Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 38

Search results for: phytoplankton

38 Phytoplankton Community Composition in Laguna de Terminos, Mexico, and Its Relationship to Environmental Variables

Authors: Enrique Nunez L., Maria Cortes L., Sandra Laffon L., Ana M. Cupul V.


The phytoplankton community composition was studied in a tropical coastal lagoon of Mexico and relationships with environmental variables were evaluated. Six sites inside the tropical Terminos Lagoon were sampled in order to determine abundances and ecological indexes for phytoplankton from May to December 2017. Water samples were also collected to determine the values of pigments, nutrients, and water solids. Results showed that the composition and abundance of the phytoplankton community were influenced by physicochemical factors, nutrients, water solids, and climate seasons. Sixty-six species were identified as potential HAB producers (44.29% from total). However, abundances were not related to the occurrence of HAB during the study. Multidimensional ANOVA indicated no significant differences between sites while some months revealed significant differences. The canonical analysis suggested that environmental variables explained 49% of community variation of potential phytoplankton species producers of HAB.

Keywords: phytoplankton, environment, lagoon, biodiversity

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
37 Phytoplankton Community Structure in the Moroccan Coast of the Mediterranean Sea: Case Study of Saiidia, Three Forks Cape

Authors: H. Idmoussi, L. Somoue, O. Ettahiri, A. Makaoui, S. Charib, A. Agouzouk, A. Ben Mhamed, K. Hilmi, A. Errhif


The study on the composition, abundance, and distribution of phytoplankton was conducted along the Moroccan coast of the Mediterranean Sea (Saiidia - Three Forks Cape) in April 2018. Samples were collected at thirteen stations using Niskin bottles within two layers (surface and deep layers). The identification and enumeration of phytoplankton were carried out according to the Utermöhl method (1958). A total number of 54 phytoplankton species were identified over the entire survey area. Thirty-six species could be found both in the surface and the deep layers while eleven species were observed only in the surface layer and seven in the deep layer. The phytoplankton throughout the study area was dominated by diatoms represented mainly by Nitzschia sp., Pseudonitzschia sp., Chaetoceros sp., Cylindrotheca closterium, Leptocylindrus minimus, Leptocylindrus danicus, Dactyliosolen fragilissimus. Dinoflagellates were dominated by Gymnodinium sp., Scrippsiella sp., Gyrodinium spirale, Noctulica sp, Prorocentrum micans. Euglenophyceae, Silicoflagellates and Raphidophyceae were present in low numbers. Most of the phytoplankton were concentrated in the surface layer, particularly towards the Three Forks Cape (25200 cells·l⁻¹). Shannon species diversity (ranging from 2 and 4 Bits) and evenness index (broadly > 0.7) suggested that phytoplankton community is generally diversified and structured in the studied area.

Keywords: abundance, diversity, Mediterranean Sea, phytoplankton

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36 Physico-Chemical and Phytoplankton Analyses of Kazaure Dam, Jigawa State, Nigeria

Authors: Aminu Musa Muhammad, Muhammad Kabiru Abubakar


Monthly changes in Phytoplankton periodicity, nutrient levels, temperature, pH, suspended solids, dissolved solids, conductivity, dissolved oxygen and biochemical oxygen demand of Kazaure Dam, Jigawa State, Nigeria were studied for a period of six months (July-Dec.-2011). Physico-chemical result showed that temperature and pH ranged between17-25˚C and 5.5-7.5, while dissolved solids and suspended solids ranged between 95-155 mg/L and 0.13-112 mg/L respectively. Dissolved oxygen (DO), Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), Chemical oxygen demand (COD), conductivity, nitrate, phosphate and sulphate ion concentrations were within the ranges of 3.5-3.6 mg/L, 4.8-7.2 mg/L, 8.10-12.30 mg/L, 21-58µΩ/cm, 0.2-8.1 mg/L, 2.4-18.1 mg/L, and 1.22-15.60 mg/L respectively. A total of 4514 Org/L phytoplankton were recorded, of which four classes of algae were identified. These comprised of Chlorophyta (44.1%), Cyanophyta(30.62%), Bacillariophyta(3.2%), Euglenophyta (32.1%). Descriptive statistics of the result showed that phytoplankton count varied with variation of physico-chemical parameters at 5% level during the study period. The abundance and distribution of the algae varied with the variation in the physico-chemical parameters. Pearson correlation showed that temperature and nutrients were significantly correlated with phytoplankton, while DO, sulphate and pH were insignificantly correlated, while there was no significant correlation with COD and phytoplankton.

Keywords: correlation, phytoplankton, physico chemical, kazaure dam

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35 Phytoplankton Diversity and Abundance in Burullus Lagoon, Southern Mediterranean Coast, Egypt

Authors: Shymaa S. Zaher, Hesham M. Abd El-Fatah, Dina M. Ali


Burullus Lagoon is the second largest lake, along the Mediterranean seashore. It exposed to over nutrient enrichment from fish farming and agricultural drainage wastes. This study assesses the present status phytoplankton response to different flow events, including domestic, agricultural, industrial, and fish farms discharge in the three main sectors of Burullus Lagoon, to focus on the influence of environmental variables on phytoplankton species composition inhabiting the Lagoon. Twelve sites representing the eastern, central, and western basin were selected during winter and summer 2018. Among the most abundant group, Chlorophyceae came in the first rank by 37.9% of the total phytoplankton densities, Bacillariophyceae (29.31%), Cyanophyceae (20.7%), Euglenophyceae (8.63%) and Dinophyceae (3.4%). Cyclotella menenghiana was the most abundant diatoms, while Scenedesmus quadricauda, S. acuminatus, and S. bijuga were highly recorded nearby the drains (in the middle sector). Phytoplankton in Burullus Lagoon attained the lowest values during the winter season and the highest ones during the summer season. The total count of phytoplankton in the middle and western basin of the lake was higher than that of the eastern part. Excessive use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and washing out of nutrients loaded to the drainage water, leading to a significant pronounced decrease in community composition and standing crop of phytoplankton in Burullus Lake from year to year, hold the danger of shifting the lagoon ecosystem.

Keywords: Burullus Lagoon, environmental variables, phytoplankton, water pollution

Procedia PDF Downloads 41
34 Variation of Phytoplankton Biomass in the East China Sea Based on MODIS Data

Authors: Yumei Wu, Xiaoyan Dang, Shenglong Yang, Shengmao Zhang


The East China Sea is one of four main seas in China, where there are many fishery resources. Some important fishing grounds, such as Zhousan fishing ground important to society. But the eco-environment is destroyed seriously due to the rapid developing of industry and economy these years. In this paper, about twenty-year satellite data from MODIS and the statistical information of marine environment from the China marine environmental quality bulletin were applied to do the research. The chlorophyll-a concentration data from MODIS were dealt with in the East China Sea and then used to analyze the features and variations of plankton biomass in recent years. The statistics method was used to obtain their spatial and temporal features. The plankton biomass in the Yangtze River estuary and the Taizhou region were highest. The high phytoplankton biomass usually appeared between the 88th day to the 240th day (end-March - August). In the peak time of phytoplankton blooms, the Taizhou islands was the earliest, and the South China Sea was the latest. The intensity and period of phytoplankton blooms were connected with the global climate change. This work give us confidence to use satellite data to do more researches about the China Sea, and it also provides some help for us to know about the eco-environmental variation of the East China Sea and regional effect from global climate change.

Keywords: the East China Sea, phytoplankton biomass, temporal and spatial variation, phytoplankton bloom

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33 Spatial Dynamic of Pico- and Nano-Phytoplankton Communities in the Mouth of the Seine River

Authors: M. Schapira, S. Françoise, F. Maheux, O. Pierre-Duplessix, E. Rabiller, B. Simon, R. Le Gendre


Pico- and nano-phytoplankton are abundant and ecologically critical components of the autotrophic communities in the pelagic realm. While the role of physical forcing related to tidal cycle, water mass intrusion, nutrient availability, mixing and stratification on microphytoplankton blooms have been widely investigated, these are often overlooked for pico- and nano-phytoplankton especially in estuarine waters. This study investigates changes in abundances and community composition of pico- and nano-phytoplankton under different estuarine tidal conditions in the mouth of the Seine River in relation to nutrient availability, water column stratification and spatially localized currents. Samples were collected each day at high tide, over spring tide to neap tide cycle, from 21 stations homogeneously distributed in the Seine river month in May 2011. Vertical profiles of temperature, salinity and fluorescence were realized at each sampling station. Sub-surface water samples (i.e. 1 m depth) were collected for nutrients (i.e. N, P and Si), phytoplankton biomass (i.e. Chl a) and pico- and nano-phytoplankton enumeration and identification. Pico- and nano-phytoplankton populations were identified and quantified using flow cytometry. Total abundances tend to decrease from spring tide to neap tide. Samples were characterized by high abundances of Synechococcus and Cryptophyceae. The composition of the pico- and nano-phytoplankton varied greatly under the different estuarine tidal conditions. Moreover, at the scale of the river mouth, the pico- and nano-phytoplankton population exhibited patchy distribution patterns that were closely controlled by water mass intrusion from the Sea, freshwater inputs from the Seine River and the geomorphology of the river mouth. This study highlights the importance of physical forcing to the community composition of pico- and nano-phytoplankton that may be critical for the structure of the pelagic food webs in estuarine and adjacent coastal seas.

Keywords: nanophytoplancton, picophytoplankton, physical forcing, river mouth, tidal cycle

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32 Analysis and Study of Growth Rates of Indigenous Phytoplankton in Enriched Spent Oil Impacted Ecosystems in South Western Nigeria Coastal Waters

Authors: Lauretta Ighedo, Bukola Okunade, Monisade Okunade


In order to determine the effect of spent oil on the growth rates of indigenous phytoplankton in an aquaculture pond, a study was carried out on varying concentrations of samples using the bioassay procedure for a period of 14 days. Four divisions Cyanophyta, Chlorophyta, Euglenophyta and Bacillariophyta were observed in the water samples collected from the Aquaculture pond. The growth response was measured using a microprocessor photocolorimeter at optical density of 680nm. A general assessment of spent oil contaminated samples showed either a sharp rise or fall in growth rate from day 0 to day 2 followed by increased growth response for most higher concentration of pollutants up to Day 8, then fluctuations in the growth response pattern for the other days. There was no marked significant difference in the growth response of phytoplankton in the spent oil impacted water samples. The lowest and highest phytoplankton abundance was recorded in 10/90ml and 2.5/97.5ml spent oil impacted water sample respectively. Oscillatoria limosa, Chlorella sp., Microcystis aeruginosa, Nitzschia sp. and Navicula sp. showed high tolerance to oil pollution and these species used as bioindicators of an organic polluted environment increased abundantly and can therefore be employed in the cleanup and bioremediation process of an oil polluted freshwater body.

Keywords: phytoplankton, pollution, species abundance, environmental characteristics

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31 Marine Phytoplankton and Zooplankton from the North-Eastern Bay of Bengal, Bangladesh

Authors: Mahmudur Rahman Khan, Saima Sharif Nilla, Kawser Ahmed, Abdul Aziz


The marine phyto and zooplankton of the extreme north-eastern part of the Bay of Bengal, off the coast of Bangladesh have been studied. Relative occurrence of phyto and zooplankton and their relationship with physico-chemical conditions (f.e. temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, carbonate, phosphate, and sulphate) of the water and Shannon-Weiber diversity indices were also studied. The phytoplankton communities represented by 25 genera with 69 species of Bacillariophyceae, 5 genera with 12 species of Dinophyceae and 6 genera with 16 species of Chlorophyceae have been found. A total of 24 genera of 25 species belonging to Protozoa, Coelenterata, Chaetognatha, Nematoda, Cladocera, Copepoda, and decapoda have been recorded. In addition, the average phytoplankton was 80% of all collections, whereas the zooplankton was 20%, Z ratio of about 4:1. The total numbers of plankton individuals per liter were generally higher during low tide than those of high one. Shannon-Weiber diversity indices were highest (3.675 for phytoplankton and 3.021 for zooplankton) in the north-east part and lowest (1.516 for phytoplankton and 1.302 for zooplankton) in the south-east part of the study area. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) showed the relationship between pH and some species of phyto and zooplankton where all diatoms and copepods have showed positive correlation and dinoflagellates showed negative correlation with pH.

Keywords: plankton presence, shannon-weiber diversity index, principal component analysis, Bay of Bengal

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30 Growth Rates of Planktonic Organisms in “Yerevanyan Lich” Reservoir and the Hrazdan River in Yerevan City, Armenia

Authors: G. A. Gevorgyan, A. S. Mamyan, L. G. Stepanyan, L. R. Hambaryan


Bacterio- and phytoplankton growth rates in 'Yerevanyan lich' reservoir and the Hrazdan river in Yerevan city, Armenia were investigated in April and June-August, 2015. Phytoplankton sampling and analysis were performed by the standard methods accepted in hydrobiological studies. The quantitative analysis of aerobic, coliform and E. coli bacteria is done by the 'RIDA COUNT' medium sheets (coated with ready-to-use culture medium). The investigations showed that the insufficient management of household discharges in Yerevan city caused the organic and fecal pollution of the Hrazdan river in this area which in turn resulted in an increase in bacterial count and increased sanitary and pathogenic risks to the environment and human health. During the investigation in April, the representatives of diatom algae prevailed quantitatively in the coastal area of 'Yerevanyan lich' reservoir, nevertheless, a significant change in the phytoplankton community in June occurred: due to green algae bloom in the reservoir, the quantitative parameters of phytoplankton increased significantly. This was probably conditioned by a seasonal increase in the water temperature in the conditions of the sufficient concentration of nutrients. However, a succession in phytoplankton groups during July-August occurred, and a dominant group (according to quantitative parameters) in the phytoplankton community was changed as follows: green algae-diatom algae-blue-green algae. Rapid increase in the quantitative parameters of diatom and blue-green algae in the reservoir may have been conditioned by increased organic matter level resulted from green algae bloom. Algal bloom in 'Yerevanyan lich' reservoir caused changes in phytoplankton community and an increase in bacterioplankton count not only in the reservoir but also in the Hrazdan river sites located in the downstream from the reservoir. Thus, the insufficient management of urban discharges and aquatic ecosystems in Yerevan city led to unfavorable changes in water quality and microbial and phytoplankton communities in “Yerevanyan lich” reservoir and the Hrazdan river which in turn caused increased sanitary and pathogenic risks to the environment and human health.

Keywords: algal bloom, bacterioplankton, phytoplankton, Hrazdan river, Yerevanyan lich reservoir

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29 Phytoplankton Assemblage and Physicochemical Parameters of a Perturbed Tropical Manmade Lake, Southwestern Nigeria

Authors: Adedolapo Ayoade, John the Beloved Dada


This study identified the phytoplankton assemblage of the Dandaru Lake (that received effluents from a zoological garden and hospital) as bioindicators of water quality. Physicochemical parameters including Dissolved Oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand, nitrate, phosphate and heavy metals were also determined. Samples of water and plankton were collected once monthly from April to September, 2015 at five stations (I – V). The mean physicochemical parameters were within the limits of National Environmental Standards and Regulations Enforcement Agency (NESREA) and USEPA except Lead, 0.02 ± 0.08 mg/ L; Manganese, 0.46 ± 1.00 mg/ L and Zinc, 0.05 ± 0.17 mg/ L. Means of DO, alkalinity, and phosphate were significantly different between the stations at p < 0.05. While highest mean DO (6.88 ± 1.34 mg/L) was recorded in station I with less anthropogenic activities, highest phosphate concentration (0.28 ± 0.28 mg/L) occurred in station II, the entry point of wastewater from hospital and zoological garden. The 147 phytoplankton species found in the lake belonged to six classes: Chlorophyceae (50), Euglenophyceae (40), Bacillariophyceae (37), Cyanophyceae (17), Xanthophyceae and Chrysophyceae (3). The order of abundance for phytoplankton was Euglenophyceae (49.77%) > Bacillariophyceae (18.00%) > Cyanophyceae (17.39%) > Chlorophyceae (13.7%) > Xanthophyceae (1.06%) > Chrysophyceae (0.02%). The stations impacted with effluents were dominated by members of Euglenophyceae (Station III, 77.09%; IV, 50.55%) and Cyanophyceae (Station II, 27.7%; V, 32.57%). While station I was dominated by diatoms (57.98%). The species richness recorded was 0.32 – 4.49. Evenness index was highest in station I and least in station III. Generally, pollution tolerant species (Microcystis, Oscillatoria, Scenedesmus, Anabaena, and Euglena) showed greater density in areas impacted by human activities. The phytoplankton assemblage and comparatively low biotic diversity in Dandaru Lake could be attributed to perturbations in the water column that exerted selective effects on the biological assemblage.

Keywords: manmade lake, Nigeria, phytoplankton, water quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
28 Phytoplankton of the Atlantic Ocean, off Lagos, Nigeria

Authors: Ikenna Charles Onyema, Tolut Prince Bako


A study was carried out in the Atlantic Ocean off the Lighthouse Beach, Lagos. There were monthly and spatial variations in physical and chemical characteristics of the neritic ocean (August - December, 2014). Mean and standard deviation values for air temperature were 27. 67, ± 2.98 °C, water temperature (28.37 ± 1.88), pH (7.85 ± 0.17), conductivity (44738.75 ± 6262.76 µS/cm), total dissolved solids (29236.71 ± 4273.30 mg/L), salinity (27.11 ± 3.91 ‰), alkalinity (126.99 ± 42.81 mg/L) and chloride (15056. 67 ± 2165.78 mg/L). Higher estimates were recorded in the dry than wet months for these characteristics. On the other hand, reducing values were recorded for acidity (2.34 ± 0.63 mg/L), total hardness (4711.98 ± 691.50 mg/L), phosphate (1.1 ± 0.78 mg/L), sulphate (2601.99 ± 447.04 mg/L) and nitrate (0.12 ± 0.06 mg/L). Values for total suspended solids and biological oxygen demand values were low (<1mg/L). Twenty-one species of phytoplankton were recorded. Diatoms recorded 80.92% and were the dominant group. Hemidiscus cuneiformis, Coscinodiscus centralis, Coscinodiscus lineatus, Coscinodiscus radiatus and Oscillatoria limosa were more frequently occurring species. Biddulphia sinensis and four species of Ceratium, were representatives of the dry season. The dry season also recorded comparatively higher individuals of phytoplankton than the wet season. Spirogyra sp. (green algae) appeared only in the wet season. Species abundance (N) was highest in December at Station 1 (13.15%) (dry season) and lowest in August (wet season) at Station 3 (2.96%). The physico-chemical factors and phytoplankton reflected a tropical unpolluted neritic oceanic environment.

Keywords: sea, physico-chemistry, lighthouse beach, microalgae

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27 Phytoplankton of the Atlantic Ocean off Lagos

Authors: Ikenna Charles Onyema, Prince Tolut Bako


A study was carried out in the Atlantic Ocean off the Lighthouse Beach, Lagos. There were monthly and spatial variations in physical and chemical characteristics of the neritic ocean (August-December, 2014). Mean and standard deviation values for air temperature were 27. 67, ± 2.98 oC, water temperature (28.37 ± 1.88), pH (7.85 ± 0.17), Conductivity (44738.75 ± 6262.76 µS/cm), Total dissolved solids (29236.71 ± 4273.30 mg/L), Salinity (27.11 ± 3.91 ‰), Alkalinity (126.99 ± 42.81 mg/L) and Chloride (15056. 67 ± 2165.78 mg/L). Higher estimates were recorded in the dry than wet months for these characteristics. On the other hand, reducing values were recorded for Acidity (2.34 ± 0.63 mg/L), Total hardness (4711.98 ± 691.50 mg/L), Phosphate (1.1 ± 0.78 mg/L), Sulphate (2601.99 ± 447.04 mg/L) and Nitrate (0.12 ± 0.06 mg/L). Values for Total suspended solids and Biological oxygen demand values were low ( < 1mg/L). Twenty-one species of phytoplankton were recorded. Diatoms recorded 80.92% and were the dominant group. Hemidiscus cuneiformis, Coscinodiscus centralis, Coscinodiscus lineatus, Coscinodiscus radiatus and Oscillatoria limosa were more frequently occurring species. Biddulphia sinensis and four species of Ceratium, were representatives of the dry season. The dry season also recorded comparatively higher individuals of phytoplankton than the wet season. Spirogyra sp. (green algae) appeared only in the wet season. Species abundance (N) was highest in December at Station 1 (13.15%) (dry season) and lowest in August (wet season) at Station 3 (2.96%). The physico-chemical factors and phytoplankton reflected a tropical unpolluted neritic oceanic environment.

Keywords: sea, physico-chemistry, micro-algae, lighthouse beach

Procedia PDF Downloads 133
26 Impact of Flood on Phytoplankton Biochemical Composition in Subtropical Reservoir, Lake Nasser

Authors: Shymaa S. Zaher, Howayda Abd El-Hady, Nehad Khalifa


Lake Nasser is vital to Egypt as it is the main Nile water reservoir. One of the major challenges in ecological flood is to establish how environmental enrichment in nutrients availability may affect both the biochemical composition of phytoplankton and the species communities. Samples were collected from twenty sites representing different lake sectors along the main channel of the lake during 2017. Generally, phytoplankton distribution during flood season in Lake Nasser indicates the predominance of Cyanophyceae at all lake sectors. Increases in NO₂ (9.31 µg/l) and PO₄ (7.11µg/l) at the Abu-Simble sector are associated with changes in community structure and biochemical composition of phytoplankton, where Cyanophyceae blooming occur associated with retardation in biopolymeric particulate organic carbon. The maximum total biochemical contents (91.29 mg/l) and biopolymeric particulate organic carbon (37.15 mg/l) was found at El-Madiq sector where there was optimum nutrients (NO₂ 0.479 µg/l and PO₄ 5.149µg/l), a highly positive correlation was found between Cyanophyceae and NO₂ in the lake (r = 0.956). A highly positive correlation was detected between carbohydrates and both transparency and pH in the lake (r = 0.974 and 0.787). Also carbohydrates had a positive relation with Bacillariophyceae (r = 0.610). Flood positively alter the water quality of the lake by increasing dissolved oxygen and nutrients enrichment to the aquatic ecosystem, affecting other aquatic organisms of higher trophic levels as economic fishes inhabiting the lake.

Keywords: aquatic microalgae, Aswan high dam lake, biochemical composition, fresh water

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25 The Effects of Above-Average Precipitation after Extended Drought on Phytoplankton in Southern California Surface Water Reservoirs

Authors: Margaret K. Spoo-Chupka


The Metropolitan Water District of Southern California (MWDSC) manages surface water reservoirs that are a source of drinking water for more than 19 million people in Southern California. These reservoirs experience periodic planktonic cyanobacteria blooms that can impact water quality. MWDSC imports water from two sources – the Colorado River (CR) and the State Water Project (SWP). The SWP brings supplies from the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta that are characterized as having higher nutrients than CR water. Above average precipitation in 2017 after five years of drought allowed the majority of the reservoirs to fill. Phytoplankton was analyzed during the drought and after the drought at three reservoirs: Diamond Valley Lake (DVL), which receives SWP water exclusively, Lake Skinner, which can receive a blend of SWP and CR water, and Lake Mathews, which generally receives only CR water. DVL experienced a significant increase in water elevation in 2017 due to large SWP inflows, and there were no significant changes to total phytoplankton biomass, Shannon-Wiener diversity of the phytoplankton, or cyanobacteria biomass in 2017 compared to previous drought years despite the higher nutrient loads. The biomass of cyanobacteria that could potentially impact DVL water quality (Microcystis spp., Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, Dolichospermum spp., and Limnoraphis birgei) did not differ significantly between the heavy precipitation year and drought years. Compared to the other reservoirs, DVL generally has the highest concentration of cyanobacteria due to the water supply having greater nutrients. Lake Mathews’ water levels were similar in drought and wet years due to a reliable supply of CR water and there were no significant changes in the total phytoplankton biomass, phytoplankton diversity, or cyanobacteria biomass in 2017 compared to previous drought years. The biomass of cyanobacteria that could potentially impact water quality at Lake Mathews (L. birgei and Microcystis spp.) did not differ significantly between 2017 and previous drought years. Lake Mathews generally had the lowest cyanobacteria biomass due to the water supply having lower nutrients. The CR supplied most of the water to Lake Skinner during drought years, while the SWP was the primary source during 2017. This change in water source resulted in a significant increase in phytoplankton biomass in 2017, no significant change in diversity, and a significant increase in cyanobacteria biomass. Cyanobacteria that could potentially impact water quality at Skinner included: Microcystis spp., Dolichospermum spp., and A.flos-aquae. There was no significant difference in Microcystis spp. biomass in 2017 compared to previous drought years, but biomass of Dolichospermum spp. and A.flos-aquae were significantly greater in 2017 compared to previous drought years. Dolichospermum sp. and A. flos-aquae are two cyanobacteria that are more sensitive to nutrients than Microcystis spp., which are more sensitive to temperature. Patterns in problem cyanobacteria abundance among Southern California reservoirs as a result of above-average precipitation after more than five years of drought were most closely related to nutrient loading.

Keywords: drought, reservoirs, cyanobacteria, and phytoplankton ecology

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24 A Microcosm Study on the Response of Phytoplankton and Bacterial Community of the Subarctic Northeast Atlantic Ocean to Oil Pollution under Projected Atmospheric CO₂ Conditions

Authors: Afiq Mohd Fahmi, Tony Gutierrez, Sebastian Hennige


Increasing amounts of CO₂ entering the marine environment, also known as ocean acidification, is documented as having harmful impacts on a variety of marine organisms. When considering the future risk of hydrocarbon pollution, which is generally detrimental to marine life as well, this needs to consider how OA-induced changes to microbial communities will compound this since hydrocarbon degradation is influenced by the community-level microbial response. This study aims to evaluate the effects of increased atmospheric CO₂ conditions and oil enrichment on the phytoplankton-associated bacterial communities. Faroe Shetland Channel (FSC) is a subarctic region in the northeast Atlantic where crude oil extraction has recently been expanded. In the event of a major oil spill in this region, it is vital that we understand the response of the bacterial community and its consequence on primary production within this region—some phytoplankton communities found in the ocean harbor hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria that are associated with its psychosphere. Surface water containing phytoplankton and bacteria from FSC were cultured in ambient and elevated atmospheric CO₂ conditions for 4 days of acclimation in microcosms before introducing 1% (v/v) of crude oil into the microcosms to simulate oil spill conditions at sea. It was found that elevated CO₂ conditions do not significantly affect the chl a concentration, and exposure to crude oil detrimentally affected chl a concentration up to 10 days after exposure to crude oil. The diversity and richness of the bacterial community were not significantly affected by both CO₂ treatment and oil enrichment. The increase in the relative abundance of known hydrocarbon degraders such as Oleispira, Marinobacter and Halomonas indicates potential for biodegradation of crude oil, while the resilience of dominant taxa Colwellia, unclassified Gammaproteobacteria, unclassified Rnodobacteria and unclassified Halomonadaceae could be associated with the recovery of microalgal community 13 days after oil exposure. Therefore, the microbial community from the subsurface of FSC has the potential to recover from crude oil pollution even under elevated CO₂ (750 ppm) conditions.

Keywords: phytoplankton, bacteria, crude oil, ocean acidification

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23 The Effect of Oil Pollution on Marine Microbial Populations in Israeli Coastal Waters

Authors: Yael Shai, Dror L. Angel, Dror Zurel, Peleg Astrahan, Maxim Rubin-Blum, Eyal Rahav


The high demand for oil and its by-products is symptomatic of the 21st century and occasionally leads to oil spills and pollution of coastal waters. Marine oil pollution may originate from a variety of sources -urban runoff, tanker cleaning, drilling activities, and oil spills. These events may release large amounts of highly toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and other pollutants to coastal water, thereby threatening local marine life. Here, we investigated the effects of crude oil on the temporal dynamics of phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacteria in Israeli coastal waters. To this end, we added crude oil (500 µm thick layer, with and without additional nutrients; NO₃ and PO₄) to mesocosms (1m³ bags) containing oligotrophic surface coastal water collected near Haifa during summer and winter. Changes in phytoplankton biomass, activity and diversity were monitored daily for 5-6 days. Our results demonstrate that crude oil addition resulted in a pronounced decrease in phytoplankton biomass and production rates, while heterotrophic bacterial production increased significantly. Importantly, a few days post addition we found that the oil-degrading bacteria, Oleibacter sp. and Oleispira sp. appeared in the mesocosms and that the addition of nutrients (along with the crude oil) further increased this trend. This suggests that oil-degrading bacteria may be NO₃ and PO₄ limited in Israeli coastal waters. The results of this study should enable us to establish improved science-based environmental policy with respect to handling crude oil pollution in this region.

Keywords: heterotrophic bacteria, nutrients, mesocosm, oil pollution, oligotrophic, phytoplankton

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22 Effluent from Royal LERD Wastewater Treatment Systems to Furnish Nutrients for Phytoplankton to Generate the Abundance of Hard Clam (Meretrix spp.) on Muddy Beach

Authors: O. Phewnil, S. Khowhit, W. Inkapatanakul, A. Boutson, K. Chunkao, O. Chueawong, T. Pattamapitoon, N. Chanwong, C. Nimpee


The King’s Royally Initiated Laem Phak Bia Environmental Research and Development Project (“the Royal LERD Project”) is located in Laem Phak Bia Sub-District, Ban Laem District, Phetchaburi Province, Thailand. Phetchaburi municipal wastewater was treated with a simple technology by using aquatic plants, constructed wetland, oxidation ponds through a nature-by-nature process. The effluent from the Royal LERD Project was discharged into Laem Phak Bia muddy beach. The soil sediment samples were collected from two zones (200 and 600 meters from the coast of the beach), and tested for cation-exchange capacity (CEC), pH and organic matter and soil particles content. The marine water samples were also collected from the beach in wet and dry seasons and analyzed for its quality and compositions, including but not limited to, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), dissolved oxygen (DO), suspended solids (SS), nutrients, heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Hg, and Pb), and phytoplankton at high and low tides. The soil texture was sandy loam with high concentration of calcium and magnesium which showed a property of base (pH 8). The marine water was qualified with the standard limits of coastal water quality. A dominant species was Coscinodiscus sp. It was found approximately 70.46% of total phytoplankton species in Meretrix casta gastrointestinal tract. The concentration of the heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni and Pb) in the tissues and water content of two species of hard clams indicated that heavy metals in Meretrix casta were higher than those in Meretrix meretrix. However, the heavy metals in both species were under the standard limits and safe for consumption. It can be concluded that nutrients in effluent from the wastewater treatment systems play important role in promoting the growth of phytoplankton and generating abundance of hard clams on muddy beach.

Keywords: wastewater, phytoplankton, hard clam (Meretrix spp.), muddy beach

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21 Spatial Variability of Phyotoplankton Assemblages during the Intermonsoon in Baler Bay, Outer and Inner Casiguran Sound, Aurora, Fronting Philipine Rise

Authors: Aime P. Lampad-Dela Pena, Rhodora V. Azanza, Cesar L. Villanoy, Ephrime B. Metillo, Aletta T. Yniguez


Phytoplankton community changes in relation to environmental parameters were compared between and within, the three interconnected basins. Phytoplankton samples were collected from thirteen stations of Baler Bay and Casiguran Sound, Aurora last May 2013 by filtering 10 L buckets of surface water and 5 L Niskin samples at 20 meters and at 30 to 40 meters depths through a 20um sieve. Duplicate samples per station were preserved, counted, and identified up to genus level, in order to determine the horizontal and vertical spatial variation of different phytoplankton functional groups during the summer ebb and flood flow. Baler Bay, Outer and Inner Casiguran Sound had a total of 89 genera from four phytoplankton groups: Diatom (62), Dinoflagellate (25), Silicoflagellate (1) and Cyanobacteria (1). Non-toxic diatom Chaetoceros spp. bloom (averaged 2.0 x 105 to 2.73 x 106 cells L⁻¹) co-existed with Bacteriastrum spp. at surface waters in Inner and Outer Casiguran. Pseudonitzschia spp. (1.73 x 106 cells L⁻¹) bloomed at bottom waters of the innermost embayment near Casiguran mangrove estuary. Cyanobacteria Trichodesmium spp. significantly increased during ebb tide at the mid-water layers (20 meters depth) in the three basins (ranged from 6, 900 to 15, 125 filaments L⁻¹), forming another bloom. Gonyaulax spp. - dominated dinoflagellate did not significantly change with depth across the three basins. Overall, diatoms and dinoflagellates community assemblages significantly changed between sites (p < 0.001) while diatoms and cyanobacteria varied within Casiguran outer and inner sites (p < 0.001) only. Tidal fluctuations significantly affected dinoflagellates and diatom groups (p < 0.001) in inner and baler sites. Chlorophyll significantly varied between (KW, p < 0.001) and within each basins (KW, p < 0.05), no tidal influence, with the highest value at inner Casiguran and at deeper waters indicating deep chlorophyll maxima. Aurora’s distinct shelf morphology favoring counterclockwise circulation pattern, advective transport, and continuous stratification of the water column could basically affect the phytoplankton assemblages and water quality of Baler Bay and Casiguran inner and outer basins. Observed spatial phytoplankton community changes with multi-species diatom and cyanobacteria bloom at different water layers of the three inter-connected embayments would be vital for any environmental management initiatives in Aurora.

Keywords: aurora fronting Philippines Rise, intermonsoon, multi-species diatom bloom, spatial variability

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20 Population Dynamics in Aquatic Environments: Spatial Heterogeneity and Optimal Harvesting

Authors: Sarita Kumari, Ranjit Kumar Upadhyay


This paper deals with plankton-fish dynamics where the fish population is growing logistically and nonlinearly harvested. The interaction between phytoplankton and zooplankton population is considered to be Crowley-Martin type functional response. It has been assumed that phytoplankton grows logistically and is affected by a space-dependent growth rate. Conditions for the existence of a positive equilibrium point and their stability analysis (both local and global) have been discussed for the non-spatial system. We have discussed maximum sustainable yields as well as optimal harvesting policy for maximizing the economic gain. The stability and existence of Hopf –bifurcation analysis have been discussed for the spatial system. Different conditions for turning pattern formation have been established through diffusion-driven instability analysis. Numerical simulations have been carried out for both non-spatial and spatial models. Phase plane analysis, the largest Lyapunov exponent, and bifurcation theory are used to numerically analyzed the non-spatial system. Our study shows that spatial heterogeneity, the mortality rate of phytoplankton, and constant harvesting of the fish population each play an important role in the dynamical behavior of the marine system.

Keywords: optimal harvesting, pattern formation, spatial heterogeneity, Crowley-Martin functional response

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19 Analysis and Study of Phytoplankton and the Environmental Characteristics of Tarkwa Bay, Lagos, South-Western, Nigeria

Authors: Bukola Dawodu, Charles Onyema


The phytoplankton and environmental characteristics of Tarkwa Bay, Lagos in South-western Nigeria were investigated from January to June 2012. Environmental characteristics within the Bay were largely determined by floodwater inflow in the wet months (April – June) and increased tidal marine conditions in the dry months (January – March). Similarly, rainfall distribution and possibly tidal seawater inflow were the key factors that govern the variation in phytoplankton distribution, species diversity, chlorophyll a concentration and environmental characteristics of the bay. Values for physico-chemical parameters were indicative of high levels of fluctuations inwards from the East mole towards Tarkwa Bay (e.g. T.S.S > 11mg/L, T.D.S > 33541.0mg/L, D.O. < 5.4). Chlorophyll A values did not show any discernable pattern and correlated negatively with total dissolved solids and total suspended solids (r = -0.27 and -0.04) as both were inconsistent throughout the study period. Four phytoplankton divisions were observed throughout the sampling period with the Bacillariophyta (diatoms) being the dominant group followed by Dinophyta (dinoflagellates), Cyanophyta (the blue-green algae) and Chlorophyta (the green algae). A total of twenty-one species from nine genera were recorded during the period of study. Diatoms formed the most abundant group making fifteen species from five genera. The centric forms dominated over the pennates in the diatom group with Skeletonema sp. Chaetoceros spp. and Coscinodiscus spp. being the dominant centric diatoms while Navicula spp. was the more dominant pennate form. The Dinoflagellates were represented by six species from one genus, the blue-green algae with five species from two genera while the green algae had one species from one genus. Comparatively, total biomass was more in the dry months (Jan. - Mar.) and decreased in the 'wet months' (Apr. – Jun.). Species diversity (S), Shannon Wiener index (Hs), Margalef Index (d) and Equitability Index (j) values were higher during the dry months while reduced value marked the wet months possibly as a result of dilution of rain effects. Outcomes of bio-indices variations were reflections of the degree of occurrence and abundance of species linked to seasons operating in the study site.

Keywords: coastal waters, phytoplankton, species abundance, ecosystems

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18 Biological Hotspots in the Galápagos Islands: Exploring Seasonal Trends of Ocean Climate Drivers to Monitor Algal Blooms

Authors: Emily Kislik, Gabriel Mantilla Saltos, Gladys Torres, Mercy Borbor-Córdova


The Galápagos Marine Reserve (GMR) is an internationally-recognized region of consistent upwelling events, high productivity, and rich biodiversity. Despite its high-nutrient, low-chlorophyll condition, the archipelago has experienced phytoplankton blooms, especially in the western section between Isabela and Fernandina Islands. However, little is known about how climate variability will affect future phytoplankton standing stock in the Galápagos, and no consistent protocols currently exist to quantify phytoplankton biomass, identify species, or monitor for potential harmful algal blooms (HABs) within the archipelago. This analysis investigates physical, chemical, and biological oceanic variables that contribute to algal blooms within the GMR, using 4 km Aqua MODIS satellite imagery and 0.125-degree wind stress data from January 2003 to December 2016. Furthermore, this study analyzes chlorophyll-a concentrations at varying spatial scales— within the greater archipelago, as well as within five smaller bioregions based on species biodiversity in the GMR. Seasonal and interannual trend analyses, correlations, and hotspot identification were performed. Results demonstrate that chlorophyll-a is expressed in two seasons throughout the year in the GMR, most frequently in September and March, with a notable hotspot in the Elizabeth Bay bioregion. Interannual chlorophyll-a trend analyses revealed highest peaks in 2003, 2007, 2013, and 2016, and variables that correlate highly with chlorophyll-a include surface temperature and particulate organic carbon. This study recommends future in situ sampling locations for phytoplankton monitoring, including the Elizabeth Bay bioregion. Conclusions from this study contribute to the knowledge of oceanic drivers that catalyze primary productivity and consequently affect species biodiversity within the GMR. Additionally, this research can inform policy and decision-making strategies for species conservation and management within bioregions of the Galápagos.

Keywords: bioregions, ecological monitoring, phytoplankton, remote sensing

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17 Effect of Climate Changing Pattern on Aquatic Biodiversity of Bhimtal Lake at Kumaun Himalaya (India)

Authors: Davendra S. Malik


Bhimtal lake is located between 290 21’ N latitude and 790 24’ E longitude, at an elevation of 1332m above mean sea level in the Kumaun region of Uttarakhand of Indian subcontinent. The lake surface area is decreasing in water area, depth level in relation to ecological and biological characteristics due to climatic variations, invasive land use pattern, degraded forest zones and changed agriculture pattern in lake catchment basin. The present study is focused on long and short term effects of climate change on aquatic biodiversity and productivity of Bhimtal lake. The meteorological data of last fifteen years of Bhimtal lake catchment basin revealed that air temperature has been increased 1.5 to 2.1oC in summer, 0.2 to 0.8 C in winter, relative humidity increased 4 to 6% in summer and rainfall pattern changed erratically in rainy seasons. The surface water temperature of Bhimtal lake showed an increasing pattern as 0.8 to 2.6 C, pH value decreased 0.5 to 0.2 in winter and increased 0.4 to 0.6 in summer. Dissolved oxygen level in lake showed a decreasing trend as 0.7 to 0.4mg/l in winter months. The mesotrophic nature of Bhimtal lake is changing towards eutrophic conditions and contributed for decreasing biodiversity. The aquatic biodiversity of Bhimtal lake consisted mainly phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthos and fish species. In the present study, a total of 5 groups of phytoplankton, 3 groups of zooplankton, 11 groups of benthos and 15 fish species were recorded from Bhimtal lake. The comparative data of biodiversity of Bhimtal lake since January, 2000 indicated the changing pattern of phytoplankton biomass were decreasing as 1.99 and 1.08% of Chlorophyceae and Bacilleriophyceae families respectively. The biomass of Cynophyceae was increasing as 0.45% and contributing the algal blooms during summer season in lake. The biomass of zooplankton and benthos were found decreasing in winter season and increasing during summer season. The endemic fish species (18 no.) were found in year 2000-05, as while the fish species (15 no.) were recorded in present study. The relative fecundity of major fish species were observed decreasing trends during their breeding periods in lake. The natural and anthropogenic factors were identified as ecological threats for existing aquatic biodiversity of Bhimtal lake. The present research paper emphasized on the effect of changing pattern of different climatic variables on species composition, biomass of phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthos, and fishes in Bhimtal lake of Kumaun region. The present research data will be contributed significantly to assess the changing pattern of aquatic biodiversity and productivity of Bhimtal lake with different time scale.

Keywords: aquatic biodiversity, Bhimtal lake, climate change, lake ecology

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16 Intentional Cultivation of Non-toxic Filamentous Cyanobacteria Tolypothrix as an Approach to Treat Eutrophic Waters

Authors: Simona Lucakova, Irena Branyikova


Eutrophication, a condition when water becomes over-enriched with nutrients (P, N), can lead to undesirable excessive growth of phytoplankton, so-called algal bloom. This process results in the accumulation of toxin-producing cyanobacteria and oxygen depletion, both possibly leading to the collapse of the whole ecosystem. In real conditions, the limiting nutrient, which determines the possible growth of harmful algal bloom, is usually phosphorus. Algicides or flocculants have been applied in the eutrophicated waterbody in order to reduce the phytoplankton growth, which leads to the introduction of toxic chemicals into the water. In our laboratory, the idea of the prevention of harmful phytoplankton growth by the intentional cultivation of non-toxic cyanobacteria Tolypothrix tenuis in semi-open floating photobioreactors directly on the surface of phosphorus-rich waterbody is examined. During the process of cultivation, redundant phosphorus is incorporated into cyanobacterial biomass, which can be subsequently used for the production of biofuels, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, or biostimulants for agricultural use. To determine the ability of phosphorus incorporation, batch-cultivation of Tolypothrix biomass in media simulating eutrophic water (10% BG medium) and in effluent from municipal wastewater treatment plant, both with the initial phosphorus concentration in the range 0.5-1.0 mgP/L was performed in laboratory-scale models of floating photobioreactors. After few hours of cultivation, the phosphorus content was decreased below the target limit of 0.035 mgP/L, which was given as a borderline for the algal bloom formation. Under laboratory conditions, the effect of several parameters on the rate of phosphorus decrease was tested (illumination, temperature, stirring speed/aeration gas flow, biomass to medium ratio). Based on the obtained results, a bench-scale floating photobioreactor was designed and will be tested for Tolypothrix growth in real conditions. It was proved that intentional cultivation of cyanobacteria Tolypothrix could be a suitable approach for extracting redundant phosphorus from eutrophic waters as prevention of algal bloom formation.

Keywords: cyanobacteria, eutrophication, floating photobioreactor, Tolypothrix

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15 Dynamic Modeling of the Impact of Chlorine on Aquatic Species in Urban Lake Ecosystem

Authors: Zhiqiang Yan, Chen Fan, Yafei Wang, Beicheng Xia


Urban lakes play an invaluable role in urban water systems such as flood control, water supply, and public recreation. However, over 38% of the urban lakes have suffered from severe eutrophication in China. Chlorine that could remarkably inhibit the growth of phytoplankton in eutrophic, has been widely used in the agricultural, aquaculture and industry in the recent past. However, little information has been reported regarding the effects of chlorine on the lake ecosystem, especially on the main aquatic species.To investigate the ecological response of main aquatic species and system stability to chlorine interference in shallow urban lakes, a mini system dynamic model was developed based on the competition and predation of main aquatic species and total phosphorus circulation. The main species of submerged macrophyte, phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthos, spiroggra and total phosphorus in water and sediment were used as variables in the model,while the interference of chlorine on phytoplankton was represented by an exponential attenuation equation. Furthermore, the eco-exergy expressing the development degree of ecosystem was used to quantify the complexity of the shallow urban lake. The model was validated using the data collected in the Lotus Lake in Guangzhoufrom1 October 2015 to 31 January 2016.The correlation coefficient (R), root mean square error-observations standard deviation ratio (RSR) and index of agreement (IOA) were calculated to evaluate accuracy and reliability of the model.The simulated values showed good qualitative agreement with the measured values of all components. The model results showed that chlorine had a notable inhibitory effect on Microcystis aeruginos,Rachionus plicatilis, Diaphanosoma brachyurum Liévin and Mesocyclops leuckarti (Claus).The outbreak of Spiroggra.spp. inhibited the growth of Vallisneria natans (Lour.) Hara, leading to a gradual decrease of eco-exergy and the breakdown of ecosystem internal equilibria. This study gives important insight into using chlorine to achieve eutrophication control and understand mechanism process.

Keywords: system dynamic model, urban lake, chlorine, eco-exergy

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14 Trophic Variations in Uptake and Assimilation of Cadmium, Manganese and Zinc: An Estuarine Food-Chain Radiotracer Experiment

Authors: K. O’Mara, T. Cresswell


Nearly half of the world’s population live near the coast, and as a result, estuaries and coastal bays in populated or industrialized areas often receive metal pollution. Heavy metals have a chemical affinity for sediment particles and can be stored in estuarine sediments and become biologically available under changing conditions. Organisms inhabiting estuaries can be exposed to metals from a variety of sources including metals dissolved in water, bound to sediment or within contaminated prey. Metal uptake and assimilation responses can vary even between species that are biologically similar, making pollution effects difficult to predict. A multi-trophic level experiment representing a common Eastern Australian estuarine food chain was used to study the sources for Cd, Mn and Zn uptake and assimilation in organisms occupying several trophic levels. Sand cockles (Katelysia scalarina), school prawns (Metapenaeus macleayi) and sand whiting (Sillago ciliata) were exposed to radiolabelled seawater, suspended sediment and food. Three pulse-chase trials on filter-feeding sand cockles were performed using radiolabelled phytoplankton (Tetraselmis sp.), benthic microalgae (Entomoneis sp.) and suspended sediment. Benthic microalgae had lower metal uptake than phytoplankton during labelling but higher cockle assimilation efficiencies (Cd = 51%, Mn = 42%, Zn = 63 %) than both phytoplankton (Cd = 21%, Mn = 32%, Zn = 33%) and suspended sediment (except Mn; (Cd = 38%, Mn = 42%, Zn = 53%)). Sand cockles were also sensitive to uptake of Cd, Mn and Zn dissolved in seawater. Uptake of these metals from the dissolved phase was negligible in prawns and fish, with prawns only accumulating metals during moulting, which were then lost with subsequent moulting in the depuration phase. Diet appears to be the main source of metal assimilation in school prawns, with 65%, 54% and 58% assimilation efficiencies from Cd, Mn and Zn respectively. Whiting fed contaminated prawns were able to exclude the majority of the metal activity through egestion, with only 10%, 23% and 11% assimilation efficiencies from Cd, Mn and Zn respectively. The findings of this study support previous studies that find diet to be the dominant accumulation source for higher level trophic organisms. These results show that assimilation efficiencies can vary depending on the source of exposure; sand cockles assimilated more Cd, Mn, and Zn from the benthic diatom than phytoplankton and assimilation was higher in sand whiting fed prawns compared to artificial pellets. The sensitivity of sand cockles to metal uptake and assimilation from a variety of sources poses concerns for metal availability to predators ingesting the clam tissue, including humans. The high tolerance of sand whiting to these metals is reflected in their widespread presence in Eastern Australian estuaries, including contaminated estuaries such as Botany Bay and Port Jackson.

Keywords: cadmium, food chain, metal, manganese, trophic, zinc

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13 Impact of Anthropogenic Stresses on Plankton Biodiversity in Indian Sundarban Megadelta: An Approach towards Ecosystem Conservation and Sustainability

Authors: Dibyendu Rakshit, Santosh K. Sarkar


The study illustrates a comprehensive account of large-scale changes plankton community structure in relevance to water quality characteristics due to anthropogenic stresses, mainly concerned for Annual Gangasagar Festival (AGF) at the southern tip of Sagar Island of Indian Sundarban wetland for 3-year duration (2012-2014; n=36). This prograding, vulnerable and tide-dominated megadelta has been formed in the estuarine phase of the Hooghly Estuary infested by largest continuous tract of luxurious mangrove forest, enriched with high native flora and fauna. The sampling strategy was designed to characterize the changes in plankton community and water quality considering three diverse phases, namely during festival period (January) and its pre - (December) as well as post (February) events. Surface water samples were collected for estimation of different environmental variables as well as for phytoplankton and microzooplankton biodiversity measurement. The preservation and identification techniques of both biotic and abiotic parameters were carried out by standard chemical and biological methods. The intensive human activities lead to sharp ecological changes in the context of poor water quality index (WQI) due to high turbidity (14.02±2.34 NTU) coupled with low chlorophyll a (1.02±0.21 mg m-3) and dissolved oxygen (3.94±1.1 mg l-1), comparing to pre- and post-festival periods. Sharp reduction in abundance (4140 to 2997 cells l-1) and diversity (H′=2.72 to 1.33) of phytoplankton and microzooplankton tintinnids (450 to 328 ind l-1; H′=4.31 to 2.21) was very much pronounced. The small size tintinnid (average lorica length=29.4 µm; average LOD=10.5 µm) composed of Tintinnopsis minuta, T. lobiancoi, T. nucula, T. gracilis are predominant and reached some of the greatest abundances during the festival period. Results of ANOVA revealed a significant variation in different festival periods with phytoplankton (F= 1.77; p=0.006) and tintinnid abundance (F= 2.41; P=0.022). RELATE analyses revealed a significant correlation between the variations of planktonic communities with the environmental data (R= 0.107; p= 0.005). Three distinct groups were delineated from principal component analysis, in which a set of hydrological parameters acted as the causative factor(s) for maintaining diversity and distribution of the planktonic organisms. The pronounced adverse impact of anthropogenic stresses on plankton community could lead to environmental deterioration, disrupting the productivity of benthic and pelagic ecosystems as well as fishery potentialities which directly related to livelihood services. The festival can be considered as multiple drivers of changes in relevance to beach erosion, shoreline changes, pollution from discarded plastic and electronic wastes and destruction of natural habitats resulting loss of biodiversity. In addition, deterioration in water quality was also evident from immersion of idols, causing detrimental effects on aquatic biota. The authors strongly recommend for adopting integrated scientific and administrative strategies for resilience, sustainability and conservation of this megadelta.

Keywords: Gangasagar festival, phytoplankton, Sundarban megadelta, tintinnid

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12 A Holistic View of Microbial Community Dynamics during a Toxic Harmful Algal Bloom

Authors: Shi-Bo Feng, Sheng-Jie Zhang, Jin Zhou


The relationship between microbial diversity and algal bloom has received considerable attention for decades. Microbes undoubtedly affect annual bloom events and impact the physiology of both partners, as well as shape ecosystem diversity. However, knowledge about interactions and network correlations among broader-spectrum microbes that lead to the dynamics in a complete bloom cycle are limited. In this study, pyrosequencing and network approaches simultaneously assessed the associate patterns among bacteria, archaea, and microeukaryotes in surface water and sediments in response to a natural dinoflagellate (Alexandrium sp.) bloom. In surface water, among the bacterial community, Gamma-Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes dominated in the initial bloom stage, while Alpha-Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, and Actinobacteria become the most abundant taxa during the post-stage. In the archaea biosphere, it clustered predominantly with Methanogenic members in the early pre-bloom period while the majority of species identified in the later-bloom stage were ammonia-oxidizing archaea and Halobacteriales. In eukaryotes, dinoflagellate (Alexandrium sp.) was dominated in the onset stage, whereas multiply species (such as microzooplankton, diatom, green algae, and rotifera) coexistence in bloom collapse stag. In sediments, the microbial species biomass and richness are much higher than the water body. Only Flavobacteriales and Rhodobacterales showed a slight response to bloom stages. Unlike the bacteria, there are small fluctuations of archaeal and eukaryotic structure in the sediment. The network analyses among the inter-specific associations show that bacteria (Alteromonadaceae, Oceanospirillaceae, Cryomorphaceae, and Piscirickettsiaceae) and some zooplankton (Mediophyceae, Mamiellophyceae, Dictyochophyceae and Trebouxiophyceae) have a stronger impact on the structuring of phytoplankton communities than archaeal effects. The changes in population were also significantly shaped by water temperature and substrate availability (N & P resources). The results suggest that clades are specialized at different time-periods and that the pre-bloom succession was mainly a bottom-up controlled, and late-bloom period was controlled by top-down patterns. Additionally, phytoplankton and prokaryotic communities correlated better with each other, which indicate interactions among microorganisms are critical in controlling plankton dynamics and fates. Our results supplied a wider view (temporal and spatial scales) to understand the microbial ecological responses and their network association during algal blooming. It gives us a potential multidisciplinary explanation for algal-microbe interaction and helps us beyond the traditional view linked to patterns of algal bloom initiation, development, decline, and biogeochemistry.

Keywords: microbial community, harmful algal bloom, ecological process, network

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11 Water Quality Assessment Based on Operational Indicator in West Coastal Water of Malaysia

Authors: Seyedeh Belin Tavakoly Sany, H. Rosli, R. Majid, S. Aishah


In this study, water monitoring was performed from Nov. 2012 to Oct. 2013 to assess water quality and evaluate the spatial and temporal distribution of physicochemical and biological variables in water. Water samples were collected from 10 coastal water stations of West Port. In the case of water-quality assessment, multi-metric indices and operational indicators have been proposed to classify the trophic status at different stations. The trophic level of West Port coastal water ranges from eutrophic to hypertrophic. Chl-a concentration was used to estimate the biological response of phytoplankton biomass and indicated eutrophic conditions in West Port and mesotrophic conditions at the control site. During the study period, no eutrophication events or secondary symptoms occurred, which may be related to hydrodynamic turbulence and water exchange, which prevent the development of eutrophic conditions in the West Port.

Keywords: water quality, multi-metric indices, operational indicator, Malaysia, West Port

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10 Harmful Algal Blooms in Omani and Arabian Sea and Their Effect on Marine Environment

Authors: Hamed Mohammed Al Gheilani


Red tide, one of the harmful algal blooms (HABs) is a natural ecological phenomenon and often this event is accompanied by severe impacts on coastal resources, local economies, and public health. The occurrence of red tides has become more frequent in Omani waters in recent years. Some of them caused fish kill, damaged fishery resources and mariculture, threatened the marine environment and the osmosis membranes of desalination plants. However, a number of them have been harmless. The most common dinoflagellate Noctiluca scintillans is associated with the red tide events in Omani waters. Toxic species like Karenia selliformis, Prorocentrum arabianum, and Trichodesmium erythraeum have also been reported recently. Although red tides in Oman have been considered a consequence of upwelling in the summer season (May to September), recent phytoplankton outbreaks in Oman are not restricted to summer. Frequent algal blooms have been reported during winter (December to March). HABs may have contributed to hypoxia and/or other negative ecological impacts. The effects of HABs on desalination plan were increased in last three years, by blooms of Cochlodinium, noctiluca species, and blooms of jellyfish. Most of these blooms were affected Al Batinah and Muscat coast. These effects include millions of Omani Rials and several shutdowns of desalination plans during these years.

Keywords: red tide, environment, hypoxia, noctiluca

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9 Simulating the Effect of Chlorine on Dynamic of Main Aquatic Species in Urban Lake with a Mini System Dynamic Model

Authors: Zhiqiang Yan, Chen Fan, Beicheng Xia


Urban lakes play an invaluable role in urban water systems such as flood control, landscape, entertainment, and energy utilization, and have suffered from severe eutrophication over the past few years. To investigate the ecological response of main aquatic species and system stability to chlorine interference in shallow urban lakes, a mini system dynamic model, based on the competition and predation of main aquatic species and TP circulation, was developed. The main species of submerged macrophyte, phytoplankton, zooplankton, benthos and TP in water and sediment were simulated as variables in the model with the interference of chlorine which effect function was attenuation equation. The model was validated by the data which was investigated in the Lotus Lake in Guangzhou from October 1, 2015 to January 31, 2016. Furthermore, the eco-exergy was used to analyze the change in complexity of the shallow urban lake. The results showed the correlation coefficient between observed and simulated values of all components presented significant. Chlorine showed a significant inhibitory effect on Microcystis aeruginosa,Rachionus plicatilis, Diaphanosoma brachyurum Liévin and Mesocyclops leuckarti (Claus).The outbreak of Spiroggra spp. inhibited the growth of Vallisneria natans (Lour.) Hara, caused a gradual decrease of eco-exergy, reflecting the breakdown of ecosystem internal equilibria. It was concluded that the study gives important insight into using chlorine to achieve eutrophication control and understand mechanism process.

Keywords: system dynamic model, urban lake, chlorine, eco-exergy

Procedia PDF Downloads 137