Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2891

Search results for: second harmonic generation.

2891 Cavity-Type Periodically-Poled LiNbO3 Device for Highly-Efficient Third-Harmonic Generation

Authors: Isao Tomita

Abstract:

We develop a periodically-poled LiNbO3 (PPLN) device for highly-efficient third-harmonic generation (THG), where the THG efficiency is enhanced with a cavity. THG can usually be produced via χ(3)-nonlinear materials by optical pumping with very high pump-power. Instead, we here propose THG by moderate-power pumping through a specially-designed PPLN device containing only χ(2)-nonlinearity, where sum-frequency generation in the χ(2) process is employed for the mixing of a pump beam and a second-harmonic-generation (SHG) beam produced from the pump beam. The cavity is designed to increase the SHG power with dichroic mirrors attached to both ends of the device that perfectly reflect the SHG beam back to the device and yet let the pump and THG beams pass through the mirrors. This brings about a THG-power enhancement because of THG power proportional to the enhanced SHG power. We examine the THG-efficiency dependence on the mirror reflectance and show that very high THG-efficiency is obtained at moderate pump-power when compared with that of a cavity-free PPLN device.

Keywords: cavity, periodically-poled LiNbO₃, sum-frequency generation, third-harmonic generation

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
2890 Validation of Solar PV Inverter Harmonics Behaviour at Different Power Levels in a Test Network

Authors: Wilfred Fritz

Abstract:

Grid connected solar PV inverters need to be compliant to standard regulations regarding unwanted harmonic generation. This paper gives an introduction to harmonics, solar PV inverter voltage regulation and balancing through compensation and investigates the behaviour of harmonic generation at different power levels. Practical measurements of harmonics and power levels with a power quality data logger were made, on a test network at a university in Germany. The test setup and test results are discussed. The major finding was that between the morning and afternoon load peak windows when the PV inverters operate under low solar insolation and low power levels, more unwanted harmonics are generated. This has a huge impact on the power quality of the grid as well as capital and maintenance costs. The design of a single-tuned harmonic filter towards harmonic mitigation is presented.

Keywords: harmonics, power quality, pulse width modulation, total harmonic distortion

Procedia PDF Downloads 125
2889 Impact of Harmonic Resonance and V-THD in Sohar Industrial Port–C Substation

Authors: R. S. Al Abri, M. H. Albadi, M. H. Al Abri, U. K. Al Rasbi, M. H. Al Hasni, S. M. Al Shidi

Abstract:

This paper presents an analysis study on the impacts of the changes of the capacitor banks, the loss of a transformer, and the installation of distributed generation on the voltage total harmonic distortion and harmonic resonance. The study is applied in a real system in Oman, Sohar Industrial Port–C Substation Network. Frequency scan method and Fourier series analysis method are used with the help of EDSA software. Moreover, the results are compared with limits specified by national Oman distribution code.

Keywords: power quality, capacitor bank, voltage total harmonics distortion, harmonic resonance, frequency scan

Procedia PDF Downloads 464
2888 Subclass of Close-To-Convex Harmonic Mappings

Authors: Jugal K. Prajapat, Manivannan M.

Abstract:

In this article we have studied a class of sense preserving harmonic mappings in the unit disk D. Let B⁰H (α, β) denote the class of sense-preserving harmonic mappings f=h+g ̅ in the open unit disk D and satisfying the condition |z h״(z)+α (h׳(z)-1) | ≤ β - |z g″(z)+α g′(z)| (α > -1, β > 0). We have proved that B⁰H (α, β) is close-to-convex in D. We also prove that the functions in B⁰H (α, β) are stable harmonic univalent, stable harmonic starlike and stable harmonic convex in D for different values of its parameters. Further, the coefficient estimates, growth results, area theorem, boundary behavior, convolution and convex combination properties of the class B⁰H (α, β) of harmonic mapping are obtained.

Keywords: analytic, univalent, starlike, convex and close-to-convex

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
2887 Noncritical Phase-Matched Fourth Harmonic Generation of Converging Beam by Deuterated Potassium Dihydrogen Phosphate Crystal

Authors: Xiangxu Chai, Bin Feng, Ping Li, Deyan Zhu, Liquan Wang, Guanzhong Wang, Yukun Jing

Abstract:

In high power large-aperture laser systems, such as the inertial confinement fusion project, the Nd: glass laser (1053nm) is usually needed to be converted to ultraviolet (UV) light and the fourth harmonic generation (FHG) is one of the most favorite candidates to achieve UV light. Deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate (DKDP) crystal is an optimal choice for converting the Nd: glass radiation to the fourth harmonic laser by noncritical phase matching (NCPM). To reduce the damage probability of focusing lens, the DKDP crystal is suggested to be set before the focusing lens. And a converging beam enters the FHG crystal consequently. In this paper, we simulate the process of FHG in the scheme and the dependence of FHG efficiency on the lens’ F is derived. Besides, DKDP crystal with gradient deuterium is proposed to realize the NCPM FHG of the converging beam. At every position, the phase matching is achieved by adjusting the deuterium level, and the FHG efficiency increases as a result. The relation of the lens’ F with the deuterium gradient is investigated as well.

Keywords: fourth harmonic generation, laser induced damage, converging beam, DKDP crystal

Procedia PDF Downloads 105
2886 Second Harmonic Generation of Higher-Order Gaussian Laser Beam in Density Rippled Plasma

Authors: Jyoti Wadhwa, Arvinder Singh

Abstract:

This work presents the theoretical investigation of an enhanced second-harmonic generation of higher-order Gaussian laser beam in plasma having a density ramp. The mechanism responsible for the self-focusing of a laser beam in plasma is considered to be the relativistic mass variation of plasma electrons under the effect of a highly intense laser beam. Using the moment theory approach and considering the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation for the non-linear Schrodinger wave equation, the differential equation is derived, which governs the spot size of the higher-order Gaussian laser beam in plasma. The nonlinearity induced by the laser beam creates the density gradient in the background plasma electrons, which is responsible for the excitation of the electron plasma wave. The large amplitude electron plasma wave interacts with the fundamental beam, which further produces the coherent radiations with double the frequency of the incident beam. The analysis shows the important role of the different modes of higher-order Gaussian laser beam and density ramp on the efficiency of generated harmonics.

Keywords: density rippled plasma, higher order Gaussian laser beam, moment theory approach, second harmonic generation.

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
2885 Improving Power Quality in Wind Power Generation System

Authors: A. Omeiri, A. Djellad, P. O. Logerais, O. Riou, J. F. Durastanti

Abstract:

With the growing of electrical energy demand, wind power capacity has experienced tremendous growth in the past decade, thanks to wind power’s environmental benefits. Direct driven permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) with a full size back-to-back converter set is one of the promising technologies employed with wind power generation. Wind grid integration brings the problems of voltage fluctuation and harmonic pollution. In the present study, the filter is placed between the wind system and the network to reduce the total harmonic distortion (THD) and enhance power quality during disturbances. The models of wind turbine, PMSG, power electronic converters and the filter are implemented in MATLAB/SIMULINK environment.

Keywords: wind energy conversion system, PMSG, PWM, THD, power quality, passive filter

Procedia PDF Downloads 562
2884 Harmonic Distortion Analysis in Low Voltage Grid with Grid-Connected Photovoltaic

Authors: Hedi Dghim, Ahmed El-Naggar, Istvan Erlich

Abstract:

Power electronic converters are being introduced in low voltage (LV) grids at an increasingly rapid rate due to the growing adoption of power electronic-based home appliances in residential grid. Photovoltaic (PV) systems are considered one of the potential installed renewable energy sources in distribution power systems. This trend has led to high distortion in the supply voltage which consequently produces harmonic currents in the network and causes an inherent voltage unbalance. In order to investigate the effect of harmonic distortions, a case study of a typical LV grid configuration with high penetration of 3-phase and 1-phase rooftop mounted PV from southern Germany was first considered. Electromagnetic transient (EMT) simulations were then carried out under the MATLAB/Simulink environment which contain detailed models for power electronic-based loads, ohmic-based loads as well as 1- and 3-phase PV. Note that, the switching patterns of the power electronic circuits were considered in this study. Measurements were eventually performed to analyze the distortion levels when PV operating under different solar irradiance. The characteristics of the load-side harmonic impedances were analyzed, and their harmonic contributions were evaluated for different distortion levels. The effect of the high penetration of PV on the harmonic distortion of both positive and negative sequences was also investigated. The simulation results are presented based on case studies. The current distortion levels are in agreement with relevant standards, otherwise the Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) increases under low PV power generation due to its inverse relation with the fundamental current.

Keywords: harmonic distortion analysis, power quality, PV systems, residential distribution system

Procedia PDF Downloads 166
2883 Comparative Study between Classical P-Q Method and Modern Fuzzy Controller Method to Improve the Power Quality of an Electrical Network

Authors: A. Morsli, A. Tlemçani, N. Ould Cherchali, M. S. Boucherit

Abstract:

This article presents two methods for the compensation of harmonics generated by a nonlinear load. The first is the classic method P-Q. The second is the controller by modern method of artificial intelligence specifically fuzzy logic. Both methods are applied to an Active Power Filter shunt (APFs) based on a three-phase voltage converter at five levels NPC topology. In calculating the harmonic currents of reference, we use the algorithm P-Q and pulse generation, we use the intersective PWM. For flexibility and dynamics, we use fuzzy logic. The results give us clear that the rate of Harmonic Distortion issued by fuzzy logic is better than P-Q.

Keywords: fuzzy logic controller, P-Q method, pulse width modulation (PWM), shunt active power filter (sAPF), total harmonic distortion (THD)

Procedia PDF Downloads 462
2882 Some Inequalities Related with Starlike Log-Harmonic Mappings

Authors: Melike Aydoğan, Dürdane Öztürk

Abstract:

Let H(D) be the linear space of all analytic functions defined on the open unit disc. A log-harmonic mappings is a solution of the nonlinear elliptic partial differential equation where w(z) ∈ H(D) is second dilatation such that |w(z)| < 1 for all z ∈ D. The aim of this paper is to define some inequalities of starlike logharmonic functions of order α(0 ≤ α ≤ 1).

Keywords: starlike log-harmonic functions, univalent functions, distortion theorem

Procedia PDF Downloads 433
2881 Identification of Transformer Core Vibrations and the Effect of Third Harmonic in the Electricity Grid

Authors: Setareh Gorji Ghalamestani, Lieven Vandevelde, Jan Melkebeek

Abstract:

In this work, an experimental technique is applied for the measurements of the vibrations and deformation of a test transformer core. Since the grid voltage contains some higher harmonics, in addition to a purely sinusoidal magnetisation of the core the presence of third harmonic is also studied. The vibrations of the transformer core for points as well as the surface scan of the leg show more deformation in the corners of the leg than the middle of the leg. The influence of the higher harmonic of the magnetisation on the core deformation is also more significant in the corners of the leg. The core deformation shape under a sinusoidal magnetisation with a higher harmonic is more wavy and fluctuating than that under a purely sinusoidal magnetisation.

Keywords: vibrations and noise, transformer, vibration measurements, laser vibrometer, higher harmonic

Procedia PDF Downloads 264
2880 Third Super-Harmonic Resonance in Vortex-Induced Vibration of a Pipeline Close to the Seabed

Authors: Yiming Jin, Ping Dong

Abstract:

The third super-harmonic resonance of a pipeline close to the seabed is investigated in this paper. To analyse the vortex-induced vibration (VIV) of the pipeline close to the seabed, the classic Van der Pol equation is extended with a nonlinear item. Then, on the base of the multi-scale method, the frequency-response curves of the pipeline with regard to the third super-harmonic resonance are studied with a series of parameters, such as the mass ratio, frequency, damp ratio and gap ratio. On the whole, the numerical results show that the characters of third super-harmonic resonance are quite from that of primary resonance, though with the same trend that the larger is the mass ratio, the smaller impact the gap ratio has on the frequency-response curves of the third super-harmonic resonance.

Keywords: the third super-harmonic resonance, gap ratio, vortex-induced vibration, multi-scale method

Procedia PDF Downloads 293
2879 Non-Linear Transformation of Bulk Acoustic Waves at Oblique Incidence on Plane Solid Boundary

Authors: Aleksandr I. Korobov, Natalia V. Shirgina, Aleksey I. Kokshaiskiy

Abstract:

The transformation of two types of acoustic waves can occur on a flat interface between two solids at oblique incidence of longitudinal and shear bulk acoustic waves (BAW). This paper presents the results of experimental studies of the properties of reflection and propagation of longitudinal wave and generation of second and third longitudinal and shear harmonics of BAW at oblique incidence of longitudinal BAW on a flat rough boundary between two solids. The experimental sample was a rectangular isosceles pyramid made of D16 aluminum alloy with the plane parallel bases cylinder made of D16 aluminum alloy pressed to the base. The piezoelectric lithium niobate transducer with a resonance frequency of 5 MHz was secured to one face of the pyramid to generate a longitudinal wave. Longitudinal waves emitted by this transducer felt at an angle of 45° to the interface between two solids and reflected at the same angle. On the opposite face of the pyramid, and on the flat side of the cylinder was attached longitudinal transducer with resonance frequency of 10 MHz or the shear transducer with resonance frequency of 15 MHz. These transducers also effectively received signal at a frequency of 5 MHz. In the spectrum of the transmitted and reflected BAW was observed shear and longitudinal waves at a frequency of 5 MHz, as well as longitudinal harmonic at a frequency harmonic of 10 MHz and a shear harmonic at frequency of 15 MHz. The effect of reversing changing of external pressure applied to the rough interface between two solids on the value of the first and higher harmonics of the BAW at oblique incidence on the interface of the longitudinal BAW was experimentally investigated. In the spectrum of the reflected signal from the interface, there was a decrease of amplitudes of the first harmonics of the signal, and non-monotonic dependence of the second and third harmonics of shear wave with an increase of the static pressure applied to the interface. In the spectrum of the transmitted signal growth of the first longitudinal and shear harmonic amplitude and non-monotonic dependence - first increase and then decrease in the amplitude of the second and third longitudinal shear harmonic with increasing external static pressure was observed. These dependencies were hysteresis at reversing changing of external pressure. When pressure applied to the border increased, acoustic contact between the surfaces improves. This increases the energy of the transmitted elastic wave and decreases the energy of the reflected wave. The second longitudinal acoustic harmonics generation was associated with the Hertz nonlinearity on the interface of two pressed rough surfaces, the generation of the third harmonic was caused by shear hysteresis nonlinearity due to dry friction on a rough interface. This study was supported by the Russian Science Foundation (project №14-22-00042).

Keywords: generation of acoustic harmonics, hysteresis nonlinearity, Hertz nonlinearity, transformation of acoustic waves

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2878 Estimation of Harmonics in Three-Phase and Six-Phase-Phase (Multi-Phase) Load Circuits

Authors: Zakir Husain, Deepak Kumar

Abstract:

The harmonics are very harmful within an electrical system and can have serious consequences such as reducing the life of apparatus, stress on cable and equipment etc. This paper cites extensive analytical study of harmonic characteristics of multiphase (six-phase) and three-phase system equipped with two and three level inverters for non-linear loads. Multilevel inverter has elevated voltage capability with voltage limited devices, low harmonic distortion, abridged switching losses. Multiphase technology also pays a promising role in harmonic reduction. Matlab simulation is carried out to compare the advantage of multi-phase over three phase systems equipped with two or three level inverters for non-linear load harmonic reduction. The extensive simulation results are presented based on case studies.

Keywords: fast Fourier transform (FFT), harmonics, inverter, ripples, total harmonic distortion (THD)

Procedia PDF Downloads 441
2877 Optimal Harmonic Filters Design of Taiwan High Speed Rail Traction System

Authors: Ying-Pin Chang

Abstract:

This paper presents a method for combining a particle swarm optimization with nonlinear time-varying evolution and orthogonal arrays (PSO-NTVEOA) in the planning of harmonic filters for the high speed railway traction system with specially connected transformers in unbalanced three-phase power systems. The objective is to minimize the cost of the filter, the filters loss, the total harmonic distortion of currents and voltages at each bus simultaneously. An orthogonal array is first conducted to obtain the initial solution set. The set is then treated as the initial training sample. Next, the PSO-NTVEOA method parameters are determined by using matrix experiments with an orthogonal array, in which a minimal number of experiments would have an effect that approximates the full factorial experiments. This PSO-NTVEOA method is then applied to design optimal harmonic filters in Taiwan High Speed Rail (THSR) traction system, where both rectifiers and inverters with IGBT are used. From the results of the illustrative examples, the feasibility of the PSO-NTVEOA to design an optimal passive harmonic filter of THSR system is verified and the design approach can greatly reduce the harmonic distortion. Three design schemes are compared that V-V connection suppressing the 3rd order harmonic, and Scott and Le Blanc connection for the harmonic improvement is better than the V-V connection.

Keywords: harmonic filters, particle swarm optimization, nonlinear time-varying evolution, orthogonal arrays, specially connected transformers

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
2876 Approximate Solution to Non-Linear Schrödinger Equation with Harmonic Oscillator by Elzaki Decomposition Method

Authors: Emad K. Jaradat, Ala’a Al-Faqih

Abstract:

Nonlinear Schrödinger equations are regularly experienced in numerous parts of science and designing. Varieties of analytical methods have been proposed for solving these equations. In this work, we construct an approximate solution for the nonlinear Schrodinger equations, with harmonic oscillator potential, by Elzaki Decomposition Method (EDM). To illustrate the effects of harmonic oscillator on the behavior wave function, nonlinear Schrodinger equation in one and two dimensions is provided. The results show that, it is more perfectly convenient and easy to apply the EDM in one- and two-dimensional Schrodinger equation.

Keywords: non-linear Schrodinger equation, Elzaki decomposition method, harmonic oscillator, one and two-dimensional Schrodinger equation

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
2875 A Novel Idea to Benefit of the Load Side’s Harmonics

Authors: Hussein Al-bayaty

Abstract:

This paper presents a novel idea to show the ability to benefit of the harmonic currents which are produced on the load side of the power grid. The proposed circuit contributes in reduction of the total harmonic distortion (THD) percentage through adding a high pass filter to draw harmonic currents with 150 Hz and multiple frequencies a and convert them to DC current and then reconvert it to AC current with 50 Hz frequency in order to feed different loads. The circuit has been designed, investigated and simulated in the MATLAB, Simulink program; the results will be assessed and compared the two cases: firstly, the system without adding the new circuit. Secondly, with adding the high pas filter circuit to the power system.

Keywords: harmonics elimination, passive filters, Total Harmonic Distortion (THD), filter circuit

Procedia PDF Downloads 307
2874 Technical and Economic Evaluation of Harmonic Mitigation from Offshore Wind Power Plants by Transmission Owners

Authors: A. Prajapati, K. L. Koo, F. Ghassemi, M. Mulimakwenda

Abstract:

In the UK, as the volume of non-linear loads connected to transmission grid continues to rise steeply, the harmonic distortion levels on transmission network are becoming a serious concern for the network owners and system operators. This paper outlines the findings of the study conducted to verify the proposal that the harmonic mitigation could be optimized and can be managed economically and effectively at the transmission network level by the Transmission Owner (TO) instead of the individual polluter connected to the grid. Harmonic mitigation studies were conducted on selected regions of the transmission network in England for recently connected offshore wind power plants to strategize and optimize selected harmonic filter options. The results – filter volume and capacity – were then compared against the mitigation measures adopted by the individual connections. Estimation ratios were developed based on the actual installed and optimal proposed filters. These estimation ratios were then used to derive harmonic filter requirements for future contracted connections. The study has concluded that a saving of 37% in the filter volume/capacity could be achieved if the TO is to centrally manage the harmonic mitigation instead of individual polluter installing their own mitigation solution.

Keywords: C-type filter, harmonics, optimization, offshore wind farms, interconnectors, HVDC, renewable energy, transmission owner

Procedia PDF Downloads 67
2873 Harmonic Data Preparation for Clustering and Classification

Authors: Ali Asheibi

Abstract:

The rapid increase in the size of databases required to store power quality monitoring data has demanded new techniques for analysing and understanding the data. One suggested technique to assist in analysis is data mining. Preparing raw data to be ready for data mining exploration take up most of the effort and time spent in the whole data mining process. Clustering is an important technique in data mining and machine learning in which underlying and meaningful groups of data are discovered. Large amounts of harmonic data have been collected from an actual harmonic monitoring system in a distribution system in Australia for three years. This amount of acquired data makes it difficult to identify operational events that significantly impact the harmonics generated on the system. In this paper, harmonic data preparation processes to better understanding of the data have been presented. Underlying classes in this data has then been identified using clustering technique based on the Minimum Message Length (MML) method. The underlying operational information contained within the clusters can be rapidly visualised by the engineers. The C5.0 algorithm was used for classification and interpretation of the generated clusters.

Keywords: data mining, harmonic data, clustering, classification

Procedia PDF Downloads 158
2872 Execution of Optimization Algorithm in Cascaded H-Bridge Multilevel Inverter

Authors: M. Suresh Kumar, K. Ramani

Abstract:

This paper proposed the harmonic elimination of Cascaded H-Bridge Multi-Level Inverter by using Selective Harmonic Elimination-Pulse Width Modulation method programmed with Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm. PSO method determine proficiently the required switching angles to eliminate low order harmonics up to the 11th order from the inverter output voltage waveform while keeping the magnitude of the fundamental harmonics at the desired value. Results demonstrate that the proposed method does efficiently eliminate a great number of specific harmonics and the output voltage is resulted in minimum Total Harmonic Distortion. The results shown that the PSO algorithm attain successfully to the global solution faster than other algorithms.

Keywords: multi-level inverter, Selective Harmonic Elimination Pulse Width Modulation (SHEPWM), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Total Harmonic Distortion (THD)

Procedia PDF Downloads 510
2871 Transient Signal Generator For Fault Indicator Testing

Authors: Mohamed Shaban, Ali Alfallah

Abstract:

This paper describes an application for testing of a fault indicator but it could be used for other network protection testing. The application is created in the LabVIEW environment and consists of three parts. The first part of the application is determined for transient phenomenon generation and imitates voltage and current transient signal at ground fault originate. The second part allows to set sequences of trend for each current and voltage output signal, up to six trends for each phase. The last part of the application generates harmonic signal with continuously controllable amplitude of current or voltage output signal and phase shift of each signal can be changed there. Further any sub-harmonics and upper harmonics can be added to selected current output signal

Keywords: signal generator-fault indicator, harmonic signal generator, voltage output

Procedia PDF Downloads 413
2870 Performance Analysis of Shunt Active Power Filter for Various Reference Current Generation Techniques

Authors: Vishal V. Choudhari, Gaurao A. Dongre, S. P. Diwan

Abstract:

A number of reference current generation have been developed for analysis of shunt active power filter to mitigate the load compensation. Depending upon the type of load the technique has to be chosen. In this paper, six reference current generation techniques viz. instantaneous reactive power theory(IRP), Synchronous reference frame theory(SRF), Perfect harmonic cancellation(PHC), Unity power factor method(UPF), Self-tuning filter method(STF), Predictive filtering method(PFM) are compared for different operating conditions. The harmonics are introduced because of non-linear loads in the system. These harmonics are eliminated using above techniques. The results and performance of system simulated on MATLAB/Simulink platform. The system is experimentally implemented using DS1104 card of dSPACE system.

Keywords: SAPF, power quality, THD, IRP, SRF, dSPACE module DS1104

Procedia PDF Downloads 512
2869 Design of the LCL Harmonic Filter with Grid-Connected Transformer

Authors: Tamara Egamnazarova, Minxiao Han, Wenli Yan

Abstract:

Large-scale integration based on power electronic systems gives rise to new challenges to modern power grids' power quality and stability. Power converters are the key elements of the power system that are actively involved in improving power quality and increase penetration of new energy sources to the power grid. Integration magnetic components allow reducing the overall size and even increasing energy efficiency. Additionally, the parasitic elements of the power transformer model investigated by the analytical approach. Moreover, the harmonic issues are critical, which are emerged due to the deployment of converters. Low pass LCL filters are usually deployed between the inverter and grid-connected transformers to mitigate harmonic pollution produced by the inverter. Passive filter, connected to the grid inverter, requires a small filter size and the harmonic limitations defined by the standard IEEE-519. A significant part of the overall cost and size of the power converter is the magnetic components. This paper illustrates a low-pass LCL harmonic filter design using the power transformer's parasitic parameters for grid-connected inverter by theoretical and practical analysis, simulated in MATLAB–Simulink.

Keywords: harmonics, integration, inverter, LCL filter

Procedia PDF Downloads 123
2868 Mathematics Vision of the Companies' Growth with Educational Technologies

Authors: Valencia P. L. Rodrigo, Morita A. Adelina, Vargas V. Martin

Abstract:

This proposal consists of an analysis of macro concepts involved within an organization growth using educational technologies, which will relate each concept, in a mathematical way with a vision of harmonic work. Working collaboratively, competitively and cooperatively so that this growth is harmonious and homogenous, coining a new term, Harmonic Work. The Harmonic Work ensures that the organization grows in all business directions, allowing managers to project a much more accurate growth, making clear the contribution of each department, resulting in an algorithm that analyzes each of the variables both endogenous and exogenous, establishing different performance indicators in its process of growth.

Keywords: business projection, collaboration, competitiveness, educational technology, harmonious growth

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
2867 Modular Harmonic Cancellation in a Multiplier High Voltage Direct Current Generator

Authors: Ahmad Zahran, Ahmed Herzallah, Ahmad Ahmad, Mahran Quraan

Abstract:

Generation of high DC voltages is necessary for testing the insulation material of high voltage AC transmission lines with long lengths. The harmonic and ripple contents of the output DC voltage supplied by high voltage DC circuits require the use of costly capacitors to smooth the output voltage after rectification. This paper proposes a new modular multiplier high voltage DC generator with embedded Cockcroft-Walton circuits that achieve a negligible harmonic and ripple contents of the output DC voltage without the need for costly filters to produce a nearly constant output voltage. In this new topology, Cockcroft-Walton modules are connected in series to produce a high DC output voltage. The modules are supplied by low input AC voltage sources that have the same magnitude and frequency and shifted from each other by a certain angle to eliminate the harmonics from the output voltage. The small ripple factor is provided by the smoothing column capacitors and the phase shifted input voltages of the cascaded modules. The constituent harmonics within each module are determined using Fourier analysis. The viability of the proposed DC generator for testing purposes and the effectiveness of the cascaded connection are confirmed by numerical simulations using MATLAB/Simulink.

Keywords: Cockcroft-Walton circuit, harmonics, ripple factor, HVDC generator

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
2866 Application of Single Tuned Passive Filters in Distribution Networks at the Point of Common Coupling

Authors: M. Almutairi, S. Hadjiloucas

Abstract:

The harmonic distortion of voltage is important in relation to power quality due to the interaction between the large diffusion of non-linear and time-varying single-phase and three-phase loads with power supply systems. However, harmonic distortion levels can be reduced by improving the design of polluting loads or by applying arrangements and adding filters. The application of passive filters is an effective solution that can be used to achieve harmonic mitigation mainly because filters offer high efficiency, simplicity, and are economical. Additionally, possible different frequency response characteristics can work to achieve certain required harmonic filtering targets. With these ideas in mind, the objective of this paper is to determine what size single tuned passive filters work in distribution networks best, in order to economically limit violations caused at a given point of common coupling (PCC). This article suggests that a single tuned passive filter could be employed in typical industrial power systems. Furthermore, constrained optimization can be used to find the optimal sizing of the passive filter in order to reduce both harmonic voltage and harmonic currents in the power system to an acceptable level, and, thus, improve the load power factor. The optimization technique works to minimize voltage total harmonic distortions (VTHD) and current total harmonic distortions (ITHD), where maintaining a given power factor at a specified range is desired. According to the IEEE Standard 519, both indices are viewed as constraints for the optimal passive filter design problem. The performance of this technique will be discussed using numerical examples taken from previous publications.

Keywords: harmonics, passive filter, power factor, power quality

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2865 Second Sub-Harmonic Resonance in Vortex-Induced Vibrations of a Marine Pipeline Close to the Seabed

Authors: Yiming Jin, Yuanhao Gao

Abstract:

In this paper, using the method of multiple scales, the second sub-harmonic resonance in vortex-induced vibrations (VIV) of a marine pipeline close to the seabed is investigated based on a developed wake oscillator model. The amplitude-frequency equations are also derived. It is found that the oscillation will increase all the time when both discriminants of the amplitude-frequency equations are positive while the oscillation will decay when the discriminants are negative.

Keywords: vortex-induced vibrations, marine pipeline, seabed, sub-harmonic resonance

Procedia PDF Downloads 236
2864 Evaluation of Methodologies for Measuring Harmonics and Inter-Harmonics in Photovoltaic Facilities

Authors: Anésio de Leles Ferreira Filho, Wesley Rodrigues de Oliveira, Jéssica Santoro Gonçalves, Jorge Andrés Cormane Angarita

Abstract:

The increase in electric power demand in face of environmental issues has intensified the participation of renewable energy sources such as photovoltaics, in the energy matrix of various countries. Due to their operational characteristics, they can generate time-varying harmonic and inter-harmonic distortions. For this reason, the application of methods of measurement based on traditional Fourier analysis, as proposed by IEC 61000-4-7, can provide inaccurate results. Considering the aspects mentioned herein, came the idea of the development of this work which aims to present the results of a comparative evaluation between a methodology arising from the combination of the Prony method with the Kalman filter and another method based on the IEC 61000-4-30 and IEC 61000-4-7 standards. Employed in this study were synthetic signals and data acquired through measurements in a 50kWp photovoltaic installation.

Keywords: harmonics, inter-harmonics, iec61000-4-7, parametric estimators, photovoltaic generation

Procedia PDF Downloads 399
2863 Analysis of Different Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation Techniques for a Five-Phase Inverter

Authors: K. A. Chinmaya, M. Udaya Bhaskar

Abstract:

Multiphase motor drives are now a day considered for numerous applications due to the advantages that they offer when compared to their three-phase counterparts. Proper modeling of inverters and motors are important in devising an appropriate control algorithm. This paper develops a complete modeling of a five-phase inverter and five-phase space vector modulation schemes which can be used for five-phase motor drives. A novel modified algorithm is introduced which enables the sinusoidal output voltages up to certain voltage value. The waveforms of phase to neutral voltage are compared with the different modulation techniques and also different modulation indexes in terms of Low-order Harmonic (LH) voltage of 3rd and 7th present. A detailed performance evolution of existing and newly modified schemes is done in terms of Total Harmonic Distortion (THD).

Keywords: multi-phase drives, space vector modulation, voltage source inverter, low order harmonic voltages, total harmonic distortion

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2862 Distribution System Modelling: A Holistic Approach for Harmonic Studies

Authors: Stanislav Babaev, Vladimir Cuk, Sjef Cobben, Jan Desmet

Abstract:

The procedures for performing harmonic studies for medium-voltage distribution feeders have become relatively mature topics since the early 1980s. The efforts of various electric power engineers and researchers were mainly focused on handling large harmonic non-linear loads connected scarcely at several buses of medium-voltage feeders. In order to assess the impact of these loads on the voltage quality of the distribution system, specific modeling and simulation strategies were proposed. These methodologies could deliver a reasonable estimation accuracy given the requirements of least computational efforts and reduced complexity. To uphold these requirements, certain analysis assumptions have been made, which became de facto standards for establishing guidelines for harmonic analysis. Among others, typical assumptions include balanced conditions of the study and the negligible impact of impedance frequency characteristics of various power system components. In latter, skin and proximity effects are usually omitted, and resistance and reactance values are modeled based on the theoretical equations. Further, the simplifications of the modelling routine have led to the commonly accepted practice of neglecting phase angle diversity effects. This is mainly associated with developed load models, which only in a handful of cases are representing the complete harmonic behavior of a certain device as well as accounting on the harmonic interaction between grid harmonic voltages and harmonic currents. While these modelling practices were proven to be reasonably effective for medium-voltage levels, similar approaches have been adopted for low-voltage distribution systems. Given modern conditions and massive increase in usage of residential electronic devices, recent and ongoing boom of electric vehicles, and large-scale installing of distributed solar power, the harmonics in current low-voltage grids are characterized by high degree of variability and demonstrate sufficient diversity leading to a certain level of cancellation effects. It is obvious, that new modelling algorithms overcoming previously made assumptions have to be accepted. In this work, a simulation approach aimed to deal with some of the typical assumptions is proposed. A practical low-voltage feeder is modeled in PowerFactory. In order to demonstrate the importance of diversity effect and harmonic interaction, previously developed measurement-based models of photovoltaic inverter and battery charger are used as loads. The Python-based script aiming to supply varying voltage background distortion profile and the associated current harmonic response of loads is used as the core of unbalanced simulation. Furthermore, the impact of uncertainty of feeder frequency-impedance characteristics on total harmonic distortion levels is shown along with scenarios involving linear resistive loads, which further alter the impedance of the system. The comparative analysis demonstrates sufficient differences with cases when all the assumptions are in place, and results indicate that new modelling and simulation procedures need to be adopted for low-voltage distribution systems with high penetration of non-linear loads and renewable generation.

Keywords: electric power system, harmonic distortion, power quality, public low-voltage network, harmonic modelling

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