Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1651

Search results for: precast concrete

1651 Composite Behavior of Precast Concrete Coping with Internal Connector and Precast Girder

Authors: Junki Min, Heeyoung Lee, Wonseok Chung

Abstract:

Traditional marine concrete structures are difficult to construct and may cause environmental pollution. This study presents new concrete bridge system in the marine. The main feature of the proposed bridge is that precast girders and precast coping are applied to facilitate assembly and to improve constructability. In addition, the moment of the girder is reduced by continuation the joint. In this study, a full-scale joint specimen with a span of 7.0 m was fabricated and tested to evaluate the composite behavior of the joint. A finite element model was also developed and compared against the experimental results. All members of the test specimen behaved stably up to the design load. It was found that the precast joint of the proposed bridge showed the composite behavior efficiently before the failure.

Keywords: finite element analysis, full-scale test, coping, joint performance, marine structure, precast

Procedia PDF Downloads 125
1650 Stress Analysis of Hexagonal Element for Precast Concrete Pavements

Authors: J. Novak, A. Kohoutkova, V. Kristek, J. Vodicka, M. Sramek

Abstract:

While the use of cast-in-place concrete for an airfield and highway pavement overlay is very common, the application of precast concrete elements is very limited today. The main reasons consist of high production costs and complex structural behavior. Despite that, several precast concrete systems have been developed and tested with the aim to provide a system with rapid construction. The contribution deals with the reinforcement design of a hexagonal element developed for a proposed airfield pavement system. The sub-base course of the system is composed of compacted recycled concrete aggregates and fiber reinforced concrete with recycled aggregates place on top of it. The selected element belongs to a group of precast concrete elements which are being considered for the construction of a surface course. Both high costs of full-scale experiments and the need to investigate various elements force to simulate their behavior in a numerical analysis software by using finite element method instead of performing expensive experiments. The simulation of the selected element was conducted on a nonlinear model in order to obtain such results which could fully compensate results from experiments. The main objective was to design reinforcement of the precast concrete element subject to quasi-static loading from airplanes with respect to geometrical imperfections, manufacturing imperfections, tensile stress in reinforcement, compressive stress in concrete and crack width. The obtained findings demonstrate that the position and the presence of imperfection in a pavement highly affect the stress distribution in the precast concrete element. The precast concrete element should be heavily reinforced to fulfill all the demands. Using under-reinforced concrete elements would lead to the formation of wide cracks and cracks permanently open.

Keywords: imperfection, numerical simulation, pavement, precast concrete element, reinforcement design, stress analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 85
1649 Analytical Investigation on Seismic Behavior of Infilled Reinforced Concrete Frames Strengthened with Precast Diagonal Concrete Panels

Authors: Ceyhun Aksoylu, Rifat Sezer

Abstract:

In this study, a strengthening method applicable without any evacuation process was investigated. In this analytical study, the pushover analysis results carry out by using the software of SAP2000. For this purpose, 1/3 scaled, 1-bay and 2-story R/C seven frames having usual deficiencies faults produced, one of which were not strengthened, but having brick-infill wall and the other 3 frames with infill walls strengthened with various shaped of high strength-precast diagonal concrete panels. The prepared analytical models investigated under reversed-cyclic loading that resembles the seismic effect. As a result of the analytical study, the properties of the reinforced concrete frames, such as strength, rigidity, energy dissipation capacity, etc. were determined and the strengthened models were compared with the unstrengthened one having the same properties. As a result of this study, the contributions of precast diagonal concrete applied on the infill walls of the existing frame systems against seismic effects were introduced with its advantages and disadvantages.

Keywords: RC frame, seismic effect, infill wall, strengthening, precast diagonal concrete panel, pushover analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 264
1648 Experimental Studies on Prestressed Precast Concrete Bridge Piers

Authors: C. Shim, C. Koem, S. Park, S. Lee

Abstract:

This paper deals with experimental studies on pre stressed precast concrete columns with continuous reinforcing bars and pre stressing tendons. Design requirements on minimum transverse reinforcement ratio are not included in current design codes. Pre stressing introduces additional compression to the column. Precast columns with different transverse reinforcement ratios were tested to derive adequate design requirement. Displacement ductility of the pre stressed precast columns was evaluated and compared with previous studies. Design of axial steels including reinforcing bars and pre stressing tendons influenced on the seismic performance. Without significant increase of transverse reinforcement ratio, the specimens showed required displacement ductility without reduction of their flexural strength. Design recommendations for precast bridge piers were derived.

Keywords: displacement ductility, flexural strength, prestressed precast column, transverse reinforcement

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
1647 Performance Evaluations of Lap Spliced Joint of Decked Bulb-Tee Type Modular Bridge

Authors: Sang-Yoon Lee, Jae-Joon Song

Abstract:

Precast decked bulb-tee girder or precast deck generally adopts in-situ connections of loop joints. Loop joint could be an effective method to connect precast concrete members where the width of joint is not wide sufficiently to allow the lap splice length of reinforcing bars. However, the regulation for the minimum bend diameter of looped rebar gives limitation not to reduce the thickness of precast concrete member; thus, in-situ connection adopting loop joint place a constraint on improving the structural efficiency of precast concrete member. Ultra high strength concrete (UHSC) is effective on reduce the development and lap splice length of reinforcing bar. In-situ connection with UHSC gives a merit to reduce connection width. This study intends to investigate the details of the longitudinal joint to be applied in the precast modular bridge using decked bulb-tee girder that has been recently developed in Korea. This paper presents the details applying UHSC and lap splices of straight reinforcement and results of tests. Several tests were performed on flexural specimens with longitudinal joints to verify the length of the lap splices and amount of transverse reinforcement, and to examine the flexural strength of the longitudinal joint.

Keywords: precast structure, decked bulb-tee girder, in-situ connection, UHSC, modular bridge

Procedia PDF Downloads 395
1646 An Investigation on Interface Shear Resistance of Twinwall Units for Tank Structures

Authors: Jaylina Rana, Chanakya Arya, John Stehle

Abstract:

Hybrid precast twinwall concrete units, mainly used in basement, core and crosswall construction, are now being adopted in water retaining tank structures. Their use offers many advantages compared with conventional in-situ concrete alternatives, however, the design could be optimised further via a deeper understanding of the unique load transfer mechanisms in the system. In the tank application, twinwall units, which consist of two precast concrete biscuits connected by steel lattices and in-situ concrete core, are subject to bending. Uncertainties about the degree of composite action between the precast biscuits and hence flexural performance of the units necessitated laboratory tests to investigate the interface shear resistance. Testing was also required to assess both the leakage performance and buildability of a variety of joint details. This paper describes some aspects of this novel approach to the design/construction of tank structures as well as selected results from some of the tests that were carried out.

Keywords: hybrid construction, twinwall, precast construction, composite action

Procedia PDF Downloads 366
1645 Relocation of Plastic Hinge of Interior Beam Column Connections with Intermediate Bars in Reinforced Concrete and T-Section Steel Inserts in Precast Concrete Frames

Authors: P. Wongmatar, C. Hansapinyo, C. Buachart

Abstract:

Failure of typical seismic frames has been found by plastic hinge occurring on beams section near column faces. Past researches shown that the seismic capacity of the frames can be enhanced if the plastic hinges of the beams are shifted away from the column faces. This paper presents detailing of reinforcements in the interior beam–column connections aiming to relocate the plastic hinge of reinforced concrete and precast concrete frames. Four specimens were tested under quasi-static cyclic load including two monolithic specimens and two precast specimens. For one monolithic specimen, typical seismic reinforcement was provided and considered as a reference specimen named M1. The other reinforced concrete frame M2 contained additional intermediate steel in the connection area compared with the specimen M1. For the precast specimens, embedded T-section steels in joint were provided, with and without diagonal bars in the connection area for specimen P1 and P2, respectively. The test results indicated the ductile failure with beam flexural failure in monolithic specimen M1 and the intermediate steel increased strength and improved joint performance of specimen M2. For the precast specimens, cracks generated at the end of the steel inserts. However, slipping of reinforcing steel lapped in top of the beams was seen before yielding of the main bars leading to the brittle failure. The diagonal bars in precast specimens P2 improved the connection stiffness and the energy dissipation capacity.

Keywords: relocation, plastic hinge, intermediate bar, T-section steel, precast concrete frame

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
1644 Flexural Behavior for Prefabricated Angle Truss Composite Beams Using Precast Concrete

Authors: Jo Kwang-Won, Lee Ho-Jun, Choi In-Rak, Park Hong-Gun

Abstract:

Prefabricated angle truss composited beam is a kind of concrete encased composite beam. It is prefabricated at factory as Pratt truss with steel members. Double angle is used for top, bottom chords and vertical web member. Moreover, diagonal web member is steel plate. Its sectional shape looks like I-shape. This beam system has two stages. The first is construction stage in which the beam is directly connected to the column for resist construction load. This stage beam consists of Pratt truss and precast concrete. The stability of the beam is verified. The second is service stage. After the connection, cast-in-place concrete is used for composite action. Ultimate flexural capacity is verified and show advantage than RC and steel. In this paper, the beam flexural capacity is verified in both stages. And examined the flexural behavior of the beam.

Keywords: composite beam, prefabrication, angle, precast concrete, pratt truss

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
1643 A Review of Current Knowledge on Assessment of Precast Structures Using Fragility Curves

Authors: E. Akpinar, A. Erol, M.F. Cakir

Abstract:

Precast reinforced concrete (RC) structures are excellent alternatives for construction world all over the globe, thanks to their rapid erection phase, ease mounting process, better quality and reasonable prices. Such structures are rather popular for industrial buildings. For the sake of economic importance of such industrial buildings as well as significance of safety, like every other type of structures, performance assessment and structural risk analysis are important. Fragility curves are powerful tools for damage projection and assessment for any sort of building as well as precast structures. In this study, a comparative review of current knowledge on fragility analysis of industrial precast RC structures were presented and findings in previous studies were compiled. Effects of different structural variables, parameters and building geometries as well as soil conditions on fragility analysis of precast structures are reviewed. It was aimed to briefly present the information in the literature about the procedure of damage probability prediction including fragility curves for such industrial facilities. It is found that determination of the aforementioned structural parameters as well as selecting analysis procedure are critically important for damage prediction of industrial precast RC structures using fragility curves.

Keywords: damage prediction, fragility curve, industrial buildings, precast reinforced concrete structures

Procedia PDF Downloads 96
1642 Adopting Precast Insulated Concrete Panels for Building Envelope in Hot Climate Zones

Authors: Mohammed Sherzad

Abstract:

The absorbedness of solar radiation within the concrete building is higher than other buildings type, especially in hot climate zones. However, one of the primary issues of architects and the owners in hot climate zones is the building’s exterior plastered and painted finishing which is commonly used are fading and peeling adding a high cost on maintenance. Case studies of different exterior finishing’ treatments used in vernacular and contemporary dwellings in the United Arab Emirates were surveyed. The traditional plastered façade treatment was more sustainable than new buildings. In addition, using precast concrete insulated sandwich panels with the exposed colored aggregate surface in contemporary designed dwellings sustained the extensive heat reducing the overall cost of maintenance and contributed aesthetically to the buildings’ envelope in addition to its thermal insulation property.

Keywords: precast concrete panels, façade treatment, hot climate

Procedia PDF Downloads 57
1641 Designing Elevations by Photocatalysis of Precast Concrete Materials, in Reducing Energy Consumption of Buildings: Case Study of Tabriz

Authors: Mahsa Faramarzi Asli, Mina Sarabi

Abstract:

The important issues that are addressed in most advanced industrial countries in recent decades, discussion of minimizing heat losses through the buildings. And the most influential parameters in the calculation of building energy consumption, is heat exchange, which takes place between the interior and outer space. One of the solutions to reduce heat loss is using materials with low thermal conductivity. The purpose of this article, is the effect of using some frontages with nano-concrete photo catalytic precast materials for reducing energy consumption in buildings. For this purpose, estimating the energy dissipation through the facade built with nano-concrete photo catalytic precast materials on a sample building in Tabriz city by BCS 19 software ( topic 19 simulation) is done and the results demonstrate reduce heat loss through the facade nano- concrete.

Keywords: nano materials, optimize energy consumption, themal, stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 470
1640 Temperature and Admixtures Effects on the Maturity of Normal and Super Fine Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag Mortars for the Precast Concrete Industry

Authors: Matthew Cruickshank, Chaaruchandra Korde, Roger P. West, John Reddy

Abstract:

Precast concrete element exports are growing in importance in Ireland’s concrete industry and with the increased global focus on reducing carbon emissions, the industry is exploring more sustainable alternatives such as using ground granulated blast-furnace slag (GGBS) as a partial replacement of Portland cement. It is well established that GGBS, with low early age strength development, has limited use in precast manufacturing due to the need for early de-moulding, cutting of pre-stressed strands and lifting. In this dichotomy, the effects of temperature, admixture, are explored to try to achieve the required very early age strength. Testing of the strength of mortars is mandated in the European cement standard, so here with 50% GGBS and Super Fine GGBS, with three admixture conditions (none, conventional accelerator, novel accelerator) and two early age curing temperature conditions (20°C and 35°C), standard mortar strengths are measured at six ages (16 hours, 1, 2, 3, 7, 28 days). The present paper will describe the effort towards developing maturity curves to aid in understanding the effect of these accelerating admixtures and GGBS fineness on slag cement mortars, allowing prediction of their strength with time and temperature. This study is of particular importance to the precast industry where concrete temperature can be controlled. For the climatic conditions in Ireland, heating of precast beds for long hours will amount to an additional cost and also contribute to the carbon footprint of the products. When transitioned from mortar to concrete, these maturity curves are expected to play a vital role in predicting the strength of the GGBS concrete at a very early age prior to demoulding.

Keywords: accelerating admixture, early age strength, ground granulated blast-furnace slag, GGBS, maturity, precast concrete

Procedia PDF Downloads 77
1639 Masonry Blocks with Recycled Aggregates and Recycled Glass

Authors: Pierre Y. Matar, Louay S. El Hassanieh, Marleine F. Bayssary

Abstract:

The demolished concrete is a major component of the construction and demolition (C&D) waste. The recycled aggregates obtained by crushing the demolished concrete can be used as a substitute of natural aggregates. Another major C&D waste is the flat glass. This glass can be also recycled and used as an aggregate substitute. The objective of this study is to determine the influence of the use of recycled concrete aggregates and recycled glass on the compressive strength and fire resistance of precast concrete masonry blocks. Tests are carried out on four series of blocks whose compositions include different percentages of recycled aggregates and recycled glass and one series of reference blocks whose composition consists of exclusively natural aggregates. The recycled coarse aggregates and recycled glass have 6.3/12.5 mm fraction and the natural aggregates have 0/6.3 mm fraction; no recycled fine aggregates are included in concrete mixes.

Keywords: compressive strength, precast concrete blocks, recycled aggregates, recycled glass

Procedia PDF Downloads 461
1638 Hysteretic Behavior of the Precast Concrete Column with Head Splice Sleeve Connection

Authors: Seo Soo-Yeon, Kim Sang-Ku, Noh Sang-Hyun, Lee Ji-Eun, Kim Seol-Ki, Lim Jong-Wook

Abstract:

This paper presents a test result to find the structural capacity of Hollow-Precast Concrete (HPC) column with Head-Splice Sleeve (HSS) for the connection of bars under horizontal cyclic load. Two Half-scaled HPC column specimens were made with the consideration of construction process in site. The difference between the HPC specimens is the location of HSS for bar connection. The location of the first one is on the bottom slab or foundation while the other is above the bottom slab or foundation. Reinforced concrete (RC) column was also made for the comparison. In order to evaluate the hysteretic behavior of the specimens, horizontal cyclic load was applied to the top of specimen under constant axial load. From the test, it is confirmed that the HPC columns with HSS have enough structural capacity that can be emulated to RC column. This means that the HPC column with HSS can be used in the moment resisting frame system.

Keywords: structural capacity, hollow-precast concrete column, head-splice sleeve, horizontal cyclic load

Procedia PDF Downloads 220
1637 Code Evaluation on Web-Shear Capacity of Presstressed Hollow-Core Slabs

Authors: Min-Kook Park, Deuck Hang Lee, Hyun Mo Yang, Jae Hyun Kim, Kang Su Kim

Abstract:

Prestressed hollow-core slabs (HCS) are structurally optimized precast units with light-weight hollowed-sections and very economical due to the mass production by a unique production method. They have been thus widely used in the precast concrete constructions in many countries all around the world. It is, however, difficult to provide shear reinforcement in HCS units produced by the extrusion method, and thus all the shear forces should be resisted solely by concrete webs in the HCS units. This means that, for the HCS units, it is very important to estimate the contribution of web concrete to the shear resistance accurately. In design codes, however, the shear strengths for HCS units are estimated by the same equations that are used for typical prestressed concrete members, which were determined from the calibrations to experimental results of conventional prestressed concrete members other than HCS units. In this study, therefore, shear test results of HCS members with a wide range of influential variables were collected, and the shear strength equations in design codes were thoroughly examined by comparing to the experimental results in the shear database of HCS members. Acknowledgement: This research was supported by Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea(NRF) funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning(NRF-2016R1A2B2010277).

Keywords: hollow-core, web-shear, precast concrete, prestress, capacity

Procedia PDF Downloads 378
1636 Numerical Simulation of Precast Concrete Panels for Airfield Pavement

Authors: Josef Novák, Alena Kohoutková, Vladimír Křístek, Jan Vodička

Abstract:

Numerical analysis software belong to the main tools for simulating the real behavior of various concrete structures and elements. In comparison with experimental tests, they offer an affordable way to study the mechanical behavior of structures under various conditions. The contribution deals with a precast element of an innovative airfield pavement system which is being developed within an ongoing scientific project. The proposed system consists a two-layer surface course of precast concrete panels positioned on a two-layer base of fiber-reinforced concrete with recycled aggregate. As the panels are supposed to be installed directly on the hardened base course, imperfections at the interface between the base course and surface course are expected. Considering such circumstances, three various behavior patterns could be established and considered when designing the precast element. Enormous costs of full-scale experiments force to simulate the behavior of the element in a numerical analysis software using finite element method. The simulation was conducted on a nonlinear model in order to obtain such results which could fully compensate results from the experiments. First, several loading schemes were considered with the aim to observe the critical one which was used for the simulation later on. The main objective of the simulation was to optimize reinforcement of the element subject to quasi-static loading from airplanes. When running the simulation several parameters were considered. Namely, it concerns geometrical imperfections, manufacturing imperfections, stress state in reinforcement, stress state in concrete and crack width. The numerical simulation revealed that the precast element should be heavily reinforced to fulfill all the demands assumed. The main cause of using high amount of reinforcement is the size of the imperfections which could occur at real structure. Improving manufacturing quality, the installation of the precast panels on a fresh base course or using a bedding layer underneath the surface course belong to the main steps how to reduce the size of imperfections and consequently lower the consumption of reinforcement.

Keywords: nonlinear analysis, numerical simulation, precast concrete, pavement

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
1635 Structural Behavior of Laterally Loaded Precast Foamed Concrete Sandwich Panel

Authors: Y. H. Mugahed Amran, Raizal S. M. Rashid, Farzad Hejazi, Nor Azizi Safiee, A. A. Abang Ali

Abstract:

Experimental and analytical studies were carried out to investigate the structural behavior of precast foamed concrete sandwich panels (PFCSP) of total number (6) as one-way action slab tested under lateral load. The details of the test setup and procedures were illustrated. The results obtained from the experimental tests were discussed which include the observation of cracking patterns and influence of aspect ratio (L/b). Analytical study of finite element analysis was implemented and degree of composite action of the test panels was also examined in both experimental and analytical studies. Result shows that crack patterns appeared in only one-direction, similar to reports on solid slabs, particularly when both concrete wythes act in a composite manner. Foamed concrete was briefly reviewed and experimental results were compared with the finite element analyses data which gives a reasonable degree of accuracy. Therefore, based on the results obtained, PFCSP slab can be used as an alternative to conventional flooring system.

Keywords: aspect ratio (L/b), finite element analyses (FEA), foamed concrete (FC), precast foamed concrete sandwich panel (PFCSP), ultimate flexural strength capacity

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
1634 Experimental Study of Different Types of Concrete in Uniaxial Compression Test

Authors: Khashayar Jafari, Mostafa Jafarian Abyaneh, Vahab Toufigh

Abstract:

Polymer concrete (PC) is a distinct concrete with superior characteristics in comparison to ordinary cement concrete. It has become well-known for its applications in thin overlays, floors and precast components. In this investigation, the mechanical properties of PC with different epoxy resin contents, ordinary cement concrete (OCC) and lightweight concrete (LC) have been studied under uniaxial compression test. The study involves five types of concrete, with each type being tested four times. Their complete elastic-plastic behavior was compared with each other through the measurement of volumetric strain during the tests. According to the results, PC showed higher strength, ductility and energy absorption with respect to OCC and LC.

Keywords: polymer concrete, ordinary cement concrete, lightweight concrete, uniaxial compression test, volumetric strain

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
1633 Cyclic Loading Tests of Reinforced Concrete Frame Structures Strengthened by Externally-Anchored Precast Wall-Panel

Authors: Seung-Ho Choi, Jae Yuel Oh, Chi Sung Lim, Ho Seong Jung, Kang Su Kim

Abstract:

In recent years, various strengthening methods for buildings have been developed, but most of them require quite a long construction period during which the building users need to be patient on uncomfortable working environments including various lousy noises or even evacuation of the buildings. In this study, externally anchored precast wall-panel method (EPCW) for strengthening non-seismic reinforced concrete (RC) structures has been proposed, which is occupant-friendly technique because the strengthening walls are manufactured at factory and can be tightened to the members very quickly at the site. In order to investigate the structural performance of the specimens strengthened by the EPCW method, a total of four specimens were fabricated, and tested under axial and reversed cyclic lateral loads. The test results showed that the lateral resistances of the specimens strengthened by the EPCW method were greatly enhanced in both positive and negative directions, compared to the RC specimen having non-seismic details.

Keywords: precast wall, seismic strengthening, reinforced concrete, externally-anchored

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
1632 Properties of Self-Compacting Concrete Mixed with Fly Ash

Authors: Abhinandan Singh Gill, Gurbir Kaur Jawanda

Abstract:

Since the introduction of self-consolidating concrete (SCC) in Japan during the late 1980’s, acceptance and usage of this concrete in the construction industry has been steadily gaining momentum. In the United States, the usage of SCC has been spearheaded by the precast concrete industry. Good SCC must possess the following key fresh properties: filling ability, passing ability, and resistance to segregation. Self-compacting concrete is one of 'the most revolutionary developments' in concrete research; this concrete is able to flow and to fill the most restocked places of the form work without vibration. There are several methods for testing its properties. In the fresh state: the most frequently used are slump flow test, L box and V-funnel. This work presents properties of self-compacting concrete, mixed with fly ash. The test results for acceptance characteristics of self-compacting concrete such as slump flow; V-funnel and L-Box are presented. Further, the compressive strength at the ages of 7, 28 days was also determined and results are included here.

Keywords: compressive strength, fly ash, self-compacting concrete, slump flow test, super plasticizer

Procedia PDF Downloads 334
1631 Bending and Shear Characteristics of Hollowcore Slab with Polystyrene Forms

Authors: Kang Kun Lee

Abstract:

New I-slab system with polystyrene forms and precast concrete deck is proposed to reduce the construction period and the self-weight of the slab. This paper presents experimental works on the bending and shear of the I-slabs. Five specimens were tested. The main parameters of experiments are diameters of the holes made by polystyrene form and the thickness of slab. Structural performance of I-slab is evaluated on the basis of failure mode, load-displacement curve, and ultimate strengths. Based on the test results, it is found that the critical punching shear sections are changed as the test variables are different, hence resulting in the varied punching shear strengths. Test results indicate that the developed I-slab is very effective to increase the strength due to self-weight reduction.

Keywords: hollowcore slab, section force-deformation response, precast concrete deck

Procedia PDF Downloads 296
1630 Fatigue Evaluation of Link Slab for Continuous Girder-Type Precast Modular Bridges

Authors: Jae-Joon Song, Sang-Yoon Lee, Bong-Chul Joo

Abstract:

The girder-type precast modular bridge has been developed as a simply supported bridge. The girder-type precast modular bridge could be applied to the multi-span bridges through the continuity method. The continuity of the girder-type precast modular bridge is achieved by using the link slab which is easy to construction and appropriate to the rapid construction. In this study, the link slab with transition zone was used for the continuity of the precast modular bridges, and the construction detail of link slab was modified. In addition, the modified iterative design method of link slab was proposed in this study. To verify the proposed design method, the fatigue test using the mock-up specimen was conducted with cycle loading condition up to two million cycles.

Keywords: precast, modular bridge, link slab

Procedia PDF Downloads 363
1629 Structural Behavior of Precast Foamed Concrete Sandwich Panel Subjected to Vertical In-Plane Shear Loading

Authors: Y. H. Mugahed Amran, Raizal S. M. Rashid, Farzad Hejazi, Nor Azizi Safiee, A. A. Abang Ali

Abstract:

Experimental and analytical studies were accomplished to examine the structural behavior of precast foamed concrete sandwich panel (PFCSP) under vertical in-plane shear load. PFCSP full-scale specimens with total number of six were developed with varying heights to study an important parameter slenderness ratio (H/t). The production technique of PFCSP and the procedure of test setup were described. The results obtained from the experimental tests were analysed in the context of in-plane shear strength capacity, load-deflection profile, load-strain relationship, slenderness ratio, shear cracking patterns and mode of failure. Analytical study of finite element analysis was implemented and the theoretical calculations of the ultimate in-plane shear strengths using the adopted ACI318 equation for reinforced concrete wall were determined aimed at predicting the in-plane shear strength of PFCSP. The decrease in slenderness ratio from 24 to 14 showed an increase of 26.51% and 21.91% on the ultimate in-plane shear strength capacity as obtained experimentally and in FEA models, respectively. The experimental test results, FEA models data and theoretical calculation values were compared and provided a significant agreement with high degree of accuracy. Therefore, on the basis of the results obtained, PFCSP wall has the potential use as an alternative to the conventional load-bearing wall system.

Keywords: deflection curves, foamed concrete (FC), load-strain relationships, precast foamed concrete sandwich panel (PFCSP), slenderness ratio, vertical in-plane shear strength capacity

Procedia PDF Downloads 139
1628 Influence of the Quality of the Recycled Aggregates in Concrete Pavement

Authors: Viviana Letelier, Ester Tarela, Bianca Lopez, Pedro Muñoz, Giacomo Moriconi

Abstract:

The environmental impact has become a global concern during the last decades. Several alternatives have been proposed and studied to minimize this impact in different areas. The reuse of aggregates from old concretes to manufacture new ones not only can reduce this impact but is also a way to optimize the resource management. The effect of the origin of the reused aggregates from two different origin materials in recycled concrete pavement is studied here. Using the dosing applied by a pavement company, coarse aggregates in the 6.3-25 mm fraction are replaced by recycled aggregates with two different origins: old concrete pavements with similar origin strength to the one of the control concrete, and precast concrete pipes with smaller strengths than the one of the control concrete. The replacement percentages tested are 30%, 40% and 50% in both cases. The compressive strength tests are performed after 7, 14, 28 and 90 curing days, the flexural strength tests and the elasticity modulus tests after 28 and 90 curing days. Results show that the influence of the quality of the origin concrete in the mechanical properties of recycled concretes is not despicable. Concretes with up to a 50% of recycled aggregates from the concrete pavement have similar compressive strengths to the ones of the control concrete and slightly smaller flexural strengths that, however, in all cases exceed the minimum of 5MPa after 28 curing days stablished by the Chilean regulation for pavement concretes. On the other hand, concretes with recycled aggregates from precast concrete pipes show significantly lower compressive strengths after 28 curing days. The differences with the compressive strength of the control concrete increase with the percentage of replacement, reaching a 13% reduction when 50% of the aggregates are replaced. The flexural strength also suffers significant reductions that increase with the percentage of replacement, only obeying the Chilean regulation when 30% of the aggregates are recycled after 28 curing days. Nevertheless, after 90 curing days, all series obey the regulation requirements. Results show, not only the importance of the quality of the origin concrete, but also the significance of the curing days, that may allow the use of less quality recycled material without important strength losses.

Keywords: flexural strength of recycled concrete., mechanical properties of recycled concrete, recycled aggregates, recycled concrete pavements

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
1627 Overtopping Protection Systems for Overflow Earth Dams

Authors: Omid Pourabdollah, Mohsen Misaghian

Abstract:

Overtopping is known as one the most important reasons for the failure of earth dams. In some cases, it has resulted in heavy damages and losses. Therefore, enhancing the safety of earth dams against overtopping has received much attention in the past four decades. In this paper, at first, the overtopping phenomena and its destructive consequences will be introduced. Then, overtopping failure mechanism of embankments will be described. Finally, different types of protection systems for stabilization of earth dams against overtopping will be presented. These include timber cribs, riprap and gabions, reinforced earth, roller compacted concrete, and the precast concrete blocks.

Keywords: embankment dam, overtopping, roller compacted concrete, wedge concrete block

Procedia PDF Downloads 68
1626 Shear Behavior of Steel-Fiber-Reinforced Precast/Prestressed Concrete Hollow Core Slabs

Authors: Thi Nguyet Hang Nguyen, Kang Hai Tan

Abstract:

Precast/prestressed concrete hollow core (PCHC) slabs, especially ones with depth more than 300 mm, are susceptible to web-shear failure. The reasons lie on the fact that the production process of PCHC slabs, i.e., the extrusion method (the most common method to cast PCHC slabs nowadays), does not allow them to contain any shear reinforcement. Moreover, due to the presence of the longitudinal voids, cross sections of PCHC slabs are reduced. Therefore, the shear capacity of the slabs depends solely on the tensile strength of concrete which is relatively low. Given that shear is a major concern in using hollow-core slabs, this paper investigates the possibility of adopting steel fibers in PCHC slabs produced by the extrusion method to enhance the shear capacity of the slabs. Three full-scale PCHC slabs with and without hooked-steel fibers were cast and tested until failure. Three different volumetric fiber contents of 0, 0.51 and 0.89% were investigated. The test results showed that there were substantial increases in shear capacity and ductility with the use of hooked-steel fibers. Ultimate shear strength increased with fiber content. In addition, while the specimen without steel fibers and the one with the steel-fiber volume fraction of 0.51% failed in web-shear mode, the specimen with the higher fiber content (0.89%) collapsed in flexural-shear mode. However, as the hooked-steel fibers with the fiber content of 0.89% were used, difficulties in concrete consolidation were observed while concrete was being cast. This could lead to a lower ultimate shear capacity due to a poorer bond between the concrete and the steel fibers.

Keywords: hollow-core slabs, shear strength, steel fibers, web-shear failure

Procedia PDF Downloads 89
1625 Comparing Repaired and Undamaged Specimens Test Results of Post-Tensioned Beam to Column Connections

Authors: Mustafa Kaya

Abstract:

After the 1999 Marmara earthquake in Turkey research by the Turkish Precast Union stated that 24.50% of the precast structures were damaged with some of this damage being observed in the beam to column connections of the structures. Since it is essential to provide those rendered homeless by the earthquake with safe, habitable accommodation repairing medium and slight levels of damage at the connection parts should be undertaken. In order to prove that a repaired connection was sufficiently strong, a precast beam to column post tensioned connection was tested in three phases. In phase one, the middle level damage was observed at 6% drift at these connections. As a result of the extra loads applied, little damage was observed. In the last phase, the four connections tested in the first phase were repaired using epoxy resin and then retested. The results from the tests on the repaired precast and the undamaged specimens showed that the repaired specimens were sufficiently strong, thus proving that repair to damaged precast beam to column post tensioned connections can be undertaken.

Keywords: precast beam to column connection, moment-resisting connection, post-tensioned connections, repair of precast connections

Procedia PDF Downloads 377
1624 Geopolymer Concrete: A Review of Properties, Applications and Limitations

Authors: Abbas Ahmed Albu Shaqraa

Abstract:

The concept of a safe environment and low greenhouse gas emissions is a common concern especially in the construction industry. The produced carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are nearly a ton in producing only one ton of Portland cement, which is the primary ingredient of concrete. Current studies had investigated the utilization of several waste materials in producing a cement free concrete. The geopolymer concrete is a green material that results from the reaction of aluminosilicate material with an alkaline liquid. A summary of several recent researches in geopolymer concrete will be presented in this manuscript. In addition, the offered presented review considers the use of several waste materials including fly ash, granulated blast furnace slag, cement kiln dust, kaolin, metakaolin, and limestone powder as binding materials in making geopolymer concrete. Moreover, the mechanical, chemical and thermal properties of geopolymer concrete will be reviewed. In addition, the geopolymer concrete applications and limitations will be discussed as well. The results showed a high early compressive strength gain in geopolymer concrete when dry- heating or steam curing was performed. Also, it was stated that the outstanding acidic resistance of the geopolymer concrete made it possible to be used where the ordinary Portland cement concrete was doubtable. Thus, the commercial geopolymer concrete pipes were favored for sewer system in case of high acidic conditions. Furthermore, it was reported that the geopolymer concrete could stand up to 1200 °C in fire without losing its strength integrity whereas the Portland cement concrete was losing its function upon heating to some 100s °C only. However, the geopolymer concrete still considered as an emerging field and occupied mainly by the precast industries.

Keywords: geopolymer concrete, Portland cement concrete, alkaline liquid, compressive strength

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
1623 Modeling of Single Bay Precast Residential House Using Ruaumoko 2D Program

Authors: N. H. Hamid, N. M. Mohamed, S. A. Anuar

Abstract:

Precast residential houses are normally constructed in Malaysia using precast shear-key wall panel and precast wall panel are designed using BS8110 where there is no provision for earthquake. However, the safety of this house under moderate and strong earthquake is still questionable. Consequently, the full-scale of residential house are designed, constructed, tested and analyzed under in-plane lateral cyclic loading. Hysteresis loops are plotted based on the experimental work and compared with modeling of hysteresis loops using HYSTERES in RUAUMOKO 2D program. Modified Takeda hysteresis model is chosen to behave a similar pattern with experimental work. This program will display the earthquake excitations, spectral displacements, pseudo spectral acceleration, and deformation shape of the structure. It can be concluded that this building is suffering severe cracks and damage under moderate and severe earthquake.

Keywords: precast shear-key, hysteresis loops, spectral displacements, deformation shape

Procedia PDF Downloads 390
1622 Incorporating Spatial Selection Criteria with Decision-Maker Preferences of A Precast Manufacturing Plant

Authors: M. N. A. Azman, M. S. S. Ahamad

Abstract:

The Construction Industry Development Board of Malaysia has been actively promoting the use of precast manufacturing in the local construction industry over the last decade. In an era of rapid technological changes, precast manufacturing significantly contributes to improving construction activities and ensuring sustainable economic growth. Current studies on the location decision of precast manufacturing plants aimed to enhanced local economic development are scarce. To address this gap, the present research establishes a new set of spatial criteria, such as attribute maps and preference weights, derived from a survey of local industry decision makers. These data represent the input parameters for the MCE-GIS site selection model, for which the weighted linear combination method is used. Verification tests on the model were conducted to determine the potential precast manufacturing sites in the state of Penang, Malaysia. The tests yield a predicted area of 12.87 acres located within a designated industrial zone. Although, the model is developed specifically for precast manufacturing plant but nevertheless it can be employed to other types of industries by following the methodology and guidelines proposed in the present research.

Keywords: geographical information system, multi criteria evaluation, industrialised building system, civil engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 224