of TNT by strain Bacillus cereus sp TUHP2.

Keywords: Bioremediation, Biotransformation, biodegradation, Sequencing

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21 Evaluating Cyanide Biodegradation by Bacteria Isolated from Gold Mine Effluents in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe

Authors: Ngonidzashe Mangoma, Caroline Marigold Sebata

Abstract:

The release of cyanide-rich effluents from gold mines, and other industries, into the environment, is a global concern considering the well-known metabolic effects of cyanide in all forms of life. Such effluents need to be treated to remove cyanide, among other pollutants, before their disposal. This study aimed at investigating the possible use of bacteria in the biological removal of cyanide from cyanide-rich effluents. Firstly, cyanide-degrading bacteria were isolated from gold mine effluents and characterised. The isolates were then tested for their ability to grow in the presence of cyanide and their tolerance to increasing levels of the compound. To evaluate each isolate’s cyanide-degrading activities, isolates were grown in the simulated and actual effluent, and a titrimetric method was used to quantify residual cyanide over a number of days. Cyanide degradation efficiency (DE) was then calculated for each isolate. Identification of positive isolates involved 16S rRNA gene amplification and sequence analysis through BLAST. Six cyanide-utilising bacterial strains were isolated. Two of the isolates were identified as Klebsiella spp. while the other two were shown to be different strains of Clostridium bifermentans. All isolates showed normal growth in the presence of cyanide, with growth being inhibited at 700 mg/L cyanide and beyond. Cyanide degradation efficiency for all isolates in the simulated effluent ranged from 79% to 97%. All isolates were able to remove cyanide from actual gold mine effluent with very high DE values (90 – 94%) being recorded. Isolates obtained in this study were able to efficiently remove cyanide from both simulated and actual effluent. This observation clearly demonstrates the feasibility of the biological removal of cyanide from cyanide-rich gold mine effluents and should, therefore, motivate research towards the possible large-scale application of this technology.

Keywords: Bioremediation, Environment, Klebsiella spp, cyanide effluent, Clostridium bifermentans

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20 Isolation, Characterization and Optimization of Alkalophilic and Thermotolerant Lipase from Bacillus subtilis Strain

Authors: Indu Bhushan Sharma, Rashmi Saraswat

Abstract:

The thermotolerant, solvent stable and alkalophilic lipase producing bacterial strain was isolated from the water sample of the foothills of Trikuta Mountain in Kakryal (Reasi district) in Jammu and Kashmir, India. The lipase-producing microorganisms were screened using tributyrin agar plates. The selected microbe was optimized for maximum lipase production by subjecting to various carbon and nitrogen sources, incubation period and inoculum size. The selected strain was identified as Bacillus subtilis strain kakrayal_1 (BSK_1) using 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Effect of pH, temperature, metal ions, detergents and organic solvents were studied on lipase activity. Lipase was found to be stable over a pH range of 6.0 to 9.0 and exhibited maximum activity at pH 8. Lipolytic activity was highest at 37°C and the enzyme activity remained at 60°C for 24hrs, hence, established as thermo-tolerant. Production of lipase was significantly induced by vegetable oil and the best nitrogen source was found to be peptone. The isolated Bacillus lipase was stimulated by pre-treatment with Mn2+, Ca2+, K+, Zn2+, and Fe2+. Lipase was stable in detergents such as triton X 100, tween 20 and Tween 80. The 100% ethyl acetate enhanced lipase activity whereas, lipase activity were found to be stable in Hexane. The optimization resulted in 4 fold increase in lipase production. Bacillus lipases are ‘generally recognized as safe’ (GRAS) and are industrially interesting. The inducible alkaline, thermo-tolerant lipase exhibited the ability to be stable in detergents and organic solvents. This could be further researched as a potential biocatalyst for industrial applications such as biotransformation, detergent formulation, bioremediation and organic synthesis.

Keywords: bacillus, lipase, thermotolerant, alkalophilic

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19 Removal of Diesel by Soil Washing Technologies Using a Non-Ionic Surfactant

Authors: Carolina Guatemala, Josefina Barrera

Abstract:

A large number of soils highly polluted with recalcitrant hydrocarbons and the limitation of the current bioremediation methods continue being the drawback for an efficient recuperation of these under safe conditions. In this regard, soil washing by degradable surfactants is an alternative option knowing the capacity of surfactants to desorb oily organic compounds. The aim of this study was the establishment of the washing conditions of a soil polluted with diesel, using a nonionic surfactant. A soil polluted with diesel was used. This was collected near to a polluted railway station zone. The soil was dried at room temperature and sieved to a mesh size 10 for its physicochemical and biological characterization. Washing of the polluted soil was performed with surfactant solutions in a 1:5 ratio (5g of soil per 25 mL of the surfactant solution). This was carried out at 28±1 °C and 150 rpm for 72 hours. The factors tested were the Tween 80 surfactant concentration (1, 2, 5 and 10%) and the treatment time. Residual diesel concentration was determined every 24 h. The soil was of a sandy loam texture with a low concentration of organic matter (3.68%) and conductivity (0.016 dS.m- 1). The soil had a pH of 7.63 which was slightly alkaline and a Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon content (TPH) of 11,600 ± 1058.38 mg/kg. The high TPH content could explain the low microbial count of 1.1105 determined as UFC per gram of dried soil. Within the range of the surfactant concentration tested for washing the polluted soil under study, TPH removal increased proportionally with the surfactant concentration. 5080.8 ± 422.2 ppm (43.8 ± 3.64 %) was the maximal concentration of TPH removed after 72 h of contact with surfactant pollution at 10%. Despite the high percentage of hydrocarbons removed, it is assumed that a higher concentration of these could be removed if the washing process is extended or is carried out by stages. Soil washing through the use of surfactants as a desorbing agent was found to be a viable and effective technology for the rapid recovery of soils highly polluted with recalcitrant hydrocarbons.

Keywords: Hydrocarbons, tween 80, diesel, soil washing

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18 Transcriptomic Response of Calmodulin Encoding Gene (CaM) in Pesticide Utilizing Talaromyces Fungal Strains

Authors: D. O. Adejoye, M. D. Asemoloye, S. G. Jonathan, A. Rafiq, O. J. Olawuyi

Abstract:

Calmodulin is one of the intracellular calcium proteins that regulates large spectrum of enzymes and cellular functions including metabolism of cyclic nucleotides and glycogen. The potentials of calmodulin gene in fungi necessitates their genetic response and their strong cassette of enzyme secretions for pesticide degradation. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the ‘Transcriptomic’ response of calmodulin encoding genes in Talaromyces fungi in response to 2, 2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate (DDVP or Dichlorvos) an organophosphate pesticide and γ-Hexachlorocyclohexane (Lindane) an organochlorine pesticide. Fungi strains isolated from rhizosphere from grasses rhizosphere in pesticide polluted sites were subjected to percentage incidence test. Two most frequent fungi were further characterized using ITS gene amplification (ITS1 and ITS4 combinations), they were thereafter subjected to In-vitro DDVP and lindane tolerance tests at different concentrations. They were also screened for presence and expression of calmodulin gene (caM) using RT-PCR technique. The two Talaromyces strains had the highest incidence of 50-72% in pesticide polluted site, they were both identified as Talaromyces astroroseus asemoG and Talaromyces purpurogenum asemoN submitted in NCBI gene-bank with accession numbers KY488464 and KY488468 respectively. T. astroroseus KY488464 tolerated DDVP (1.23±0.023 cm) and lindane (1.11±0.018 cm) at 25 % concentration while T. purpurogenum KY488468 tolerated DDVP (1.33±0.061 cm) and lindane (1.54±0.077 cm) at this concentration. Calmodulin gene was detected in both strains, but RT-PCR expression of caM gene revealed at 900-1000 bp showed an under-expression of caM in T. astrorosues KY488464 but overexpressed in T. purpurogenum KY488464. Thus, the calmodulin gene response of these fungal strains to both pesticides could be considered in monitoring the potentials of fungal strains to pesticide tolerance and bioremediation of pesticide in polluted soil.

Keywords: Tolerance, Pesticide, RT-PCR, Calmodulin gene, talaromyces

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17 Bio Energy from Metabolic Activity of Bacteria in Plant and Soil Using Novel Microbial Fuel Cells

Authors: B. Samuel Raj, Solomon R. D. Jebakumar

Abstract:

Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are an emerging and promising method for achieving sustainable energy since they can remove contaminated organic matter and simultaneously generate electricity. Our approach was driven in three different ways like Bacterial fuel cell, Soil Microbial fuel cell (Soil MFC) and Plant Microbial fuel cell (Plant MFC). Bacterial MFC: Sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) were isolated and identified as the efficient electricigens which is able to produce ±2.5V (689mW/m2) and it has sustainable activity for 120 days. Experimental data with different MFC revealed that high electricity production harvested continuously for 90 days 1.45V (381mW/m2), 1.98V (456mW/m2) respectively. Biofilm formation was confirmed on the surface of the anode by high content screening (HCS) and scanning electron Microscopic analysis (SEM). Soil MFC: Soil MFC was constructed with low cost and standard Mudwatt soil MFC was purchased from keegotech (USA). Vermicompost soil (V1) produce high energy (± 3.5V for ± 400 days) compared to Agricultural soil (A1) (± 2V for ± 150 days). Biofilm formation was confirmed by HCS and SEM analysis. This finding provides a method for extracting energy from organic matter, but also suggests a strategy for promoting the bioremediation of organic contaminants in subsurface environments. Our Soil MFC were able to run successfully a 3.5V fan and three LED continuously for 150 days. Plant MFC: Amaranthus candatus (P1) and Triticum aestivium (P2) were used in Plant MFC to confirm the electricity production from plant associated microbes, four uniform size of Plant MFC were constructed and checked for energy production. P2 produce high energy (± 3.2V for 40 days) with harvesting interval of two times and P1 produces moderate energy without harvesting interval (±1.5V for 24 days). P2 is able run 3.5V fan continuously for 10days whereas P1 needs optimization of growth conditions to produce high energy.

Keywords: Biofilm, microbial fuel cell, soil microbial fuel cell, plant microbial fuel cell

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16 Biodegradation of Malathion by Acinetobacter baumannii Strain AFA Isolated from Domestic Sewage in Egypt

Authors: Ahmed F. Azmy, Amal E. Saafan, Tamer M. Essam, Magdy A. Amin, Shaban H. Ahmed

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Bacterial strains capable of degradation of malathion from the domestic sewage were isolated by an enrichment culture technique. Three bacterial strains were screened and identified as Acinetobacter baumannii (AFA), Pseudomonas aeruginosae (PS1),andPseudomonas mendocina (PS2) based on morphological, biochemical identification and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Acinetobacter baumannii AFA was the most efficient malathion degrading bacterium, so used for further biodegradation study. AFA was able to grow in mineral salt medium (MSM) supplemented with malathion (100 mg/l) as a sole carbon source, and within 14 days, 84% of the initial dose was degraded by the isolate measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Strain AFA could also degrade other organophosphorus compounds including diazenon, chlorpyrifos and fenitrothion. The effect of different culture conditions on the degradation of malathion like inoculum density, other carbon or nitrogen sources, temperature and shaking were examined. Degradation of malathion and bacterial cell growth were accelerated when culture media were supplemented with yeast extract, glucose and citrate. The optimum conditions for malathion degradation by strain AFA were; an inoculum density of 1.5x 1012CFU/ml at 30°C with shaking. A specific polymerase chain reaction primers were designed manually using multiple sequence alignment of the corresponding carboxylesterase enzymes of Acinetobacter species. Sequencing result of amplified PCR product and phylogenetic analysis showed low degree of homology with the other carboxylesterase enzymes of Acinetobacter strains, so we suggested that this enzyme is a novel esterase enzyme. Isolated bacterial strains may have potential role for use in bioremediation of malathion contaminated.

Keywords: biodegradation, Acinetobacter baumannii, malathion, organophosphate pesticides

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15 Consequences of Some Remediative Techniques Used in Sewaged Soil Bioremediation on Indigenous Microbial Activity

Authors: E. M. Hoballah, M. Saber, A. Turky, N. Awad, A. M. Zaghloul

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Remediation of cultivated sewage soils in Egypt become an important aspect in last decade for having healthy crops and saving the human health. In this respect, a greenhouse experiment was conducted where contaminated sewage soil was treated with modified forms of 2% bentonite (T1), 2% kaolinite (T2), 1% bentonite+1% kaolinite (T3), 2% probentonite (T4), 2% prokaolinite (T5), 1% bentonite + 0.5% kaolinite + 0.5% rock phosphate (RP) (T6), 2% iron oxide (T7) and 1% iron oxide + 1% RP (T8). These materials were applied as remediative materials. Untreated soil was also used as a control. All soil samples were incubated for 2 months at 25°C at field capacity throughout the whole experiment. Carbon dioxide (CO2) efflux from both treated and untreated soils as a biomass indicator was measured through the incubation time and kinetic parameters of the best fitted models used to describe the phenomena were taken to evaluate the succession of sewaged soils remediation. The obtained results indicated that according to the kinetic parameters of used models, CO2 effluxes from remediated soils was significantly decreased compared to control treatment with variation in rate values according to type of remediation material applied. In addition, analyzed microbial biomass parameter showed that Ni and Zn were the most potential toxic elements (PTEs) that influenced the decreasing order of microbial activity in untreated soil. Meanwhile, Ni was the only influenced pollutant in treated soils. Although all applied materials significantly decreased the hazards of PTEs in treated soil, modified bentonite was the best treatment compared to other used materials. This work discussed different mechanisms taking place between applied materials and PTEs founded in the studied sewage soil.

Keywords: Remediation, Sewage, potential toxic elements, soil biomass

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14 Characterization of the Microorganisms Associated with Pleurotus ostractus and Pleurotus tuber-Regium Spent Mushroom Substrate

Authors: Samuel E. Okere, Anthony E. Ataga

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Introduction: The microbial ecology of Pleurotus osteratus and Pleurotus tuber–regium spent mushroom substrate (SMS) were characterized to determine other ways of its utilization. Materials and Methods: The microbiological properties of the spent mushroom substrate were determined using standard methods. This study was carried out at the Microbiology Laboratory University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria. Results: Quantitative microbiological analysis revealed that Pleurotus osteratus spent mushroom substrate (POSMS) contained 7.9x10⁵ and 1.2 x10³ cfu/g of total heterotrophic bacteria and total fungi count respectively while Pleurotus tuber-regium spent mushroom substrate (PTSMS) contained 1.38x10⁶ and 9.0 x10² cfu/g of total heterotrophic bacteria count and total fungi count respectively. The fungi species encountered from Pleurotus tuber-regium spent mushroom substrate (PTSMS) include Aspergillus and Cladosporum species, while Aspergillus and Penicillium species were encountered from Pleurotus osteratus spent mushroom substrate (POSMS). However, the bacteria species encountered from Pleurotus tuber-regium spent mushroom substrate include Bacillus, Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Actinobacter, and Pseudomonas species while Bacillus, Actinobacteria, Aeromonas, Lactobacillus and Aerococcus species were encountered from Pleurotus osteratus spent mushroom substrate (POSMS). Conclusion: Therefore based on the findings from this study, it can be concluded that spent mushroom substrate contain microorganisms that can be utilized both in bioremediation of oil-polluted soils as they contain important hydrocarbon utilizing microorganisms such as Penicillium, Aspergillus and Bacillus species and also as sources of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) such as Pseudomonas and Bacillus species which can induce resistance on plants. However, further studies are recommended, especially to molecularly characterize these microorganisms.

Keywords: Characterization, Microorganisms, mushroom, spent substrate

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13 Detection and Expression of Peroxidase Genes in Trichoderma harzianum KY488466 and Its Response to Crude Oil Degradation

Authors: Michael Dare Asemoloye, Segun Gbolagade Jonathan, Rafiq Ahmad, Odunayo Joseph Olawuyi, D. O. Adejoye

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Fungi have potentials for degrading hydrocarbons through the secretion of different enzymes. Crude oil tolerance and degradation by Trichoderma harzianum was investigated in this study with its ability to produce peroxidase enzymes (LiP and MnP). Many fungal strains were isolated from rhizosphere of grasses growing on a crude oil spilled site, and the most frequent strain based on percentage incidence was further characterized using morphological and molecular characteristics. Molecular characterization was done through the amplification of Ribosomal-RNA regions of 18s (1609-1627) and 28s (287-266) using ITS1 and ITS4 combinations and it was identified using NCBI BLAST tool. The selected fungus was also subjected to an in-vitro tolerance test at crude oil concentrations of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% while 0% served as control. In addition, lignin peroxidase genes (lig1-6) and manganese peroxidase gene (mnp) were detected and expressed in this strain using RT-PCR technique, its peroxidase producing activities was also studied in aliquots (U/ml). This strain had highest incidence of 80%, it was registered in NCBI as Trichoderma harzianum asemoJ KY488466. The strain KY488466 responded to crude oil concentrations as it increase, the dose inhibition response percentage (DIRP) increased from 41.67 to 95.41 at 5 to 25 % crude oil concentrations. All the peroxidase genes are present in KY488466, and expressed with amplified 900-1000 bp through RT-PCR technique. In this strain, lig2, lig4 and mnp genes were over-expressed, lig 6 was moderately expressed, while none of the genes was under-expressed. The strain also produced 90±0.87 U/ml lignin peroxidase and 120±1.23 U/mil manganese peroxidase enzymes in aliquots. These results imply that KY488466 can tolerate and survive high crude oil concentration and could be exploited for bioremediation of oil-spilled soils, the produced peroxidase enzymes could also be exploited for other biotechnological experiments.

Keywords: Tolerance, Expression, Enzymes, crude oil, Trichoderma harzianum, peroxidase genes

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12 Accumulation of Pollutants, Self-Purification and Impact on Peripheral Urban Areas: A Case Study in Shantytowns in Argentina

Authors: N. Porzionato, M. Mantiñan, E. Bussi, S. Grinberg, R. Gutierrez, G. Curutchet

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This work sets out to debate the tensions involved in the processes of contamination and self-purification in the urban space, particularly in the streams that run through the Buenos Aires metropolitan area. For much of their course, those streams are piped; their waters do not come into contact with the outdoors until they have reached deeply impoverished urban areas with high levels of environmental contamination. These are peripheral zones that, until thirty years ago, were marshlands and fields. They are now densely populated areas largely lacking in urban infrastructure. The Cárcova neighborhood, where this project is underway, is in the José León Suárez section of General San Martín country, Buenos Aires province. A stretch of José León Suarez canal crosses the neighborhood. Starting upstream, this canal carries pollutants due to the sewage and industrial waste released into it. Further downstream, in the neighborhood, domestic drainage is poured into the stream. In this paper, we formulate a hypothesis diametrical to the one that holds that these neighborhoods are the primary source of contamination, suggesting instead that in the stretch of the canal that runs through the neighborhood the stream’s waters are actually cleaned and the sediments accumulate pollutants. Indeed, the stretches of water that runs through these neighborhoods act as water processing plants for the metropolis. This project has studied the different organic-load polluting contributions to the water in a certain stretch of the canal, the reduction of that load over the course of the canal, and the incorporation of pollutants into the sediments. We have found that the surface water has considerable ability to self-purify, mostly due to processes of sedimentation and adsorption. The polluting load is accumulated in the sediments where that load stabilizes slowly by means of anaerobic processes. In this study, we also investigated the risks of sediment management and the use of the processes studied here in controlled conditions as tools of environmental restoration.

Keywords: Bioremediation, Sediments, Pollutants, urban streams

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
11 Biodegradation of 2,4-Dichlorophenol by Pseudomonas chlororaphis Strain Isolated from Activated Sludge Sample from a Wastewater Treatment Plant in Durban, South Africa

Authors: Boitumelo Setlhare, Mduduzi P. Mokoena, Ademola O. Olaniran

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Agricultural and industrial activities have led to increasing production of xenobiotics such as 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), a derivative of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), which is a widely used herbicide. Bioremediation offers an efficient, cost-effective and environmentally friendly method for degradation of the compound through the activities of the various microbial enzymes involved in the catabolic pathway. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize bacterial isolate indigenous to contaminated sites in Durban, South Africa for 2,4-DCP degradation. One bacterium capable of utilizing 2,4-DCP as sole carbon source was isolated using culture enrichment technique and identified as Pseudomonas chlororaphis strain UFB2 via PCR amplification and analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequence. This isolate was able to degrade up to 75.11% of 2,4-DCP in batch cultures within 10 days, with the degradation rate constant of 0.14 mg/l/d. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the relatedness of this bacterial isolate to other Pseudomonas sp. previously characterized for chlorophenol degradation. PCR amplification of the catabolic genes involved in 2,4-DCP degradation revealed the presence of the correct amplicons for phenol hydroxylase (600 bp), catechol 1,2-dioxygenase (214 bp), muconate isomerase (851 bp), cis-dienelactone hydrolase (577 bp), and trans-dienelactone hydrolase (491 bp) genes. Enzyme assays revealed activity as high as 21840 mU/mg, 15630 mU/mg, 2340 mU/mg and 1490 mU/mg obtained for phenol hydroxylase, catechol 1,2-dioxygenase, cis-dienelactone hydroxylase and trans-dienelactone hydroxylase, respectively. The absence of catechol 2,3-dioxygenase gene and the corresponding enzyme in this isolate suggests that the organism followed ortho-pathway for 2,4-DCP degradation. Furthermore, the absence of malaycetate reductase genes showed that the bacterium may not be able to completely mineralize 2,4-DCP. Further studies are required to optimize 2,4-DCP degradation by this isolate as well as to elucidate the mechanism of 2,4-DCP degradation.

Keywords: biodegradation, catechol 1, phenol hydroxylase, Pseudomonas chlororaphis

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10 Effects of Indole on Aerobic Biodegradation of Butanoic Acid by Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Serratia marcescens

Authors: J. B. J. Njalam’mano, E. M. N. Chirwa

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In low resource settings in Africa and other developing regions, pit latrines remain the dominant basic minimum acceptable form of sanitation. However, unpleasant smells-malodours emitted from faecal sludge in the pit latrines, which elicit disgusting or repulsive response, are one of the factors that thwart people to use latrines and instead opt for open defecation as an alternative. This provides an important but often overlooked major impediment, dissuading people from adopting and using the pit latrines hence affecting successful, effective sanitation promotion. The malodours are primarily attributed to four odorants: butanoic acid (C₄H₈O₂), dimethyl trisulphide (C₂H₆S₃), indole (C₈H₇N) and para-cresol (C₇H₈O). Several pit latrine deodorisation methods such as addition of carbonous materials, use of ventilation systems and urine separation are available, and they continue to occupy their niche, but social, economic, environmental and technological shortfalls remain. Bioremediation has been gaining popularity because it is inexpensive, simple to operate and environmentally friendly. Recently, the biodegradation of butanoic acid as individual odorant has been studied. However, to the best of our knowledge, there have been no kinetic studies of the butanoic acid in the presence of other key odorous compounds. In this study, a series of experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of indole on the removal of butanoic acid under aerobic conditions using indigenous bacteria strains, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Serratia marcescens isolated from faecal sludge as pure cultures as well as mixed cultures. In this purpose, butanoic acid removal was performed in a batch reactor containing the bacterial strains in mineral salt medium (MSM) amended with 3000 ppm of butanoic acid at the temperature of 30°C, under continuous stirring rate of 150 rpm and the concentration of indole was varied from 50-200 ppm. The initial pH of the solution was in the range of 6.0-7.2. Overall, there were significant differences in the bacterial growth rate and total butanoic acid removal dependent on the concentration of indole in the solution.

Keywords: biodegradation, indole, butanoic acid, pit latrine

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9 Field Study of Chlorinated Aliphatic Hydrocarbons Degradation in Contaminated Groundwater via Micron Zero-Valent Iron Coupled with Biostimulation

Authors: Wenxia Wei, Naijin Wu, Peizhong Li, Haijian Wang, Yun Song

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Chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) pollution poses a severe threat to human health and is persistent in groundwater. Although chemical reduction or bioremediation is effective, it is still hard to achieve their complete and rapid dechlorination. Recently, the combination of zero-valent iron and biostimulation has been considered to be one of the most promising strategies, but field studies of this technology are scarce. In a typical site contaminated by various types of CAHs, basic physicochemical parameters of groundwater, CAHs and their product concentrations, and microbial abundance and diversity were monitored after a remediation slurry containing both micron zero-valent iron (mZVI) and biostimulation components were directly injected into the aquifer. Results showed that groundwater could form and keep low oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), a neutral pH, and anoxic conditions after different degrees of fluctuations, which was benefit for the reductive dechlorination of CAHs. The injection also caused an obvious increase in the total organic carbon (TOC) concentration and sulfate reduction. After 253 days post-injection, the mean concentration of total chlorinated ethylene (CEE) from two monitoring wells decreased from 304 μg/L to 8 μg/L, and total chlorinated ethane (CEA) decreased from 548 μg/L to 108 μg/L. Occurrence of chloroethane (CA) suggested that hydrogenolysis dechlorination was one of the main degradation pathways for CEA, and also hints that biological dechlorination was activated. A significant increase of ethylene at day 67 post-injection indicated that dechlorination was complete. Additionally, the total bacterial counts increased by 2-3 orders of magnitude after 253 days post-injection. And the microbial species richness decreased and gradually changed to anaerobic/fermentative bacteria. The relative abundance of potential degradation bacteria increased corresponding to the degradation of CAHs. This work demonstrates that mZVI and biostimulation can be combined to achieve the efficient removal of various CAHs from contaminated groundwater sources.

Keywords: Groundwater, Biostimulation, Field Study, chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons, zero-valent iron

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8 Characterization and Optimization of Culture Conditions for Sulphur Oxidizing Bacteria after Isolation from Rhizospheric Mustard Soil, Decomposing Sites and Pit House

Authors: Rinku Dhanker, Suman Chaudhary, Sneh Goyal, Tanvi

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Sulphur oxidizing bacteria (SOB) have marked their significant role in perspectives of maintaining healthy environment as researchers from all over the world tested and apply these in waste water treatment plants, bioleaching of heavy metals, deterioration of bridge structures, concrete and for bioremediation purposes, etc. Also, these SOB are well adapted in all kinds of environment ranging from normal soil, water habitats to extreme natural sources like geothermal areas, volcanic eruptions, black shale and acid rock drainage (ARD). SOB have been isolated from low pH environment of anthropogenic origin like acid mine drainage (AMD) and bioleaching heaps, hence these can work efficiently in different environmental conditions. Besides having many applications in field of environment science, they may be proven to be very beneficial in area of agriculture as sulphur is the fourth major macronutrients required for the growth of plants. More amount of sulphur is needed by pulses and oilseed crops with respect to the cereal grains. Due to continuous use of land for overproduction of more demanding sulphur utilizing crops and without application of sulphur fertilizers, its concentration is decreasing day by day, and thus, sulphur deficiency is becoming a great problem as it affects the crop productivity and quality. Sulphur is generally found in soils in many forms which are unavailable for plants (cannot be use by plants) like elemental sulphur, thiosulphate which can be taken up by bacteria and converted into simpler forms usable by plants by undergoing a series of transformations. So, keeping the importance of sulphur in view for various soil types, oilseed crops and role of microorganisms in making them available to plants, we made an effort to isolate, optimize, and characterize SOB. Three potential strains of bacteria were isolated, namely SSF7, SSA21, and SSS6, showing sulphate production of concentration, i.e. 2.268, 3.102, and 2.785 mM, respectively. Also, these were optimized for various culture conditions like carbon, nitrogen source, pH, temperature, and incubation time, and characterization was also done.

Keywords: Characterization, Optimization, Isolation, sulphur oxidizing bacteria, sulphate production

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7 Management of Soil Borne Plant Diseases Using Agricultural Waste Residues as Green Waste and Organic Amendment

Authors: Temitayo Tosin Alawiye

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Plant disease control is important in maintaining plant vigour, grain quantity, abundance of food, feed, and fibre produced by farmers all over the world. Farmers make use of different methods in controlling these diseases but one of the commonly used method is the use of chemicals. However, the continuous and excessive usages of these agrochemicals pose a danger to the environment, man and wildlife. The more the population growth the more the food security challenge which leads to more pressure on agronomic growth. Agricultural waste also known as green waste are the residues from the growing and processing of raw agricultural products such as fruits, vegetables, rice husk, corn cob, mushroom growth medium waste, coconut husk. They are widely used in land bioremediation, crop production and protection which include disease control. These agricultural wastes help the crop by improving the soil fertility, increase soil organic matter and reduce in many cases incidence and severity of disease. The objective was to review the agricultural waste that has worked effectively against certain soil-borne diseases such as Fusarium oxysporum, Pythiumspp, Rhizoctonia spp so as to help minimize the use of chemicals. Climate change is a major problem of agriculture and vice versa. Climate change and agriculture are interrelated. Change in climatic conditions is already affecting agriculture with effects unevenly distributed across the world. It will increase the risk of food insecurity for some vulnerable groups such as the poor in Sub Saharan Africa. The food security challenge will become more difficult as the world will need to produce more food estimated to feed billions of people in the near future with Africa likely to be the biggest hit. In order to surmount this hurdle, smallholder farmers in Africa must embrace climate-smart agricultural techniques and innovations which includes the use of green waste in agriculture, conservative agriculture, pasture and manure management, mulching, intercropping, etc. Training and retraining of smallholder farmers on the use of green energy to mitigate the effect of climate change should be encouraged. Policy makers, academia, researchers, donors, and farmers should pay more attention to the use of green energy as a way of reducing incidence and severity of soilborne plant diseases to solve looming food security challenges.

Keywords: Climate Change, Green Energy, Agricultural waste, soil borne plant disease

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6 Investigating the Effect of Plant Root Exudates and of Saponin on Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Solubilization in Brownfield Contaminated Soils

Authors: Marie Davin, Marie-Laure Fauconnier, Gilles Colinet

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In Wallonia, there are 6,000 estimated brownfields (rising to over 3.5 million in Europe) that require remediation. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of recalcitrant carcinogenic/mutagenic organic compounds of major concern as they accumulate in the environment and represent 17% of all encountered pollutants. As an alternative to environmentally aggressive, expensive and often disruptive soil remediation strategies, a lot of research has been directed to developing techniques targeting organic pollutants. The following experiment, based on the observation that PAHs soil content decreases in the presence of plants, aimed at improving our understanding of the underlying mechanisms involved in phytoremediation. It focusses on plant root exudates and whether they improve PAHs solubilization, which would make them more available for bioremediation by soil microorganisms. The effect of saponin, a natural surfactant found in some plant roots such as members of the Fabaceae family, on PAHs solubilization was also investigated as part of the implementation of the experimental protocol. The experiments were conducted on soil collected from a brownfield in Saint-Ghislain (Belgium) and presenting weathered PAHs contamination. Samples of soil were extracted with different solutions containing either plant root exudates or commercial saponin. Extracted PAHs were determined in the different aqueous solutions using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography and Fluorimetric Detection (HPLC-FLD). Both root exudates of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) or red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) and commercial saponin were tested in different concentrations. Distilled water was used as a control. First of all, results show that PAHs are more extracted using saponin solutions than distilled water and that the amounts generally rise with the saponin concentration. However, the amount of each extracted compound diminishes as its molecular weight rises. Also, it appears that passed a certain surfactant concentration, PAHs are less extracted. This suggests that saponin might be investigated as a washing agent in polluted soil remediation techniques, either for ex-situ or in-situ treatments, as an alternative to synthetic surfactants. On the other hand, preliminary results on experiments using plant root exudates also show differences in PAHs solubilization compared to the control solution. Further results will allow discussion as to whether or not there are differences according to the exudates provenance and concentrations.

Keywords: Phytoremediation, Root Exudates, Medicago sativa, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, brownfield, saponin, trifolium pratense, solubilization

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