Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4975

Search results for: using an Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm (AAA)

4975 Commissioning of a Flattening Filter Free (FFF) using an Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm (AAA)

Authors: Safiqul Islam, Anamul Haque, Mohammad Amran Hossain


Aim: To compare the dosimetric parameters of the flattened and flattening filter free (FFF) beam and to validate the beam data using anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA). Materials and Methods: All the dosimetric data’s (i.e. depth dose profiles, profile curves, output factors, penumbra etc.) required for the beam modeling of AAA were acquired using the Blue Phantom RFA for 6 MV, 6 FFF, 10MV & 10FFF. Progressive resolution Optimizer and Dose Volume Optimizer algorithm for VMAT and IMRT were are also configured in the beam model. Beam modeling of the AAA were compared with the measured data sets. Results: Due to the higher and lover energy component in 6FFF and 10 FFF the surface doses are 10 to 15% higher compared to flattened 6 MV and 10 MV beams. FFF beam has a lower mean energy compared to the flattened beam and the beam quality index were 6 MV 0.667, 6FFF 0.629, 10 MV 0.74 and 10 FFF 0.695 respectively. Gamma evaluation with 2% dose and 2 mm distance criteria for the Open Beam, IMRT and VMAT plans were also performed and found a good agreement between the modeled and measured data. Conclusion: We have successfully modeled the AAA algorithm for the flattened and FFF beams and achieved a good agreement with the calculated and measured value.

Keywords: commissioning of a Flattening Filter Free (FFF) , using an Anisotropic Analytical Algorithm (AAA), flattened beam, parameters

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4974 Finding the Elastic Field in an Arbitrary Anisotropic Media by Implementing Accurate Generalized Gaussian Quadrature Solution

Authors: Hossein Kabir, Amir Hossein Hassanpour Mati-Kolaie


In the current study, the elastic field in an anisotropic elastic media is determined by implementing a general semi-analytical method. In this specific methodology, the displacement field is computed as a sum of finite functions with unknown coefficients. These aforementioned functions satisfy exactly both the homogeneous and inhomogeneous boundary conditions in the proposed media. It is worth mentioning that the unknown coefficients are determined by implementing the principle of minimum potential energy. The numerical integration is implemented by employing the Generalized Gaussian Quadrature solution. Furthermore, with the aid of the calculated unknown coefficients, the displacement field, as well as the other parameters of the elastic field, are obtainable as well. Finally, the comparison of the previous analytical method with the current semi-analytical method proposes the efficacy of the present methodology.

Keywords: anisotropic elastic media, semi-analytical method, elastic field, generalized gaussian quadrature solution

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4973 Anisotropic Total Fractional Order Variation Model in Seismic Data Denoising

Authors: Jianwei Ma, Diriba Gemechu


In seismic data processing, attenuation of random noise is the basic step to improve quality of data for further application of seismic data in exploration and development in different gas and oil industries. The signal-to-noise ratio of the data also highly determines quality of seismic data. This factor affects the reliability as well as the accuracy of seismic signal during interpretation for different purposes in different companies. To use seismic data for further application and interpretation, we need to improve the signal-to-noise ration while attenuating random noise effectively. To improve the signal-to-noise ration and attenuating seismic random noise by preserving important features and information about seismic signals, we introduce the concept of anisotropic total fractional order denoising algorithm. The anisotropic total fractional order variation model defined in fractional order bounded variation is proposed as a regularization in seismic denoising. The split Bregman algorithm is employed to solve the minimization problem of the anisotropic total fractional order variation model and the corresponding denoising algorithm for the proposed method is derived. We test the effectiveness of theproposed method for synthetic and real seismic data sets and the denoised result is compared with F-X deconvolution and non-local means denoising algorithm.

Keywords: anisotropic total fractional order variation, fractional order bounded variation, seismic random noise attenuation, split Bregman algorithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
4972 Effect of Coriolis Force on Magnetoconvection in an Anisotropic Porous Medium

Authors: N. F. M. Mokhtar, N. Z. A. Hamid


This paper reports an analytical investigation of the stability and thermal convection in a horizontal anisotropic porous medium in the presence of Coriolis force and magnetic field. The Darcy model is used in the momentum equation and Boussinesq approximation is considered for the density variation of the porous medium. The upper and lower boundaries of the porous medium are assumed to be conducting to temperature perturbation and we used first order Chebyshev polynomial Tau method to solve the resulting eigenvalue problem. Analytical solution is obtained for the case of stationary convection. It is found that the porous layer system becomes unstable when the mechanical anisotropy parameter elevated and increasing the Coriolis force and magnetic field help to stabilize the anisotropy porous medium.

Keywords: anisotropic, Chebyshev tau method, Coriolis force, Magnetic field

Procedia PDF Downloads 132
4971 Anisotropic Approach for Discontinuity Preserving in Optical Flow Estimation

Authors: Pushpendra Kumar, Sanjeev Kumar, R. Balasubramanian


Estimation of optical flow from a sequence of images using variational methods is one of the most successful approach. Discontinuity between different motions is one of the challenging problem in flow estimation. In this paper, we design a new anisotropic diffusion operator, which is able to provide smooth flow over a region and efficiently preserve discontinuity in optical flow. This operator is designed on the basis of intensity differences of the pixels and isotropic operator using exponential function. The combination of these are used to control the propagation of flow. Experimental results on the different datasets verify the robustness and accuracy of the algorithm and also validate the effect of anisotropic operator in the discontinuity preserving.

Keywords: optical flow, variational methods, computer vision, anisotropic operator

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4970 Shear Elastic Waves in Disordered Anisotropic Multi-Layered Periodic Structure

Authors: K. B. Ghazaryan, R. A. Ghazaryan


Based on the constitutive model and anti-plane equations of anisotropic elastic body of monoclinic symmetry we consider the problem of shear wave propagation in multi-layered disordered composite structure with point defect. Using transfer matrix method the analytic expression is obtained providing solutions of shear Floquet wave propagation in periodic disordered anisotropic structure. The usefulness of the obtained analytical expression was discussed also in reflection and refraction problems from multi-layered reflector as well as in vibration problem of multi-layered waveguides. Numerical results are presented highlighting the effects arising in disordered periodic structure due to defects of multi-layered structure.

Keywords: shear elastic waves, monoclinic anisotropic media, periodic structure, disordered multilayer laminae, multi-layered waveguide

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4969 A Nonlinear Parabolic Partial Differential Equation Model for Image Enhancement

Authors: Tudor Barbu


We present a robust nonlinear parabolic partial differential equation (PDE)-based denoising scheme in this article. Our approach is based on a second-order anisotropic diffusion model that is described first. Then, a consistent and explicit numerical approximation algorithm is constructed for this continuous model by using the finite-difference method. Finally, our restoration experiments and method comparison, which prove the effectiveness of this proposed technique, are discussed in this paper.

Keywords: anisotropic diffusion, finite differences, image denoising and restoration, nonlinear PDE model, anisotropic diffusion, numerical approximation schemes

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4968 Abdominal Organ Segmentation in CT Images Based On Watershed Transform and Mosaic Image

Authors: Belgherbi Aicha, Hadjidj Ismahen, Bessaid Abdelhafid


Accurate Liver, spleen and kidneys segmentation in abdominal CT images is one of the most important steps for computer aided abdominal organs pathology diagnosis. In this paper, we have proposed a new semi-automatic algorithm for Liver, spleen and kidneys area extraction in abdominal CT images. Our proposed method is based on hierarchical segmentation and watershed algorithm. In our approach, a powerful technique has been designed to suppress over-segmentation based on mosaic image and on the computation of the watershed transform. The algorithm is currency in two parts. In the first, we seek to improve the quality of the gradient-mosaic image. In this step, we propose a method for improving the gradient-mosaic image by applying the anisotropic diffusion filter followed by the morphological filters. Thereafter we proceed to the hierarchical segmentation of the liver, spleen and kidney. To validate the segmentation technique proposed, we have tested it on several images. Our segmentation approach is evaluated by comparing our results with the manual segmentation performed by an expert. The experimental results are described in the last part of this work.

Keywords: anisotropic diffusion filter, CT images, morphological filter, mosaic image, multi-abdominal organ segmentation, mosaic image, the watershed algorithm

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4967 Mechanical Characterization of Porcine Skin with the Finite Element Method Based Inverse Optimization Approach

Authors: Djamel Remache, Serge Dos Santos, Michael Cliez, Michel Gratton, Patrick Chabrand, Jean-Marie Rossi, Jean-Louis Milan


Skin tissue is an inhomogeneous and anisotropic material. Uniaxial tensile testing is one of the primary testing techniques for the mechanical characterization of skin at large scales. In order to predict the mechanical behavior of materials, the direct or inverse analytical approaches are often used. However, in case of an inhomogeneous and anisotropic material as skin tissue, analytical approaches are not able to provide solutions. The numerical simulation is thus necessary. In this work, the uniaxial tensile test and the FEM (finite element method) based inverse method were used to identify the anisotropic mechanical properties of porcine skin tissue. The uniaxial tensile experiments were performed using Instron 8800 tensile machine®. The uniaxial tensile test was simulated with FEM, and then the inverse optimization approach (or the inverse calibration) was used for the identification of mechanical properties of the samples. Experimentally results were compared to finite element solutions. The results showed that the finite element model predictions of the mechanical behavior of the tested skin samples were well correlated with experimental results.

Keywords: mechanical skin tissue behavior, uniaxial tensile test, finite element analysis, inverse optimization approach

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4966 Detection of Curvilinear Structure via Recursive Anisotropic Diffusion

Authors: Sardorbek Numonov, Hyohun Kim, Dongwha Shin, Yeonseok Kim, Ji-Su Ahn, Dongeun Choi, Byung-Woo Hong


The detection of curvilinear structures often plays an important role in the analysis of images. In particular, it is considered as a crucial step for the diagnosis of chronic respiratory diseases to localize the fissures in chest CT imagery where the lung is divided into five lobes by the fissures that are characterized by linear features in appearance. However, the characteristic linear features for the fissures are often shown to be subtle due to the high intensity variability, pathological deformation or image noise involved in the imaging procedure, which leads to the uncertainty in the quantification of anatomical or functional properties of the lung. Thus, it is desired to enhance the linear features present in the chest CT images so that the distinctiveness in the delineation of the lobe is improved. We propose a recursive diffusion process that prefers coherent features based on the analysis of structure tensor in an anisotropic manner. The local image features associated with certain scales and directions can be characterized by the eigenanalysis of the structure tensor that is often regularized via isotropic diffusion filters. However, the isotropic diffusion filters involved in the computation of the structure tensor generally blur geometrically significant structure of the features leading to the degradation of the characteristic power in the feature space. Thus, it is required to take into consideration of local structure of the feature in scale and direction when computing the structure tensor. We apply an anisotropic diffusion in consideration of scale and direction of the features in the computation of the structure tensor that subsequently provides the geometrical structure of the features by its eigenanalysis that determines the shape of the anisotropic diffusion kernel. The recursive application of the anisotropic diffusion with the kernel the shape of which is derived from the structure tensor leading to the anisotropic scale-space where the geometrical features are preserved via the eigenanalysis of the structure tensor computed from the diffused image. The recursive interaction between the anisotropic diffusion based on the geometry-driven kernels and the computation of the structure tensor that determines the shape of the diffusion kernels yields a scale-space where geometrical properties of the image structure are effectively characterized. We apply our recursive anisotropic diffusion algorithm to the detection of curvilinear structure in the chest CT imagery where the fissures present curvilinear features and define the boundary of lobes. It is shown that our algorithm yields precise detection of the fissures while overcoming the subtlety in defining the characteristic linear features. The quantitative evaluation demonstrates the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm for the detection of fissures in the chest CT in terms of the false positive and the true positive measures. The receiver operating characteristic curves indicate the potential of our algorithm as a segmentation tool in the clinical environment. This work was supported by the MISP(Ministry of Science and ICT), Korea, under the National Program for Excellence in SW (20170001000011001) supervised by the IITP(Institute for Information and Communications Technology Promotion).

Keywords: anisotropic diffusion, chest CT imagery, chronic respiratory disease, curvilinear structure, fissure detection, structure tensor

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4965 Speckle Noise Reduction Using Anisotropic Filter Based on Wavelets

Authors: Kritika Bansal, Akwinder Kaur, Shruti Gujral


In this paper, the approach of denoising is solved by using a new hybrid technique which associates the different denoising methods. Wavelet thresholding and anisotropic diffusion filter are the two different filters in our hybrid techniques. The Wavelet thresholding removes the noise by removing the high frequency components with lesser edge preservation, whereas an anisotropic diffusion filters is based on partial differential equation, (PDE) to remove the speckle noise. This PDE approach is used to preserve the edges and provides better smoothing. So our new method proposes a combination of these two filtering methods which performs better results in terms of peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR), coefficient of correlation (COC) and equivalent no of looks (ENL).

Keywords: denoising, anisotropic diffusion filter, multiplicative noise, speckle, wavelets

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4964 Parameter Estimation of Induction Motors by PSO Algorithm

Authors: A. Mohammadi, S. Asghari, M. Aien, M. Rashidinejad


After emergent of alternative current networks and their popularity, asynchronous motors became more widespread than other kinds of industrial motors. In order to control and run these motors efficiently, an accurate estimation of motor parameters is needed. There are different methods to obtain these parameters such as rotor locked test, no load test, DC test, analytical methods, and so on. The most common drawback of these methods is their inaccuracy in estimation of some motor parameters. In order to remove this concern, a novel method for parameter estimation of induction motors using particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is proposed. In the proposed method, transient state of motor is used for parameter estimation. Comparison of the simulation results purtuined to the PSO algorithm with other available methods justifies the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Keywords: induction motor, motor parameter estimation, PSO algorithm, analytical method

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4963 Directional Dependence of the Stress-Strain Behavior of Reinforced Sand

Authors: Alaa H. J. Al-Rkaby, A. Chegenizadeh, H. R. Nikraz


The technique of reinforcing soil is an efficient, reliable and cost-effective alternative way for improving the performance of soil in civil engineering applications. Despite the anisotropic states of stresses induced within soil elements by many geotechnical structures such as footings, highways and offshore, most of the previous studies have been carried out under isotropic conditions. The anisotropic stress state in term of the inclined principal stress and the inequality of the intermediate and minor principal stresses cannot be investigated using conventional devices. Therefore, the advanced hollow cylinder apparatus, used in this work, provides a great opportunity to simulate such anisotropic stress states. To date, very little consideration has been given to how the direction of principal stress α and intermediate principal stress ratio b can affect the performance of the reinforced sand. This study presented that the anisotropic conditions of α and b resulted in significant variations in the deviator stress and volumetric strain of sand reinforced with geosynthetics. Anisotropic effect has been decreased by adding clay content.

Keywords: anisotropy, reinforced sand, direction of principal stress, intermediate principal stress ratio

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4962 An Optimization Algorithm Based on Dynamic Schema with Dissimilarities and Similarities of Chromosomes

Authors: Radhwan Yousif Sedik Al-Jawadi


Optimization is necessary for finding appropriate solutions to a range of real-life problems. In particular, genetic (or more generally, evolutionary) algorithms have proved very useful in solving many problems for which analytical solutions are not available. In this paper, we present an optimization algorithm called Dynamic Schema with Dissimilarity and Similarity of Chromosomes (DSDSC) which is a variant of the classical genetic algorithm. This approach constructs new chromosomes from a schema and pairs of existing ones by exploring their dissimilarities and similarities. To show the effectiveness of the algorithm, it is tested and compared with the classical GA, on 15 two-dimensional optimization problems taken from literature. We have found that, in most cases, our method is better than the classical genetic algorithm.

Keywords: chromosome injection, dynamic schema, genetic algorithm, similarity and dissimilarity

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4961 Computer-Aided Detection of Simultaneous Abdominal Organ CT Images by Iterative Watershed Transform

Authors: Belgherbi Aicha, Hadjidj Ismahen, Bessaid Abdelhafid


Interpretation of medical images benefits from anatomical and physiological priors to optimize computer-aided diagnosis applications. Segmentation of liver, spleen and kidneys is regarded as a major primary step in the computer-aided diagnosis of abdominal organ diseases. In this paper, a semi-automated method for medical image data is presented for the abdominal organ segmentation data using mathematical morphology. Our proposed method is based on hierarchical segmentation and watershed algorithm. In our approach, a powerful technique has been designed to suppress over-segmentation based on mosaic image and on the computation of the watershed transform. Our algorithm is currency in two parts. In the first, we seek to improve the quality of the gradient-mosaic image. In this step, we propose a method for improving the gradient-mosaic image by applying the anisotropic diffusion filter followed by the morphological filters. Thereafter, we proceed to the hierarchical segmentation of the liver, spleen and kidney. To validate the segmentation technique proposed, we have tested it on several images. Our segmentation approach is evaluated by comparing our results with the manual segmentation performed by an expert. The experimental results are described in the last part of this work.

Keywords: anisotropic diffusion filter, CT images, morphological filter, mosaic image, simultaneous organ segmentation, the watershed algorithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 365
4960 Analytical Study Of Holographic Polymer Dispersed Liquid Crystals Using Finite Difference Time Domain Method

Authors: N. R. Mohamad, H. Ono, H. Haroon, A. Salleh, N. M. Z. Hashim


In this research, we have studied and analyzed the modulation of light and liquid crystal in HPDLCs using Finite Domain Time Difference (FDTD) method. HPDLCs are modeled as a mixture of polymer and liquid crystals (LCs) that categorized as an anisotropic medium. FDTD method is directly solves Maxwell’s equation with less approximation, so this method can analyze more flexible and general approach for the arbitrary anisotropic media. As the results from FDTD simulation, the highest diffraction efficiency occurred at ±19 degrees (Bragg angle) using p polarization incident beam to Bragg grating, Q > 10 when the pitch is 1µm. Therefore, the liquid crystal is assumed to be aligned parallel to the grating constant vector during these parameters.

Keywords: birefringence, diffraction efficiency, finite domain time difference, nematic liquid crystals

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4959 Modeling Anisotropic Damage Algorithms of Metallic Structures

Authors: Bahar Ayhan


The present paper is concerned with the numerical modeling of the inelastic behavior of the anisotropically damaged ductile materials, which are based on a generalized macroscopic theory within the framework of continuum damage mechanics. Kinematic decomposition of the strain rates into elastic, plastic and damage parts is basis for accomplishing the structure of continuum theory. The evolution of the damage strain rate tensor is detailed with the consideration of anisotropic effects. Helmholtz free energy functions are constructed separately for the elastic and inelastic behaviors in order to be able to address the plastic and damage process. Additionally, the constitutive structure, which is based on the standard dissipative material approach, is elaborated with stress tensor, a yield criterion for plasticity and a fracture criterion for damage besides the potential functions of each inelastic phenomenon. The finite element method is used to approximate the linearized variational problem. Stress and strain outcomes are solved by using the numerical integration algorithm based on operator split methodology with a plastic and damage (multiplicator) variable separately. Numerical simulations are proposed in order to demonstrate the efficiency of the formulation by comparing the examples in the literature.

Keywords: anisotropic damage, finite element method, plasticity, coupling

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4958 Hybrid Algorithm for Frequency Channel Selection in Wi-Fi Networks

Authors: Cesar Hernández, Diego Giral, Ingrid Páez


This article proposes a hybrid algorithm for spectrum allocation in cognitive radio networks based on the algorithms Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) and Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) to improve the performance of the spectrum mobility of secondary users in cognitive radio networks. To calculate the level of performance of the proposed algorithm a comparative analysis between the proposed AHP-TOPSIS, Grey Relational Analysis (GRA) and Multiplicative Exponent Weighting (MEW) algorithm is performed. Four evaluation metrics is used. These metrics are the accumulative average of failed handoffs, the accumulative average of handoffs performed, the accumulative average of transmission bandwidth, and the accumulative average of the transmission delay. The results of the comparison show that AHP-TOPSIS Algorithm provides 2.4 times better performance compared to a GRA Algorithm and, 1.5 times better than the MEW Algorithm.

Keywords: cognitive radio, decision making, hybrid algorithm, spectrum handoff, wireless networks

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4957 Loss Minimization by Distributed Generation Allocation in Radial Distribution System Using Crow Search Algorithm

Authors: M. Nageswara Rao, V. S. N. K. Chaitanya, K. Amarendranath


This paper presents an optimal allocation and sizing of Distributed Generation (DG) in Radial Distribution Network (RDN) for total power loss minimization and enhances the voltage profile of the system. The two main important part of this study first is to find optimal allocation and second is optimum size of DG. The locations of DGs are identified by Analytical expressions and crow search algorithm has been employed to determine the optimum size of DG. In this study, the DG has been placed on single and multiple allocations.CSA is a meta-heuristic algorithm inspired by the intelligent behavior of the crows. Crows stores their excess food in different locations and memorizes those locations to retrieve it when it is needed. They follow each other to do thievery to obtain better food source. This analysis is tested on IEEE 33 bus and IEEE 69 bus under MATLAB environment and the results are compared with existing methods.

Keywords: analytical expression, distributed generation, crow search algorithm, power loss, voltage profile

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4956 Effect of Elastic Modulus Anisotropy on Helical Piles Behavior in Sandy Soil

Authors: Reza Ziaie Moayed, Javad Shamsi Soosahab


Helical piles are being used extensively in engineering applications all over the world. There are insufficient studies on the helical piles' behavior in anisotropic soils. In this paper, numerical modeling was adopted to investigate the effect of elastic modulus anisotropy on helical pile behavior resting on anisotropic sand by using a finite element limit analysis. The load-displacement behavior of helical piles under compression and tension loads is investigated in different relative densities of soils, and the effect of the ratio of horizontal elastic modulus with respect to vertical elastic modulus (EH/EV) is evaluated. The obtained results illustrate that in sandy soils, the anisotropic ratio of elastic modulus (EH/EV) has notable effect on bearing capacity of helical piles in different relative density. Therefore, it may be recommended that the effect of anisotropic condition of soil elastic modulus should be considered in helical piles behavior.

Keywords: helical piles, bearing capacity, numerical modeling, soil anisotropy

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4955 Application of Analytical Method for Placement of DG Unit for Loss Reduction in Distribution Systems

Authors: G. V. Siva Krishna Rao, B. Srinivasa Rao


The main aim of the paper is to implement a technique using distributed generation in distribution systems to reduce the distribution system losses and to improve voltage profiles. The fuzzy logic technique is used to select the proper location of DG and an analytical method is proposed to calculate the size of DG unit at any power factor. The optimal sizes of DG units are compared with optimal sizes obtained using the genetic algorithm. The suggested method is programmed under Matlab software and is tested on IEEE 33 bus system and the results are presented.

Keywords: DG Units, sizing of DG units, analytical methods, optimum size

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4954 On the Use of Analytical Performance Models to Design a High-Performance Active Queue Management Scheme

Authors: Shahram Jamali, Samira Hamed


One of the open issues in Random Early Detection (RED) algorithm is how to set its parameters to reach high performance for the dynamic conditions of the network. Although original RED uses fixed values for its parameters, this paper follows a model-based approach to upgrade performance of the RED algorithm. It models the routers queue behavior by using the Markov model and uses this model to predict future conditions of the queue. This prediction helps the proposed algorithm to make some tunings over RED's parameters and provide efficiency and better performance. Widespread packet level simulations confirm that the proposed algorithm, called Markov-RED, outperforms RED and FARED in terms of queue stability, bottleneck utilization and dropped packets count.

Keywords: active queue management, RED, Markov model, random early detection algorithm

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4953 A Combination of Anisotropic Diffusion and Sobel Operator to Enhance the Performance of the Morphological Component Analysis for Automatic Crack Detection

Authors: Ankur Dixit, Hiroaki Wagatsuma


The crack detection on a concrete bridge is an important and constant task in civil engineering. Chronically, humans are checking the bridge for inspection of cracks to maintain the quality and reliability of bridge. But this process is very long and costly. To overcome such limitations, we have used a drone with a digital camera, which took some images of bridge deck and these images are processed by morphological component analysis (MCA). MCA technique is a very strong application of sparse coding and it explores the possibility of separation of images. In this paper, MCA has been used to decompose the image into coarse and fine components with the effectiveness of two dictionaries namely anisotropic diffusion and wavelet transform. An anisotropic diffusion is an adaptive smoothing process used to adjust diffusion coefficient by finding gray level and gradient as features. These cracks in image are enhanced by subtracting the diffused coarse image into the original image and the results are treated by Sobel edge detector and binary filtering to exhibit the cracks in a fine way. Our results demonstrated that proposed MCA framework using anisotropic diffusion followed by Sobel operator and binary filtering may contribute to an automation of crack detection even in open field sever conditions such as bridge decks.

Keywords: anisotropic diffusion, coarse component, fine component, MCA, Sobel edge detector and wavelet transform

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4952 Spherical Harmonic Based Monostatic Anisotropic Point Scatterer Model for RADAR Applications

Authors: Eric Huang, Coleman DeLude, Justin Romberg, Saibal Mukhopadhyay, Madhavan Swaminathan


High performance computing (HPC) based emulators can be used to model the scattering from multiple stationary and moving targets for RADAR applications. These emulators rely on the RADAR Cross Section (RCS) of the targets being available in complex scenarios. Representing the RCS using tables generated from electromagnetic (EM) simulations is often times cumbersome leading to large storage requirement. This paper proposed a spherical harmonic based anisotropic scatterer model to represent the RCS of complex targets. The problem of finding the locations and reflection profiles of all scatterers can be formulated as a linear least square problem with a special sparsity constraint. This paper solves this problem using a modified Orthogonal Matching Pursuit algorithm. The results show that the spherical harmonic based scatterer model can effectively represent the RCS data of complex targets.

Keywords: RADAR, RCS, high performance computing, point scatterer model

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4951 A Design of Anisotropic Wet Etching System to Reduce Hillocks on Etched Surface of Silicon Substrate

Authors: Alonggot Limcharoen Kaeochotchuangkul, Pathomporn Sawatchai


This research aims to design and build a wet etching system, which is suitable for anisotropic wet etching, in order to reduce etching time, to reduce hillocks on the etched surface (to reduce roughness), and to create a 45-degree wall angle (micro-mirror). This study would start by designing a wet etching system. There are four main components in this system: an ultrasonic cleaning, a condenser, a motor and a substrate holder. After that, an ultrasonic machine was modified by applying a condenser to maintain the consistency of the solution concentration during the etching process and installing a motor for improving the roughness. This effect on the etch rate and the roughness showed that the etch rate increased and the roughness was reduced.

Keywords: anisotropic wet etching, wet etching system, hillocks, ultrasonic cleaning

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4950 Remarks on the Lattice Green's Function for the Anisotropic Face Cantered Cubic Lattice

Authors: Jihad H. Asad


An expression for the Green’s function (GF) of anisotropic face cantered cubic (IFCC) lattice is evaluated analytically and numerically for a single impurity problem. The density of states (DOS), phase shift and scattering cross section are expressed in terms of complete elliptic integrals of the first kind.

Keywords: lattice Green's function, elliptic integral, physics, cubic lattice

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4949 Co-Evolutionary Fruit Fly Optimization Algorithm and Firefly Algorithm for Solving Unconstrained Optimization Problems

Authors: R. M. Rizk-Allah


This paper presents co-evolutionary fruit fly optimization algorithm based on firefly algorithm (CFOA-FA) for solving unconstrained optimization problems. The proposed algorithm integrates the merits of fruit fly optimization algorithm (FOA), firefly algorithm (FA) and elite strategy to refine the performance of classical FOA. Moreover, co-evolutionary mechanism is performed by applying FA procedures to ensure the diversity of the swarm. Finally, the proposed algorithm CFOA- FA is tested on several benchmark problems from the usual literature and the numerical results have demonstrated the superiority of the proposed algorithm for finding the global optimal solution.

Keywords: firefly algorithm, fruit fly optimization algorithm, unconstrained optimization problems

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4948 Torque Magnetometry of Low Anisotropic CaCo2As2 Single Crystals

Authors: Kashif Nadeem, W. Zhang, X. G. Qiu


Role of Co spins in CaCo2As2 single crystal is systematically studied by using dc magnetization and magnetic torque measurements. A spin-flop transition in the antiferromagnetism (AFM) CaCo2As2 single crystal is studied by using dc magnetization and magnetic torque. Field dependent and angle dependent torque magnetometry confirmed the existence of spin-flop transition in this compound which is in agreement with the dc magnetization studies. A comparison of dc magnetization and torque magnetometry measurements for CaCo2As2 single crystal is done in detail. In conclusion, torque magnetometry can be a useful tool to study the spin flop transition in low anisotropic compounds analogous to dc magnetization studies.

Keywords: spin flop transition, torque magnetometry, magnetization, anisotropic

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4947 Marker-Controlled Level-Set for Segmenting Breast Tumor from Thermal Images

Authors: Swathi Gopakumar, Sruthi Krishna, Shivasubramani Krishnamoorthy


Contactless, painless and radiation-free thermal imaging technology is one of the preferred screening modalities for detection of breast cancer. However, poor signal to noise ratio and the inexorable need to preserve edges defining cancer cells and normal cells, make the segmentation process difficult and hence unsuitable for computer-aided diagnosis of breast cancer. This paper presents key findings from a research conducted on the appraisal of two promising techniques, for the detection of breast cancer: (I) marker-controlled, Level-set segmentation of anisotropic diffusion filtered preprocessed image versus (II) Segmentation using marker-controlled level-set on a Gaussian-filtered image. Gaussian-filtering processes the image uniformly, whereas anisotropic filtering processes only in specific areas of a thermographic image. The pre-processed (Gaussian-filtered and anisotropic-filtered) images of breast samples were then applied for segmentation. The segmentation of breast starts with initial level-set function. In this study, marker refers to the position of the image to which initial level-set function is applied. The markers are generally placed on the left and right side of the breast, which may vary with the breast size. The proposed method was carried out on images from an online database with samples collected from women of varying breast characteristics. It was observed that the breast was able to be segmented out from the background by adjustment of the markers. From the results, it was observed that as a pre-processing technique, anisotropic filtering with level-set segmentation, preserved the edges more effectively than Gaussian filtering. Segmented image, by application of anisotropic filtering was found to be more suitable for feature extraction, enabling automated computer-aided diagnosis of breast cancer.

Keywords: anisotropic diffusion, breast, Gaussian, level-set, thermograms

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4946 Nonlinear Defects and Discombinations in Anisotropic Solids

Authors: Ashkan Golgoon, Arash Yavari


In this paper, we present some analytical solutions for the stress fields of nonlinear anisotropic solids with line and point defects distributions. In particular, we determine the induced stress fields of a parallel cylindrically-symmetric distribution of screw dislocations in infinite orthotropic and monoclinic media as well as a cylindrically-symmetric distribution of parallel wedge disclinations in an infinite orthotropic medium. For a given distribution of edge dislocations, the material manifold is constructed using Cartan's moving frames and the stress field is obtained assuming that the medium is orthotropic. Also, we consider a spherically-symmetric distribution of point defects in a transversely isotropic spherical ball. We show that for an arbitrary incompressible transversely isotropic ball with the radial material preferred direction, a uniform point defect distribution results in a uniform hydrostatic stress field inside the spherical region the distribution is supported in. Finally, we find the stresses induced by a discombination in an orthotropic medium.

Keywords: defects, disclinations, dislocations, monoclinic solids, nonlinear elasticity, orthotropic solids, transversely isotropic solids

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