Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 18835

Search results for: gaps in data ecosystems

18835 Government Big Data Ecosystem: A Systematic Literature Review

Authors: Syed Iftikhar Hussain Shah, Vasilis Peristeras, Ioannis Magnisalis

Abstract:

Data that is high in volume, velocity, veracity and comes from a variety of sources is usually generated in all sectors including the government sector. Globally public administrations are pursuing (big) data as new technology and trying to adopt a data-centric architecture for hosting and sharing data. Properly executed, big data and data analytics in the government (big) data ecosystem can be led to data-driven government and have a direct impact on the way policymakers work and citizens interact with governments. In this research paper, we conduct a systematic literature review. The main aims of this paper are to highlight essential aspects of the government (big) data ecosystem and to explore the most critical socio-technical factors that contribute to the successful implementation of government (big) data ecosystem. The essential aspects of government (big) data ecosystem include definition, data types, data lifecycle models, and actors and their roles. We also discuss the potential impact of (big) data in public administration and gaps in the government data ecosystems literature. As this is a new topic, we did not find specific articles on government (big) data ecosystem and therefore focused our research on various relevant areas like humanitarian data, open government data, scientific research data, industry data, etc.

Keywords: applications of big data, big data, big data types. big data ecosystem, critical success factors, data-driven government, egovernment, gaps in data ecosystems, government (big) data, literature review, public administration, systematic review

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18834 Government (Big) Data Ecosystem: Definition, Classification of Actors, and Their Roles

Authors: Syed Iftikhar Hussain Shah, Vasilis Peristeras, Ioannis Magnisalis

Abstract:

Organizations, including governments, generate (big) data that are high in volume, velocity, veracity, and come from a variety of sources. Public Administrations are using (big) data, implementing base registries, and enforcing data sharing within the entire government to deliver (big) data related integrated services, provision of insights to users, and for good governance. Government (Big) data ecosystem actors represent distinct entities that provide data, consume data, manipulate data to offer paid services, and extend data services like data storage, hosting services to other actors. In this research work, we perform a systematic literature review. The key objectives of this paper are to propose a robust definition of government (big) data ecosystem and a classification of government (big) data ecosystem actors and their roles. We showcase a graphical view of actors, roles, and their relationship in the government (big) data ecosystem. We also discuss our research findings. We did not find too much published research articles about the government (big) data ecosystem, including its definition and classification of actors and their roles. Therefore, we lent ideas for the government (big) data ecosystem from numerous areas that include scientific research data, humanitarian data, open government data, industry data, in the literature.

Keywords: big data, big data ecosystem, classification of big data actors, big data actors roles, definition of government (big) data ecosystem, data-driven government, eGovernment, gaps in data ecosystems, government (big) data, public administration, systematic literature review

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18833 A Policy Strategy for Building Energy Data Management in India

Authors: Shravani Itkelwar, Deepak Tewari, Bhaskar Natarajan

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The energy consumption data plays a vital role in energy efficiency policy design, implementation, and impact assessment. Any demand-side energy management intervention's success relies on the availability of accurate, comprehensive, granular, and up-to-date data on energy consumption. The Building sector, including residential and commercial, is one of the largest consumers of energy in India after the Industrial sector. With economic growth and increasing urbanization, the building sector is projected to grow at an unprecedented rate, resulting in a 5.6 times escalation in energy consumption till 2047 compared to 2017. Therefore, energy efficiency interventions will play a vital role in decoupling the floor area growth and associated energy demand, thereby increasing the need for robust data. In India, multiple institutions are involved in the collection and dissemination of data. This paper focuses on energy consumption data management in the building sector in India for both residential and commercial segments. It evaluates the robustness of data available through administrative and survey routes to estimate the key performance indicators and identify critical data gaps for making informed decisions. The paper explores several issues in the data, such as lack of comprehensiveness, non-availability of disaggregated data, the discrepancy in different data sources, inconsistent building categorization, and others. The identified data gaps are justified with appropriate examples. Moreover, the paper prioritizes required data in order of relevance to policymaking and groups it into "available," "easy to get," and "hard to get" categories. The paper concludes with recommendations to address the data gaps by leveraging digital initiatives, strengthening institutional capacity, institutionalizing exclusive building energy surveys, and standardization of building categorization, among others, to strengthen the management of building sector energy consumption data.

Keywords: energy data, energy policy, energy efficiency, buildings

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18832 Moroccan Mountains: Forest Ecosystems and Biodiversity Conservation Strategies

Authors: Mohammed Sghir Taleb

Abstract:

Forest ecosystems in Morocco are subject increasingly to natural and human pressures. Conscious of this problem, Morocco set a strategy that focuses on programs of in-situ and ex-situ biodiversity conservation. This study is the result of a synthesis of various existing studies on biodiversity and forest ecosystems. It gives an overview of Moroccan mountain forest ecosystems and flora diversity. It also focuses on the efforts made by Morocco to conserve and sustainably manage biodiversity.

Keywords: mountain, ecosystems, conservation, Morocco

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18831 Strategic Citizen Participation in Applied Planning Investigations: How Planners Use Etic and Emic Community Input Perspectives to Fill-in the Gaps in Their Analysis

Authors: John Gaber

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Planners regularly use citizen input as empirical data to help them better understand community issues they know very little about. This type of community data is based on the lived experiences of local residents and is known as "emic" data. What is becoming more common practice for planners is their use of data from local experts and stakeholders (known as "etic" data or the outsider perspective) to help them fill in the gaps in their analysis of applied planning research projects. Utilizing international Health Impact Assessment (HIA) data, I look at who planners invite to their citizen input investigations. Research presented in this paper shows that planners access a wide range of emic and etic community perspectives in their search for the “community’s view.” The paper concludes with how planners can chart out a new empirical path in their execution of emic/etic citizen participation strategies in their applied planning research projects.

Keywords: citizen participation, emic data, etic data, Health Impact Assessment (HIA)

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18830 Irrigation Potential Assessment for Eastern Ganga Canal, India Using Geographic Information System

Authors: Deepak Khare, Radha Krishan, Bhaskar Nikam

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The present study deals with the results of the Ortho-rectified Cartosat-1 PAN (2.5 m resolution) satellite data analysis for the extraction of canal networks under the Eastern Ganga Canal (EGC) command. Based on the information derived through the remote sensing data, in terms of the number of canals, their physical status and hydraulic connectivity from the source, irrigation potential (IP) created in the command was assessed by comparing with planned/design canal-wise irrigation potentials. All the geospatial information generated in the study is organized in a geodatabase. The EGC project irrigates the command through one main canal, five branch canals, 36 distributaries and 186 minors. The study was conducted with the main objectives of inventory and mapping of irrigation infrastructure using geographic information system (GIS), remote sensing and field data. Likewise, the assessment of irrigation potential created using the mapped infrastructure was performed as on March 2017. Results revealed that the canals were not only pending but were also having gap/s, and hydraulically disconnected in each branch canal and also in minors of EGC. A total of 16622.3 ha of commands were left untouched with canal water just due to the presence of gaps in the EGC project. The sum of all the gaps present in minor canals was 11.92 km, while in distributary, it was 2.63 km. This is a very good scenario that balances IP can be achieved by working on the gaps present in minor canals. Filling the gaps in minor canals can bring most of the area under irrigation, especially the tail reaches command.

Keywords: canal command, GIS, hydraulic connectivity, irrigation potential

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18829 Natural Regeneration Dynamics in Different Microsites within Gaps of Different Sizes

Authors: M. E. Hammond, R. Pokorny

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Not much research has gone into the dynamics of natural regeneration of trees species in tropical forest regions. This study seeks to investigate the impact of gap sizes and light distribution in forest floors on the regeneration of Celtis mildbraedii (CEM), Nesogordonia papaverine (NES) and Terminalia superba (TES). These are selected economically important tree species with different shade tolerance attributes. The spatial distribution patterns and the potential regeneration competition index (RCI) among species using height to diameter ratio (HDR) have been assessed. Gap sizes ranging between 287 – 971 m² were selected at the Bia Tano forest reserve, a tropical moist semi-deciduous forest in Ghana. Four (4) transects in the cardinal directions were constructed from the center of each gap. Along each transect, ten 1 m² sampling zones at 2 m spacing were established. Then, three gap microsites (labeled ecozones I, II, III) were delineated within these sampling zones based on the varying temporal light distribution on the forest floor. Data on height (H), root collar diameter (RCD) and regeneration census were gathered from each of the ten sampling zones. CEM and NES seedlings (≤ 50 cm) and saplings (≥ 51 cm) were present in all ecozones of the large gaps. Seedlings of TES were observed in all ecozones of large and small gaps. Regression analysis showed a significant negative linear relationship between independent RCD and H growth variables on dependent HDR index in ecozones II and III of both large and small gaps. There was a correlation between RCD and H in both large and small gaps. A strong regeneration competition was observed among species in ecozone II in large (df 2, F=3.6, p=0.035) and small (df 2, F=17.9, p=0.000) gaps. These results contribute to the understanding of the natural regeneration of different species with regards to light regimes in forest floors.

Keywords: Celtis mildbraedii, ecozones, gaps, Nesogordonia papaverifera, regeneration, Terminalia superba

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18828 Learning Model Applied to Cope with Professional Knowledge Gaps in Final Project of Information System Students

Authors: Ilana Lavy, Rami Rashkovits

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In this study, we describe Information Systems students' learning model which was applied by students in order to cope with professional knowledge gaps in the context of their final project. The students needed to implement a software system according to specifications and design they have made beforehand. They had to select certain technologies and use them. Most of them decided to use programming environments that were learned during their academic studies. The students had to cope with various levels of knowledge gaps. For that matter they used learning strategies that were organized by us as a learning model which includes two phases each suitable for different learning tasks. We analyze the learning model, describing advantages and shortcomings as perceived by the students, and provide excerpts to support our findings.

Keywords: knowledge gaps, independent learner skills, self-regulated learning, final project

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18827 Continuous Land Cover Change Detection in Subtropical Thicket Ecosystems

Authors: Craig Mahlasi

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The Subtropical Thicket Biome has been in peril of transformation. Estimates indicate that as much as 63% of the Subtropical Thicket Biome is severely degraded. Agricultural expansion is the main driver of transformation. While several studies have sought to document and map the long term transformations, there is a lack of information on disturbance events that allow for timely intervention by authorities. Furthermore, tools that seek to perform continuous land cover change detection are often developed for forests and thus tend to perform poorly in thicket ecosystems. This study investigates the utility of Earth Observation data for continuous land cover change detection in Subtropical Thicket ecosystems. Temporal Neural Networks are implemented on a time series of Sentinel-2 observations. The model obtained 0.93 accuracy, a recall score of 0.93, and a precision score of 0.91 in detecting Thicket disturbances. The study demonstrates the potential of continuous land cover change in Subtropical Thicket ecosystems.

Keywords: remote sensing, land cover change detection, subtropical thickets, near-real time

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18826 Energy Performance Gaps in Residences: An Analysis of the Variables That Cause Energy Gaps and Their Impact

Authors: Amrutha Kishor

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Today, with the rising global warming and depletion of resources every industry is moving toward sustainability and energy efficiency. As part of this movement, it is nowadays obligatory for architects to play their part by creating energy predictions for their designs. But in a lot of cases, these predictions do not reflect the real quantities of energy in newly built buildings when operating. These can be described as ‘Energy Performance Gaps’. This study aims to determine the underlying reasons for these gaps. Seven houses designed by Allan Joyce Architects, UK from 1998 until 2019 were considered for this study. The data from the residents’ energy bills were cross-referenced with the predictions made with the software SefairaPro and from energy reports. Results indicated that the predictions did not match the actual energy usage. An account of how energy was used in these seven houses was made by means of personal interviews. The main factors considered in the study were occupancy patterns, heating systems and usage, lighting profile and usage, and appliances’ profile and usage. The study found that the main reasons for the creation of energy gaps were the discrepancies in occupant usage and patterns of energy consumption that are predicted as opposed to the actual ones. This study is particularly useful for energy-conscious architectural firms to fine-tune the approach to designing houses and analysing their energy performance. As the findings reveal that energy usage in homes varies based on the way residents use the space, it helps deduce the most efficient technological combinations. This information can be used to set guidelines for future policies and regulations related to energy consumption in homes. This study can also be used by the developers of simulation software to understand how architects use their product and drive improvements in its future versions.

Keywords: architectural simulation, energy efficient design, energy performance gaps, environmental design

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18825 Towards Development of a Framework for Saudi Education Software Ecosystem

Authors: Fazal-e-Amin, Abdullah S. Alghamdi, Iftikhar Ahmad

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Software ecosystems’ concept is an inspiration from the natural ecosystem. Software ecosystems refer to large systems developed on top of a platform composed of different components developed by different entities of that ecosystem. Ecosystems improve information access, dissemination and coordination considerably. The ability to evolve and accommodate new subsystems gives a boost to the software ecosystems. In this paper, Saudi education software ecosystem is discussed and its need and potential benefits are highlighted. This work will provide a basis for further research in this area and foundation in development of Saudi education ecosystem.

Keywords: software ecosystem, education software, framework, software engineering

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18824 Estimation of Carbon Sequestration and Air Quality of Terrestrial Ecosystems Using Remote Sensing Techniques

Authors: Kanwal Javid, Shazia Pervaiz, Maria Mumtaz, Muhammad Ameer Nawaz Akram

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Forests and grasslands ecosystems play an important role in the global carbon cycle. Land management activities influence both ecosystems and enable them to absorb and sequester carbon dioxide (CO2). Similarly, in Pakistan, these terrestrial ecosystems are well known to mitigate carbon emissions and have a great source to supply a variety of services such as clean air and water, biodiversity, wood products, wildlife habitat, food, recreation and carbon sequestration. Carbon sequestration is the main agenda of developed and developing nations to reduce the impacts of global warming. But the amount of carbon storage within these ecosystems can be affected by many factors related to air quality such as land management, land-use change, deforestation, over grazing and natural calamities. Moreover, the long-term capacity of forests and grasslands to absorb and sequester CO2 depends on their health, productivity, resilience and ability to adapt to changing conditions. Thus, the main rationale of this study is to monitor the difference in carbon amount of forests and grasslands of Northern Pakistan using MODIS data sets and map results using Geographic Information System. Results of the study conclude that forests ecosystems are more effective in reducing the CO2 level and play a key role in improving the quality of air.

Keywords: carbon sequestration, grasslands, global warming, climate change.

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18823 Assessing Functional Structure in European Marine Ecosystems Using a Vector-Autoregressive Spatio-Temporal Model

Authors: Katyana A. Vert-Pre, James T. Thorson, Thomas Trancart, Eric Feunteun

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In marine ecosystems, spatial and temporal species structure is an important component of ecosystems’ response to anthropological and environmental factors. Although spatial distribution patterns and fish temporal series of abundance have been studied in the past, little research has been allocated to the joint dynamic spatio-temporal functional patterns in marine ecosystems and their use in multispecies management and conservation. Each species represents a function to the ecosystem, and the distribution of these species might not be random. A heterogeneous functional distribution will lead to a more resilient ecosystem to external factors. Applying a Vector-Autoregressive Spatio-Temporal (VAST) model for count data, we estimate the spatio-temporal distribution, shift in time, and abundance of 140 species of the Eastern English Chanel, Bay of Biscay and Mediterranean Sea. From the model outputs, we determined spatio-temporal clusters, calculating p-values for hierarchical clustering via multiscale bootstrap resampling. Then, we designed a functional map given the defined cluster. We found that the species distribution within the ecosystem was not random. Indeed, species evolved in space and time in clusters. Moreover, these clusters remained similar over time deriving from the fact that species of a same cluster often shifted in sync, keeping the overall structure of the ecosystem similar overtime. Knowing the co-existing species within these clusters could help with predicting data-poor species distribution and abundance. Further analysis is being performed to assess the ecological functions represented in each cluster.

Keywords: cluster distribution shift, European marine ecosystems, functional distribution, spatio-temporal model

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18822 Environmental Governance and Opportunities for Disaster Risk Reduction in Nigeria

Authors: Willie Eselebor

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Environmental governance is not new, but may consist of a series of actions taken to establish sanity and ensure sustainable environment. While there is a growing accord linking disaster risk reduction with the management of environment and natural resources, little is known about failure to act which constitute vulnerability and how improved governance reduces risk globally. The paper reviews emerging trends in the field of application of governance tools and approaches for reducing disaster risk. The Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) enjoin all stakeholders to stimulate the sustainable use and management of ecosystems, which promote the implementation of integrated environmental and natural resource planning that incorporate disaster risk reduction, including structural and non-structural measures, such as integrated management of fragile ecosystems. The methodology adopted is a case study of disaster-prone sites, prompting guided analysis on which hazards are traceable to environmental degradation, why a degraded environment reduces community resilience; how healthy ecosystems provide natural defense, and which opportunities exist to address gaps in reduction of disasters in Nigeria. The paper further analyses the interaction between disaster risk and environmental change. It is established that environmental governance remains a challenge; which implies that there is the need for a shift in traditional approaches to disaster risk management; exploring new initiatives and allowing environmental managers to be docketed as disaster risk managers in context, potentially opening up a window of dialogue on disaster risk management.

Keywords: disaster, ecosystem, environment, risk

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18821 Assessing the Legacy Effects of Wildfire on Eucalypt Canopy Structure of South Eastern Australia

Authors: Yogendra K. Karna, Lauren T. Bennett

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Fire-tolerant eucalypt forests are one of the major forest ecosystems of south-eastern Australia and thought to be highly resistant to frequent high severity wildfires. However, the impact of different severity wildfires on the canopy structure of fire-tolerant forest type is under-studied, and there are significant knowledge gaps in relation to the assessment of tree and stand level canopy structural dynamics and recovery after fire. Assessment of canopy structure is a complex task involving accurate measurements of the horizontal and vertical arrangement of the canopy in space and time. This study examined the utility of multitemporal, small-footprint lidar data to describe the changes in the horizontal and vertical canopy structure of fire-tolerant eucalypt forests seven years after wildfire of different severities from the tree to stand level. Extensive ground measurements were carried out in four severity classes to describe and validate canopy cover and height metrics as they change after wildfire. Several metrics such as crown height and width, crown base height and clumpiness of crown were assessed at tree and stand level using several individual tree top detection and measurement algorithm. Persistent effects of high severity fire 8 years after both on tree crowns and stand canopy were observed. High severity fire increased the crown depth but decreased the crown projective cover leading to more open canopy.

Keywords: canopy gaps, canopy structure, crown architecture, crown projective cover, multi-temporal lidar, wildfire severity

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18820 A Critical Analysis on Gaps Associated with Culture Policy Milieu Governing Traditional Male Circumcision in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

Authors: Thanduxolo Nomngcoyiya, Simon M. Kang’ethe

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The paper aimed to critically analyse gaps pertaining to the cultural policy environments governing traditional male circumcision in the Eastern Cape as exemplified by an empirical case study. The original study which this paper is derived from utilized qualitative paradigm; and encompassed 28 participants. It used in-depth one-on-one interviews complemented by focus group discussions and key informants as a method of data collection. It also adopted interview guide as a data collection instrument. The original study was cross-sectional in nature, and the data was audio recorded and transcribed later during the data analysis and coding process. The study data analysis was content thematic analysis and identified the following key major findings on the culture of male circumcision policy: Lack of clarity on culture of male circumcision policy operations; Myths surrounding procedures on culture of male circumcision; Divergent views on cultural policies between government and male circumcision custodians; Unclear cultural policies on selection criteria of practitioners; and Lack of policy enforcement and implementation on transgressors of culture of male circumcision. It recommended: a stringent selection criteria of practitioners; a need to carry out death-free male circumcision; a need for male circumcision stakeholders to work with other culture and tradition-friendly stakeholders.

Keywords: human rights, policy enforcement, traditional male circumcision, traditional surgeons and nurses

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18819 Paleopalynology as an Analysis Tool to Measure the Resilience of the Ecosystems of the Western Mediterranean and Their Adaptation to Climate Change

Authors: F. Ismael Roman Moreno, Francisca Alba Sanchez

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Over time, the plant landscape has changed as a result of the numerous events on a global and local scale that have happened. This is the case of the Mediterranean ecosystems, one of the most complex and rich in endemisms on the planet, subjected to anthropic pressures from the beginning of civilizations. The intervention in these systems together with climate changes has led to changes in diversity, tree cover, shrub, and ultimately in the structure and functioning of these ecosystems. Paleopalinology is used as a tool for analysis of pollen and non-pollen microfossils preserved in the flooded grasslands of the Middle Atlas (Morocco). This allows reconstructing the evolution of vegetation and climate, as well as providing data and reasoning to different ecological, cultural and historical processes. Although climatic and anthropic events are well documented in Europe, they are not so well documented in North Africa, which gives added value to the study area. The results obtained serve to predict the behavior and evolution of Mediterranean mountain ecosystems during the Holocene, their response to future changes, resilience, and recovery from climatic and anthropic disturbances. In the stratigraphic series analyzed, nine major events were detected, eight of which appeared to be of climatic and anthropic origin, and one unexpected, related to volcanic activity.

Keywords: anthropic, Holocene, Morocco, paleopalynology, resilience

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18818 Transformation of the Ili Delta Ecosystems Related to the Runoff Control of the Ile-Balkhash Basin Rivers

Authors: Ruslan Salmurzauli, Sabir Nurtazin, Buho Hoshino, Niels Thevs, A. B. Yeszhanov, Aiman Imentai

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This article presents the results of a research on the transformation of the diverse ecosystems of the Ili delta during the period 1979-2014 based on the analysis of the hydrological regime dynamics, weather conditions and satellite images. Conclusions have been drawn on the decisive importance of the water runoff of the Ili River in the negative changes and environmental degradation in delta areas over the past forty-five years. The increase of water consumption in the Chinese and Kazakhstan parts of the Ili-Balkhash basin caused desiccation and desertification of many hydromorphic delta ecosystems and the reduction of water flow into Lake Balkhash. We demonstrate that a significant reduction of watering of the delta areas could drastically accelerate the aridization and degradation of the hydromorphic ecosystems. Under runoff decrease, a transformation process of the delta ecosystems begins from the head part and gradually spread northward to the periphery of the delta. The desertification is most clearly expressed in the central and western parts of the delta areas.

Keywords: Ili-Balkhash basin, Ili river delta, runoff, hydrological regime, transformation of ecosystems, remote sensing

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18817 A Methodology for the Identification of Technological Gaps and the Measurement of the Level of Technological Acceptance in the Rural Sector in Colombia

Authors: Anyi Katherine Garzon Robles, Luis Carlos Gomez Florez

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Since the advent of the Internet, the use of Information Technologies (IT) has increased exponentially. The field of informatics and telecommunications has put on the table countless possibilities for the development of different socio-economic activities, promoting a change of social paradigm and the emergence of the so-called information and knowledge society. For more than a decade, the Colombian government has been working on the incorporation of IT into the public sector through an e-government strategy. However, to date, many technological gaps has not yet been identified in the country to our knowledge, especially in rural areas and far from large cities, where factors such as low investment and the expansion of the armed conflict have led to economic and technological stagnation. This paper presents the research results obtained from the execution of a research project, which was approach from a qualitative approach and a methodological design of a participatory action research type. This design consists of nine fundamental stages divided into four work cycles. For which different strategies for data collection and analysis were established. From which, a methodology was obtained for the identification of technological gaps and the measurement of the level of technological acceptance in the rural sector, based on the TAM (Technology Acceptance Model) model, as a previous activity to the development of IT solutions framed in the e-government strategy in Colombia. The result of this research work represents a contribution from academia for the improvement of the country's technological development and a guide for the proper planning of IT solutions aimed at promoting a close relationship between government and citizens.

Keywords: E-government, knowledge society, level of technological acceptance, technological gaps, technology acceptance model

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18816 Using Large Databases and Interviews to Explore the Temporal Phases of Technology-Based Entrepreneurial Ecosystems

Authors: Elsie L. Echeverri-Carroll

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Entrepreneurial ecosystems have become an important concept to explain the birth and sustainability of technology-based entrepreneurship within regions. However, as a theoretical concept, the temporal evolution of entrepreneurship systems remain underdeveloped, making it difficult to understand their dynamic contributions to entrepreneurs. This paper argues that successful technology-based ecosystems go over three cumulative spawning stages: corporate spawning, entrepreneurial spawning, and community spawning. The importance of corporate incubation in vibrant entrepreneurial ecosystems is well documented in the entrepreneurial literature. Similarly, entrepreneurial spawning processes for venture capital-backed startups are well documented in the financial literature. In contrast, there is little understanding of both the third stage of entrepreneurial spawning (when a community of entrepreneurs become a source of firm spawning) and the temporal sequence in which spawning effects occur in a region. We test this three-stage model of entrepreneurial spawning using data from two large databases on firm births—the Secretary of State (160,000 observations) and the National Establishment Time Series (NEST with 150,000 observations)—and information collected from 60 1½-hour interviews with startup founders and representatives of key entrepreneurial organizations. This temporal model is illustrated with case study of Austin, Texas ranked by the Kauffman Foundation as the number one entrepreneurial city in the United States in 2015 and 2016. The 1½-year study founded by the Kauffman Foundation demonstrates the importance of taken into consideration the temporal contributions of both large and entrepreneurial firms in understanding the factors that contribute to the birth and growth of technology-based entrepreneurial regions. More important, these learnings could offer an important road map for regions that pursue to advance their entrepreneurial ecosystems.

Keywords: entrepreneurial ecosystems, entrepreneurial industrial clusters, high-technology, temporal changes

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18815 Human Factors Simulation Approach to Analyze Older Drivers’ Performance in Intersections Left-Turn Scenarios

Authors: Yassir AbdelRazig, Eren Ozguven, Ren Moses

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While there exists a greater understanding of the differences between the driving behaviors of older and younger drivers, there is still a need to further understand how the two groups perform when attempting to perform complex intersection maneuvers. This paper looks to determine if, and to what extent, these differences exist when drivers encounter permissive left-hand turns, pedestrian traffic, two and four-lane intersections, heavy fog, and night conditions. The study will utilize a driving simulator to develop custom drivable scenarios containing one or more of the previously mentioned conditions. 32 younger and 32 older (+65 years) participants perform driving simulation scenarios and have their velocity, time to the nearest oncoming vehicle, accepted and rejected gaps, etc., recorded. The data collected from the simulator is analyzed via Raff’s method and logistic regression in order to determine and compare the critical gaps values of the two cohorts. Out of the parameters considered for this study, only the age of the driver, their experience (if they are a younger driver), the size of a gap, and the presence of pedestrians on the crosswalk proved significant. The results did not support the hypothesis that older drivers would be significantly more conservative in their critical gaps judgment and acceptance.

Keywords: older drivers, simulation, left-turn, human factors

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18814 The Impact of Multiple Stressors on the Functioning and Resilience of Model Freshwater Ecosystems

Authors: Sajida Saqira, Anthony Chariton, Grant C. Hose

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The Anthropocene has seen dramatic environmental changes which are affecting every ecosystem on earth. Freshwater ecosystems are particularly vulnerable as they are at risk from the many activities that go on and contaminants that are released in catchments. They are thus subject to many stressors simultaneously. Freshwater ecosystems respond to stress at all levels of biological organization, from subcellular to community structure and ecosystem functioning. The aim of this study was to examine the resistance and resilience of freshwater ecosystems to multiple stressors. Here we explored the individual and combined effects of copper as a chemical stressor and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) as a biological stressor on the health, functioning, and recovery of outdoor experimental pond ecosystems in a long-term, controlled, factorial experiment. Primary productivity, decomposition, and water and sediment quality were analysed at regular intervals for one year to understand the health and functioning of the ecosystems. Changes to benthic biota were quantified using DNA-based and traditional microscopy-based counts of invertebrates. Carp were added to the ponds to copper contaminated sediments (with controls) to explore the combined effects of copper and carp and removed after six months to explore the resilience and recovery of the system. The outcomes of this study will advance our understanding of the impacts of multiple stressors on freshwater ecosystems, and the resilience of these systems to copper and C. carpio, which are both globally significant stressors in freshwater systems.

Keywords: carp, copper, ecosystem health, freshwater ecosystem, multiple stressors

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18813 Analytical Study on Threats to Wetland Ecosystems and Their Solutions in the Framework of the Ramsar Convention

Authors: Ehsan Daryadel, Farhad Talaie

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Wetlands are one of the most important ecosystems on Earth. Nevertheless, various challenges threaten these ecosystems and disrupt their ecological character. Among these, the effects of human-based threats are more devastating. Following mass degradation of wetlands during 1970s, the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands (Ramsar, Iran, 1971) was concluded to conserve wetlands of international importance and prevent destruction and degradation of such ecosystems through wise use of wetlands as a mean to achieve sustainable development in all over the world. Therefore, in this paper, efforts have been made to analyze threats to wetlands and then investigate solutions in the framework of the Ramsar Convention. Finally, in order to operate these mechanisms, this study concludes that all states should in turn make their best effort to improve and restore global wetlands through preservation of environmental standards and close contribution and also through taking joint measures with other states effectively.

Keywords: Ramsar Convention, threats, wetland wcosystems, wise use

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18812 Informing, Enabling and Inspiring Social Innovation by Geographic Systems Mapping: A Case Study in Workforce Development

Authors: Cassandra A. Skinner, Linda R. Chamberlain

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The nonprofit and public sectors are increasingly turning to Geographic Information Systems for data visualizations which can better inform programmatic and policy decisions. Additionally, the private and nonprofit sectors are turning to systems mapping to better understand the ecosystems within which they operate. This study explores the potential which combining these data visualization methods—a method which is called geographic systems mapping—to create an exhaustive and comprehensive understanding of a social problem’s ecosystem may have in social innovation efforts. Researchers with Grand Valley State University collaborated with Talent 2025 of West Michigan to conduct a mixed-methods research study to paint a comprehensive picture of the workforce development ecosystem in West Michigan. Using semi-structured interviewing, observation, secondary research, and quantitative analysis, data were compiled on workforce development organizations’ locations, programming, metrics for success, partnerships, funding sources, and service language. To best visualize and disseminate the data, a geographic system map was created which identifies programmatic, operational, and geographic gaps in workforce development services of West Michigan. By combining geographic and systems mapping methods, the geographic system map provides insight into the cross-sector relationships, collaboration, and competition which exists among and between workforce development organizations. These insights identify opportunities for and constraints around cross-sectoral social innovation in the West Michigan workforce development ecosystem. This paper will discuss the process utilized to prepare the geographic systems map, explain the results and outcomes, and demonstrate how geographic systems mapping illuminated the needs of the community and opportunities for social innovation. As complicated social problems like unemployment often require cross-sectoral and multi-stakeholder solutions, there is potential for geographic systems mapping to be a tool which informs, enables, and inspires these solutions.

Keywords: cross-sector collaboration, data visualization, geographic systems mapping, social innovation, workforce development

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18811 Filling the Gaps with Representation: Netflix’s Anne with an E as a Way to Reveal What the Text Hid

Authors: Arkadiusz Adam Gardaś

Abstract:

In his theory of gaps, Wolfgang Iser states that literary texts often lack direct messages. Instead of using straightforward descriptions, authors leave the gaps or blanks, i.e., the spaces within the text that come into existence only when readers fill them with their understanding and experiences. This paper’s aim is to present Iser’s literary theory in an intersectional way by comparing it to the idea of intersemiotic translation. To be more precise, the author uses the example of Netflix’s adaption of Lucy Maud Montgomery’s Anne of Green Gables as a form of rendering a book into a film in such a way that certain textual gaps are filled with film images. Intersemiotic translation is a rendition in which signs of one kind of media are translated into the signs of the other media. Film adaptions are the most common, but not the only, type of intersemiotic translation. In this case, the role of the translator is taken by a screenwriter. A screenwriter’s role can reach beyond the direct meaning presented by the author, and instead, it can delve into the source material (here – a novel) in a deeper way. When it happens, a screenwriter is able to spot the gaps in the text and fill them with images that can later be presented to the viewers. Anne with an E, the Netflix adaption of Montgomery’s novel, may be used as a highly meaningful example of such a rendition. It is due to the fact that the 2017 series was broadcasted more than a hundred years after the first edition of the novel was published. This means that what the author might not have been able to show in her text can now be presented in a more open way. The screenwriter decided to use this opportunity to represent certain groups in the film, i.e., racial and sexual minorities, and women. Nonetheless, the series does not alter the novel; in fact, it adds to it by filling the blanks with more direct images. In the paper, fragments of the first season of Anne with an E are analysed in comparison to its source, the novel by Montgomery. The main purpose of that is to show how intersemiotic translation connected with the Iser’s literary theory can enrich the understanding of works of art, culture, media, and literature.

Keywords: intersemiotic translation, film, literary gaps, representation

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18810 An Investigation into the Gaps in Green Building Education and Training Offerings in Nigeria

Authors: Adebayo A. Abimbola, Anifowose O. Joseph, Olanrewaju S. Taiwo

Abstract:

Green building (GB) practices have the potential to save energy, save money, and improve the quality of human habitat. They can also contribute to water conservation, more efficient use of raw materials, and ecosystem health around the globe. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) singled out the building sector as having the most cost-effective opportunities for reducing carbon emissions—in fact, many building-related opportunities are cost-neutral, or even cost-positive, to the building owner. These benefits have made green building practices the fastest-growing trend in the building industry, but they still represent only a fraction of new construction, and the enormous stock of existing buildings has barely been touched at all. To effectively deliver the kind of (GB) that can become a force for positive change at global, regional and local scales, all workforce sectors need new skills that are both technical and interpersonal in nature. A prominent bottleneck is seen to be education and training. This paper investigates the major gaps in current GB education and training offerings in Nigeria. A questionnaire survey was developed to capture the perception of construction professionals and academics in relevant professions regarding the significance of the identified gaps as it affects GB education and training. Based on Likert scale ranking, research result shows that perception of training in specific technical fields and financial benefits and evaluation are identified as the top gaps in GB training and education offerings. The paper concludes with suggestions and actions that can enhance capabilities of the GB workforce in Nigeria.

Keywords: education and training, gaps, green building, workforce

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18809 Entrepreneurial Ecosystems and Innovation Systems: An Appraisal of Literature

Authors: Jose Carlos Rodriguez, Mario Gomez

Abstract:

In the last years, the concept of entrepreneurial ecosystems has gained popularity. It reveals the importance of a supportive community and adequate economic environment for entrepreneurial activity, and thus the possibility of developing a different perspective on the innovation system. On the other hand, the (regional/technology) innovation system approach lacks in its analyses the presence of an entrepreneur as a key actor that develops innovations. In this regard, this paper examines the foundations of both theoretical approaches (the entrepreneurial ecosystems and the regional/technology systems of innovation) and their contributions to understand entrepreneurial activity at different levels of analyses, namely national, regional or local. The paper makes a literature review on both perspectives of innovation stressing the role played by entrepreneurs in these theoretical approaches. It concludes remarking that the regional/technology innovation systems approach and the entrepreneurial ecosystem approach have established themselves in their own right, but the regional/technology innovation system approach is a predecessor of the entrepreneurial ecosystem approach.

Keywords: entrepreneurial ecosystems, innovation systems, entrepreneurial activity, comparative analysis

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18808 Talent Management through Integration of Talent Value Chain and Human Capital Analytics Approaches

Authors: Wuttigrai Ngamsirijit

Abstract:

Talent management in today’s modern organizations has become data-driven due to a demand for objective human resource decision making and development of analytics technologies. HR managers have been faced with some obstacles in exploiting data and information to obtain their effective talent management decisions. These include process-based data and records; insufficient human capital-related measures and metrics; lack of capabilities in data modeling in strategic manners; and, time consuming to add up numbers and make decisions. This paper proposes a framework of talent management through integration of talent value chain and human capital analytics approaches. It encompasses key data, measures, and metrics regarding strategic talent management decisions along the organizational and talent value chain. Moreover, specific predictive and prescriptive models incorporating these data and information are recommended to help managers in understanding the state of talent, gaps in managing talent and the organization, and the ways to develop optimized talent strategies.    

Keywords: decision making, human capital analytics, talent management, talent value chain

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18807 Imputation of Urban Movement Patterns Using Big Data

Authors: Eusebio Odiari, Mark Birkin, Susan Grant-Muller, Nicolas Malleson

Abstract:

Big data typically refers to consumer datasets revealing some detailed heterogeneity in human behavior, which if harnessed appropriately, could potentially revolutionize our understanding of the collective phenomena of the physical world. Inadvertent missing values skew these datasets and compromise the validity of the thesis. Here we discuss a conceptually consistent strategy for identifying other relevant datasets to combine with available big data, to plug the gaps and to create a rich requisite comprehensive dataset for subsequent analysis. Specifically, emphasis is on how these methodologies can for the first time enable the construction of more detailed pictures of passenger demand and drivers of mobility on the railways. These methodologies can predict the influence of changes within the network (like a change in time-table or impact of a new station), explain local phenomena outside the network (like rail-heading) and the other impacts of urban morphology. Our analysis also reveals that our new imputation data model provides for more equitable revenue sharing amongst network operators who manage different parts of the integrated UK railways.

Keywords: big-data, micro-simulation, mobility, ticketing-data, commuters, transport, synthetic, population

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18806 Alien Plant Invasions Can Influence Global Warming by Accelerating Wetland Methane Emission, Terrestrial Methane Uptake and Terrestrial Nitrous Oxide Emission

Authors: Bahilu Bezabih, Weixin Ding, Junji Yuan, Deyan Liu, Zengming Chen, Jinhyun Kim, Hojeong Kang, Chris Freeman

Abstract:

Approximately 17% of the world's lands are considered highly vulnerable to alien plant invasion, which can dramatically alter carbon and nitrogen cycles and influence greenhouse-gas emissions in terrestrial and wetland ecosystems. Here, a dataset was compiled of 267 paired observational cases from 99 peer-reviewed articles and evaluate the effects of alien plant invasion on methane (CH₄) and nitrous oxide (N₂O) emissions using annual global net gas budgets for wetlands, grasslands, and forests. The average annual CH₄ emission rate in natural containing only native plant species was once 225 kg CH₄ ha⁻¹ but has increased to 412 kg CH₄ ha⁻¹ following displacement by invasive plants. The presence of invasive plants has increased annual atmospheric CH₄ uptake significantly from 2.14 kg CH₄ ha⁻¹ to 3.54 kg CH₄ ha⁻¹ in terrestrial ecosystems. Invasive plant species had no significant effect on annual N₂O emission rates from forest and wetland ecosystems but did cause a 70% increase in N₂O emissions from grassland ecosystems. The presence of the exotic plant's Spartina alterniflora, Phragmites australis, and Sonneratia apetala was associated with a severe increase in CH₄ emissions from wetlands. Conversely, Robinia pseudoacacia, Deschampsia flexuosa, and Eucalyptus urophylla were associated with an increase in atmospheric CH₄ uptake from forests, while S. apetala and Solidago canadensis stimulated N₂O emissions in wetlands and grassland ecosystems, respectively. Globally, annual CH₄ emissions from wetlands increased by 3.16 Tg CH₄ and atmospheric CH₄ uptake in forest and grassland ecosystems increased by 0.15 and 0.08 Tg CH₄, respectively, due to invasive plants. The cumulative increase in global annual N₂O emissions from wetland and terrestrial ecosystems under plant invasion is estimated to be 94.17 Tg N₂O. These findings suggest that alien plant invasion of wetland ecosystems would create a major additional source of CH₄ emission, while CH₄ uptake and N₂O emissions would markedly increase from invaded forest and grassland ecosystems, respectively.

Keywords: invasive species, native plant, methane, nitrous oxide, wetland ecosystem, terrestrial ecosystem

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