Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7562

Search results for: large hadron electron collider

7562 The Search of Anomalous Higgs Boson Couplings at the Large Hadron Electron Collider and Future Circular Electron Hadron Collider

Authors: Ilkay Turk Cakir, Murat Altinli, Zekeriya Uysal, Abdulkadir Senol, Olcay Bolukbasi Yalcinkaya, Ali Yilmaz

Abstract:

The Higgs boson was discovered by the ATLAS and CMS experimental groups in 2012 at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Production and decay properties of the Higgs boson, Standard Model (SM) couplings, and limits on effective scale of the Higgs boson’s couplings with other bosons are investigated at particle colliders. Deviations from SM estimates are parametrized by effective Lagrangian terms to investigate Higgs couplings. This is a model-independent method for describing the new physics. In this study, sensitivity to neutral gauge boson anomalous couplings with the Higgs boson is investigated using the parameters of the Large Hadron electron Collider (LHeC) and the Future Circular electron-hadron Collider (FCC-eh) with a model-independent approach. By using [email protected] multi-purpose event generator with the parameters of LHeC and FCC-eh, the bounds on the anomalous Hγγ, HγZ and HZZ couplings in e− p → e− q H process are obtained. Detector simulations are also taken into account in the calculations.

Keywords: anomalos couplings, FCC-eh, Higgs, Z boson

Procedia PDF Downloads 136
7561 Neutral Heavy Scalar Searches via Standard Model Gauge Boson Decays at the Large Hadron Electron Collider with Multivariate Techniques

Authors: Luigi Delle Rose, Oliver Fischer, Ahmed Hammad

Abstract:

In this article, we study the prospects of the proposed Large Hadron electron Collider (LHeC) in the search for heavy neutral scalar particles. We consider a minimal model with one additional complex scalar singlet that interacts with the Standard Model (SM) via mixing with the Higgs doublet, giving rise to an SM-like Higgs boson and a heavy scalar particle. Both scalar particles are produced via vector boson fusion and can be tested via their decays into pairs of SM particles, analogously to the SM Higgs boson. Using multivariate techniques, we show that the LHeC is sensitive to heavy scalars with masses between 200 and 800 GeV down to scalar mixing of order 0.01.

Keywords: beyond the standard model, large hadron electron collider, multivariate analysis, scalar singlet

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
7560 Probing Anomalous WW γ and WWZ Couplings with Polarized Electron Beam at the LHeC and FCC-Ep Collider

Authors: I. Turk Cakir, A. Senol, A. T. Tasci, O. Cakir

Abstract:

We study the anomalous WWγ and WWZ couplings by calculating total cross sections of the ep→νqγX and ep→νqZX processes at the LHeC with electron beam energy Ee=140 GeV and the proton beam energy Ep=7 TeV, and at the FCC-ep collider with the polarized electron beam energy Ee=80 GeV and the proton beam energy Ep=50 TeV. At the LHeC with electron beam polarization, we obtain the results for the difference of upper and lower bounds as (0.975, 0.118) and (0.285, 0.009) for the anomalous (Δκγ,λγ) and (Δκz,λz) couplings, respectively. As for FCC-ep collider, these bounds are obtained as (1.101,0.065) and (0.320,0.002) at an integrated luminosity of Lint=100 fb-1.

Keywords: anomalous couplings, future circular collider, large hadron electron collider, W-boson and Z-boson

Procedia PDF Downloads 302
7559 A Large Ion Collider Experiment (ALICE) Diffractive Detector Control System for RUN-II at the Large Hadron Collider

Authors: J. C. Cabanillas-Noris, M. I. Martínez-Hernández, I. León-Monzón

Abstract:

The selection of diffractive events in the ALICE experiment during the first data taking period (RUN-I) of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) was limited by the range over which rapidity gaps occur. It would be possible to achieve better measurements by expanding the range in which the production of particles can be detected. For this purpose, the ALICE Diffractive (AD0) detector has been installed and commissioned for the second phase (RUN-II). Any new detector should be able to take the data synchronously with all other detectors and be operated through the ALICE central systems. One of the key elements that must be developed for the AD0 detector is the Detector Control System (DCS). The DCS must be designed to operate safely and correctly this detector. Furthermore, the DCS must also provide optimum operating conditions for the acquisition and storage of physics data and ensure these are of the highest quality. The operation of AD0 implies the configuration of about 200 parameters, from electronics settings and power supply levels to the archiving of operating conditions data and the generation of safety alerts. It also includes the automation of procedures to get the AD0 detector ready for taking data in the appropriate conditions for the different run types in ALICE. The performance of AD0 detector depends on a certain number of parameters such as the nominal voltages for each photomultiplier tube (PMT), their threshold levels to accept or reject the incoming pulses, the definition of triggers, etc. All these parameters define the efficiency of AD0 and they have to be monitored and controlled through AD0 DCS. Finally, AD0 DCS provides the operator with multiple interfaces to execute these tasks. They are realized as operating panels and scripts running in the background. These features are implemented on a SCADA software platform as a distributed control system which integrates to the global control system of the ALICE experiment.

Keywords: AD0, ALICE, DCS, LHC

Procedia PDF Downloads 230
7558 Supersymmetry versus Compositeness: 2-Higgs Doublet Models Tell the Story

Authors: S. De Curtis, L. Delle Rose, S. Moretti, K. Yagyu

Abstract:

Supersymmetry and compositeness are the two prevalent paradigms providing both a solution to the hierarchy problem and motivation for a light Higgs boson state. An open door towards the solution is found in the context of 2-Higgs Doublet Models (2HDMs), which are necessary to supersymmetry and natural within compositeness in order to enable Electro-Weak Symmetry Breaking. In scenarios of compositeness, the two isospin doublets arise as pseudo Nambu-Goldstone bosons from the breaking of SO(6). By calculating the Higgs potential at one-loop level through the Coleman-Weinberg mechanism from the explicit breaking of the global symmetry induced by the partial compositeness of fermions and gauge bosons, we derive the phenomenological properties of the Higgs states and highlight the main signatures of this Composite 2-Higgs Doublet Model at the Large Hadron Collider. These include modifications to the SM-like Higgs couplings as well as production and decay channels of heavier Higgs bosons. We contrast the properties of this composite scenario to the well-known ones established in supersymmetry, with the MSSM being the most notorious example. We show how 2HDM spectra of masses and couplings accessible at the Large Hadron Collider may allow one to distinguish between the two paradigms.

Keywords: beyond the standard model, composite Higgs, supersymmetry, Two-Higgs Doublet Model

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
7557 V0 Physics at LHCb. RIVET Analysis Module for Z Boson Decay to Di-Electron

Authors: A. E. Dumitriu

Abstract:

The LHCb experiment is situated at one of the four points around CERN’s Large Hadron Collider, being a single-arm forward spectrometer covering 10 mrad to 300 (250) mrad in the bending (non-bending) plane, designed primarily to study particles containing b and c quarks. Each one of LHCb’s sub-detectors specializes in measuring a different characteristic of the particles produced by colliding protons, its significant detection characteristics including a high precision tracking system and 2 ring-imaging Cherenkov detectors for particle identification. The major two topics that I am currently concerned in are: the RIVET project (Robust Independent Validation of Experiment and Theory) which is an efficient and portable tool kit of C++ class library useful for validation and tuning of Monte Carlo (MC) event generator models by providing a large collection of standard experimental analyses useful for High Energy Physics MC generator development, validation, tuning and regression testing and V0 analysis for 2013 LHCb NoBias type data (trigger on bunch + bunch crossing) at √s=2.76 TeV.

Keywords: LHCb physics, RIVET plug-in, RIVET, CERN

Procedia PDF Downloads 328
7556 Search for Flavour Changing Neutral Current Couplings of Higgs-up Sector Quarks at Future Circular Collider (FCC-eh)

Authors: I. Turk Cakir, B. Hacisahinoglu, S. Kartal, A. Yilmaz, A. Yilmaz, Z. Uysal, O. Cakir

Abstract:

In the search for new physics beyond the Standard Model, Flavour Changing Neutral Current (FCNC) is a good research field in terms of the observability at future colliders. Increased Higgs production with higher energy and luminosity in colliders is essential for verification or falsification of our knowledge of physics and predictions, and the search for new physics. Prospective electron-proton collider constituent of the Future Circular Collider project is FCC-eh. It offers great sensitivity due to its high luminosity and low interference. In this work, thq FCNC interaction vertex with off-shell top quark decay at electron-proton colliders is studied. By using [email protected] multi-purpose event generator, observability of tuh and tch couplings are obtained with equal coupling scenario. Upper limit on branching ratio of tree level top quark FCNC decay is determined as 0.012% at FCC-eh with 1 ab ^−1 luminosity.

Keywords: FCC, FCNC, Higgs Boson, Top Quark

Procedia PDF Downloads 136
7555 Prompt Photons Production in Compton Scattering of Quark-Gluon and Annihilation of Quark-Antiquark Pair Processes

Authors: Mohsun Rasim Alizada, Azar Inshalla Ahmdov

Abstract:

Prompt photons are perhaps the most versatile tools for studying the dynamics of relativistic collisions of heavy ions. The study of photon radiation is of interest that in most hadron interactions, photons fly out as a background to other studied signals. The study of the birth of prompt photons in nucleon-nucleon collisions was previously carried out in experiments on Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Due to the large energy of colliding nucleons, in addition to prompt photons, many different elementary particles are born. However, the birth of additional elementary particles makes it difficult to determine the accuracy of the effective section of the birth of prompt photons. From this point of view, the experiments planned on the Nuclotron-based Ion Collider Facility (NICA) complex will have a great advantage, since the energy obtained for colliding heavy ions will reduce the number of additionally born elementary particles. Of particular importance is the study of the processes of birth of prompt photons to determine the gluon leaving hadrons since the photon carries information about a rigid subprocess. At present, paper production of prompt photon in Compton scattering of quark-gluon and annihilation of quark–antiquark processes is investigated. The matrix elements Compton scattering of quark-gluon and annihilation of quark-antiquark pair processes has been written. The Square of matrix elements of processes has been calculated in FeynCalc. The phase volume of subprocesses has been determined. Expression to calculate the differential cross-section of subprocesses has been obtained: Given the resulting expressions for the square of the matrix element in the differential section expression, we see that the differential section depends not only on the energy of colliding protons, but also on the mass of quarks, etc. Differential cross-section of subprocesses is estimated. It is shown that the differential cross-section of subprocesses decreases with the increasing energy of colliding protons. Asymmetry coefficient with polarization of colliding protons is determined. The calculation showed that the squares of the matrix element of the Compton scattering process without and taking into account the polarization of colliding protons are identical. The asymmetry coefficient of this subprocess is zero, which is consistent with the literary data. It is known that in any single polarization processes with a photon, squares of matrix elements without taking into account and taking into account the polarization of the original particle must coincide, that is, the terms in the square of the matrix element with the degree of polarization are equal to zero. The coincidence of the squares of the matrix elements indicates that the parity of the system is preserved. The asymmetry coefficient of annihilation of quark–antiquark pair process linearly decreases from positive unit to negative unit with increasing the production of the polarization degrees of colliding protons. Thus, it was obtained that the differential cross-section of the subprocesses decreases with the increasing energy of colliding protons. The value of the asymmetry coefficient is maximal when the polarization of colliding protons is opposite and minimal when they are directed equally. Taking into account the polarization of only the initial quarks and gluons in Compton scattering does not contribute to the differential section of the subprocess.

Keywords: annihilation of a quark-antiquark pair, coefficient of asymmetry, Compton scattering, effective cross-section

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
7554 Mechanical Simulation with Electrical and Dimensional Tests for AISHa Containment Chamber

Authors: F. Noto, G. Costa, L. Celona, F. Chines, G. Ciavola, G. Cuttone, S. Gammino, O. Leonardi, S. Marletta, G. Torrisi

Abstract:

At Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare – Laboratorio Nazionale del Sud (INFN-LNS), a broad experience in the design, construction and commissioning of ECR and microwave ion sources is available. The AISHa ion source has been designed by taking into account the typical requirements of hospital-based facilities, where the minimization of the mean time between failures (MTBF) is a key point together with the maintenance operations, which should be fast and easy. It is intended to be a multipurpose device, operating at 18 GHz, in order to achieve higher plasma densities. It should provide enough versatility for future needs of the hadron therapy, including the ability to run at larger microwave power to produce different species and highly charged ion beams. The source is potentially interesting for any hadron therapy facility using heavy ions. In this paper, we analyzed the dimensional test and electrical test about an innovative solution for the containment chamber that allows us to solve our isolation and structural problems.

Keywords: FEM analysis, electron cyclotron resonance ion source, dielectrical measurement, hadron therapy

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
7553 Low Dose In-Line Electron Holography for 3D Atomic Resolution Tomography of Soft Materials

Authors: F. R. Chen, C. Kisielowski, D. Van Dyck

Abstract:

In principle, the latest generation aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopes (TEMs) could achieve sub-Å resolution, but there is bottleneck that hinders the final step towards revealing 3D structure. Firstly, in order to achieve a resolution around 1 Å with single atom sensitivity, the electron dose rate needs to be sufficiently large (10⁴-10⁵eÅ⁻² s⁻¹). With such large dose rate, the electron beam can induce surfaces alterations or even bulk modifications, in particular, for electron beam sensitive (soft) materials such as nm size particles, organic materials, proteins or macro-molecules. We will demonstrate methodology of low dose electron holography for observing 3D structure for soft materials such as single Oleic acid molecules at atomic resolution. The main improvement of this new type of electron holography is based on two concepts. Firstly, the total electron dose is distributed over many images obtained at different defocus values from which the electron hologram is then reconstructed. Secondly, in contrast to the current tomographic methods that require projections from several directions, the 3D structural information of the nano-object is then extracted from this one hologram obtained from only one viewing direction.

Keywords: low dose electron microscopy, in-line electron holography, atomic resolution tomography, soft materials

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
7552 Production of New Hadron States in Effective Field Theory

Authors: Qi Wu, Dian-Yong Chen, Feng-Kun Guo, Gang Li

Abstract:

In the past decade, a growing number of new hadron states have been observed, which are dubbed as XYZ states in the heavy quarkonium mass regions. In this work, we present our study on the production of some new hadron states. In particular, we investigate the processes Υ(5S,6S)→ Zb (10610)/Zb (10650)π, Bc→ Zc (3900)/Zc (4020)π and Λb→ Pc (4312)/Pc (4440)/Pc (4457)K. (1) For the production of Zb (10610)/Zb (10650) from Υ(5S,6S) decay, two types of bottom-meson loops were discussed within a nonrelativistic effective field theory. We found that the loop contributions with all intermediate states being the S-wave ground state bottom mesons are negligible, while the loops with one bottom meson being the broad B₀* or B₁' resonance could provide the dominant contributions to the Υ(5S)→ Zb⁽'⁾ π. (2) For the production of Zc (3900)/Zc (4020) from Bc decay, the branching ratios of Bc⁺→ Z (3900)⁺ π⁰ and Bc⁺→ Zc (4020)⁺ π⁰ are estimated to be of order of 10⁽⁻⁴⁾ and 10⁽⁻⁷⁾ in an effective Lagrangian approach. The large production rate of Zc (3900) could provide an important source of the production of Zc (3900) from the semi-exclusive decay of b-flavored hadrons reported by D0 Collaboration, which can be tested by the exclusive measurements in LHCb. (3) For the production of Pc (4312), Pc (4440) and Pc (4457) from Λb decay, the ratio of the branching fraction of Λb→ Pc K was predicted in a molecular scenario by using an effective Lagrangian approach, which is weakly dependent on our model parameter. We also find the ratios of the productions of the branching fractions of Λb→ Pc K and Pc→ J/ψ p can be well interpreted in the molecular scenario. Moreover, the estimated branching fractions of Λb→ Pc K are of order 10⁽⁻⁶⁾, which could be tested by further measurements in LHCb Collaboration.

Keywords: effective Lagrangian approach, hadron loops, molecular states, new hadron states

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
7551 Standard Model-Like Higgs Decay into Displaced Heavy Neutrino Pairs in U(1)' Models

Authors: E. Accomando, L. Delle Rose, S. Moretti, E. Olaiya, C. Shepherd-Themistocleous

Abstract:

Heavy sterile neutrinos are almost ubiquitous in the class of Beyond Standard Model scenarios aimed at addressing the puzzle that emerged from the discovery of neutrino flavour oscillations, hence the need to explain their masses. In particular, they are necessary in a U(1)’ enlarged Standard Model (SM). We show that these heavy neutrinos can be rather long-lived producing distinctive displaced vertices and tracks. Indeed, depending on the actual decay length, they can decay inside a Large Hadron Collider (LHC) detector far from the main interaction point and can be identified in the inner tracking system or the muon chambers, emulated here through the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector parameters. Among the possible production modes of such heavy neutrino, we focus on their pair production mechanism in the SM Higgs decay, eventually yielding displaced lepton signatures following the heavy neutrino decays into weak gauge bosons. By employing well-established triggers available for the CMS detector and using the data collected by the end of the LHC Run 2, these signatures would prove to be accessible with negligibly small background. Finally, we highlight the importance that the exploitation of new triggers, specifically, displaced tri-lepton ones, could have for this displaced vertex search.

Keywords: beyond the standard model, displaced vertex, Higgs physics, neutrino physics

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
7550 Signal On-Off Ratio and Output Frequency Analysis of Semiconductor Electron-Interference Device

Authors: Tomotaka Aoki, Isao Tomita

Abstract:

We examined the on-off ratio and frequency components of output signals from an electron-interference device made of GaAs/AlₓGa₁₋ₓAs by solving the time-dependent Schrödinger's equation on conducting electrons in the channel waveguide of the device. For electron-wave modulation, a periodic voltage of frequency f was applied to the channel. Furthermore, we examined the voltage-amplitude dependence of the signals in time and frequency domains and found that large applied voltage deformed the output-signal waveform and created additional side modes (frequencies) near the modulation frequency f and that there was a trade-off between on-off ratio and side-mode creation.

Keywords: electrical conduction, electron interference, frequency spectrum, on-off ratio

Procedia PDF Downloads 22
7549 Direct CP Violation in Baryonic B-Hadron Decays

Authors: C. Q. Geng, Y. K. Hsiao

Abstract:

We study direct CP-violating asymmetries (CPAs) in the baryonic B decays of B- -> p\bar{p}M and Λb decays of Λb ®pM andΛb -> J/ΨpM with M=π-, K-,ρ-,K*- based on the generalized factorization method in the standard model (SM). In particular, we show that the CPAs in the vector modes of B-®p\bar{p}K* and Λb -> p K*- can be as large as 20%. We also discuss the simplest purely baryonic decays of Λb-> p\bar{p}n, p\bar{p}Λ, Λ\bar{p}Λ, and Λ\bar{Λ}Λ. We point out that some of CPAs are promising to be measured by the current as well as future B facilities.

Keywords: CP violation, B decays, baryonic decays, Λb decays

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
7548 Nondecoupling Signatures of Supersymmetry and an Lμ-Lτ Gauge Boson at Belle-II

Authors: Heerak Banerjee, Sourov Roy

Abstract:

Supersymmetry, one of the most celebrated fields of study for explaining experimental observations where the standard model (SM) falls short, is reeling from the lack of experimental vindication. At the same time, the idea of additional gauge symmetry, in particular, the gauged Lμ-Lτ symmetric models have also generated significant interest. They have been extensively proposed in order to explain the tantalizing discrepancy in the predicted and measured value of the muon anomalous magnetic moment alongside several other issues plaguing the SM. While very little parameter space within these models remain unconstrained, this work finds that the γ + Missing Energy (ME) signal at the Belle-II detector will be a smoking gun for supersymmetry (SUSY) in the presence of a gauged U(1)Lμ-Lτ symmetry. A remarkable consequence of breaking the enhanced symmetry appearing in the limit of degenerate (s)leptons is the nondecoupling of the radiative contribution of heavy charged sleptons to the γ-Z΄ kinetic mixing. The signal process, e⁺e⁻ →γZ΄→γ+ME, is an outcome of this ubiquitous feature. Taking the severe constraints on gauged Lμ-Lτ models by several low energy observables into account, it is shown that any significant excess in all but the highest photon energy bin would be an undeniable signature of such heavy scalar fields in SUSY coupling to the additional gauge boson Z΄. The number of signal events depends crucially on the logarithm of the ratio of stau to smuon mass in the presence of SUSY. In addition, the number is also inversely proportional to the e⁺e⁻ collision energy, making a low-energy, high-luminosity collider like Belle-II an ideal testing ground for this channel. This process can probe large swathes of the hitherto free slepton mass ratio vs. additional gauge coupling (gₓ) parameter space. More importantly, it can explore the narrow slice of Z΄ mass (MZ΄) vs. gₓ parameter space still allowed in gauged U(1)Lμ-Lτ models for superheavy sparticles. The spectacular finding that the signal significance is independent of individual slepton masses is an exciting prospect indeed. Further, the prospect that signatures of even superheavy SUSY particles that may have escaped detection at the LHC may show up at the Belle-II detector is an invigorating revelation.

Keywords: additional gauge symmetry, electron-positron collider, kinetic mixing, nondecoupling radiative effect, supersymmetry

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
7547 Inverted Geometry Ceramic Insulators in High Voltage Direct Current Electron Guns for Accelerators

Authors: C. Hernandez-Garcia, P. Adderley, D. Bullard, J. Grames, M. A. Mamun, G. Palacios-Serrano, M. Poelker, M. Stutzman, R. Suleiman, Y. Wang, , S. Zhang

Abstract:

High-energy nuclear physics experiments performed at the Jefferson Lab (JLab) Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility require a beam of spin-polarized ps-long electron bunches. The electron beam is generated when a circularly polarized laser beam illuminates a GaAs semiconductor photocathode biased at hundreds of kV dc inside an ultra-high vacuum chamber. The photocathode is mounted on highly polished stainless steel electrodes electrically isolated by means of a conical-shape ceramic insulator that extends into the vacuum chamber, serving as the cathode electrode support structure. The assembly is known as a dc photogun, which has to simultaneously meet the following criteria: high voltage to manage space charge forces within the electron bunch, ultra-high vacuum conditions to preserve the photocathode quantum efficiency, no field emission to prevent gas load when field emitted electrons impact the vacuum chamber, and finally no voltage breakdown for robust operation. Over the past decade, JLab has tested and implemented the use of inverted geometry ceramic insulators connected to commercial high voltage cables to operate a photogun at 200kV dc with a 10 cm long insulator, and a larger version at 300kV dc with 20 cm long insulator. Plans to develop a third photogun operating at 400kV dc to meet the stringent requirements of the proposed International Linear Collider are underway at JLab, utilizing even larger inverted insulators. This contribution describes approaches that have been successful in solving challenging problems related to breakdown and field emission, such as triple-point junction screening electrodes, mechanical polishing to achieve mirror-like surface finish and high voltage conditioning procedures with Kr gas to extinguish field emission.

Keywords: electron guns, high voltage techniques, insulators, vacuum insulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
7546 Challenges in E-Government: Conceptual Views and Solutions

Authors: Rasim Alguliev, Farhad Yusifov

Abstract:

Considering the international experience, conceptual and architectural principles of forming of electron government are researched and some suggestions were made. The assessment of monitoring of forming processes of electron government, intellectual analysis of web-resources, provision of information security, electron democracy problems were researched, conceptual approaches were suggested. By taking into consideration main principles of electron government theory, important research directions were specified.

Keywords: electron government, public administration, information security, web-analytics, social networks, data mining

Procedia PDF Downloads 382
7545 Observation of Large-Scale Traveling Ionospheric Disturbance over Peninsular Malaysia Using GPS Receivers

Authors: Intan Izafina Idrus, Mardina Abdullah, Alina Marie Hasbi, Asnawi Husin

Abstract:

This paper presents the result of large-scale traveling ionospheric disturbance (LSTID) observation during moderate magnetic storm event on 25 October 2011 with SYM-H ~ -160 nT and Kp ~ 7 over Peninsular Malaysia at equatorial region using vertical total electron content (VTEC) from the Global Positioning System (GPS) observation measurement. The propagation of the LSTID signatures in the TEC measurements over Peninsular Malaysia was also investigated using VTEC map. The LSTID was found to propagate equator-ward during this event. The results showed that the LSTID propagated with an average phase velocity of 526.41 m/s and average periods of 140 min. The occurrence of this LSTID was also found to be the subsequent effects of substorm activities in the auroral region.

Keywords: Global Positioning System (GPS), large-scale traveling ionospheric disturbance (LSTID), moderate geomagnetic storm, vertical total electron content (VTEC)

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
7544 Highly Conductive Polycrystalline Metallic Ring in a Magnetic Field

Authors: Isao Tomita

Abstract:

Electrical conduction in a quasi-one-dimensional polycrystalline metallic ring with a long electron phase coherence length realized at low temperature is investigated. In this situation, the wave nature of electrons is important in the ring, where the electrical current I can be induced by a vector potential that arises from a static magnetic field applied perpendicularly to the ring’s area. It is shown that if the average grain size of the polycrystalline ring becomes large (or comparable to the Fermi wavelength), the electrical current I increases to ~I0, where I0 is a current in a disorder-free ring. The cause of this increasing effect is examined, and this takes place if the electron localization length in the polycrystalline potential increases with increasing grain size, which gives rise to coherent connection of tails of a localized electron wave function in the ring and thus provides highly coherent electrical conduction.

Keywords: electrical conduction, electron phase coherence, polycrystalline metal, magnetic field

Procedia PDF Downloads 295
7543 Induced Chemistry for Dissociative Electron Attachment to Focused Electron Beam Induced Deposition Precursors Based on Ti, Si and Fe Metal Elements

Authors: Maria Pintea, Nigel Mason

Abstract:

Induced chemistry is one of the newest pathways in the nanotechnology field with applications in the focused electron beam induced processes for deposition of nm scale structures. Si(OPr)₄ and Ti(OEt)₄ are two of the precursors that have not been so extensively researched, though highly sought for semiconductor and medical applications fields, the two compounds make good candidates for FEBIP and are the subject of velocity slice map imaging analysis for deposition purposes, offering information on kinetic energies, fragmentation channels, and angular distributions. The velocity slice map imaging technique is a method used for the characterization of molecular dynamics of the molecule and the fragmentation channels as a result of induced chemistry. To support the gas-phase analysis, Meso-Bio-Nano simulations of irradiation dynamics studies are employed with final results on Fe(CO)₅ deposited on various substrates. The software is capable of running large scale simulations for complex biomolecular, nano- and mesoscopic systems with applications to thermos-mechanical DNA damage, complex materials, gases, nanoparticles for cancer research and deposition applications for nanotechnology, using a large library of classical potentials, many-body force fields, molecular force fields involved in the classical molecular dynamics.

Keywords: focused electron beam induced deposition, FEBID, induced chemistry, molecular dynamics, velocity map slice imaging

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
7542 Energy-Level Structure of a Confined Electron-Positron Pair in Nanostructure

Authors: Tokuei Sako, Paul-Antoine Hervieux

Abstract:

The energy-level structure of a pair of electron and positron confined in a quasi-one-dimensional nano-scale potential well has been investigated focusing on its trend in the small limit of confinement strength ω, namely, the Wigner molecular regime. An anisotropic Gaussian-type basis functions supplemented by high angular momentum functions as large as l = 19 has been used to obtain reliable full configuration interaction (FCI) wave functions. The resultant energy spectrum shows a band structure characterized by ω for the large ω regime whereas for the small ω regime it shows an energy-level pattern dominated by excitation into the in-phase motion of the two particles. The observed trend has been rationalized on the basis of the nodal patterns of the FCI wave functions.

Keywords: confined systems, positron, wave function, Wigner molecule, quantum dots

Procedia PDF Downloads 310
7541 Modulational Instability of Ion-Acoustic Wave in Electron-Positron-Ion Plasmas with Two-Electron Temperature Distributions

Authors: Jitendra Kumar Chawla, Mukesh Kumar Mishra

Abstract:

The nonlinear amplitude modulation of ion-acoustic wave is studied in the presence of two-electron temperature distribution in unmagnetized electron-positron-ion plasmas. The Krylov-Bogoliubov-Mitropolosky (KBM) perturbation method is used to derive the nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The dispersive and nonlinear coefficients are obtained which depend on the temperature and concentration of the hot and cold electron species as well as the positron density and temperature. The modulationally unstable regions are studied numerically for a wide range of wave number. The effects of the temperature and concentration of the hot and cold electron on the modulational stability are investigated in detail.

Keywords: modulational instability, ion acoustic wave, KBM method

Procedia PDF Downloads 537
7540 Nano-Sensors: Search for New Features

Authors: I. Filikhin, B. Vlahovic

Abstract:

We focus on a novel type of detection based on electron tunneling properties of double nanoscale structures in semiconductor materials. Semiconductor heterostructures as quantum wells (QWs), quantum dots (QDs), and quantum rings (QRs) may have energy level structure of several hundred of electron confinement states. The single electron spectra of the double quantum objects (DQW, DQD, and DQR) were studied in our previous works with relation to the electron localization and tunneling between the objects. The wave function of electron may be localized in one of the QDs or be delocalized when it is spread over the whole system. The localizing-delocalizing tunneling occurs when an electron transition between both states is possible. The tunneling properties of spectra differ strongly for “regular” and “chaotic” systems. We have shown that a small violation of the geometry drastically affects localization of electron. In particular, such violations lead to the elimination of the delocalized states of the system. The same symmetry violation effect happens if electrical or magnetic fields are applied. These phenomena could be used to propose a new type of detection based on the high sensitivity of charge transport between double nanostructures and small violations of the shapes. It may have significant technological implications.

Keywords: double quantum dots, single electron levels, tunneling, electron localizations

Procedia PDF Downloads 433
7539 Energy Deposited by Secondary Electrons Generated by Swift Proton Beams through Polymethylmethacrylate

Authors: Maurizio Dapor, Isabel Abril, Pablo de Vera, Rafael Garcia-Molina

Abstract:

The ionization yield of ion tracks in polymers and bio-molecular systems reaches a maximum, known as the Bragg peak, close to the end of the ion trajectories. Along the path of the ions through the materials, many electrons are generated, which produce a cascade of further ionizations and, consequently, a shower of secondary electrons. Among these, very low energy secondary electrons can produce damage in the biomolecules by dissociative electron attachment. This work deals with the calculation of the energy distribution of electrons produced by protons in a sample of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), a material that is used as a phantom for living tissues in hadron therapy. PMMA is also of relevance for microelectronics in CMOS technologies and as a photoresist mask in electron beam lithography. We present a Monte Carlo code that, starting from a realistic description of the energy distribution of the electrons ejected by protons moving through PMMA, simulates the entire cascade of generated secondary electrons. By following in detail the motion of all these electrons, we find the radial distribution of the energy that they deposit in PMMA for several initial proton energies characteristic of the Bragg peak.

Keywords: Monte Carlo method, secondary electrons, energetic ions, ion-beam cancer therapy, ionization cross section, polymethylmethacrylate, proton beams, secondary electrons, radial energy distribution

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
7538 Comparison Between the Radiation Resistance of n/p and p/n InP Solar Cell

Authors: Mazouz Halima, Belghachi Abdrahmane

Abstract:

Effects of electron irradiation-induced deep level defects have been studied on both n/p and p/n indium phosphide solar cells with very thin emitters. The simulation results show that n/p structure offers a somewhat better short circuit current but the p/n structure offers improved circuit voltage, not only before electron irradiation, but also after 1MeV electron irradiation with 5.1015 fluence. The simulation also shows that n/p solar cell structure is more resistant than that of p/n structure.

Keywords: InP solar cell, p/n and n/p structure, electron irradiation, output parameters

Procedia PDF Downloads 392
7537 Relation of the Anomalous Magnetic Moment of Electron with the Proton and Neutron Masses

Authors: Sergei P. Efimov

Abstract:

The anomalous magnetic moment of the electron is calculated by introducing the effective mass of the virtual part of the electron structure. In this case, the anomalous moment is inversely proportional to the effective mass Meff, which is shown to be a linear combination of the neutron, proton, and electrostatic electron field masses. The spin of a rotating structure is assumed to be equal to 3/2, while the spin of a 'bare' electron is equal to unity, the resultant spin being 1/2. A simple analysis gives the coefficients for a linear combination of proton and electron masses, the approximation precision giving here nine significant digits after the decimal point. The summand proportional to α² adds four more digits. Thus, the conception of the effective mass Meff leads to the formula for the total magnetic moment of the electron, which is accurate to fourteen digits. Association with the virtual beta-decay reaction and possible reasons for simplicity of the derived formula are discussed.

Keywords: anomalous magnetic moment of electron, comparison with quantum electrodynamics. effective mass, fifteen significant figures, proton and neutron masses

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
7536 Simulations of High-Intensity, Thermionic Electron Guns for Electron Beam Thermal Processing Including Effects of Space Charge Compensation

Authors: O. Hinrichs, H. Franz, G. Reiter

Abstract:

Electron guns have a key function in a series of thermal processes, like EB (electron beam) melting, evaporation or welding. These techniques need a high-intensity continuous electron beam that defocuses itself due to high space charge forces. A proper beam transport throughout the magnetic focusing system can be ensured by a space charge compensation via residual gas ions. The different pressure stages in the EB gun cause various degrees of compensation. A numerical model was installed to simulate realistic charge distributions within the beam by using CST-Particle Studio code. We will present current status of beam dynamic simulations. This contribution will focus on the creation of space charge ions and their influence on beam and gun components. Furthermore, the beam transport in the gun will be shown for different beam parameters. The electron source allows to produce beams with currents of 3 A to 15 A and energies of 40 keV to 45 keV.

Keywords: beam dynamic simulation, space charge compensation, thermionic electron source, EB melting, EB thermal processing

Procedia PDF Downloads 76
7535 Computer Software for Calculating Electron Mobility of Semiconductors Compounds; Case Study for N-Gan

Authors: Emad A. Ahmed

Abstract:

Computer software to calculate electron mobility with respect to different scattering mechanism has been developed. This software is adopted completely Graphical User Interface (GUI) technique and its interface has been designed by Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0. As a case study the electron mobility of n-GaN was performed using this software. The behaviour of the mobility for n-GaN due to elastic scattering processes and its relation to temperature and doping concentration were discussed. The results agree with other available theoretical and experimental data.

Keywords: electron mobility, relaxation time, GaN, scattering, computer software, computation physics

Procedia PDF Downloads 532
7534 The Effects of Electron Trapping by Electron-Ecoustic Waves Excited with Electron Beam

Authors: Abid Ali Abid

Abstract:

One-dimensional (1-D) particle-in-cell (PIC) electrostatic simulations are carried out to investigate the electrostatic waves, whose constituents are hot, cold and beam electrons in the background of motionless positive ions. In fact, the electrostatic modes excited are electron acoustic waves, beam driven waves as well as Langmuir waves. It is assessed that the relevant plasma parameters, for example, hot electron temperature, beam electron drift speed, and the electron beam density significantly modify the electrostatics wave's profiles. In the nonlinear stage, the wave-particle interaction becomes more evident and the waves have obtained its saturation level. Consequently, electrons become trapped in the waves and trapping vortices are clearly formed. Because of this trapping vortices and mixing of the electrons in phase space, finally, lead to electrons thermalization. It is observed that for the high-density value of the beam-electron, the solitary waves having a bipolar form of the electric field. These solitons are the nonlinear Brenstein-Greene and Kruskal wave mode that attributes the trapping of electrons potential well of phase-space hole. These examinations revealed that electrostatic waves have been exited in beam-plasma model and producing waves having broad-frequency ranges, which may clarify the broadband electrostatic noise (BEN) spectrum studied in the auroral zone.

Keywords: electron acoustic waves, trapping of cold electron, Langmuir waves, particle-in cell simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
7533 Researches Concerning Photons as Corpuscles with Mass and Negative Electrostatic Charge

Authors: Ioan Rusu

Abstract:

Let us consider that the entire universe is composed of a single hydrogen atom within which the electron is moving around the proton. In this case, according to classical theories of physics, radiation and photons, respectively, should be absorbed by the electron. Depending on the number of photons absorbed, the electron radius of rotation around the proton is established. Until now, the principle of photon absorption by electrons and the electron transition to a new energy level, namely to a higher radius of rotation around the proton, is not clarified in physics. This paper aims to demonstrate that photons have mass and negative electrostatic charge similar to electrons but infinitely smaller. The experiments which demonstrate this theory are simple: thermal expansion, photoelectric effect and thermonuclear reaction.

Keywords: electrostatic, electron, photon, proton, radiation

Procedia PDF Downloads 325