Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9052

Search results for: laboratory test

9052 Design of a Laboratory Test for InvestigatingPermanent Deformation of Asphalt

Authors: Esmaeil Ahmadinia, Frank Bullen, Ron Ayers


Many concerns have been raised in recent years about the adequacy of existing creep test methods for evaluating rut-resistance of asphalt mixes. Many researchers believe the main reason for the creep tests being unable to duplicate field results is related to a lack of a realistic confinement for laboratory specimens. In-situ asphalt under axle loads is surrounded by a mass of asphalt, which provides stress-strain generated confinement. However, most existing creep tests are largely unconfined in their nature. It has been hypothesised that by providing a degree of confinement, representative of field conditions, in a creep test, it could be possible to establish a better correlation between the field and laboratory. In this study, a new methodology is explored where confinement for asphalt specimens is provided. The proposed methodology is founded on the current Australian test method, adapted to provide simulated field conditions through the provision of sample confinement.

Keywords: asphalt mixture, creep test, confinements, permanent deformation

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
9051 A Multi-Agent System for Accelerating the Delivery Process of Clinical Diagnostic Laboratory Results Using GSM Technology

Authors: Ayman M. Mansour, Bilal Hawashin, Hesham Alsalem


Faster delivery of laboratory test results is one of the most noticeable signs of good laboratory service and is often used as a key performance indicator of laboratory performance. Despite the availability of technology, the delivery time of clinical laboratory test results continues to be a cause of customer dissatisfaction which makes patients feel frustrated and they became careless to get their laboratory test results. The Medical Clinical Laboratory test results are highly sensitive and could harm patients especially with the severe case if they deliver in wrong time. Such results affect the treatment done by physicians if arrived at correct time efforts should, therefore, be made to ensure faster delivery of lab test results by utilizing new trusted, Robust and fast system. In this paper, we proposed a distributed Multi-Agent System to enhance and faster the process of laboratory test results delivery using SMS. The developed system relies on SMS messages because of the wide availability of GSM network comparing to the other network. The software provides the capability of knowledge sharing between different units and different laboratory medical centers. The system was built using java programming. To implement the proposed system we had many possible techniques. One of these is to use the peer-to-peer (P2P) model, where all the peers are treated equally and the service is distributed among all the peers of the network. However, for the pure P2P model, it is difficult to maintain the coherence of the network, discover new peers and ensure security. Also, security is a quite important issue since each node is allowed to join the network without any control mechanism. We thus take the hybrid P2P model, a model between the Client/Server model and the pure P2P model using GSM technology through SMS messages. This model satisfies our need. A GUI has been developed to provide the laboratory staff with the simple and easy way to interact with the system. This system provides quick response rate and the decision is faster than the manual methods. This will save patients life.

Keywords: multi-agent system, delivery process, GSM technology, clinical laboratory results

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
9050 Hand Motion and Gesture Control of Laboratory Test Equipment Using the Leap Motion Controller

Authors: Ian A. Grout


In this paper, the design and development of a system to provide hand motion and gesture control of laboratory test equipment is considered and discussed. The Leap Motion controller is used to provide an input to control a laboratory power supply as part of an electronic circuit experiment. By suitable hand motions and gestures, control of the power supply is provided remotely and without the need to physically touch the equipment used. As such, it provides an alternative manner in which to control electronic equipment via a PC and is considered here within the field of human computer interaction (HCI).

Keywords: control, hand gesture, human computer interaction, test equipment

Procedia PDF Downloads 243
9049 A Laboratory–Designed Activity in Ecology to Demonstrate the Allelopathic Property of the Philippine Chromolaena odorata L. (King and Robinson) Leaf Extracts

Authors: Lina T. Codilla


This study primarily designed a laboratory activity in ecology to demonstrate the allelopathic property of the Philippine Chromolaena odorata L. (hagonoy) leaf extracts to Lycopersicum esculentum (M), commonly known as tomatoes. Ethanol extracts of C. odorata leaves were tested on seed germination and seedling growth of L. esculentum in 7-day and 14-day observation periods. Analysis of variance and Tukey’s HSD post hoc test was utilized to determine differences among treatments while Pre–test – Post–test experimental design was utilized in the determination of the effectiveness of the designed laboratory activity. Results showed that the 0.5% concentration level of ethanol leaf extracts significantly inhibited germination and seedling growth of L. esculentum in both observation periods. These results were used as the basis in the development of instructional material in ecology. The laboratory activity underwent face validation by five (5) experts in various fields of specialization, namely, Biological Sciences, Chemistry and Science Education. The readability of the designed laboratory activity was determined using a Cloze Test. Pilot testing was conducted and showed that the laboratory activity developed is found to be a very effective tool in supplementing learning about allelopathy in ecology class. Thus, it is recommended for use among ecology classes but modification will be made in a small – scale basis to minimize time consumption.

Keywords: allelopathy, chromolaena odorata l. (hagonoy), designed-laboratory activity, organic herbicide students’ performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
9048 Construction of a Desktop Arduino Controlled Propeller Test Stand

Authors: Brian Kozak, Ryan Ferguson, Evan Hockeridge


Aerospace engineering and aeronautical engineering students studying propulsion often learn about propellers and their importance in aviation propulsion. In order to reinforce concepts introduced in the classroom, laboratory projects are used. However, to test a full scale propeller, an engine mounted on a test stand must be used. This engine needs to be enclosed in a test cell for appropriated safety requirements, is expensive to operate, and requires a significant amount of time to change propellers. In order to decrease costs and time requirements, the authors designed and built an electric motor powered desktop Arduino controlled test stand. This test stand is used to enhance student understanding of propeller size and pitch on thrust. The test stand can accommodate propellers up to 25 centimeters in diameter. The code computer allowed for the motor speed to be increased or decreased by 1% per second. Outputs that are measured are thrust, motor rpm, amperes, voltage, and motor temperature. These data are exported as a .CVS file and can be imported into a graphing program for data analysis.

Keywords: Arduino, Laboratory Project, Test stand, Propeller

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
9047 Effects of in silico (Virtual Lab) And in vitro (inside the Classroom) Labs in the Academic Performance of Senior High School Students in General Biology

Authors: Mark Archei O. Javier


The Fourth Industrial Revolution (FIR) is a major industrial era characterized by the fusion of technologies that is blurring the lines between the physical, digital, and biological spheres. Since this era teaches us how to thrive in the fast-paced developing world, it is important to be able to adapt. With this, there is a need to make learning and teaching in the bioscience laboratory more challenging and engaging. The goal of the research is to find out if using in silico and in vitro laboratory activities compared to the conventional conduct laboratory activities would have positive impacts on the academic performance of the learners. The potential contribution of the research is that it would improve the teachers’ methods in delivering the content to the students when it comes to topics that need laboratory activities. This study will develop a method by which teachers can provide learning materials to the students. A one-tailed t-Test for independent samples was used to determine the significant difference in the pre- and post-test scores of students. The tests of hypotheses were done at a 0.05 level of significance. Based on the results of the study, the gain scores of the experimental group are greater than the gain scores of the control group. This implies that using in silico and in vitro labs for the experimental group is more effective than the conventional method of doing laboratory activities.

Keywords: academic performance, general biology, in silico laboratory, in vivo laboratory, virtual laboratory

Procedia PDF Downloads 115
9046 Adherence Induced Formwork Removal in Small-Scale Pull-Off Tensile Tests

Authors: Nicolas Spitz, Nicolas Coniglio, Mohamed El Mansori, Alex Montagne, Sabeur Mezghani


Nowadays buildings' construction is performed by pouring concrete into molds referred to as formworks that are usually prefabricated metallic modules. Defects such as stripping may possibly form during the removal of the formwork if the interfacial bonding between the concrete and the formwork is high. A new pull-off tensile test was developed in our laboratory to simulate small-scale formwork removals. The concrete-to-formwork adherence force was measured on bare and coated formworks with different surface signatures. The used concrete was a mixture largely used on building sites and contains CEM I Portland cement and calcareous filler. The concrete surface appearance and the type of failures at the concrete-formwork interface have been investigated. The originality of this near-to-surface test was to compare the laboratory-measured adherence forces to the on-site observations. Based upon the small-scale laboratory test results, functional formwork specifications with low adherence to concrete was proposed in terms of superficial signature characteristics.

Keywords: concrete-formwork adherence, interfacial bonding, skin formwork functionality, small-scale pull-off tensile test

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
9045 Comparison of Numerical and Laboratory Results of Pull-Out Test on Soil–Geogrid Interactions

Authors: Parisa Ahmadi Oliaei, Seyed Abolhassan Naeini


The knowledge of soil–reinforcement interaction parameters is particularly important in the design of reinforced soil structures. The pull-out test is one of the most widely used tests in this regard. The results of tensile tests may be very sensitive to boundary conditions, and more research is needed for a better understanding of the Pull-out response of reinforcement, so numerical analysis using the finite element method can be a useful tool for the understanding of the Pull-out response of soil-geogrid interaction. The main objective of the present study is to compare the numerical and experimental results of Pull- out a test on geogrid-reinforced sandy soils interactions. Plaxis 2D finite element software is used for simulation. In the present study, the pull-out test modeling has been done on sandy soil. The effect of geogrid hardness was also investigated by considering two different types of geogrids. The numerical results curve had a good agreement with the pull-out laboratory results.

Keywords: plaxis, pull-out test, sand, soil- geogrid interaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
9044 Behavior Loss Aversion Experimental Laboratory of Financial Investments

Authors: Jihene Jebeniani


We proposed an approach combining both the techniques of experimental economy and the flexibility of discrete choice models in order to test the loss aversion. Our main objective was to test the loss aversion of the Cumulative Prospect Theory (CPT). We developed an experimental laboratory in the context of the financial investments that aimed to analyze the attitude towards the risk of the investors. The study uses the lotteries and is basing on econometric modeling. The estimated model was the ordered probit.

Keywords: risk aversion, behavioral finance, experimental economic, lotteries, cumulative prospect theory

Procedia PDF Downloads 391
9043 Development of Soil Test Kits to Determine Organic Matter Available Phosphorus and Exchangeable Potassium in Thailand

Authors: Charirat Kusonwiriyawong, Supha Photichan, Wannarut Chutibutr


Soil test kits for rapid analysis of the organic matter, available phosphorus and exchangeable potassium were developed to drive a low-cost field testing kit to farmers. The objective was to provide a decision tool for improving soil fertility. One aspect of soil test kit development was ease of use which is a time requirement for completing organic matter, available phosphorus and exchangeable potassium test in one soil sample. This testing kit required only two extractions and utilized no filtration consuming approximately 15 minutes per sample. Organic matter was principally created by oxidizing carbon KMnO₄ using the standard color chart. In addition, modified single extractant (Mehlich I) was applied to extract available phosphorus and exchangeable potassium. Molybdenum blue method and turbidimetric method using standard color chart were adapted to analyze available phosphorus and exchangeable potassium, respectively. Modified single extractant using in soil test kits were highly significant matching with analytical laboratory results (r=0.959** and 0.945** for available phosphorus and exchangeable potassium, respectively). Linear regressions were statistically calculated between modified single extractant and standard laboratory analysis (y=0.9581x-12.973 for available phosphorus and y=0.5372x+15.283 for exchangeable potassium, respectively). These equations were calibrated to formulate a fertilizer rate recommendation for specific corps. To validate quality, soil test kits were distributed to farmers and extension workers. We found that the accuracy of soil test kits were 71.0%, 63.9% and 65.5% for organic matter, available phosphorus, and exchangeable potassium, respectively. The quantitative survey was also conducted in order to assess their satisfaction with soil test kits. The survey showed that more than 85% of respondents said these testing kits were more convenient, economical and reliable than the other commercial soil test kits. Based upon the finding of this study, soil test kits can be another alternative for providing soil analysis and fertility recommendations when a soil testing laboratory is not available.

Keywords: available phosphorus, exchangeable potassium, modified single extractant, organic matter, soil test kits

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
9042 Liquefaction Assessment of Marine Soil in Western Yemen Region Based on Laboratory and Field Tests

Authors: Monalisha Nayak, T. G. Sitharam


Liquefaction is a major threat for sites consists of or on sandy soil. But this present study concentrates on the behavior of fine soil under cyclic loading. This paper presents the study of liquefaction susceptibility of marine silty clay to clayey silt for an offshore site near western Yemen. The submerged and loose sediment condition of marine soil of an offshore site can favour liquefaction during earthquakes. In this regard, the liquefaction susceptibility of the site was carried out based on both field test results and laboratory test results. From field test results of seismic cone penetration test (SCPT), liquefaction susceptibility was assessed considering normalized cone tip resistance, and normalized friction ratio and results give an idea regarding both cyclic mobility and flow liquefaction. Laboratory cyclic triaxial tests were also conducted on saturated undisturbed and remoulded sample to study the effect of cyclic loading on strength and strain characteristics. Liquefaction susceptibility of the marine soft soil was also carried out based on index properties like grain size distribution, natural moisture content and liquid limit of soil.

Keywords: index properties, liquefaction, marine soil, seismic cone penetration test (SCPT)

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9041 Prediction of California Bearing Ratio from Physical Properties of Fine-Grained Soils

Authors: Bao Thach Nguyen, Abbas Mohajerani


The California bearing ratio (CBR) has been acknowledged as an important parameter to characterize the bearing capacity of earth structures, such as earth dams, road embankments, airport runways, bridge abutments, and pavements. Technically, the CBR test can be carried out in the laboratory or in the field. The CBR test is time-consuming and is infrequently performed due to the equipment needed and the fact that the field moisture content keeps changing over time. Over the years, many correlations have been developed for the prediction of CBR by various researchers, including the dynamic cone penetrometer, undrained shear strength, and Clegg impact hammer. This paper reports and discusses some of the results from a study on the prediction of CBR. In the current study, the CBR test was performed in the laboratory on some fine-grained subgrade soils collected from various locations in Victoria. Based on the test results, a satisfactory empirical correlation was found between the CBR and the physical properties of the experimental soils.

Keywords: California bearing ratio, fine-grained soils, soil physical properties, pavement, soil test

Procedia PDF Downloads 438
9040 Shear Strength of Unsaturated Clayey Soils Using Laboratory Vane Shear Test

Authors: Reza Ziaie Moayed, Seyed Abdolhassan Naeini, Peyman Nouri, Hamed Yekehdehghan


The shear strength of soils is a significant parameter in the design of clay structures, depots, clay gables, and freeways. Most research has addressed the shear strength of saturated soils. However, soils can become partially saturated with changes in weather, changes in groundwater levels, and the absorption of water by plant roots. Hence, it is necessary to study the strength behavior of partially saturated soils. The shear vane test is an experiment that determines the undrained shear strength of clay soils. This test may be performed in the laboratory or at the site. The present research investigates the effect of liquidity index (LI), plasticity index (PI), and saturation degree of the soil on its undrained shear strength obtained from the shear vane test. According to the results, an increase in the LI and a decrease in the PL of the soil decrease its undrained shear strength. Furthermore, studies show that a rise in the degree of saturation decreases the shear strength obtained from the shear vane test.

Keywords: liquidity index, plasticity index, shear strength, unsaturated soil

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
9039 Automating Test Activities: Test Cases Creation, Test Execution, and Test Reporting with Multiple Test Automation Tools

Authors: Loke Mun Sei


Software testing has become a mandatory process in assuring the software product quality. Hence, test management is needed in order to manage the test activities conducted in the software test life cycle. This paper discusses on the challenges faced in the software test life cycle, and how the test processes and test activities, mainly on test cases creation, test execution, and test reporting is being managed and automated using several test automation tools, i.e. Jira, Robot Framework, and Jenkins.

Keywords: test automation tools, test case, test execution, test reporting

Procedia PDF Downloads 445
9038 The Accuracy of an 8-Minute Running Field Test to Estimate Lactate Threshold

Authors: Timothy Quinn, Ronald Croce, Aliaksandr Leuchanka, Justin Walker


Many endurance athletes train at or just below an intensity associated with their lactate threshold (LT) and often the heart rate (HR) that these athletes use for their LT are above their true LT-HR measured in a laboratory. Training above their true LT-HR may lead to overtraining and injury. Few athletes have the capability of measuring their LT in a laboratory and rely on perception to guide them, as accurate field tests to determine LT are limited. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if an 8-minute field test could accurately define the HR associated with LT as measured in the laboratory. On Day 1, fifteen male runners (mean±SD; age, 27.8±4.1 years; height, 177.9±7.1 cm; body mass, 72.3±6.2 kg; body fat, 8.3±3.1%) performed a discontinuous treadmill LT/maximal oxygen consumption (LT/VO2max) test using a portable metabolic gas analyzer (Cosmed K4b2) and a lactate analyzer (Analox GL5). The LT (and associated HR) was determined using the 1/+1 method, where blood lactate increased by 1 mMol•L-1 over baseline followed by an additional 1 mMol•L-1 increase. Days 2 and 3 were randomized, and the athletes performed either an 8-minute run on the treadmill (TM) or on a 160-m indoor track (TR) in an effort to cover as much distance as possible while maintaining a high intensity throughout the entire 8 minutes. VO2, HR, ventilation (VE), and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were measured using the Cosmed system, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE; 6-20 scale) was recorded every minute. All variables were averaged over the 8 minutes. The total distance covered over the 8 minutes was measured in both conditions. At the completion of the 8-minute runs, blood lactate was measured. Paired sample t-tests and pairwise Pearson correlations were computed to determine the relationship between variables measured in the field tests versus those obtained in the laboratory at LT. An alpha level of <0.05 was required for statistical significance. The HR (mean +SD) during the TM (167+9 bpm) and TR (172+9 bpm) tests were strongly correlated to the HR measured during the laboratory LT (169+11 bpm) test (r=0.68; p<0.03 and r=0.88; p<0.001, respectively). Blood lactate values during the TM and TR tests were not different from each other but were strongly correlated with the laboratory LT (r=0.73; p<0.04 and r=0.66; p<0.05, respectively). VE (Lmin-1) was significantly greater during the TR (134.8+11.4 Lmin-1) as compared to the TM (123.3+16.2 Lmin-1) with moderately strong correlations to the laboratory threshold values (r=0.38; p=0.27 and r=0.58; p=0.06, respectively). VO2 was higher during TR (51.4 mlkg-1min-1) compared to TM (47.4 mlkg-1min-1) with correlations of 0.33 (p=0.35) and 0.48 (p=0.13), respectively to threshold values. Total distance run was significantly greater during the TR (2331.6+180.9 m) as compared to the TM (2177.0+232.6 m), but they were strongly correlated with each other (r=0.82; p<0.002). These results suggest that an 8-minute running field test can accurately predict the HR associated with the LT and may be a simple test that athletes and coaches could implement to aid in training techniques.

Keywords: blood lactate, heart rate, running, training

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
9037 Integration of Virtual Learning of Induction Machines for Undergraduates

Authors: Rajesh Kumar, Puneet Aggarwal


In context of understanding problems faced by undergraduate students while carrying out laboratory experiments dealing with high voltages, it was found that most of the students are hesitant to work directly on machine. The reason is that error in the circuitry might lead to deterioration of machine and laboratory instruments. So, it has become inevitable to include modern pedagogic techniques for undergraduate students, which would help them to first carry out experiment in virtual system and then to work on live circuit. Further advantages include that students can try out their intuitive ideas and perform in virtual environment, hence leading to new research and innovations. In this paper, virtual environment used is of MATLAB/Simulink for three-phase induction machines. The performance analysis of three-phase induction machine is carried out using virtual environment which includes Direct Current (DC) Test, No-Load Test, and Block Rotor Test along with speed torque characteristics for different rotor resistances and input voltage, respectively. Further, this paper carries out computer aided teaching of basic Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) drive circuitry. Hence, this paper gave undergraduates a clearer view of experiments performed on virtual machine (No-Load test, Block Rotor test and DC test, respectively). After successful implementation of basic tests, VSI circuitry is implemented, and related harmonic distortion (THD) and Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of current and voltage waveform are studied.

Keywords: block rotor test, DC test, no load test, virtual environment, voltage source inverter

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
9036 Status of the Laboratory Tools and Equipment of the Bachelor of Science in Hotel and Restaurant Technology Program of Eastern Visayas State University

Authors: Dale Daniel G. Bodo


This study investigated the status of the Laboratory Tools and Equipment of the BSHRT Program of Eastern Visayas State University, Tacloban City Campus. Descriptive-correlation method was used which Variables include profile age, gender, acquired NC II, competencies in HRT and the status of the laboratory facilities, tools, and equipment of the BSHRT program. The study also identified significant correlation between the profile of the respondents and the implementation of the BSHRT Program in terms of laboratory tools and equipment. A self-structured survey questionnaire was used to gather relevant data among eighty-seven (87) BSHRT-OJT students. To test the correlations of variables, Pearson Product Moment Coefficient Correlation or Pearson r was used. As a result, the study revealed very interesting results and various significant correlations among the paired variables and as to the implementation of the BSHRT Program. Hence, this study was done to update the status of laboratory tools and equipment of the program.

Keywords: status, BSHRT Program, laboratory tools and equipment, descriptive-correlation

Procedia PDF Downloads 104
9035 Effects of Planned Pre-laboratory Discussion on Physics Students’ Acquisition of Science Process Skills in Kontagora, Niger State

Authors: Akano Benedict Ubawuike


This study investigated the effects of pre-laboratory discussion on physics students’ acquisition of science process skills. The study design was quasi-experimental and purposive sampling technique was applied in selecting two schools in Kontagora Town for the research based on the availability of a good physics laboratory. Intact classes already grouped by the school for the sake of small laboratory space and equipment, comprising Thirty (30) students, 15 for experimental group in School A and 15 for control in school B were the subjects for the research. The instrument used for data collection was the lesson prepared for pre – practical discussion and researcher made Science Process Skill Test (SPST ) and two (2) research questions, and two (2) research hypotheses were developed to guide the study. The data collected were analyzed using means and t-Test statistics at 0.05 level of significance. The study revealed that pre-laboratory discussion was found to be more efficacious in enhancing students’ acquisition of science process skills. It also revealed that gender, had no significant effect on students’ acquisition of science process skills. Based on the findings, it was recommended among others that teachers should encourage students to develop interest in practical activities by engaging them in pre-laboratory discussion and providing instructional materials that will challenge them to be actively involved during practical lessons. It is also recommended that Ministries of Education and professional organizations like Science Teachers' Association of Nigeria (STAN) should organize workshops, seminars and conferences for physics teachers and Physics concepts should be taught with practical activity so that the students will do science instead of learning about science.

Keywords: physics, laboratory, discussion, students, acquisition, science process skills

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9034 Disparities Versus Similarities; WHO Good Practices for Pharmaceutical Quality Control Laboratories and ISO/IEC 17025:2017: International Standards for Quality Management Systems in Pharmaceutical Laboratories

Authors: Mercy Okezue, Kari Clase, Stephen Byrn, Paddy Shivanand


Medicines regulatory authorities expect pharmaceutical companies and contract research organizations to seek ways to certify that their laboratory control measurements are reliable. Establishing and maintaining laboratory quality standards are essential in ensuring the accuracy of test results. ‘ISO/IEC 17025:2017’ and ‘WHO Good Practices for Pharmaceutical Quality Control Laboratories (GPPQCL)’ are two quality standards commonly employed in developing laboratory quality systems. A review was conducted on the two standards to elaborate on areas on convergence and divergence. The goal was to understand how differences in each standard's requirements may influence laboratories' choices as to which document is easier to adopt for quality systems. A qualitative review method compared similar items in the two standards while mapping out areas where there were specific differences in the requirements of the two documents. The review also provided a detailed description of the clauses and parts covering management and technical requirements in these laboratory standards. The review showed that both documents share requirements for over ten critical areas covering objectives, infrastructure, management systems, and laboratory processes. There were, however, differences in standard expectations where GPPQCL emphasizes system procedures for planning and future budgets that will ensure continuity. Conversely, ISO 17025 was more focused on the risk management approach to establish laboratory quality systems. Elements in the two documents form common standard requirements to assure the validity of laboratory test results that promote mutual recognition. The ISO standard currently has more global patronage than GPPQCL.

Keywords: ISO/IEC 17025:2017, laboratory standards, quality control, WHO GPPQCL

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
9033 Ground Deformation Module for the New Laboratory Methods

Authors: O. Giorgishvili


For calculation of foundations one of the important characteristics is the module of deformation (E0). As we all know, the main goal of calculation of the foundations of buildings on deformation is to arrange the base settling and difference in settlings in such limits that do not cause origination of cracks and changes in design levels that will be dangerous to standard operation in the buildings and their individual structures. As is known from the literature and the practical application, the modulus of deformation is determined by two basic methods: laboratory method, soil test on compression (without the side widening) and soil test in field conditions. As we know, the deformation modulus of soil determined by field method is closer to the actual modulus deformation of soil, but the complexity of the tests to be carried out and the financial concerns did not allow determination of ground deformation modulus by field method. Therefore, we determine the ground modulus of deformation by compression method without side widening. Concerning this, we introduce a new way for determination of ground modulus of deformation by laboratory order that occurs by side widening and more accurately reflects the ground modulus of deformation and more accurately reflects the actual modulus of deformation and closer to the modulus of deformation determined by the field method. In this regard, we bring a new approach on the ground deformation detection laboratory module, which is done by widening sides. The tests and the results showed that the proposed method of ground deformation modulus is closer to the results that are obtained in the field, which reflects the foundation's work in real terms more accurately than the compression of the ground deformation module.

Keywords: build, deformation modulus, foundations, ground, laboratory research

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
9032 Development of a Quick On-Site Pass/Fail Test for the Evaluation of Fresh Concrete Destined for Application as Exposed Concrete

Authors: Laura Kupers, Julie Piérard, Niki Cauberg


The use of exposed concrete (sometimes referred to as architectural concrete), keeps gaining popularity. Exposed concrete has the advantage to combine the structural properties of concrete with an aesthetic finish. However, for a successful aesthetic finish, much attention needs to be paid to the execution (formwork, release agent, curing, weather conditions…), the concrete composition (choice of the raw materials and mix proportions) as well as to its fresh properties. For the latter, a simple on-site pass/fail test could halt the casting of concrete not suitable for architectural concrete and thus avoid expensive repairs later. When architects opt for an exposed concrete, they usually want a smooth, uniform and nearly blemish-free surface. For this choice, a standard ‘construction’ concrete does not suffice. An aesthetic surface finishing requires the concrete to contain a minimum content of fines to minimize the risk of segregation and to allow complete filling of more complex shaped formworks. The concrete may neither be too viscous as this makes it more difficult to compact and it increases the risk of blow holes blemishing the surface. On the other hand, too much bleeding may cause color differences on the concrete surface. An easy pass/fail test, which can be performed on the site just before the casting, could avoid these problems. In case the fresh concrete fails the test, the concrete can be rejected. Only in case the fresh concrete passes the test, the concrete would be cast. The pass/fail tests are intended for a concrete with a consistency class S4. Five tests were selected as possible onsite pass/fail test. Two of these tests already exist: the K-slump test (ASTM C1362) and the Bauer Filter Press Test. The remaining three tests were developed by the BBRI in order to test the segregation resistance of fresh concrete on site: the ‘dynamic sieve stability test’, the ‘inverted cone test’ and an adapted ‘visual stability index’ (VSI) for the slump and flow test. These tests were inspired by existing tests for self-compacting concrete, for which the segregation resistance is of great importance. The suitability of the fresh concrete mixtures was also tested by means of a laboratory reference test (resistance to segregation) and by visual inspection (blow holes, structure…) of small test walls. More than fifteen concrete mixtures of different quality were tested. The results of the pass/fail tests were compared with the results of this laboratory reference test and the test walls. The preliminary laboratory results indicate that concrete mixtures ‘suitable’ for placing as exposed concrete (containing sufficient fines, a balanced grading curve etc.) can be distinguished from ‘inferior’ concrete mixtures. Additional laboratory tests, as well as tests on site, will be conducted to confirm these preliminary results and to set appropriate pass/fail values.

Keywords: exposed concrete, testing fresh concrete, segregation resistance, bleeding, consistency

Procedia PDF Downloads 364
9031 Prevalence of Treponema pallidum Infection among HIV-Seroreactive Patients in Kano, Nigeria

Authors: Y. Mohammed, A. I. Kabuga


Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) have continued to be a major public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa especially with the recent resurgence of syphilis. Syphilis is a systemic disease caused by the bacterium, spirochete Treponema pallidum and has been reported as one of the common sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in Nigeria. Presence of genital ulcer disease from syphilis facilitates human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission and their ¬diagnosis is essential for the proper management. Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test is used as a screening test for the diagnosis of syphilis. However, unusual VDRL test results have been reported in HIV-infected persons with syphilis. There are reports showing higher than expected VDRL titers as well as biological false positive in most of the studies. A negative Rapid Plasma Reagin (RPR) test or VDRL test result may not rule out syphilis in patients with HIV infection. For laboratory confirmation of syphilis, one specific Treponemal test, namely, Fluroscent Treponemal Antibody Absorption (FTA-ABS) test or Treponema Pallidum Haemagglutination Assay (TPHA) should be done along with VDRL. A prospective cross sectional study was conducted for 2 years from Jun, 2012 to Jun 2014 to determine the prevalence of syphilis in HIV-seroreactive patients at 5 selected HIV/AIDS treatment and counseling centers in Kano State, North Western, Nigeria. New HIV-Seroreactive patients who gave informed consent to participate in the study were recruited. Venereal Diseases Research Laboratory (VDRL) test for Syphilis screening was performed on the same sera samples which were collected for HIV testing. A total of 238 patients, 113 (47%) males and 125 (53%) females, were enrolled. In the present study, 238 HIV-seropositive patients were screened for syphilis by VDRL test. Out of these 238 cases, 72 (32%) patients were positive for TPHA and 8 (3.4%) patients were reactive for VDRL in various titers with an overall prevalence of 3.4%. All the eight patients who were reactive for VDRL test were also positive for TPHA test. In Conclusions, with high prevalence of syphilis among HIV-infected people from this study, it is recommended that serological testing for syphilis should be carried out in all patients with newly diagnosed HIV infection. Detection and treatment of STI should have a central role in HIV prevention and control. This will help in proper management of patients having STIs and HIV co infection.

Keywords: HIV, infections, STIs, syphilis

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
9030 Mechanical Qualification Test Campaign on the Demise Observation Capsule

Authors: B. Tiseo, V. Quaranta, G. Bruno, R. Gardi, T. Watts, S. Dussy


This paper describes the qualification test campaign performed on the Demise Observation Capsule DOC-EQM as part of the Future Launch Preparatory Program FLPP3. The mechanical environment experienced during launch ascent and separation phase was first identified and then replicated in terms of sine, random and shock vibration. The loads identification is derived by selecting the worst possible case. Vibration and shock qualification test performed at CIRA Space Qualification laboratory is herein described. Mechanical fixtures’ design and validation, carried out by means of FEM, is also addressed due to its fundamental role in the vibrational test campaign. The Demise Observation Capsule (DOC) successfully passed the qualification test campaign. Functional test and resonance search have not been point any fault and damages of the capsule.

Keywords: capsule, demise, demise observation capsule, DOC, launch environment, re-ntry, qualification

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9029 Graphic Calculator Effectiveness in Biology Teaching and Learning

Authors: Nik Azmah Nik Yusuff, Faridah Hassan Basri, Rosnidar Mansor


The purpose of the study is to find out the effectiveness of using Graphic calculators (GC) with Calculator Based Laboratory 2 (CBL2) in teaching and learning of form four biology for these topics: Nutrition, Respiration and Dynamic Ecosystem. Sixty form four science stream students were the participants of this study. The participants were divided equally into the treatment and control groups. The treatment group used GC with CBL2 during experiments while the control group used the ordinary conventional laboratory apparatus without using GC with CBL2. Instruments in this study were a set of pre-test and post-test and a questionnaire. T-Test was used to compare the student’s biology achievement while a descriptive statistic was used to analyze the outcome of the questionnaire. The findings of this study indicated the use of GC with CBL2 in biology had significant positive effect. The highest mean was 4.43 for item stating the use of GC with CBL2 had saved collecting experiment result’s time. The second highest mean was 4.10 for item stating GC with CBL2 had saved drawing and labelling graphs. The outcome from the questionnaire also showed that GC with CBL2 were easy to use and save time. Thus, teachers should use GC with CBL2 in support of efforts by Malaysia Ministry of Education in encouraging technology-enhanced lessons.

Keywords: biology experiments, Calculator-Based Laboratory 2 (CBL2), graphic calculators, Malaysia Secondary School, teaching/learning

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9028 On Definition of Modulus of Deformation of Ground by Laboratory Method

Authors: Olgha Giorgishvili


The work is mainly concerned with the determination of modulus of deformation by laboratory method. It is known that a modulus of deformation is defining by laboratory and field methods. By laboratory method the modulus of deformation is defined in the compressive devices. Our goal is to conduct experiments by both methods and finally make to interpret the obtained results. In this article is considered the definition by new offered laboratory method of deformation modulus that is closer to the real deformation modulus. Finally, the obtained results gives the possibility to us to raise the issue of change the state norms for determining ground by laboratory method.

Keywords: building, soil mechanic, deformation moulus, compression methods

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9027 Evaluation of the Improve Vacuum Blood Collection Tube for Laboratory Tests

Authors: Yoon Kyung Song, Seung Won Han, Sang Hyun Hwang, Do Hoon Lee


Laboratory tests is a significant part for the diagnosis, prognosis, treatment of diseases. Blood collection is a simple process, but can be a potential cause of pre-analytical errors. Vacuum blood collection tubes used to collect and store the blood specimens is necessary for accurate test results. The purpose of this study was to validate Improve serum separator tube(SST) (Guanzhou Improve Medical Instruments Co., Ltd, China) for routine clinical chemistry laboratory testing. Blood specimens were collected from 100 volunteers in three different serum vacuum tubes (Greiner SST , Becton Dickinson SST , Improve SST). The specimens were evaluated for 16 routine chemistry tests using TBA-200FR NEO (Toshiba Medical Co. JAPAN). The results were statistically analyzed by paired t-test and Bland-Altman plot. For stability test, the initial results for each tube were compared with results of 72 hours preserved specimens. Their clinical availability was evaluated by biological Variation of Ricos data bank. Paired t-test analysis revealed that AST, ALT, K, Cl showed statistically same results but calcium (CA), phosphorus(PHOS), glucose(GLU), BUN, uric acid(UA), cholesterol(CHOL), total protein(TP), albumin(ALB), total bilirubin(TB), ALP, creatinine(CRE), sodium(NA) were different(P < 0.05) between Improve SST and Greiner SST. Also, CA, PHOS, TP, TB, AST, ALT, NA, K, Cl showed statistically the same results but GLU, BUN, UA, CHOL, ALB, ALP, CRE were different between Improve SST and Becton Dickinson SST. All statistically different cases were clinically acceptable by biological Variation of Ricos data bank. Improve SST tubes showed satisfactory results compared with Greiner SST and Becton Dickinson SST. We concluded that the tubes are acceptable for routine clinical chemistry laboratory testing.

Keywords: blood collection, Guanzhou Improve, SST, vacuum tube

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9026 Correlation between the Undrained Shear Strength of Clay of the Champlain Sea as Determined by the Vane Test and the Swedish Cone

Authors: Tahar Ayadat


The undrained shear strength is an essential parameter for determining the consistency and the ultimate bearing capacity of a clay layer. The undrained shear strength can be determined by field tests such as the in situ vane test or in laboratory, including hand vane test, triaxial, simple compression test, and the consistency penetrometer (i.e. Swedish cone). However, the field vane test and the Swedish cone are the most commonly used tests by geotechnical experts. In this technical note, a comparison between the shear strength results obtained by the in situ vane test and the cone penetration test (Swedish cone) was conducted. A correlation between the results of these two tests, concerning the undrained shear strength of the Champlain sea clay, has been developed. Moreover, some applications of the proposed correlation on some geotechnical problems have been included, such as the determination of the consistency and the bearing capacity of a clay layer.

Keywords: correlation, shear strength, clay, vane test, Swedish cone

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9025 An Analysis of Laboratory Management Practices and Laid down Standard in Some Colleges of Education in Kano State, Nigeria

Authors: Joseph Abiodun Ayo


The main purpose of this study was to investigate the science laboratory management practices employed in some colleges of education in Kano State, Nigeria. Four specific objectives were stated to guide the study, four research questions were investigated, four null hypothesis were tested at 0.05 level of significance. A survey design was used and science laboratory management questionnaires which solicit responses that was used in answering the research questions and testing of hypotheses. These questionnaires were distributed to the respective respondents in the sampled colleges. The respondents for the study comprised biology chemistry, physics, integrated science teacher trainers and the paraprofessionals. Data were analyzed using mean and standard deviation to answer the questions. Chi-square statistical technique was used to test the hypothesis. The findings of the study revealed that all procedures on control of laboratory activities were rarely observed. Safety procedures were occasionally practiced. On provision and procurement of laboratory equipment and materials it was observed that both academic and the paraprofessional were not fully involved. While maintenance measures were occasionally observed, furthermore science laboratory management procedures are not frequently practiced. Hence making the acquisition of science process skills by students becoming difficult. To arrest these anomalies, it is recommended that direct labor in the maintenance of laboratory equipment and other apparatus by paraprofessional is crucial. Training of academic and paraprofessional through workshops to acquire technical skills in maintenance of science laboratory equipment be instituted to increase professionalism. Periodic supervision of activities in the science laboratories should be done promptly.

Keywords: laboratory, management, standard, facility

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9024 Estimation of Uncertainty of Thermal Conductivity Measurement with Single Laboratory Validation Approach

Authors: Saowaluck Ukrisdawithid


The thermal conductivity of thermal insulation materials are measured by Heat Flow Meter (HFM) apparatus. The components of uncertainty are complex and difficult on routine measurement by modelling approach. In this study, uncertainty of thermal conductivity measurement was estimated by single laboratory validation approach. The within-laboratory reproducibility was 1.1%. The standard uncertainty of method and laboratory bias by using SRM1453 expanded polystyrene board was dominant at 1.4%. However, it was assessed that there was no significant bias. For sample measurement, the sources of uncertainty were repeatability, density of sample and thermal conductivity resolution of HFM. From this approach to sample measurements, the combined uncertainty was calculated. In summary, the thermal conductivity of sample, polystyrene foam, was reported as 0.03367 W/m·K ± 3.5% (k = 2) at mean temperature 23.5 °C. The single laboratory validation approach is simple key of routine testing laboratory for estimation uncertainty of thermal conductivity measurement by using HFM, according to ISO/IEC 17025-2017 requirements. These are meaningful for laboratory competent improvement, quality control on products, and conformity assessment.

Keywords: single laboratory validation approach, within-laboratory reproducibility, method and laboratory bias, certified reference material

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9023 Moderating Effects of Future Career Interest in Science and Gender on Students' Achievement in Basic Science in Oyo State, Nigeria

Authors: Segun Jacob Ogunkunle


The study examined the moderating effects of future career interest in science and gender on achievement in basic science of students taught in a simulated laboratory and enriched laboratory guide material environments. It adopted the pretest-posttest control group quasi experimental design with a 3x2x2 factorial matrix. A total of 277 (130 males, 147 females; ± 17 years) junior secondary three students randomly selected from six purposively selected secondary schools based on availability of functional computer and physics laboratories participated in the study. Data were collected using achievement test in basic science (r=0.87) and future career interest in science (r=0.99) while analysis of covariance and estimated marginal means were used to test three hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The findings of the study show that future career interest in science had significant effect on students’ achievement in basic science whereas gender did not. The interaction effect of future career interest in science and gender on students’ achievement in basic science was not significant. It is therefore recommended that prior knowledge of students’ future career interest in science could be used to improve participation in basic science practical in order to enhance achievement in biology, chemistry, and physics at the post-basic education level in Nigeria.

Keywords: future career interest in science, basic science, simulated laboratory, enriched laboratory guide materials, achievement in science

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