Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1556

Search results for: beam deformation

1556 Effect of Normal Deformation on the Stability of Sandwich Beams Simply Supported Using a Refined Four-Variable Beam Theory

Authors: R. Bennai, M. Nebab, H. Ait Atmane, B. Ayache, H. Fourn

Abstract:

In this work, a study of the stability of a functionally graduated sandwiches beam using a refined theory of hyperbolic shear deformation of a beam was developed. The effects of transverse shear strains and the transverse normal deformation are considered. The constituent materials of the beam are supposed gradually variable depending on the height direction based on a simple power distribution law in terms of the volume fractions of the constituents; the two materials with which we worked are metals and ceramics. In order to examine the present model, illustrative examples are presented to show the effects of changes in different parameters such as the material graduation, the stretching effect of the thickness and thickness ratio –length on the buckling of FGM sandwich beams.

Keywords: FGM materials, refined shear deformation theory, stretching effect, buckling, boundary conditions

Procedia PDF Downloads 117
1555 Experimental Investigation on the Efficiency of Expanded Polystyrene Geofoam Post and Beam System in Protecting Lifelines

Authors: Masood Abdollahi, Seyed Naser Moghaddas Tafreshi

Abstract:

Expanded polystyrene (EPS) geofoam is a cellular geosynthetic material that can be used to protect lifelines (e.g. pipelines, electricity cables, etc.) below ground. Post and beam system is the most recent configuration of EPS blocks which can be implemented for this purpose. It provides a void space atop lifelines which allows settlement of the loading surface with imposing no pressure on the lifelines system. This paper investigates the efficiency of the configuration of post-beam system subjected to static loading. To evaluate the soil surface settlement, beam deformation and transferred pressure over the beam, laboratory tests using two different densities for EPS blocks are conducted. The effect of geogrid-reinforcing the cover soil on system response is also investigated. The experimental results show favorable performance of EPS post and beam configuration in protecting underground lifelines. 

Keywords: beam deformation, EPS block, laboratory test, post-Beam system, soil surface settlement

Procedia PDF Downloads 146
1554 Free Vibration of Functionally Graded Smart Beams Based on the First Order Shear Deformation Theory

Authors: A. R. Nezamabadi, M. Veiskarami

Abstract:

This paper studies free vibration of simply supported functionally graded beams with piezoelectric layers based on the first order shear deformation theory. The Young's modulus of beam is assumed to be graded continuously across the beam thickness. The governing equation is established. Resulting equation is solved using the Euler's equation. The effects of the constituent volume fractions, the influences of applied voltage on the vibration frequency are presented. To investigate the accuracy of the present analysis, a compression study is carried out with a known data.

Keywords: mechanical buckling, functionally graded beam, first order shear deformation theory, free vibration

Procedia PDF Downloads 393
1553 Cantilever Secant Pile Constructed in Sand: Capping Beam Analysis and Deformation Limitations

Authors: Khaled R. Khater

Abstract:

This paper fits in soil-structure interaction division. Its theme is soil retaining structures. Hence, the cantilever secant-pile wall imposed itself, focusing on the capping beam. Four research questions are prompted and beg an answer. How to calculate the forces that control capping beam design? What is the statical system of ‘capping beam-secant pile’ as one unit? Is it possible to design it to satisfy pre-specific lateral deformation? Is it possible to suggest permissible lateral deformation limits? Briefly, pile head displacements induced by Plaxis-2D are converted to forces needed for STAAD-Pro 3D models. Those models are constructed based on the proposed structural system. This is the paper’s idea and methodology. Parametric study performed considered three sand densities, one pile rigidity, and two excavation depths, i.e., 3.0 m and 5.0 m. The research questions are satisfactorily answered. This paper could be a first step towards standardizing analysis, design, and lateral deformations checks.

Keywords: capping beam, secant pile, numerical, design aids, sandy soil

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
1552 Seismic Response Analysis of Frame Structures Based on Super Joint Element Model

Authors: Li Xu, Yang Hong, T. Zhao Wen

Abstract:

Experimental results of many RC beam-column subassemblage indicate that slippage of longitudinal beam rebar within the joint and the shear deformation of joint core have significant influence on seismic behavior of the subassemblage. However, rigid joint assumption has been generally used in the seismic response analysis of RC frames, in which two kinds of inelastic deformation of joint have been ignored. Based on OpenSees platform, ‘Super Joint Element Model’ with more detailed inelastic mechanism is used to simulate the inelastic response of joints. Two finite element models of typical RC plane frame, namely considering or ignoring the inelastic deformation of joint respectively, were established and analyzed under seven strong earthquake waves. The simulated global and local inelastic deformations of the RC plane frame is shown and discussed. The analyses also confirm the security of the earthquake-resistant frame designed according to Chinese codes.

Keywords: frame structure, beam-column joint, longitudinal bar slippage, shear deformation, nonlinear analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 327
1551 Investigation on an Innovative Way to Connect RC Beam and Steel Column

Authors: Ahmed H. El-Masry, Mohamed A. Dabaon, Tarek F. El-Shafiey, Abd El-Hakim A. Khalil

Abstract:

An experimental study was performed to investigate the behavior and strength of proposed technique to connect reinforced concrete (RC) beam to steel or composite columns. This approach can practically be used in several types of building construction. In this technique, the main beam of the frame consists of a transfer part (part of beam; Tr.P) and a common reinforcement concrete beam. The transfer part of the beam is connected to the column, whereas the rest of the beam is connected to the transfer part from each side. Four full-scale beam-column connections were tested under static loading. The test parameters were the length of the transfer part and the column properties. The test results show that using of the transfer part technique leads to modify the deformation capabilities for the RC beam and hence it increases its resistance against failure. Increase in length of the transfer part did not necessarily indicate an enhanced behavior. The test results contribute to the characterization of the connection behavior between RC beam - steel column and can be used to calibrate numerical models for the simulation of this type of connection.

Keywords: composite column, reinforced concrete beam, steel column, transfer part

Procedia PDF Downloads 356
1550 A Higher Order Shear and Normal Deformation Theory for Functionally Graded Sandwich Beam

Authors: R. Bennai, H. Ait Atmane, Jr., A. Tounsi

Abstract:

In this work, a new analytical approach using a refined theory of hyperbolic shear deformation of a beam was developed to study the free vibration of graduated sandwiches beams under different boundary conditions. The effects of transverse shear strains and the transverse normal deformation are considered. The constituent materials of the beam are supposed gradually variable depending the height direction based on a simple power distribution law in terms of the volume fractions of the constituents; the two materials with which we worked are metals and ceramics. The core layer is taken homogeneous and made of an isotropic material; while the banks layers consist of FGM materials with a homogeneous fraction compared to the middle layer. Movement equations are obtained by the energy minimization principle. Analytical solutions of free vibration and buckling are obtained for sandwich beams under different support conditions; these conditions are taken into account by incorporating new form functions. In the end, illustrative examples are presented to show the effects of changes in different parameters such as (material graduation, the stretching effect of the thickness, boundary conditions and thickness ratio - length) on the vibration free and buckling of an FGM sandwich beams.

Keywords: functionally graded sandwich beam, refined shear deformation theory, stretching effect, free vibration

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
1549 Thermal Buckling Analysis of Functionally Graded Beams with Various Boundary Conditions

Authors: Gholamreza Koochaki

Abstract:

This paper presents the buckling analysis of functionally graded beams with various boundary conditions. The first order shear deformation beam theory (Timoshenko beam theory) and the classical theory (Euler-Bernoulli beam theory) of Reddy have been applied to the functionally graded beams buckling analysis The material property gradient is assumed to be in thickness direction. The equilibrium and stability equations are derived using the total potential energy equations, classical theory and first order shear deformation theory assumption. The temperature difference and applied voltage are assumed to be constant. The critical buckling temperature of FG beams are upper than the isotropic ones. Also, the critical temperature is different for various boundary conditions.

Keywords: buckling, functionally graded beams, Hamilton's principle, Euler-Bernoulli beam

Procedia PDF Downloads 296
1548 Investigation of the Corroded Steel Beam

Authors: Hesamaddin Khoshnoodi, Ahmad Rahbar Ranji

Abstract:

Corrosion in steel structures is one of the most important issues that should be considered in designing and constructing. Corrosion reduces the cross section and load capacity of element and leads to costly damage of structures. In this paper, the corrosion has been modeled for moment stresses. Moreover, the steel beam has been modeled using ABAQUS advanced finite element software. The conclusions of this study demonstrated that the displacement of the analyzed composite steel girder bridge might increase.

Keywords: Abaqus, Corrosion, deformation, Steel Beam

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
1547 Influence of Hygro-Thermo-Mechanical Loading on Buckling and Vibrational Behavior of FG-CNT Composite Beam with Temperature Dependent Characteristics

Authors: Puneet Kumar, Jonnalagadda Srinivas

Abstract:

The authors report here vibration and buckling analysis of functionally graded carbon nanotube-polymer composite (FG-CNTPC) beams under hygro-thermo-mechanical environments using higher order shear deformation theory. The material properties of CNT and polymer matrix are often affected by temperature and moisture content. A micromechanical model with agglomeration effect is employed to compute the elastic, thermal and moisture properties of the composite beam. The governing differential equation of FG-CNTRPC beam is developed using higher-order shear deformation theory to account shear deformation effects. The elastic, thermal and hygroscopic strain terms are derived from variational principles. Moreover, thermal and hygroscopic loads are determined by considering uniform, linear and sinusoidal variation of temperature and moisture content through the thickness. Differential equations of motion are formulated as an eigenvalue problem using appropriate displacement fields and solved by using finite element modeling. The obtained results of natural frequencies and critical buckling loads show a good agreement with published data. The numerical illustrations elaborate the dynamic as well as buckling behavior under uniaxial load for different environmental conditions, boundary conditions and volume fraction distribution profile, beam slenderness ratio. Further, comparisons are shown at different boundary conditions, temperatures, degree of moisture content, volume fraction as well as agglomeration of CNTs, slenderness ratio of beam for different shear deformation theories.

Keywords: hygrothermal effect, free vibration, buckling load, agglomeration

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
1546 Residual Plastic Deformation Capacity in Reinforced Concrete Beams Subjected to Drop Weight Impact Test

Authors: Morgan Johansson, Joosef Leppanen, Mathias Flansbjer, Fabio Lozano, Josef Makdesi

Abstract:

Concrete is commonly used for protective structures and how impact loading affects different types of concrete structures is an important issue. Often the knowledge gained from static loading is also used in the design of impulse loaded structures. A large plastic deformation capacity is essential to obtain a large energy absorption in an impulse loaded structure. However, the structural response of an impact loaded concrete beam may be very different compared to a statically loaded beam. Consequently, the plastic deformation capacity and failure modes of the concrete structure can be different when subjected to dynamic loads; and hence it is not sure that the observations obtained from static loading are also valid for dynamic loading. The aim of this paper is to investigate the residual plastic deformation capacity in reinforced concrete beams subjected to drop weight impact tests. A test-series consisting of 18 simply supported beams (0.1 x 0.1 x 1.18 m, ρs = 0.7%) with a span length of 1.0 m and subjected to a point load in the beam mid-point, was carried out. 2x6 beams were first subjected to drop weight impact tests, and thereafter statically tested until failure. The drop in weight had a mass of 10 kg and was dropped from 2.5 m or 5.0 m. During the impact tests, a high-speed camera was used with 5 000 fps and for the static tests, a camera was used with 0.5 fps. Digital image correlation (DIC) analyses were conducted and from these the velocities of the beam and the drop weight, as well as the deformations and crack propagation of the beam, were effectively measured. Additionally, for the static tests, the applied load and midspan deformation were measured. The load-deformation relations for the beams subjected to an impact load were compared with 6 reference beams that were subjected to static loading only. The crack pattern obtained were compared using DIC, and it was concluded that the resulting crack formation depended much on the test method used. For the static tests, only bending cracks occurred. For the impact loaded beams, though, distinctive diagonal shear cracks also formed below the zone of impact and less wide shear cracks were observed in the region half-way to the support. Furthermore, due to wave propagation effects, bending cracks developed in the upper part of the beam during initial loading. The results showed that the plastic deformation capacity increased for beams subjected to drop weight impact tests from a high drop height of 5.0 m. For beams subjected to an impact from a low drop height of 2.5 m, though, the plastic deformation capacity was in the same order of magnitude as for the statically loaded reference beams. The beams tested were designed to fail due to bending when subjected to a static load. However, for the impact tested beams, one beam exhibited a shear failure at a significantly reduced load level when it was tested statically; indicating that there might be a risk of reduced residual load capacity for impact loaded structures.

Keywords: digital image correlation (DIC), drop weight impact, experiments, plastic deformation capacity, reinforced concrete

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
1545 Vibration Behavior of Nanoparticle Delivery in a Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Using Nonlocal Timoshenko Beam Theory

Authors: Haw-Long Lee, Win-Jin Chang, Yu-Ching Yang

Abstract:

In the paper, the coupled equation of motion for the dynamic displacement of a fullerene moving in a (10,10) single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) is derived using nonlocal Timoshenko beam theory, including the effects of rotary inertia and shear deformation. The effects of confined stiffness between the fullerene and nanotube, foundation stiffness, and nonlocal parameter on the dynamic behavior are analyzed using the Runge-Kutta Method. The numerical solution is in agreement with the analytical result for the special case. The numerical results show that increasing the confined stiffness and foundation stiffness decrease the dynamic displacement of SWCNT. However, the dynamic displacement increases with increasing the nonlocal parameter. In addition, result using the Euler beam theory and the Timoshenko beam theory are compared. It can be found that ignoring the effects of rotary inertia and shear deformation leads to an underestimation of the displacement.

Keywords: single-walled carbon nanotube, nanoparticle delivery, Nonlocal Timoshenko beam theory, Runge-Kutta Method, Van der Waals force

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
1544 Creep Effect on Composite Beam with Perfect Steel-Concrete Connection

Authors: Souici Abdelaziz, Tehami Mohamed, Rahal Nacer, Said Mohamed Bekkouche, Berthet Jean-Fabien

Abstract:

In this paper, the influence of the concrete slab creep on the initial deformability of a bent composite beam is modelled. This deformability depends on the rate of creep. This means the rise in value of the longitudinal strain ε c(x,t), the displacement D eflec(x,t) and the strain energy E(t). The variation of these three parameters can easily affect negatively the good appearance and the serviceability of the structure. Therefore, an analytical approach is designed to control the status of the deformability of the beam at the instant t. This approach is based on the Boltzmann’s superposition principle and very particularly on the irreversible law of deformation. For this, two conditions of compatibility and two other static equilibrium equations are adopted. The two first conditions are set according to the rheological equation of Dischinger. After having done a mathematical arrangement, we have reached a system of two differential equations whose integration allows to find the mathematical expression of each generalized internal force in terms of the ability of the concrete slab to creep.

Keywords: composite section, concrete, creep, deformation, differential equation, time

Procedia PDF Downloads 304
1543 Study of the Buckling of Sandwich Beams Consider Stretching Effect

Authors: R. Bennai, H. Ait Atmane, H. Fourne, B. Ayache

Abstract:

In this work, an analytical approach using a refined theory of hyperbolic shear deformation of a beam was developed to study the buckling of graduated sandwiches beams under different boundary conditions. The effects of transverse shear strains and the transverse normal deformation are considered. The constituent materials of the beam are supposed gradually variable depending on the height direction based on a simple power distribution law in terms of the volume fractions of the constituents; the two materials with which we worked are metals and ceramics. The core layer is taken homogeneous and made of an isotropic material; while the banks layers consist of functionally graded materials with a homogeneous fraction compared to the middle layer. In the end, illustrative examples are presented to show the effects of changes in different parameters such as (material graduation, the stretching effect of the thickness, boundary conditions and thickness ratio-length) on the vibration free of an FGM sandwich beams.

Keywords: FGM materials, refined shear deformation theory, stretching effect, buckling

Procedia PDF Downloads 117
1542 Static Study of Piezoelectric Bimorph Beams with Delamination Zone

Authors: Zemirline Adel, Ouali Mohammed, Mahieddine Ali

Abstract:

The FOSDT (First Order Shear Deformation Theory) is taking into consideration to study the static behavior of a bimorph beam, with a delamination zone between the upper and the lower layer. The effect of limit conditions and lengths of the delamination zone are presented in this paper, with a PVDF piezoelectric material application. A FEM “Finite Element Method” is used to discretize the beam. In the axial displacement, a displacement field appears in the debonded zone with inverse effect between the upper and the lower layer was observed.

Keywords: static, piezoelectricity, beam, delamination

Procedia PDF Downloads 328
1541 Geometrically Linear Symmetric Free Vibration Analysis of Sandwich Beam

Authors: Ibnorachid Zakaria, El Bikri Khalid, Benamar Rhali, Farah Abdoun

Abstract:

The aim of the present work is to study the linear free symmetric vibration of three-layer sandwich beam using the energy method. The zigzag model is used to describe the displacement field. The theoretical model is based on the top and bottom layers behave like Euler-Bernoulli beams while the core layer like a Timoshenko beam. Based on Hamilton’s principle, the governing equation of motion sandwich beam is obtained in order to calculate the linear frequency parameters for a clamped-clamped and simple supported-simple-supported beams. The effects of material properties and geometric parameters on the natural frequencies are also investigated.

Keywords: linear vibration, sandwich, shear deformation, Timoshenko zig-zag model

Procedia PDF Downloads 395
1540 Modified Side Plate Design to Suppress Lateral Torsional Buckling of H-Beam for Seismic Application

Authors: Erwin, Cheng-Cheng Chen, Charles J. Salim

Abstract:

One of the method to solve the lateral torsional buckling (LTB) problem is by using side plates to increased the buckling resistance of the beam. Some modifications in designing the side plates are made in this study to simplify the construction in the field and reduce the cost. At certain region, side plates are not added: (1) At the beam end to preserve some spaces for bolt installation, but the beam is strengthened by adding cover plate at both flanges and (2) at the middle span of the beam where the moment is smaller. Three small scale full span beam specimens are tested under cyclic loading to investigate the LTB resistant and the ductility of the proposed design method. Test results show that the LTB deformation can be effectively suppressed and very high ductility level can be achieved. Following the test, a finite element analysis (FEA) model is established and is verified using the test results. An intensive parametric study is conducted using the established FEA model. The analysis reveals that the length of side plates is the most important parameter determining the performance of the beam and the required side plates length is determined by some parameters which are (1) beam depth to flange width ratio, (2) beam slenderness ratio (3) strength and thickness of the side plates, (4) compactness of beam web and flange, and (5) beam yield strength. At the end of the paper, a design formula to calculate the required side plate length is suggested.

Keywords: cover plate, earthquake resistant design, lateral torsional buckling, side plate, steel structure

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
1539 Nonlinear Analysis of Shear Deformable Deep Beam Resting on Nonlinear Two-Parameter Random Soil

Authors: M. Seguini, D. Nedjar

Abstract:

In this paper, the nonlinear analysis of Timoshenko beam undergoing moderate large deflections and resting on nonlinear two-parameter random foundation is presented, taking into account the effects of shear deformation, beam’s properties variation and the spatial variability of soil characteristics. The finite element probabilistic analysis has been performed by using Timoshenko beam theory with the Von Kàrmàn nonlinear strain-displacement relationships combined to Vanmarcke theory and Monte Carlo simulations, which is implemented in a Matlab program. Numerical examples of the newly developed model is conducted to confirm the efficiency and accuracy of this later and the importance of accounting for the foundation second parameter (Winkler-Pasternak). Thus, the results obtained from the developed model are presented and compared with those available in the literature to examine how the consideration of the shear and spatial variability of soil’s characteristics affects the response of the system.

Keywords: nonlinear analysis, soil-structure interaction, large deflection, Timoshenko beam, Euler-Bernoulli beam, Winkler foundation, Pasternak foundation, spatial variability

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
1538 Optimization Analysis of Controlled Cooling Process for H-Shape Steam Beams

Authors: Jiin-Yuh Jang, Yu-Feng Gan

Abstract:

In order to improve the comprehensive mechanical properties of the steel, the cooling rate, and the temperature distribution must be controlled in the cooling process. A three-dimensional numerical model for the prediction of the heat transfer coefficient distribution of H-beam in the controlled cooling process was performed in order to obtain the uniform temperature distribution and minimize the maximum stress and the maximum deformation after the controlled cooling. An algorithm developed with a simplified conjugated-gradient method was used as an optimizer to optimize the heat transfer coefficient distribution. The numerical results showed that, for the case of air cooling 5 seconds followed by water cooling 6 seconds with uniform the heat transfer coefficient, the cooling rate is 15.5 (℃/s), the maximum temperature difference is 85℃, the maximum the stress is 125 MPa, and the maximum deformation is 1.280 mm. After optimize the heat transfer coefficient distribution in control cooling process with the same cooling time, the cooling rate is increased to 20.5 (℃/s), the maximum temperature difference is decreased to 52℃, the maximum stress is decreased to 82MPa and the maximum deformation is decreased to 1.167mm.

Keywords: controlled cooling, H-Beam, optimization, thermal stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 295
1537 Free Vibration Analysis of FG Nanocomposite Sandwich Beams Using Various Higher-Order Beam Theories

Authors: Saeed Kamarian

Abstract:

In this paper, free vibrations of Functionally Graded Sandwich (FGS) beams reinforced by randomly oriented Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNTs) are investigated. The Eshelby–Mori–Tanaka approach based on an equivalent fiber is used to investigate the material properties of the structure. The natural frequencies of the FGS nanocomposite beam are analyzed based on various Higher-order Shear Deformation Beam Theories (HSDBTs) and using an analytical method. The verification study represents the simplicity and accuracy of the method for free vibration analysis of nanocomposite beams. The effects of carbon nanotube volume fraction profiles in the face layers, length to span ratio and thicknesses of face layers on the natural frequency of structure are studied for the different HSDBTs. Results show that by utilizing the FGS type of structures, free vibration characteristics of structures can be improved. A comparison is also provided to show the difference between natural frequency responses of the FGS nanocomposite beam reinforced by aligned and randomly oriented SWCNT.

Keywords: sandwich beam, nanocomposite beam, functionally graded materials, higher-order beam theories, Mori-Tanaka approach

Procedia PDF Downloads 394
1536 On Definition of Modulus of Deformation of Ground by Laboratory Method

Authors: Olgha Giorgishvili

Abstract:

The work is mainly concerned with the determination of modulus of deformation by laboratory method. It is known that a modulus of deformation is defining by laboratory and field methods. By laboratory method the modulus of deformation is defined in the compressive devices. Our goal is to conduct experiments by both methods and finally make to interpret the obtained results. In this article is considered the definition by new offered laboratory method of deformation modulus that is closer to the real deformation modulus. Finally, the obtained results gives the possibility to us to raise the issue of change the state norms for determining ground by laboratory method.

Keywords: building, soil mechanic, deformation moulus, compression methods

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
1535 Experimental and Theoratical Methods to Increase Core Damping for Sandwitch Cantilever Beam

Authors: Iyd Eqqab Maree, Moouyad Ibrahim Abbood

Abstract:

The purpose behind this study is to predict damping effect for steel cantilever beam by using two methods of passive viscoelastic constrained layer damping. First method is Matlab Program, this method depend on the Ross, Kerwin and Unger (RKU) model for passive viscoelastic damping. Second method is experimental lab (frequency domain method), in this method used the half-power bandwidth method and can be used to determine the system loss factors for damped steel cantilever beam. The RKU method has been applied to a cantilever beam because beam is a major part of a structure and this prediction may further leads to utilize for different kinds of structural application according to design requirements in many industries. In this method of damping a simple cantilever beam is treated by making sandwich structure to make the beam damp, and this is usually done by using viscoelastic material as a core to ensure the damping effect. The use of viscoelastic layers constrained between elastic layers is known to be effective for damping of flexural vibrations of structures over a wide range of frequencies. The energy dissipated in these arrangements is due to shear deformation in the viscoelastic layers, which occurs due to flexural vibration of the structures. The theory of dynamic stability of elastic systems deals with the study of vibrations induced by pulsating loads that are parametric with respect to certain forms of deformation. There is a very good agreement of the experimental results with the theoretical findings. The main ideas of this thesis are to find the transition region for damped steel cantilever beam (4mm and 8mm thickness) from experimental lab and theoretical prediction (Matlab R2011a). Experimentally and theoretically proved that the transition region for two specimens occurs at modal frequency between mode 1 and mode 2, which give the best damping, maximum loss factor and maximum damping ratio, thus this type of viscoelastic material core (3M468) is very appropriate to use in automotive industry and in any mechanical application has modal frequency eventuate between mode 1 and mode 2.

Keywords: 3M-468 material core, loss factor and frequency, domain method, bioinformatics, biomedicine, MATLAB

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
1534 Simplified Equations for Rigidity and Lateral Deflection for Reinforced Concrete Cantilever Shear Walls

Authors: Anas M. Fares

Abstract:

Reinforced concrete shear walls are the most frequently used forms of lateral resisting structural elements. These walls may take many forms due to their functions and locations in the building. In Palestine, the most lateral resisting forces construction forms is the cantilever shear walls system. It is thus of prime importance to study the rigidity of these walls. The virtual work theorem is used to derive the total lateral deflection of cantilever shear walls due to flexural and shear deformation. The case of neglecting the shear deformation in the walls is also studied, and it is found that the wall height to length aspect ratio (H/B) plays a major role in calculating the lateral deflection and the rigidity of such walls. When the H/B is more than or equal to 3.7, the shear deformation may be neglected from the calculation of the lateral deflection. Moreover, the walls with the same material properties, same lateral load value, and same aspect ratio, shall have the same of both the lateral deflection and the rigidity. Finally, an equation to calculate the total rigidity and total deflection of such walls is derived by using the virtual work theorem for a cantilever beam.

Keywords: cantilever shear walls, flexural deformation, lateral deflection, lateral loads, reinforced concrete shear walls, rigidity, shear deformation, virtual work theorem

Procedia PDF Downloads 120
1533 Free Vibration Analysis of Symmetric Sandwich Beams

Authors: Ibnorachid Zakaria, El Bikri Khalid, Benamar Rhali, Farah Abdoun

Abstract:

The aim of the present work is to study the linear free symmetric vibration of three-layer sandwich beam using the energy method. The zigzag model is used to describe the displacement field. The theoretical model is based on the top and bottom layers behave like Euler-Bernoulli beams while the core layer like a Timoshenko beam. Based on Hamilton’s principle, the governing equation of motion sandwich beam is obtained in order to calculate the linear frequency parameters for a clamped-clamped and simple supported-simple-supported beams. The effects of material properties and geometric parameters on the natural frequencies are also investigated.

Keywords: linear vibration, sandwich, shear deformation, Timoshenko zig-zag model

Procedia PDF Downloads 393
1532 Vibration Control of a Functionally Graded Carbon Nanotube-Reinforced Composites Beam Resting on Elastic Foundation

Authors: Gholamhosein Khosravi, Mohammad Azadi, Hamidreza Ghezavati

Abstract:

In this paper, vibration of a nonlinear composite beam is analyzed and then an active controller is used to control the vibrations of the system. The beam is resting on a Winkler-Pasternak elastic foundation. The composite beam is reinforced by single walled carbon nanotubes. Using the rule of mixture, the material properties of functionally graded carbon nanotube-reinforced composites (FG-CNTRCs) are determined. The beam is cantilever and the free end of the beam is under follower force. Piezoelectric layers are attached to the both sides of the beam to control vibrations as sensors and actuators. The governing equations of the FG-CNTRC beam are derived based on Euler-Bernoulli beam theory Lagrange- Rayleigh-Ritz method. The simulation results are presented and the effects of some parameters on stability of the beam are analyzed.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, vibration control, piezoelectric layers, elastic foundation

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
1531 Coupled Flexural-Lateral-Torsional of Shear Deformable Thin-Walled Beams with Asymmetric Cross-Section–Closed Form Exact Solution

Authors: Mohammed Ali Hjaji, Magdi Mohareb

Abstract:

This paper develops the exact solutions for coupled flexural-lateral-torsional static response of thin-walled asymmetric open members subjected to general loading. Using the principle of stationary total potential energy, the governing differential equations of equilibrium are formulated as well as the associated boundary conditions. The formulation is based on a generalized Timoshenko-Vlasov beam theory and accounts for the effects of shear deformation due to bending and warping, and captures the effects of flexural–torsional coupling due to cross-section asymmetry. Closed-form solutions are developed for cantilever and simply supported beams under various forces. In order to demonstrate the validity and the accuracy of this solution, numerical examples are presented and compared with well-established ABAQUS finite element solutions and other numerical results available in the literature. In addition, the results are compared against non-shear deformable beam theories in order to demonstrate the shear deformation effects.

Keywords: asymmetric cross-section, flexural-lateral-torsional response, Vlasov-Timoshenko beam theory, closed form solution

Procedia PDF Downloads 390
1530 Simulations of High-Intensity, Thermionic Electron Guns for Electron Beam Thermal Processing Including Effects of Space Charge Compensation

Authors: O. Hinrichs, H. Franz, G. Reiter

Abstract:

Electron guns have a key function in a series of thermal processes, like EB (electron beam) melting, evaporation or welding. These techniques need a high-intensity continuous electron beam that defocuses itself due to high space charge forces. A proper beam transport throughout the magnetic focusing system can be ensured by a space charge compensation via residual gas ions. The different pressure stages in the EB gun cause various degrees of compensation. A numerical model was installed to simulate realistic charge distributions within the beam by using CST-Particle Studio code. We will present current status of beam dynamic simulations. This contribution will focus on the creation of space charge ions and their influence on beam and gun components. Furthermore, the beam transport in the gun will be shown for different beam parameters. The electron source allows to produce beams with currents of 3 A to 15 A and energies of 40 keV to 45 keV.

Keywords: beam dynamic simulation, space charge compensation, thermionic electron source, EB melting, EB thermal processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 76
1529 Dynamic Stability of a Wings for Drone Aircraft Subjected to Parametric Excitation

Authors: Iyd Eqqab Maree, Habil Jurgen Bast

Abstract:

Vibration control of machines and structures incorporating viscoelastic materials in suitable arrangement is an important aspect of investigation. The use of viscoelastic layers constrained between elastic layers is known to be effective for damping of flexural vibrations of structures over a wide range of frequencies. The energy dissipated in these arrangements is due to shear deformation in the viscoelastic layers, which occurs due to flexural vibration of the structures. Multilayered cantilever sandwich beam like structures can be used in aircrafts and other applications such as robot arms for effective vibration control. These members may experience parametric instability when subjected to time dependant forces. The theory of dynamic stability of elastic systems deals with the study of vibrations induced by pulsating loads that are parametric with respect to certain forms of deformation. The purpose of the present work is to investigate the dynamic stability of a three layered symmetric sandwich beam (Drone Aircraft wings ) subjected to an end periodic axial force . Equations of motion are derived using finite element method (MATLAB software). It is observed that with increase in core thickness parameter fundamental buckling load increases. The fundamental resonant frequency and second mode frequency parameter also increase with increase in core thickness parameter. Fundamental loss factor and second mode loss factor also increase with increase in core thickness parameter. Increase in core thickness parameter enhances the stability of the beam. With increase in core loss factor also the stability of the beam enhances. There is a very good agreement of the experimental results with the theoretical findings.

Keywords: steel cantilever beam, viscoelastic material core, loss factor, transition region, MATLAB R2011a

Procedia PDF Downloads 396
1528 Propagation of Cos-Gaussian Beam in Photorefractive Crystal

Authors: A. Keshavarz

Abstract:

A physical model for guiding the wave in photorefractive media is studied. Propagation of cos-Gaussian beam as the special cases of sinusoidal-Gaussian beams in photorefractive crystal is simulated numerically by the Crank-Nicolson method in one dimension. Results show that the beam profile deforms as the energy transfers from the center to the tails under propagation. This simulation approach is of significant interest for application in optical telecommunication. The results are presented graphically and discussed.

Keywords: beam propagation, cos-Gaussian beam, numerical simulation, photorefractive crystal

Procedia PDF Downloads 388
1527 Structural Damage Detection in a Steel Column-Beam Joint Using Piezoelectric Sensors

Authors: Carlos H. Cuadra, Nobuhiro Shimoi

Abstract:

Application of piezoelectric sensors to detect structural damage due to seismic action on building structures is investigated. Plate-type piezoelectric sensor was developed and proposed for this task. A film-type piezoelectric sheet was attached on a steel plate and covered by a layer of glass. A special glue is used to fix the glass. This glue is a silicone that requires the application of ultraviolet rays for its hardening. Then, the steel plate was set up at a steel column-beam joint of a test specimen that was subjected to bending moment when test specimen is subjected to monotonic load and cyclic load. The structural behavior of test specimen during cyclic loading was verified using a finite element model, and it was found good agreement between both results on load-displacement characteristics. The cross section of steel elements (beam and column) is a box section of 100 mm×100 mm with a thin of 6 mm. This steel section is specified by the Japanese Industrial Standards as carbon steel square tube for general structure (STKR400). The column and beam elements are jointed perpendicularly using a fillet welding. The resulting test specimen has a T shape. When large deformation occurs the glass plate of the sensor device cracks and at that instant, the piezoelectric material emits a voltage signal which would be the indicator of a certain level of deformation or damage. Applicability of this piezoelectric sensor to detect structural damages was verified; however, additional analysis and experimental tests are required to establish standard parameters of the sensor system.

Keywords: piezoelectric sensor, static cyclic test, steel structure, seismic damages

Procedia PDF Downloads 57