Search results for: catenary action
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2452

Search results for: catenary action

2452 Knitting Stitches’ Manipulation for Catenary Textile Structures

Authors: Virginia Melnyk

Abstract:

This paper explores the design for catenary structure using knitted textiles. Using the advantages of Grasshopper and Kangaroo parametric software to simulate and pre-design an overall form, the design is then translated to a pattern that can be made with hand manipulated stitches on a knitting machine. The textile takes advantage of the structure of knitted materials and the ability for it to stretch. Using different types of stitches to control the amount of stretch that can occur in portions of the textile generates an overall formal design. The textile is then hardened in an upside-down hanging position and then flipped right-side-up. This then becomes a structural catenary form. The resulting design is used as a small Cat House for a cat to sit inside and climb on top of.

Keywords: architectural materials, catenary structures, knitting fabrication, textile design

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2451 Pantograph-Catenary Contact Force: Features Evaluation for Catenary Diagnostics

Authors: Mehdi Brahimi, Kamal Medjaher, Noureddine Zerhouni, Mohammed Leouatni

Abstract:

The Prognostics and Health Management is a system engineering discipline which provides solutions and models to the implantation of a predictive maintenance. The approach is based on extracting useful information from monitoring data to assess the “health” state of an industrial equipment or an asset. In this paper, we examine multiple extracted features from Pantograph-Catenary contact force in order to select the most relevant ones to achieve a diagnostics function. The feature extraction methodology is based on simulation data generated thanks to a Pantograph-Catenary simulation software called INPAC and measurement data. The feature extraction method is based on both statistical and signal processing analyses. The feature selection method is based on statistical criteria.

Keywords: catenary/pantograph interaction, diagnostics, Prognostics and Health Management (PHM), quality of current collection

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2450 An Improved Tie Force Method for Progressive Collapse Resistance Design of Precast Concrete Cross Wall Structures

Authors: M. Tohidi, J. Yang, C. Baniotopoulos

Abstract:

Progressive collapse of buildings typically occurs when abnormal loading conditions cause local damages, which leads to a chain reaction of failure and ultimately catastrophic collapse. The tie force (TF) method is one of the main design approaches for progressive collapse. As the TF method is a simplified method, further investigations on the reliability of the method is necessary. This study aims to develop an improved TF method to design the cross wall structures for progressive collapse. To this end, the pullout behavior of strands in grout was firstly analyzed; and then, by considering the tie force-slip relationship in the friction stage together with the catenary action mechanism, a comprehensive analytical method was developed. The reliability of this approach is verified by the experimental results of concrete block pullout tests and full scale floor-to-floor joints tests undertaken by Portland Cement Association (PCA). Discrepancies in the tie force between the analytical results and codified specifications have suggested the deficiency of TF method, hence an improved model based on the analytical results has been proposed to address this concern.

Keywords: cross wall, progressive collapse, ties force method, catenary, analytical

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2449 Technical and Economic Potential of Partial Electrification of Railway Lines

Authors: Rafael Martins Manzano Silva, Jean-Francois Tremong

Abstract:

Electrification of railway lines allows to increase speed, power, capacity and energetic efficiency of rolling stocks. However, this process of electrification is complex and costly. An electrification project is not just about design of catenary. It also includes installation of structures around electrification, as substation installation, electrical isolation, signalling, telecommunication and civil engineering structures. France has more than 30,000 km of railways, whose only 53% are electrified. The others 47% of railways use diesel locomotive and represent only 10% of the circulation (tons.km). For this reason, a new type of electrification, less expensive than the usual, is requested to enable the modernization of these railways. One solution could be the use of hybrids trains. This technology opens up new opportunities for less expensive infrastructure development such as the partial electrification of railway lines. In a partially electrified railway, the power supply of theses hybrid trains could be made either by the catenary or by the on-board energy storage system (ESS). Thus, the on-board ESS would feed the energetic needs of the train along the non-electrified zones while in electrified zones, the catenary would feed the train and recharge the on-board ESS. This paper’s objective deals with the technical and economic potential identification of partial electrification of railway lines. This study provides different scenarios of electrification by replacing the most expensive places to electrify using on-board ESS. The target is to reduce the cost of new electrification projects, i.e. reduce the cost of electrification infrastructures while not increasing the cost of rolling stocks. In this study, scenarios are constructed in function of the electrification’s cost of each structure. The electrification’s cost varies considerably because of the installation of catenary support in tunnels, bridges and viaducts is much more expensive than in others zones of the railway. These scenarios will be used to describe the power supply system and to choose between the catenary and the on-board energy storage depending on the position of the train on the railway. To identify the influence of each partial electrification scenario in the sizing of the on-board ESS, a model of the railway line and of the rolling stock is developed for a real case. This real case concerns a railway line located in the south of France. The energy consumption and the power demanded at each point of the line for each power supply (catenary or on-board ESS) are provided at the end of the simulation. Finally, the cost of a partial electrification is obtained by adding the civil engineering costs of the zones to be electrified plus the cost of the on-board ESS. The study of the technical and economic potential ends with the identification of the most economically interesting scenario of electrification.

Keywords: electrification, hybrid, railway, storage

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2448 Numerical Simulation and Analysis of Axially Restrained Steel Cellular Beams in Fire

Authors: Asal Pournaghshband

Abstract:

This paper presents the development of a finite element model to study the large deflection behavior of restrained stainless steel cellular beams at elevated temperature. Cellular beams are widely used for efficient utilization of raw materials to facilitate long spans with faster construction resulting sustainable design solution that can enhance the performance and merit of any construction project. However, their load carrying capacity is less than the equivalent beams without opening due to developing shear-moment interaction at the openings. In structural frames due to elements continuity, such beams are restrained by their adjoining members which has a substantial effect on beams behavior in fire. Stainless steel has also become integral part of the build environment due to its excellent corrosion resistance, whole life-cycle costs, and sustainability. This paper reports the numerical investigations into the effect of structural continuity on the thermo-mechanical performance of restrained steel beams with circle and elongated circle shapes of web opening in fire. The numerical model is firstly validated using existing numerical results from the literature, and then employed to perform a parametric study. The structural continuity is evaluated through the application of different levels of axial restraints on the response of carbon steel and stainless steel cellular beam in fire. The transit temperature for stainless steel cellular beam is shown to be less affected by the level of axial stiffness than the equivalent carbon steel cellular beam. Overall, it was established that whereas stainless steel cellular beams show similar stages of behavior of carbon steel cellular beams in fire, they are capable of withstanding higher temperatures prior to the onset of catenary action in large deflection, despite the higher thermal expansion of stainless steel material.

Keywords: axial restraint, catenary action, cellular beam, fire, numerical modeling, stainless steel, transit temperature

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2447 Analysis of Standard Tramway Surge Protection Methods Based on Real Cases

Authors: Alain Rousseau, Alfred Aragones, Gilles Rougier

Abstract:

The study is based on lightning and surge standards mainly the EN series 62305 for facility protection, EN series 61643 for Low Voltage Surge Protective Devices, High Voltage surge arrester standard en 60099-4 and the traction arrester standards namely EN 50526-1 and 50526-1 dealing respectively with railway applications fixed installations D.C. surge arresters and voltage limiting devices. The more severe stress for tramways installations is caused by direct lightning on the catenary line. In such case, the surge current propagates towards the various poles and sparkover the insulators leading to a lower stress. If the impact point is near enough, a significant surge current will flow towards the traction surge arrester that is installed on the catenary at the location the substation is connected. Another surge arrester can be installed at the entrance of the substation or even inside the rectifier to avoid insulation damages. In addition, surge arresters can be installed between + and – to avoid damaging sensitive circuits. Based on disturbances encountered in a substation following a lighting event, the engineering department of RATP has decided to investigate the cause of such damage and more generally to question the efficiency of the various possible protection means. Based on the example of a recent tramway line the paper present the result of a lightning study based on direct lightning strikes. As a matter of fact, the induced surges on the catenary are much more frequent but much less damaging. First, a lightning risk assessment is performed for the substations that takes into account direct lightning and induced lightning both on the substation and its connected lines such as the catenary. Then the paper deals with efficiency of the various surge arresters is discussed based on field experience and calculations. The efficiency of the earthing system used at the bottom of the pole is also addressed based on high frequency earthing measurement. As a conclusion, the paper is making recommendations for an enhanced efficiency of existing protection means.

Keywords: surge arrester, traction, lightning, risk, surge protective device

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2446 Material Use & Life cycle GHG Emissions of Different Electrification Options for Long-Haul Trucks

Authors: Nafisa Mahbub, Hajo Ribberink

Abstract:

Electrification of long-haul trucks has been in discussion as a potential strategy to decarbonization. These trucks will require large batteries because of their weight and long daily driving distances. Around 245 million battery electric vehicles are predicted to be on the road by the year 2035. This huge increase in the number of electric vehicles (EVs) will require intensive mining operations for metals and other materials to manufacture millions of batteries for the EVs. These operations will add significant environmental burdens and there is a significant risk that the mining sector will not be able to meet the demand for battery materials, leading to higher prices. Since the battery is the most expensive component in the EVs, technologies that can enable electrification with smaller batteries sizes have substantial potential to reduce the material usage and associated environmental and cost burdens. One of these technologies is an ‘electrified road’ (eroad), where vehicles receive power while they are driving, for instance through an overhead catenary (OC) wire (like trolleybuses and electric trains), through wireless (inductive) chargers embedded in the road, or by connecting to an electrified rail in or on the road surface. This study assessed the total material use and associated life cycle GHG emissions of two types of eroads (overhead catenary and in-road wireless charging) for long-haul trucks in Canada and compared them to electrification using stationary plug-in fast charging. As different electrification technologies require different amounts of materials for charging infrastructure and for the truck batteries, the study included the contributions of both for the total material use. The study developed a bottom-up approach model comparing the three different charging scenarios – plug in fast chargers, overhead catenary and in-road wireless charging. The investigated materials for charging technology and batteries were copper (Cu), steel (Fe), aluminium (Al), and lithium (Li). For the plug-in fast charging technology, different charging scenarios ranging from overnight charging (350 kW) to megawatt (MW) charging (2 MW) were investigated. A 500 km of highway (1 lane of in-road charging per direction) was considered to estimate the material use for the overhead catenary and inductive charging technologies. The study considered trucks needing an 800 kWh battery under the plug-in charger scenario but only a 200 kWh battery for the OC and inductive charging scenarios. Results showed that overall the inductive charging scenario has the lowest material use followed by OC and plug-in charger scenarios respectively. The materials use for the OC and plug-in charger scenarios were 50-70% higher than for the inductive charging scenarios for the overall system including the charging infrastructure and battery. The life cycle GHG emissions from the construction and installation of the charging technology material were also investigated.

Keywords: charging technology, eroad, GHG emissions, material use, overhead catenary, plug in charger

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2445 Iqbal's Philosophy of Action in the Light of Contemporary Philosophy of Action

Authors: Sevcan Ozturk

Abstract:

The aim of this paper is to analyze the twentieth-century Muslim philosopher Muhammad Iqbal’s philosophy of action in the light of the main issues of contemporary philosophy of action. Iqbal is one of the most celebrated and eminent figures of modern Islamic thought. However, a review of the works on Iqbal shows that most of the central concepts of his philosophy have not received enough attention. His notion of ‘action’ in its philosophical context is one of these concepts. One of the main characteristics of Iqbal’s approach is that he develops his discussion around the main themes of contemporary philosophy of action, which includes ontological and conceptual questions regarding the nature of human actions. He also discusses that action is the only way to develop human personality, and that the human being can only achieve immortality promised by Islam through his actions. Therefore, while presenting an approach that can be read in the light of contemporary philosophy of action, which has become one of the significant parts of modern philosophical discussions in the west particularly since the nineteenth century, he, at the same time, develops his own philosophy of action in the light of Islamic resources. Consequently, these two main characteristics of his discussion of the notion of action make his philosophy of action an important contribution to contemporary philosophy of action, a field that ignores the discussions of Muslim philosophers on action. Therefore, this paper aims at highlighting Iqbal’s contribution to the modern debate of action by analysing Iqbal’s notion of action in the light of the contemporary issues of philosophy of action. This will, first of all, include an examination of contemporary action theory. Although the main discussions of contemporary philosophy of action will provide the methodology of this study, the main paradigms of Iqbal’s approach to the notion of action will also be considered during the examination of the discussions of philosophy of action. Then, Iqbal’s own philosophy of action will be established in the light of the contemporary philosophy of action. It is hoped that this paper will cultivate a dialogue between Iqbal scholars and those working in the field of philosophy of action, and that it will be a contribution to the fields of Iqbal studies, philosophy of action, and intercultural philosophy.

Keywords: action, development of personality, Muhammad Iqbal, philosophy of action

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2444 Clustering and Modelling Electricity Conductors from 3D Point Clouds in Complex Real-World Environments

Authors: Rahul Paul, Peter Mctaggart, Luke Skinner

Abstract:

Maintaining public safety and network reliability are the core objectives of all electricity distributors globally. For many electricity distributors, managing vegetation clearances from their above ground assets (poles and conductors) is the most important and costly risk mitigation control employed to meet these objectives. Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) is widely used by utilities as a cost-effective method to inspect their spatially-distributed assets at scale, often captured using high powered LiDAR scanners attached to fixed wing or rotary aircraft. The resulting 3D point cloud model is used by these utilities to perform engineering grade measurements that guide the prioritisation of vegetation cutting programs. Advances in computer vision and machine-learning approaches are increasingly applied to increase automation and reduce inspection costs and time; however, real-world LiDAR capture variables (e.g., aircraft speed and height) create complexity, noise, and missing data, reducing the effectiveness of these approaches. This paper proposes a method for identifying each conductor from LiDAR data via clustering methods that can precisely reconstruct conductors in complex real-world configurations in the presence of high levels of noise. It proposes 3D catenary models for individual clusters fitted to the captured LiDAR data points using a least square method. An iterative learning process is used to identify potential conductor models between pole pairs. The proposed method identifies the optimum parameters of the catenary function and then fits the LiDAR points to reconstruct the conductors.

Keywords: point cloud, LİDAR data, machine learning, computer vision, catenary curve, vegetation management, utility industry

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2443 Structural Optimization Using Natural Shapes

Authors: Mitchell Gohnert

Abstract:

This paper reviews some fundamental concepts of structural optimization, which is based on the type of materials used in construction and the shape of the structure. The first step in structural optimization is to break down all internal forces in a structure into fundamental stresses, which are tensions and compressions. Knowing the stress patterns directs our selection of structural shapes, and the most appropriate type of construction material. In our selection of materials, it is essential to understand all construction materials have flaws, or micro-cracks, which reduce the capacity of the material, especially when subjected to tensions. Because of material defects, many construction materials perform significantly better when subjected to compressive forces. Structures are also more efficient if bending moments are eliminated. Bending stresses produce high peak stresses at each face of the member, and therefore substantially more material is required to resist bending. The shape of the structure also has a profound effect on stress levels. Stress may be reduced dramatically by simply changing the shape. Catenary, triangular and linear shapes are the fundamental structural forms to achieve optimal stress flow. If the natural flow of stress matches the shape of the structures, the most optimal shape is determined.

Keywords: Shell structures, structural optimization, Stress flow, Construction materials, catenary shapes

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2442 Design of Single Point Mooring Buoy System by Parametric Analysis

Authors: Chul-Hee Jo, Do-Youb Kim, Seok-Jin Cho, Yu-Ho Rho

Abstract:

The Catenary Anchor Leg Mooring (CALM) Single Point Mooring (SPM) buoy system is the most popular and widely used type of offshore loading terminals. SPM buoy mooring systems have been deployed worldwide for a variety of applications, water depths and vessel sizes ranging from small production carriers to Very Large Crude Carriers (VLCCs). Because of safe and easy berthing and un-berthing operations, the SPM buoy mooring system is also preferred for offshore terminals. The SPM buoy consists of a buoy that is permanently moored to the seabed by means of multiple mooring lines. The buoy contains a bearing system that allows a part of it to rotate around the moored geostatic part. When moored to the rotating part of the buoy, a vessel is able to freely weathervane around the buoy. This study was verified the effects of design variables in order to design an SPM buoy mooring system through parametric analysis. The design variables have independent and nonlinear characteristics. Using parametric analysis, this research was found that the fairlead departure angle, wave height and period, chain diameter and line length effect to the mooring top tension, buoy excursion and line layback.

Keywords: Single Point Mooring (SPM), Catenary Anchor Leg Mooring(CALM), design variables, parametric analysis, mooring system optimization

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2441 Aristotle's Notion of Akratic Action through the Prism of Moral Psychology

Authors: Manik Konch

Abstract:

Actions are generally evaluated from moral point of view. Either the action is praised or condemned, but in all cases it involves the agent who performs it. The agent is held morally responsible for bringing out an action. This paper is an attempt to explore the Aristotle’s notion of action and its relation with moral development in response to modern philosophical moral psychology. Particularly, the distinction between voluntary, involuntary, and non-voluntary action in the Nicomachean Ethics with some basic problems from the perspective of moral psychology: the role of choice, moral responsibility, desire, and akrasia for an action. How to do a morally right action? Is there any role of virtue, character to do a moral action? These problems are analyzed and interpreted in order to show that the Aristotelian theory of action significantly contributes to the philosophical study of moral psychology. In this connection, the paper juxtaposes Aristotle’s theory of action with response from David Charles, John R. Searle’s, and Alfred Mele theorization of action in the mechanism of human moral behaviours. To achieve this addressed problem, we consider, how the recent moral philosophical moral psychology research can shed light on Aristotle's ethics by focusing on theory of action. In this connection, we argue that the desire is the only responsible for the akratic action. According to Aristotle, desire is primary source of action and it is the starting point of action and also the endpoint of an action. Therefore we are trying to see how desire can make a person incontinent and motivate to do such irrational actions. Is there any causes which we can say such actions are right or wrong? To measure an action we have need to see the consequences such act. Thus, we discuss the relationship between akrasia and action from the perspective of contemporary moral psychologists and philosophers whose are currently working on it.

Keywords: action, desire, moral psychology, Aristotle

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2440 The Application of Action Research to Integrate the Innovation in Learning Experience in a Design Course

Authors: Walaa Mohammed Metwally

Abstract:

This case study used the action research concept as a tool to integrate the innovation in a learning experience on a design course. The action research was investigated at Prince Sultan University, College of Engineering in the Interior Design and Architecture Department in January 2015, through the Higher Education Academy program. The action research was presented first with the definition of the research, leading to how it was used and how solutions were found. It concluded by showing that once the action research application in interior design and architecture were studied it was an effective tool to improve student’s learning, develop their practice in design courses, and it discussed the negative and positive issues that were encountered.

Keywords: action research, innovation, intervention, learning experience, peer review

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2439 Real Time Multi Person Action Recognition Using Pose Estimates

Authors: Aishrith Rao

Abstract:

Human activity recognition is an important aspect of video analytics, and many approaches have been recommended to enable action recognition. In this approach, the model is used to identify the action of the multiple people in the frame and classify them accordingly. A few approaches use RNNs and 3D CNNs, which are computationally expensive and cannot be trained with the small datasets which are currently available. Multi-person action recognition has been performed in order to understand the positions and action of people present in the video frame. The size of the video frame can be adjusted as a hyper-parameter depending on the hardware resources available. OpenPose has been used to calculate pose estimate using CNN to produce heap-maps, one of which provides skeleton features, which are basically joint features. The features are then extracted, and a classification algorithm can be applied to classify the action.

Keywords: human activity recognition, computer vision, pose estimates, convolutional neural networks

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2438 Effects of Different Kinds of Combined Action Observation and Motor Imagery on Improving Golf Putting Performance and Learning

Authors: Chi H. Lin, Chi C. Lin, Chih L. Hsieh

Abstract:

Motor Imagery (MI) alone or combined with action observation (AO) has been shown to enhance motor performance and skill learning. The most effective way to combine these techniques has received limited scientific scrutiny. In the present study, we examined the effects of simultaneous (i.e., observing an action whilst imagining carrying out the action concurrently), alternate (i.e., observing an action and then doing imagery related to that action consecutively) and synthesis (alternately perform action observation and imagery action and then perform observation and imagery action simultaneously) AOMI combinations on improving golf putting performance and learning. Participants, 45 university students who had no formal experience of using imagery for the study, were randomly allocated to one of four training groups: simultaneous action observation and motor imagery (S-AOMI), alternate action observation and motor imagery (A-AOMI), synthesis action observation and motor imagery (A-S-AOMI), and a control group. And it was applied 'Different Experimental Groups with Pre and Post Measured' designs. Participants underwent eighteen times of different interventions, which were happened three times a week and lasting for six weeks. We analyzed the information we received based on two-factor (group × times) mixed between and within analysis of variance to discuss the real effects on participants' golf putting performance and learning about different intervention methods of different types of combined action observation and motor imagery. After the intervention, we then used imagery questionnaire and journey to understand the condition and suggestion about different motor imagery and action observation intervention from the participants. The results revealed that the three experimental groups both are effective in putting performance and learning but not for the control group, and the A-S-AOMI group is significantly better effect than S-AOMI group on golf putting performance and learning. The results confirmed the effect of motor imagery combined with action observation on the performance and learning of golf putting. In particular, in the groups of synthesis, motor imagery, or action observation were alternately performed first and then performed motor imagery, and action observation simultaneously would have the best effectiveness.

Keywords: motor skill learning, motor imagery, action observation, simulation

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2437 Effectiveness of Radon Remedial Action Implemented in a School on the Island of Ischia

Authors: F. Loffredo, M. Quarto, M. Pugliese, A. Mazzella, F. De Cicco, V. Roca

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of radon remedial action in a school on the Ischia island, South Italy, affected by indoor radon concentration higher than the value of 500 Bq/m3. This value is the limit imposed by the Italian legislation, to above which corrective actions in schools are necessary. Before the application of remedial action, indoor radon concentrations were measured in 9 rooms of the school. The measurements were performed with LR-115 passive alpha detectors (SSNTDs) and E-Perm. The remedial action was conducted in one of the office affected by high radon concentration using a Radonstop paint applied after the construction of a concrete slab under the floor. The effect of remedial action was the reduction of the concentration of radon of 41% and moreover it has demonstrated to be durable over time. The chosen method is cheap and easy to apply and it could be designed for various types of building. This method can be applied to new and existing buildings that show high dose values.

Keywords: E-Perm, LR 115 detectors, radon remediation, school

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2436 Social Action for Strengthening Craftsmen's Bargaining Position in Marketing of Product of Tourism Souvenir

Authors: Dumasari, Pujiati Utami

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The bargaining position is important for a craftsman in every transaction. A strong bargaining position to encourage craftsmen to gain feasible prices on souvenirs tourism products are sold in several market segments. Some social actions of craftsmen turned out to also determine the conditions bargaining. The main goal of this study is to assess the range of social action to strengthen the bargaining position of craftsmen in marketing various products of tourism souvenir. Location of the study is set intentionally in the Sub-District of Baturaden, Banyumas Regency and also the Sub-District of Purbalingga Wetan, Purbalingga Regency. Both of them are located in the Central Java Province, Indonesia. The research method is the descriptive case study. The results showed that the craftsmen not only carry out one or two type of social action. They do all of the social action: the first is rational based instrumental, the second is rational based on the values, the third is affective, and the fourth is traditional. However, craftsmen also develop other social actions namely: collective, productive and creative action. At respondents in Baturaden dominant type of social action that is instrumentally rational, productive and creative. Meanwhile, respondents in Purbalingga more dominant social action collective, productive and creative. Some social actions implemented simultaneously by the respondents. Because of this, they concluded that the rational action that modified by themselves is more easily for strengthening the bargaining position when facing the craftsmen traders collectors. Collective and rationality social action has the highest sensitivity value for strengthening the bargaining position of craftsmen.

Keywords: bargaining position, craftsmen, strengthen, social actions, marketing of tourism souvenir

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2435 Conscious Intention-based Processes Impact the Neural Activities Prior to Voluntary Action on Reinforcement Learning Schedules

Authors: Xiaosheng Chen, Jingjing Chen, Phil Reed, Dan Zhang

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Conscious intention can be a promising point cut to grasp consciousness and orient voluntary action. The current study adopted a random ratio (RR), yoked random interval (RI) reinforcement learning schedule instead of the previous highly repeatable and single decision point paradigms, aimed to induce voluntary action with the conscious intention that evolves from the interaction between short-range-intention and long-range-intention. Readiness potential (RP) -like-EEG amplitude and inter-trial-EEG variability decreased significantly prior to voluntary action compared to cued action for inter-trial-EEG variability, mainly featured during the earlier stage of neural activities. Notably, (RP) -like-EEG amplitudes decreased significantly prior to higher RI-reward rates responses in which participants formed a higher plane of conscious intention. The present study suggests the possible contribution of conscious intention-based processes to the neural activities from the earlier stage prior to voluntary action on reinforcement leanring schedule.

Keywords: Reinforcement leaning schedule, voluntary action, EEG, conscious intention, readiness potential

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2434 Fighting for What’s Fair: Illegitimacy Appraisals as Drivers of Different Collective Action Responses to Economic Inequality

Authors: Finn Lannon, Jenny Roth, Roland Deutsch, Eric Igou

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The world continues to be rife with economic inequality, which has an impact on how people think and behaves in response to large and often growing gaps in wealth. Large gaps in earnings between groups within a particular organization, area or society can create tension between groups. Collective action tendencies (to protest, sign a petition, vote on behalf of an ingroup etc.) are also a growing phenomenon globally. Research shows that economic inequality promotes social processes such as appraisals of illegitimacy, which are recognized antecedents of collective action. This paper examines different types of collective action intentions among middle-status group members in response to economic inequality in two studies. Study 1 (N = 72) demonstrates a causal link between high economic inequality and collective action intentions of middle-status group members both to reduce inequality and to improve group status. A second pre-registered study (N = 432) examines key drivers of these relationships, including illegitimacy appraisals and direction of intergroup comparison. Adding to the current understanding of the topic, distinctions between the illegitimacy of one’s group status and the illegitimacy of societal inequality are found to mediate key relationships between economic inequality and relevant collective action types. The direction of intergroup comparison (upwards vs. downwards) is also shown to have a significant impact on collective action intentions to improve group status. Findings add to the understanding of the consequences of economic inequality and drivers of collective action intentions.

Keywords: economic inequality, collective action, legitimacy, social psychology

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2433 The Mobilizing Role of Moral Obligation and Collective Action Frames in Two Types of Protest

Authors: Monica Alzate, Marcos Dono, Jose Manuel Sabucedo

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As long as collective action and its predictors constitute a big body of work in the field of political psychology, context-dependent studies and moral variables are a relatively new issue. The main goal of this presentation is to examine the differences in the predictors of collective action when taking into account two different types of protest, and also focus on the role of moral obligation as a predictor of collective action. To do so, we sampled both protesters and non-protesters from two mobilizations (N=376; N=563) of different nature (catalan Independence, and an 'indignados' march) and performed a logistic regression and a 2x2 MANOVA analysis. Results showed that the predictive variables that were more discriminative between protesters and non-protesters were identity, injustice, efficacy and moral obligation for the catalan Diada and injustice and moral obligation for the 'indignados'. Also while the catalans scored higher in the identification and efficacy variables, the indignados did so in injustice and moral obligation. Differences are evidenced between two types of collective action that coexist within the same protest cycle. The frames of injustice and moral obligation gain strength in the post-2010 mobilizations, a fact probably associated with the combination of materialist and post-materialist values that distinguish the movement. All of this emphasizes the need of studying protest from a contextual point of view. Besides, moral obligation emerges as key predictor of collective action engagement.

Keywords: collective action, identity, moral obligation, protest

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2432 Implementing Action Research in EFL/ESL Classrooms: A Systematic Review of Literature 2010-2019

Authors: Amira D. Ali

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Action research studies in education often address learners’ needs and empower practitioner-researcher to effectively change instructional practices and school communities. A systematic review of action research (AR) studies undertaken in EFL/ESL settings was conducted in this paper to systematically analyze empirical studies on action research published within a ten-year period (between 2010 and 2019). The review also aimed at investigating the focal strategies in teaching the language skills at school level and evaluating the overall quality of AR studies concerning focus, purpose, methodology and contribution. Inclusion criteria were established and 41 studies that fit were finally selected for the systematic review. Garrard’s (2007) Matrix Method was used to structure and synthesize the literature. Results showed a significant diversity in teaching strategies and implementation of the AR model. Almost a quarter of the studies focused on improving writing skills at elementary school level. In addition, findings revealed that (44%) of the studies used a mixed approach followed by qualitative method approach (41%), whereas only (15%) employed quantitative methodology. Research gaps for future action research in developing language skills were pointed out, and recommendations were offered.

Keywords: action research, EFL/ESL context, language skills, systematic review

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2431 Use of Computer and Machine Learning in Facial Recognition

Authors: Neha Singh, Ananya Arora

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Facial expression measurement plays a crucial role in the identification of emotion. Facial expression plays a key role in psychophysiology, neural bases, and emotional disorder, to name a few. The Facial Action Coding System (FACS) has proven to be the most efficient and widely used of the various systems used to describe facial expressions. Coders can manually code facial expressions with FACS and, by viewing video-recorded facial behaviour at a specified frame rate and slow motion, can decompose into action units (AUs). Action units are the most minor visually discriminable facial movements. FACS explicitly differentiates between facial actions and inferences about what the actions mean. Action units are the fundamental unit of FACS methodology. It is regarded as the standard measure for facial behaviour and finds its application in various fields of study beyond emotion science. These include facial neuromuscular disorders, neuroscience, computer vision, computer graphics and animation, and face encoding for digital processing. This paper discusses the conceptual basis for FACS, a numerical listing of discrete facial movements identified by the system, the system's psychometric evaluation, and the software's recommended training requirements.

Keywords: facial action, action units, coding, machine learning

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2430 Teacher Professional Development with Collaborative Action Research: Teachers' Responses to Research

Authors: Sumaya Saqr

Abstract:

Although many teachers regard academic research as the inclusive domain of academic researchers, teachers should contribute to the body of research guiding their own practice. Drawing on the qualitative analysis of 20 teachers’ reflection journals and interviews, this case study sheds light on the personal and professional benefits of teachers’ applications of collaborative action research in English language teaching context. The findings reveal that several aspects of teacher identity and classroom practice were changed. The present paper aspires to reveal the way in which collaborative action research process, as a learner-centered approach to staff development, would help teachers to become more independent and professionally autonomous and hence effecting change that is far greater than its initial purpose.

Keywords: change, collaborative action research, personal and professional benefits, professional development

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2429 Democratic Action as Insurgency: On Claude Lefort's Concept of the Political Regime

Authors: Lorenzo Buti

Abstract:

This paper investigates the nature of democratic action through a critical reading of Claude Lefort’s notion of the democratic ‘regime’. Lefort provides one of the most innovative accounts of the essential features of a democratic regime. According to him, democracy is a political regime that acknowledges the indeterminacy of a society and stages it as a contestation between competing political actors. As such, democracy provides the symbolic markers of society’s openness towards the future. However, despite their democratic features, the recent decades in late capitalist societies attest to a sense of the future becoming fixed and predetermined. This suggests that Lefort’s conception of democracy harbours a misunderstanding of the character and experience of democratic action. This paper examines this underlying tension in Lefort’s work. It claims that Lefort underestimates how a democratic regime, next to its symbolic function, also takes a materially constituted form with its particular dynamics of power relations. Lefort’s systematic dismissal of this material dimension for democratic action can lead to the contemporary paradoxical situation where democracy’s symbolic markers are upheld (free elections, public debate, dynamic between government and opposition in parliament,…) but the room for political decision-making is constrained due to a myriad of material constraints (e.g., market pressures, institutional inertias). The paper draws out the implications for the notion of democratic action. Contra Lefort, it argues that democratic action necessarily targets the material conditions that impede the capacity for decision-making on the basis of equality and liberty. This analysis shapes our understanding of democratic action in two ways. First, democratic action takes an asymmetrical, insurgent form, as a contestation of material power relations from below. Second, it reveals an ambivalent position vis-à-vis the political regime: democratic action is symbolically made possible by the democratic dispositive, but it contests the constituted form that the democratic regime takes.

Keywords: Claude Lefort, democratic action, material constitution, political regime

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2428 Factors Drive Consumers to Purchase Digital Music: An Empirical Study

Authors: Chechen Liao, Yi-Jen Huang, Yu-Ting Lu

Abstract:

This study explores and complements digital aspects. In this study, we construct a research model based on the theory of reasoned action and extend it with the advantages and disadvantages of intangibility (convenience, perceived risk), some characteristics of digital products (price, variety, trialability), and factors related to entertainment (perceived playfulness) to predict what consumers really consider when they buy digital music. Eight hypotheses were tested and supported. Finally, we prove that the theory of reasoned action is still valid in the field of digital products.

Keywords: digital music, digital product, theory of reasoned action

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2427 Action Research into including Sustainability in [Lean] Product Development: Cases from the European Space Sector

Authors: JoãO Paulo Estevam De Souza, Rob Dekkers

Abstract:

Particularly for the space sector the inclusion of sustainability in product development poses considerable challenges for practitioners. Outcomes of action research at two companies in this sector demonstrate how this contemporary theme could be included in methods for product and process development; this was supported by wider focus groups involving more companies. The working together with practitioners brought to the fore that holistic product life-cycle thinking needs further development, especially when firms are suppliers to original equipment manufacturers. Furthermore, the findings indicate that the social aspect of the triple-bottom-line causes remains elusive for companies; to this purpose, some pathways based on the action research and focus groups are proposed.

Keywords: aerospace, action research, product development, product life-cycle, sustainability, triple bottom-line

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2426 Thermal Modelling and Experimental Comparison for a Moving Pantograph Strip

Authors: Nicolas Delcey, Philippe Baucour, Didier Chamagne, Geneviève Wimmer, Auditeau Gérard, Bausseron Thomas, Bouger Odile, Blanvillain Gérard

Abstract:

This paper proposes a thermal study of the catenary/pantograph interface for a train in motion. A 2.5D complex model of the pantograph strip has been defined and created by a coupling between a 1D and a 2D model. Experimental and simulation results are presented and with a comparison allow validating the 2.5D model. Some physical phenomena are described and presented with the help of the model such as the stagger motion thermal effect, particular heats and the effect of the material characteristics. Finally it is possible to predict the critical thermal configuration during a train trip.

Keywords: electro-thermal studies, mathematical optimizations, multi-physical approach, numerical model, pantograph strip wear

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2425 Patterns of Positive Feedback Formation in the System of Online Action

Authors: D. Gvozdikov

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is an attempt to describe an online action as a system that combines disjointed events and behavioral chains into a whole. The research focuses on patterns of naturally-formed chains of actions united by an orientation towards the online environment. A key characteristic of the system of online action is that it acts as an attractor for separate actions and chains of behavioral repertoire accumulating time and efforts made by users. The article demonstrates how the chains of online-offline actions are combined into a single pattern due to a simple identifiable mechanism, a positive feedback system. Using methods of digital ethnography and analyzing the content of the Instagram application and media blogs, the research reveals how through the positive feedback mechanism the entire system of online action acquires stability and can expand involving new spheres of human activity.

Keywords: digital anthropology, internet studies, systems theory, social media

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2424 Action Research of Local Resident Empowerment in Prambanan Cultural Heritage Area in Yogyakarta

Authors: Destha Titi Raharjana

Abstract:

The finding of this research results from three action researches conducted in three rurals, namely Bokoharjo, Sambirejo, and Tirtomartani. Those rurals are close to Prambanan, a well-known cultural heritage site located in Sleman Regency, Indonesia. This action research is conducted using participative method through observation, interview, and focus group discussion with local residents as the subjects. This research aims to (a) present identifications of potencies, obstacles, and opportunities existed in development process, which is able to give more encouragement, involvement and empowerment for local residents in maintaining the cultural heritage area, (b) present participatory empowerment programs which adjust the needs of local residents and human resources, and (c) identify potential stakeholders that can support empowerment programs. Through action research method, this research is able to present (a) potential mapping; difficulties and opportunities in the development process in each rural, (b) empowerment program planning needed by local residents as a follow-up of this action research. Moreover, this research also presents identifications of potential stakeholders who are able to do an empowerment program follow-up. It is expected that, at the end of the programs, the local residents are able to maintain Prambanan, as one of cultural heritage sites that needs to be protected, in a more sustainable way.

Keywords: action research, local resident, empowerment, cultural heritage area, Prambanan, Sleman, Indonesia

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2423 The Miseducation of Color: Examining Racialized Experiences of Students of Color at Predominantly White Institutions (PWIs)

Authors: Sonia Darshini Singh

Abstract:

Recently, the Supreme Court and the federal government made affirmative action illegal. Colleges and universities are no longer allowed to consider race in admissions policies. Colleges and universities had the opportunity to increase racial diversity through affirmative action. Instead, a recent educational outlook has emerged where this race-conscious affirmative action is banned, and elitism is prioritized, thus altering the collegiate experience of students of color. While the statute restricts the consideration of race as a facet in admissions, this prohibition should not allow for the gravity of race and structural racism in the lives of marginalized students to diminish, nor should it limit further efforts to establish equitable access and outcomes for students of color. Not much is known about the racialized experiences of students of color who attend predominantly white institutions in the post-affirmative action era. The purpose of this ethnographic study will be to understand the racialized experiences of students who attend predominantly white institutions (PWI) in New York. This also aims to examine the potential data triangulation between what students wrote about to get into college and their actual racialized experience.

Keywords: higher education, predominantly white institution, equity, accessibility, affirmative action

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