Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18688

Search results for: big data ecosystem

18688 Government (Big) Data Ecosystem: Definition, Classification of Actors, and Their Roles

Authors: Syed Iftikhar Hussain Shah, Vasilis Peristeras, Ioannis Magnisalis

Abstract:

Organizations, including governments, generate (big) data that are high in volume, velocity, veracity, and come from a variety of sources. Public Administrations are using (big) data, implementing base registries, and enforcing data sharing within the entire government to deliver (big) data related integrated services, provision of insights to users, and for good governance. Government (Big) data ecosystem actors represent distinct entities that provide data, consume data, manipulate data to offer paid services, and extend data services like data storage, hosting services to other actors. In this research work, we perform a systematic literature review. The key objectives of this paper are to propose a robust definition of government (big) data ecosystem and a classification of government (big) data ecosystem actors and their roles. We showcase a graphical view of actors, roles, and their relationship in the government (big) data ecosystem. We also discuss our research findings. We did not find too much published research articles about the government (big) data ecosystem, including its definition and classification of actors and their roles. Therefore, we lent ideas for the government (big) data ecosystem from numerous areas that include scientific research data, humanitarian data, open government data, industry data, in the literature.

Keywords: big data, big data ecosystem, classification of big data actors, big data actors roles, definition of government (big) data ecosystem, data-driven government, eGovernment, gaps in data ecosystems, government (big) data, public administration, systematic literature review

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18687 Government Big Data Ecosystem: A Systematic Literature Review

Authors: Syed Iftikhar Hussain Shah, Vasilis Peristeras, Ioannis Magnisalis

Abstract:

Data that is high in volume, velocity, veracity and comes from a variety of sources is usually generated in all sectors including the government sector. Globally public administrations are pursuing (big) data as new technology and trying to adopt a data-centric architecture for hosting and sharing data. Properly executed, big data and data analytics in the government (big) data ecosystem can be led to data-driven government and have a direct impact on the way policymakers work and citizens interact with governments. In this research paper, we conduct a systematic literature review. The main aims of this paper are to highlight essential aspects of the government (big) data ecosystem and to explore the most critical socio-technical factors that contribute to the successful implementation of government (big) data ecosystem. The essential aspects of government (big) data ecosystem include definition, data types, data lifecycle models, and actors and their roles. We also discuss the potential impact of (big) data in public administration and gaps in the government data ecosystems literature. As this is a new topic, we did not find specific articles on government (big) data ecosystem and therefore focused our research on various relevant areas like humanitarian data, open government data, scientific research data, industry data, etc.

Keywords: applications of big data, big data, big data types. big data ecosystem, critical success factors, data-driven government, egovernment, gaps in data ecosystems, government (big) data, literature review, public administration, systematic review

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18686 Stakeholder Analysis of Agricultural Drone Policy: A Case Study of the Agricultural Drone Ecosystem of Thailand

Authors: Thanomsin Chakreeves, Atichat Preittigun, Ajchara Phu-ang

Abstract:

This paper presents a stakeholder analysis of agricultural drone policies that meet the government's goal of building an agricultural drone ecosystem in Thailand. Firstly, case studies from other countries are reviewed. The stakeholder analysis method and qualitative data from the interviews are then presented including data from the Institute of Innovation and Management, the Office of National Higher Education Science Research and Innovation Policy Council, agricultural entrepreneurs and farmers. Study and interview data are then employed to describe the current ecosystem and to guide the implementation of agricultural drone policies that are suitable for the ecosystem of Thailand. Finally, policy recommendations are then made that the Thai government should adopt in the future.

Keywords: drone public policy, drone ecosystem, policy development, agricultural drone

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18685 An Analysis of Privacy and Security for Internet of Things Applications

Authors: Dhananjay Singh, M. Abdullah-Al-Wadud

Abstract:

The Internet of Things is a concept of a large scale ecosystem of wireless actuators. The actuators are defined as things in the IoT, those which contribute or produces some data to the ecosystem. However, ubiquitous data collection, data security, privacy preserving, large volume data processing, and intelligent analytics are some of the key challenges into the IoT technologies. In order to solve the security requirements, challenges and threats in the IoT, we have discussed a message authentication mechanism for IoT applications. Finally, we have discussed data encryption mechanism for messages authentication before propagating into IoT networks.

Keywords: Internet of Things (IoT), message authentication, privacy, security

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18684 Towards Development of a Framework for Saudi Education Software Ecosystem

Authors: Fazal-e-Amin, Abdullah S. Alghamdi, Iftikhar Ahmad

Abstract:

Software ecosystems’ concept is an inspiration from the natural ecosystem. Software ecosystems refer to large systems developed on top of a platform composed of different components developed by different entities of that ecosystem. Ecosystems improve information access, dissemination and coordination considerably. The ability to evolve and accommodate new subsystems gives a boost to the software ecosystems. In this paper, Saudi education software ecosystem is discussed and its need and potential benefits are highlighted. This work will provide a basis for further research in this area and foundation in development of Saudi education ecosystem.

Keywords: software ecosystem, education software, framework, software engineering

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18683 Healthcare Big Data Analytics Using Hadoop

Authors: Chellammal Surianarayanan

Abstract:

Healthcare industry is generating large amounts of data driven by various needs such as record keeping, physician’s prescription, medical imaging, sensor data, Electronic Patient Record(EPR), laboratory, pharmacy, etc. Healthcare data is so big and complex that they cannot be managed by conventional hardware and software. The complexity of healthcare big data arises from large volume of data, the velocity with which the data is accumulated and different varieties such as structured, semi-structured and unstructured nature of data. Despite the complexity of big data, if the trends and patterns that exist within the big data are uncovered and analyzed, higher quality healthcare at lower cost can be provided. Hadoop is an open source software framework for distributed processing of large data sets across clusters of commodity hardware using a simple programming model. The core components of Hadoop include Hadoop Distributed File System which offers way to store large amount of data across multiple machines and MapReduce which offers way to process large data sets with a parallel, distributed algorithm on a cluster. Hadoop ecosystem also includes various other tools such as Hive (a SQL-like query language), Pig (a higher level query language for MapReduce), Hbase(a columnar data store), etc. In this paper an analysis has been done as how healthcare big data can be processed and analyzed using Hadoop ecosystem.

Keywords: big data analytics, Hadoop, healthcare data, towards quality healthcare

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18682 The Internet of Things Ecosystem: Survey of the Current Landscape, Identity Relationship Management, Multifactor Authentication Mechanisms, and Underlying Protocols

Authors: Nazli W. Hardy

Abstract:

A critical component in the Internet of Things (IoT) ecosystem is the need for secure and appropriate transmission, processing, and storage of the data. Our current forms of authentication, and identity and access management do not suffice because they are not designed to service cohesive, integrated, interconnected devices, and service applications. The seemingly endless opportunities of IoT are in fact circumscribed on multiple levels by concerns such as trust, privacy, security, loss of control, and related issues. This paper considers multi-factor authentication (MFA) mechanisms and cohesive identity relationship management (IRM) standards. It also surveys messaging protocols that are appropriate for the IoT ecosystem.

Keywords: identity relation management, multifactor authentication, protocols, survey of internet of things ecosystem

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18681 Ecosystem Services and Human Well-Being: Case Study of Tiriya Village, Bastar India

Authors: S. Vaibhav Kant Sahu, Surabhi Bipin Seth

Abstract:

Human well-being has multiple constituents including the basic material for a good life, freedom and choice, health, good social relations, and security. Poverty is also multidimensional and has been defined as the pronounced deprivation of well-being. Dhurwa tribe of Bastar (India) have symbiotic relation with nature, it provisions ecosystem service such as food, fuel and fiber; regulating services such as climate regulation and non-material benefits such as spiritual or aesthetic benefits and they are managing their forest from ages. The demand for ecosystem services is now so great that trade-off among services become rule. Aim of study to explore evidences for linkages between ecosystem services and well-being of indigenous community, how much it helps them in poverty reduction and interaction between them. Objective of study was to find drivers of change and evidence concerning link between ecosystem, human development and sustainability, evidence in decision making does it opt for multi sectoral objectives. Which means human well-being as the central focus for assessment, while recognizing that biodiversity and ecosystems also have intrinsic value. Ecosystem changes that may have little impact on human well-being over days or weeks may have pronounced impacts over years or decades; so assessments needed to be conducted at spatial and temporal scales under social, political, economic scales to have high-resolution data. Researcher used framework developed by Millennium ecosystem assessment; since human action now directly or unknowingly virtually alter ecosystem. Researcher used ethnography study to get primary qualitative data, secondary data collected from panchayat office. The responses were transcribed and translated into English, as interview held in Hindi and local indigenous language. Focus group discussion were held with group of 10 women at Tiriya village. Researcher concluded with well-being is not just gap between ecosystem service supply but also increases vulnerability. Decision can have consequences external to the decision framework these consequences are called externalities because they are not part of the decision-making calculus.

Keywords: Bastar, Dhurwa tribe, ecosystem services, millennium ecosystem assessment, sustainability

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18680 Transformation of the Business Model in an Occupational Health Care Company Embedded in an Emerging Personal Data Ecosystem: A Case Study in Finland

Authors: Tero Huhtala, Minna Pikkarainen, Saila Saraniemi

Abstract:

Information technology has long been used as an enabler of exchange for goods and services. Services are evolving from generic to personalized, and the reverse use of customer data has been discussed in both academia and industry for the past few years. This article presents the results of an empirical case study in the area of preventive health care services. The primary data were gathered in workshops, in which future personal data-based services were conceptualized by analyzing future scenarios from a business perspective. The aim of this study is to understand business model transformation in emerging personal data ecosystems. The work was done as a case study in the context of occupational healthcare. The results have implications to theory and practice, indicating that adopting personal data management principles requires transformation of the business model, which, if successfully managed, may provide access to more resources, potential to offer better value, and additional customer channels. These advantages correlate with the broadening of the business ecosystem. Expanding the scope of this study to include more actors would improve the validity of the research. The results draw from existing literature and are based on findings from a case study and the economic properties of the healthcare industry in Finland.

Keywords: ecosystem, business model, personal data, preventive healthcare

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18679 Robustified Asymmetric Logistic Regression Model for Global Fish Stock Assessment

Authors: Osamu Komori, Shinto Eguchi, Hiroshi Okamura, Momoko Ichinokawa

Abstract:

The long time-series data on population assessments are essential for global ecosystem assessment because the temporal change of biomass in such a database reflects the status of global ecosystem properly. However, the available assessment data usually have limited sample sizes and the ratio of populations with low abundance of biomass (collapsed) to those with high abundance (non-collapsed) is highly imbalanced. To allow for the imbalance and uncertainty involved in the ecological data, we propose a binary regression model with mixed effects for inferring ecosystem status through an asymmetric logistic model. In the estimation equation, we observe that the weights for the non-collapsed populations are relatively reduced, which in turn puts more importance on the small number of observations of collapsed populations. Moreover, we extend the asymmetric logistic regression model using propensity score to allow for the sample biases observed in the labeled and unlabeled datasets. It robustified the estimation procedure and improved the model fitting.

Keywords: double robust estimation, ecological binary data, mixed effect logistic regression model, propensity score

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18678 Life Cycle-Based Analysis of Meat Production: Ecosystem Impacts

Authors: Michelle Zeyuan Ma, Hermann Heilmeier

Abstract:

Recently, meat production ecosystem impacts initiated many hot discussions and researchers, and it is a difficult implementation to reduce such impacts due to the demand of meat products. It calls for better management and control of ecosystem impacts from every aspects of meat production. This article analyzes the ecosystem impacts of meat production based on meat products life cycle. The analysis shows that considerable ecosystem impacts are caused by different meat production steps: initial establishment phase, animal raising, slaughterhouse processing, meat consumption, and wastes management. Based on this analysis, the impacts are summarized as: leading factor for biodiversity loss; water waste, land use waste and land degradation; greenhouse gases emissions; pollution to air, water, and soil; related major diseases. The article also provides a discussion on a solution-sustainable food system, which could help in reducing ecosystem impacts. The analysis method is based on the life cycle level, it provides a concept of the whole meat industry ecosystem impacts, and the analysis result could be useful to manage or control meat production ecosystem impacts from investor, producer and consumer sides.

Keywords: eutrophication, life cycle based analysis, sustainable food, waste management

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18677 4G LTE Dynamic Pricing: The Drivers, Benefits, and Challenges

Authors: Ahmed Rashad Harb Riad Ismail

Abstract:

The purpose of this research is to study the potential of Dynamic Pricing if deployed by mobile operators and analyse its effects from both operators and consumers side. Furthermore, to conclude, throughout the research study, the recommended conditions for successful Dynamic Pricing deployment, recommended factors identifying the type of markets where Dynamic Pricing can be effective, and proposal for a Dynamic Pricing stakeholders’ framework were presented. Currently, the mobile telecommunications industry is witnessing a dramatic growth rate in the data consumption, being fostered mainly by higher data speed technology as the 4G LTE and by the smart devices penetration rates. However, operators’ revenue from data services lags behind and is decupled from this data consumption growth. Pricing strategy is a key factor affecting this ecosystem. Since the introduction of the 4G LTE technology will increase the pace of data growth in multiples, consequently, if pricing strategies remain constant, then the revenue and usage gap will grow wider, risking the sustainability of the ecosystem. Therefore, this research study is focused on Dynamic Pricing for 4G LTE data services, researching the drivers, benefits and challenges of 4G LTE Dynamic Pricing and the feasibility of its deployment in practice from different perspectives including operators, regulators, consumers, and telecommunications equipment manufacturers point of views.

Keywords: LTE, dynamic pricing, EPC, research

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18676 Recreation and Environmental Quality of Tropical Wetlands: A Social Media Based Spatial Analysis

Authors: Michael Sinclair, Andrea Ghermandi, Sheela A. Moses, Joseph Sabu

Abstract:

Passively crowdsourced data, such as geotagged photographs from social media, represent an opportunistic source of location-based and time-specific behavioral data for ecosystem services analysis. Such data have innovative applications for environmental management and protection, which are replicable at wide spatial scales and in the context of both developed and developing countries. Here we test one such innovation, based on the analysis of the metadata of online geotagged photographs, to investigate the provision of recreational services by the entire network of wetland ecosystems in the state of Kerala, India. We estimate visitation to individual wetlands state-wide and extend, for the first time to a developing region, the emerging application of cultural ecosystem services modelling using data from social media. The impacts of restoration of wetland areal extension and water quality improvement are explored as a means to inform more sustainable management strategies. Findings show that improving water quality to a level suitable for the preservation of wildlife and fisheries could increase annual visits by 350,000, an increase of 13% in wetland visits state-wide, while restoring previously encroached wetland area could result in a 7% increase in annual visits, corresponding to 49,000 visitors, in the Ashtamudi and Vembanad lakes alone, two large coastal Ramsar wetlands in Kerala. We discuss how passive crowdsourcing of social media data has the potential to improve current ecosystem service analyses and environmental management practices also in the context of developing countries.

Keywords: coastal wetlands, cultural ecosystem services, India, passive crowdsourcing, social media, wetland restoration

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18675 Potential Contribution of Combined High-Resolution and Fluorescence Remote Sensing to Coastal Ecosystem Service Assessments

Authors: Yaner Yan, Ning Li, Yajun Qiao, Shuqing An

Abstract:

Although most studies have focused on assessing and mapping terrestrial ecosystem services, there is still a knowledge gap on coastal ecosystem services and an urgent need to assess them. Lau (2013) clearly defined five types of costal ecosystem services: carbon sequestration, shoreline protection, fish nursery, biodiversity, and water quality. While high-resolution remote sensing can provide the more direct, spatially estimates of biophysical parameters, such as species distribution relating to biodiversity service, and Fluorescence information derived from remote sensing direct relate to photosynthesis, availing in estimation of carbon sequestration and the response to environmental changes in coastal wetland. Here, we review the capabilities of high-resolution and fluorescence remote sesing for describing biodiversity, vegetation condition, ecological processes and highlight how these prodicts may contribute to costal ecosystem service assessment. In so doing, we anticipate rapid progress to combine the high-resolution and fluorescence remote sesing to estimate the spatial pattern of costal ecosystem services.

Keywords: ecosystem services, high resolution, remote sensing, chlorophyll fluorescence

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18674 Assessment of Community Perceptions of Mangrove Ecosystem Services and Their Link to SDGs in Vanga, Kenya

Authors: Samson Obiene, Khamati Shilabukha, Geoffrey Muga, James Kairo

Abstract:

Mangroves play a vital role in the achievement of multiple goals of global sustainable development (SDG’s), particularly SDG SDG 14 (life under water). Their management, however, is faced with several shortcomings arising from inadequate knowledge on the perceptions of their ecosystem services, hence a need to map mangrove goods and services within SDGs while interrogating the disaggregated perceptions. This study therefore aimed at exploring the parities and disparities in attitudes and perceptions of mangrove ecosystem services among community members of Vanga and the link of the ecosystem services (ESs) to specific SDG targets. The study was based at the Kenya-Tanzania transboundary area in Vanga; where a carbon-offset project on mangroves is being up scaled. Mixed methods approach employing surveys, focus group discussions (FGDs) and reviews of secondary data were used in the study. A two stage cluster samplings was used to select the study population and the sample size. FGDs were conducted purposively selecting active participants in mangrove related activities with distinct socio-demographic characteristics. Sampled respondents comprised of males and females of different occupations and age groups. Secondary data review was used to select specific SDG targets against which mangrove ecosystem services identified through a value chain analysis were mapped. In Vanga, 20 ecosystem services were identified and categorized under supporting, cultural and aesthetic, provisioning and regulating services. According to the findings of this study, 63.9% (95% ci 56.6-69.3) perceived of the ESs as very important for economic development, 10.3% (95% ci 0-21.3) viewed them as important for environmental and ecological development while 25.8% (95% ci 2.2-32.8) were not sure of any role they play in development. In the social-economic disaggregation, ecosystem service values were found to vary with the level of interaction with the ecosystem which depended on gender and other social-economic classes within the study area. The youths, low income earners, women and those with low education levels were also identified as the primary beneficiaries of mangrove ecosystem services. The study also found that of the 17 SDGs, mangroves have a potential of influencing the achievement 12, including, SDGs 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8 10, 12, 13, 14, 15 and 17 either directly or indirectly. Generally therefore, the local community is aware of the critical importance mangroves for enhanced livelihood and ecological services but challenges in sustainability still occur as a result the diverse values and of the services and the contradicting interests of the different actors around the ecosystem. It is therefore important to consider parities in values and perception to avoid a ‘tragedy of the commons’ while striving to enhance sustainability of the Mangrove ecosystem.

Keywords: sustainable development, community values, socio-demographics, Vanga, mangrove ecosystem services

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18673 Paradigms of Assessment, Valuation and Quantification to Trade Ecosystem Services: A Review Focusing on Mangroves and Wetlands

Authors: Rama Seth, Luise Noring, Pratim Majumdar

Abstract:

Based on an extensive literature review, this paper presents distinct approaches to value, quantify and trade ecosystem services, with particular emphasis on services provided by mangroves and wetlands. Building on diverse monetary and market-based systems for the improved allocation of natural resources, such trading and exchange-based methods can help tackle the degradation of ecosystem services in a more targeted and structured manner than achievable with stand-alone policy and administrative regulations. Using various threads of literature, the paper proposes a platform that serves as the skeletal foundation for developing an efficient global market for ecosystem services trading. The paper bridges a significant research and practice gap by recommending how to establish an equilibrium in the biosphere via trading mechanisms while also discovering other research gaps and future research potential in the domain of ecosystem valuation.

Keywords: environment, economics, mangroves, wetlands, markets, ESG, global capital, climate investments, valuation, ecosystem services

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
18672 Analyzing the Ecosystem for Women Entrepreneurs: A Case Study of Rural Areas of Jamshoro, Pakistan

Authors: Aisha M. Memon, Arabella Bhutto, Zahid A. Memon, Adnan Pitafi

Abstract:

This study aims to identify the existing and non-existing elements in the entrepreneurial ecosystem which include finance, institutions, laws and regulations, human capital, culture, and markets, to measure the level of effectiveness of existing elements and to develop recommendations for improving the ecosystem to facilitate the women entrepreneurs in Jamshoro, Pakistan. The nature of this study is qualitative. Data were drawn from 25 in-depth, semi-structured interviews and a focus group discussion with women entrepreneurs in rural Jamshoro, Pakistan. The findings show the lack of awareness and knowledge among women entrepreneurs about available financial resources, lack of knowledge about laws, an absence of familial and societal support for women in accessing the entrepreneurial ecosystem, the absence of business and innovation enablers in rural areas, communication gaps, and unskilled human capital. The study found that institutions like non-for-profit organizations are playing an active role in the growth of women entrepreneurs. The existing entrepreneurial ecosystem in Jamshoro can be improved through culturally sensitive coordinated approach, interventions aimed at increasing awareness about the resources, promoting an understanding about the laws and regulations, making business enablers more effective, establishing public-private partnerships, and providing the women entrepreneurs easy access to market and financial resources.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, entrepreneurship ecosystem, Pakistan, women entrepreneurs

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18671 Building Knowledge-Based Entrepreneurial Ecosystem in the Beginning of a Startup Nation: Case of Vietnam

Authors: Ngoc T. B. Hoang

Abstract:

With a young population showing a greatly entrepreneurial spirit, Vietnam has become a potential land for a growing knowledge-based entrepreneurial ecosystem (KBEE). KBEE is the key to new job formation, and well solution for the crisis of unemployment of higher education graduates and powerful engine for knowledge-based development and building the knowledge based economy in Vietnam. Consequently, Vietnam is attempting to build a healthy KBEE, giving local entrepreneurs more opportunities to develop their businesses. The purpose of the research article is to sketch up a general map to show the current situation of Vietnam's startup ecosystem in the beginning of a startup nation and take into consideration the influence of socio-cultural norms, institutional landscape and socio-economic factors on motivation to develop a KBEE. This paper also proposes a qualitative approach to explore the relationship between these and other elements of Vietnamese entrepreneurial ecosystems. Eventually, viable recommendations are drawn for Vietnamese entrepreneurs and policymakers to improve the quality of the knowledge-based entrepreneurial ecosystem in Vietnam.

Keywords: entrepreneurship, knowledge-based entrepreneurial ecosystem, startup ecosystem, Vietnam

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18670 Computational Experiment on Evolution of E-Business Service Ecosystem

Authors: Xue Xiao, Sun Hao, Liu Donghua

Abstract:

E-commerce is experiencing rapid development and evolution, but traditional research methods are difficult to fully demonstrate the relationship between micro factors and macro evolution in the development process of e-commerce, which cannot provide accurate assessment for the existing strategies and predict the future evolution trends. To solve these problems, this paper presents the concept of e-commerce service ecosystem based on the characteristics of e-commerce and business ecosystem theory, describes e-commerce environment as a complex adaptive system from the perspective of ecology, constructs a e-commerce service ecosystem model by using Agent-based modeling method and Java language in RePast simulation platform and conduct experiment through the way of computational experiment, attempt to provide a suitable and effective researching method for the research on e-commerce evolution. By two experiments, it can be found that system model built in this paper is able to show the evolution process of e-commerce service ecosystem and the relationship between micro factors and macro emergence. Therefore, the system model constructed by Agent-based method and computational experiment provides proper means to study the evolution of e-commerce ecosystem.

Keywords: e-commerce service ecosystem, complex system, agent-based modeling, computational experiment

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18669 Digital Technologies in Cultural Entrepreneurial Practice in Tech Arts in Morocco: Design or Fine Arts

Authors: Hiba Taim

Abstract:

This abstract falls within the scope of entrepreneurship and regulates cultural and creative entrepreneurship. It tackles the topic of "The Ecosystem in Cultural and Creative Entrepreneurship in North Africa". This piece of work deals with the problem of the absence of the ecosystem in cultural and creative enterprises in North Africa, meaning the absence of a clear structure of the ecosystem in the field of cultural and creative entrepreneurship in North Africa. The aim of this research is to create an integrated ecosystem that brings together all those involved in cultural and creative entrepreneurship in North Africa: from training, financial support, continuing, international organizations, government banks, and means of communication. This study is significant not only because it suggests some activities to develop this system but also because it provides all of the information to cultural and creative entrepreneurs in order for them to create project opportunities and activate the entrepreneurship process. It will also enable the creation of opportunities to work among them and formulate common cultural policies to develop the quality of cultural and creative services in North Africa. This research paper uses a qualitative approach to gather information of good quality about the problem being tackled, as well as studying and analyzing different documents and conducting interviews with cultural entrepreneurs, which will help to collect all the information on the state of the ecosystem in North Africa. For the moment, this paperwork is at the stage of collecting preliminary data regarding the problem and developing appropriate schedules for all the phases of the research in order to be productive and deliver this study in the coming months.

Keywords: cultural innovation, design innovation, design thinking, cultural entrepreneurship

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18668 Assessing Functional Structure in European Marine Ecosystems Using a Vector-Autoregressive Spatio-Temporal Model

Authors: Katyana A. Vert-Pre, James T. Thorson, Thomas Trancart, Eric Feunteun

Abstract:

In marine ecosystems, spatial and temporal species structure is an important component of ecosystems’ response to anthropological and environmental factors. Although spatial distribution patterns and fish temporal series of abundance have been studied in the past, little research has been allocated to the joint dynamic spatio-temporal functional patterns in marine ecosystems and their use in multispecies management and conservation. Each species represents a function to the ecosystem, and the distribution of these species might not be random. A heterogeneous functional distribution will lead to a more resilient ecosystem to external factors. Applying a Vector-Autoregressive Spatio-Temporal (VAST) model for count data, we estimate the spatio-temporal distribution, shift in time, and abundance of 140 species of the Eastern English Chanel, Bay of Biscay and Mediterranean Sea. From the model outputs, we determined spatio-temporal clusters, calculating p-values for hierarchical clustering via multiscale bootstrap resampling. Then, we designed a functional map given the defined cluster. We found that the species distribution within the ecosystem was not random. Indeed, species evolved in space and time in clusters. Moreover, these clusters remained similar over time deriving from the fact that species of a same cluster often shifted in sync, keeping the overall structure of the ecosystem similar overtime. Knowing the co-existing species within these clusters could help with predicting data-poor species distribution and abundance. Further analysis is being performed to assess the ecological functions represented in each cluster.

Keywords: cluster distribution shift, European marine ecosystems, functional distribution, spatio-temporal model

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18667 The Economic Valuation of Public Support Ecosystem: A Contingent Valuation Study in Setiu Wetland, Terengganu Malaysia

Authors: Elmira Shamshity

Abstract:

This study aimed to explore the economic approach for the Setiu wetland evaluation as a future protection strategy. A questionnaire survey was used based on the single-bounded dichotomous choice, contingent valuation method to differentiate individuals’ Willingness to Pay (WTP) for the conservation of the Setiu wetland. The location of study was Terengganu province in Malaysia. The results of the random questionnaire survey showed that protection of Setiu ecosystem is important to the indigenous community. The mean WTP for protection of ecosystem Setiu wetland was 12.985 Ringgit per month per household for 10 years. There was significant variation in the stated amounts of WTP based on the respondents’ knowledge, household income, educational level, and the bid amounts. The findings of this study may help improving understanding the WTP of indigenous people for the protection of wetland, and providing useful information for policy makers to design an effective program of ecosystem protection.

Keywords: willingness to pay, ecosystem, setiu wetland, Terengganu Malaysia

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18666 Blockchain Platform Configuration for MyData Operator in Digital and Connected Health

Authors: Minna Pikkarainen, Yueqiang Xu

Abstract:

The integration of digital technology with existing healthcare processes has been painfully slow, a huge gap exists between the fields of strictly regulated official medical care and the quickly moving field of health and wellness technology. We claim that the promises of preventive healthcare can only be fulfilled when this gap is closed – health care and self-care becomes seamless continuum “correct information, in the correct hands, at the correct time allowing individuals and professionals to make better decisions” what we call connected health approach. Currently, the issues related to security, privacy, consumer consent and data sharing are hindering the implementation of this new paradigm of healthcare. This could be solved by following MyData principles stating that: Individuals should have the right and practical means to manage their data and privacy. MyData infrastructure enables decentralized management of personal data, improves interoperability, makes it easier for companies to comply with tightening data protection regulations, and allows individuals to change service providers without proprietary data lock-ins. This paper tackles today’s unprecedented challenges of enabling and stimulating multiple healthcare data providers and stakeholders to have more active participation in the digital health ecosystem. First, the paper systematically proposes the MyData approach for healthcare and preventive health data ecosystem. In this research, the work is targeted for health and wellness ecosystems. Each ecosystem consists of key actors, such as 1) individual (citizen or professional controlling/using the services) i.e. data subject, 2) services providing personal data (e.g. startups providing data collection apps or data collection devices), 3) health and wellness services utilizing aforementioned data and 4) services authorizing the access to this data under individual’s provided explicit consent. Second, the research extends the existing four archetypes of orchestrator-driven healthcare data business models for the healthcare industry and proposes the fifth type of healthcare data model, the MyData Blockchain Platform. This new architecture is developed by the Action Design Research approach, which is a prominent research methodology in the information system domain. The key novelty of the paper is to expand the health data value chain architecture and design from centralization and pseudo-decentralization to full decentralization, enabled by blockchain, thus the MyData blockchain platform. The study not only broadens the healthcare informatics literature but also contributes to the theoretical development of digital healthcare and blockchain research domains with a systemic approach.

Keywords: blockchain, health data, platform, action design

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18665 Delineation of Green Infrastructure Buffer Areas with a Simulated Annealing: Consideration of Ecosystem Services Trade-Offs in the Objective Function

Authors: Andres Manuel Garcia Lamparte, Rocio Losada Iglesias, Marcos BoullóN Magan, David Miranda Barros

Abstract:

The biodiversity strategy of the European Union for 2030, mentions climate change as one of the key factors for biodiversity loss and considers green infrastructure as one of the solutions to this problem. In this line, the European Commission has developed a green infrastructure strategy which commits members states to consider green infrastructure in their territorial planning. This green infrastructure is aimed at granting the provision of a wide number of ecosystem services to support biodiversity and human well-being by countering the effects of climate change. Yet, there are not too many tools available to delimit green infrastructure. The available ones consider the potential of the territory to provide ecosystem services. However, these methods usually aggregate several maps of ecosystem services potential without considering possible trade-offs. This can lead to excluding areas with a high potential for providing ecosystem services which have many trade-offs with other ecosystem services. In order to tackle this problem, a methodology is proposed to consider ecosystem services trade-offs in the objective function of a simulated annealing algorithm aimed at delimiting green infrastructure multifunctional buffer areas. To this end, the provision potential maps of the regulating ecosystem services considered to delimit the multifunctional buffer areas are clustered in groups, so that ecosystem services that create trade-offs are excluded in each group. The normalized provision potential maps of the ecosystem services in each group are added to obtain a potential map per group which is normalized again. Then the potential maps for each group are combined in a raster map that shows the highest provision potential value in each cell. The combined map is then used in the objective function of the simulated annealing algorithm. The algorithm is run both using the proposed methodology and considering the ecosystem services individually. The results are analyzed with spatial statistics and landscape metrics to check the number of ecosystem services that the delimited areas produce, as well as their regularity and compactness. It has been observed that the proposed methodology increases the number of ecosystem services produced by delimited areas, improving their multifunctionality and increasing their effectiveness in preventing climate change impacts.

Keywords: ecosystem services trade-offs, green infrastructure delineation, multifunctional buffer areas, climate change

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18664 The Effects of Extreme Precipitation Events on Ecosystem Services

Authors: Szu-Hua Wang, Yi-Wen Chen

Abstract:

Urban ecosystems are complex coupled human-environment systems. They contain abundant natural resources for producing natural assets and attract urban assets to consume natural resources for urban development. Urban ecosystems provide several ecosystem services, including provisioning services, regulating services, cultural services, and supporting services. Rapid global climate change makes urban ecosystems and their ecosystem services encountering various natural disasters. Lots of natural disasters have occurred around the world under the constant changes in the frequency and intensity of extreme weather events in the past two decades. In Taiwan, hydrological disasters have been paid more attention due to the potential high sensitivity of Taiwan’s cities to climate change, and it impacts. However, climate change not only causes extreme weather events directly but also affects the interactions among human, ecosystem services and their dynamic feedback processes indirectly. Therefore, this study adopts a systematic method, solar energy synthesis, based on the concept of the eco-energy analysis. The Taipei area, the most densely populated area in Taiwan, is selected as the study area. The changes of ecosystem services between 2015 and Typhoon Soudelor have been compared in order to investigate the impacts of extreme precipitation events on ecosystem services. The results show that the forest areas are the largest contributions of energy to ecosystem services in the Taipei area generally. Different soil textures of different subsystem have various upper limits of water contents or substances. The major contribution of ecosystem services of the study area is natural hazard regulation provided by the surface water resources areas. During the period of Typhoon Soudelor, the freshwater supply in the forest areas had become the main contribution. Erosion control services were the main ecosystem service affected by Typhoon Soudelor. The second and third main ecosystem services were hydrologic regulation and food supply. Due to the interactions among ecosystem services, fresh water supply, water purification, and waste treatment had been affected severely.

Keywords: ecosystem, extreme precipitation events, ecosystem services, solar energy synthesis

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18663 Entrepreneurial Support Ecosystem: Role of Research Institutes

Authors: Ayna Yusubova, Bart Clarysse

Abstract:

This paper explores role of research institutes in creation of support ecosystem for new technology-based ventures. Previous literature introduced research institutes as part of business and knowledge ecosystem, very few studies are available that consider a research institute as an ecosystem that support high-tech startups at every stage of development. Based on a resource-based view and a stage-based model of high-tech startups growth, this study aims to analyze how a research institute builds a startup support ecosystem by attracting different stakeholders in order to help startups to overcome resource. This paper is based on an in-depth case study of public research institute that focus on development of entrepreneurial ecosystem in a developed region. Analysis shows that the idea generation stage of high-tech startups that related to the invention and development of product or technology for commercialization is associated with a lack of critical knowledge resources. Second, at growth phase that related to market entrance, high-tech startups face challenges associated with the development of their business network. Accordingly, the study shows the support ecosystem that research institute creates helps high-tech startups overcome resource gaps in order to achieve a successful transition from one phase of growth to the next.

Keywords: new technology-based firms, ecosystems, resources, business incubators, research instutes

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18662 The Internet of Things: A Survey of Authentication Mechanisms, and Protocols, for the Shifting Paradigm of Communicating, Entities

Authors: Nazli Hardy

Abstract:

Multidisciplinary application of computer science, interactive database-driven web application, the Internet of Things (IoT) represents a digital ecosystem that has pervasive technological, social, and economic, impact on the human population. It is a long-term technology, and its development is built around the connection of everyday objects, to the Internet. It is estimated that by 2020, with billions of people connected to the Internet, the number of connected devices will exceed 50 billion, and thus IoT represents a paradigm shift in in our current interconnected ecosystem, a communication shift that will unavoidably affect people, businesses, consumers, clients, employees. By nature, in order to provide a cohesive and integrated service, connected devices need to collect, aggregate, store, mine, process personal and personalized data on individuals and corporations in a variety of contexts and environments. A significant factor in this paradigm shift is the necessity for secure and appropriate transmission, processing and storage of the data. Thus, while benefits of the applications appear to be boundless, these same opportunities are bounded by concerns such as trust, privacy, security, loss of control, and related issues. This poster and presentation look at a multi-factor authentication (MFA) mechanisms that need to change from the login-password tuple to an Identity and Access Management (IAM) model, to the more cohesive to Identity Relationship Management (IRM) standard. It also compares and contrasts messaging protocols that are appropriate for the IoT ecosystem.

Keywords: Internet of Things (IoT), authentication, protocols, survey

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18661 Mapping and Characterizing the Jefoure Cultural Landscape Which Provides Multiple Ecosystem Services to the Gurage People in Ethiopia

Authors: M. Achemo, O. Saito

Abstract:

Jefoure land use system is one of the traditional landscape human settlement patterns, and it is a cultural design and peculiar art of the people of Gurage in Ethiopia via which houses and trees flank roads left and right. Assessment of the multiple benefits of the traditional road that benefit society and development could enhance the understanding of the land use planners and decision makers to pay attention while planning and managing the land use system. Recent trend shows that the Jefoure land use is on the threshold of change as a result of flourishing road networks, overgrazing, and agricultural expansion. This study aimed to evaluate the multiple ecosystem services provided by the Jefoure land use system after characterization of the socio-ecological landscape. Information was compiled from existing data sources such as ordnance survey maps, aerial photographs, recent high resolution satellite imageries, designated questionnaires and interviews, and local authority contacts. The result generated scientific data on the characteristics, ecosystem services provision, and drivers of changes. The cultural landscape has novel characteristics and providing multiple ecosystem services to the community for long period of time. It is serving as road for humans, livestock and vehicles, habitat for plant species, regulating local temperature, climate, runoff and infiltration, and place for meeting, conducting religious and spiritual activities, holding social events such as marriage and mourning, playing station for children and court for football and other traditional games. As a result of its aesthetic quality and scenic beauty, it is considered as recreational place for improving mental and physical health. The study draws relevant land use planning and management solution in the improvement of socio-ecological resilience in the Jefoure land use system. The study suggests the landscape needs to be registrar as heritage site for recognizing the wisdom of the community and enhancing the conservation mechanisms.

Keywords: cultural landscape, ecosystem services, Gurage, Jefoure

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18660 The Impacts of Land Use Change and Extreme Precipitation Events on Ecosystem Services

Authors: Szu-Hua Wang

Abstract:

Urban areas contain abundant potential biochemical storages and renewable and non-renewable flows. Urban natural environments for breeding natural assets and urban economic development for maintaining urban functions can be analyzed form the concept of ecological economic system. Land use change and ecosystem services change are resulting from the interactions between human activities and environments factually. Land use change due to human activities is the major cause of climate change, leading to serious impacts on urban ecosystem services, including provisioning services, regulating services, cultural services and supporting services. However, it lacks discussion on the interactions among urban land use change, ecosystem services change, and extreme precipitation events. Energy synthesis can use the same measure standard unit, solar energy, for different energy resources (e.g. sunlight, water, fossil fuels, minerals, etc.) and analyze contributions of various natural environmental resources on human economic systems. Therefore, this research adopts the concept of ecological, economic systems and energy synthesis for analyzing dynamic spatial impacts of land use change on ecosystem services, using the Taipei area as a case study. The analysis results show that changes in land use in the Taipei area, especially the conversion of natural lands and agricultural lands to urban lands, affect the ecosystem services negatively. These negative effects become more significant during the extreme precipitation events.

Keywords: urban ecological economic system, extreme precipitation events, ecosystem services, energy

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18659 Informing, Enabling and Inspiring Social Innovation by Geographic Systems Mapping: A Case Study in Workforce Development

Authors: Cassandra A. Skinner, Linda R. Chamberlain

Abstract:

The nonprofit and public sectors are increasingly turning to Geographic Information Systems for data visualizations which can better inform programmatic and policy decisions. Additionally, the private and nonprofit sectors are turning to systems mapping to better understand the ecosystems within which they operate. This study explores the potential which combining these data visualization methods—a method which is called geographic systems mapping—to create an exhaustive and comprehensive understanding of a social problem’s ecosystem may have in social innovation efforts. Researchers with Grand Valley State University collaborated with Talent 2025 of West Michigan to conduct a mixed-methods research study to paint a comprehensive picture of the workforce development ecosystem in West Michigan. Using semi-structured interviewing, observation, secondary research, and quantitative analysis, data were compiled on workforce development organizations’ locations, programming, metrics for success, partnerships, funding sources, and service language. To best visualize and disseminate the data, a geographic system map was created which identifies programmatic, operational, and geographic gaps in workforce development services of West Michigan. By combining geographic and systems mapping methods, the geographic system map provides insight into the cross-sector relationships, collaboration, and competition which exists among and between workforce development organizations. These insights identify opportunities for and constraints around cross-sectoral social innovation in the West Michigan workforce development ecosystem. This paper will discuss the process utilized to prepare the geographic systems map, explain the results and outcomes, and demonstrate how geographic systems mapping illuminated the needs of the community and opportunities for social innovation. As complicated social problems like unemployment often require cross-sectoral and multi-stakeholder solutions, there is potential for geographic systems mapping to be a tool which informs, enables, and inspires these solutions.

Keywords: cross-sector collaboration, data visualization, geographic systems mapping, social innovation, workforce development

Procedia PDF Downloads 192