Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7836

Search results for: soil surface settlement

7836 Numerical Investigation of Embankment Settlement Improved by Method of Preloading by Vertical Drains

Authors: Seyed Abolhasan Naeini, Saeideh Mohammadi


Time dependent settlement due to loading on soft saturated soils produces many problems such as high consolidation settlements and low consolidation rates. Also, long term consolidation settlement of soft soil underlying the embankment leads to unpredicted settlements and cracks on soil surface. Preloading method is an effective improvement method to solve this problem. Using vertical drains in preloading method is an effective method for improving soft soils. Applying deep soil mixing method on soft soils is another effective method for improving soft soils. There are little studies on using two methods of preloading and deep soil mixing simultaneously. In this paper, the concurrent effect of preloading with deep soil mixing by vertical drains is investigated through a finite element code, Plaxis2D. The influence of parameters such as deep soil mixing columns spacing, existence of vertical drains and distance between them, on settlement and stability factor of safety of embankment embedded on soft soil is investigated in this research.

Keywords: preloading, soft soil, vertical drains, deep soil mixing, consolidation settlement

Procedia PDF Downloads 126
7835 Foundation Settlement Determination: A Simplified Approach

Authors: Adewoyin O. Olusegun, Emmanuel O. Joshua, Marvel L. Akinyemi


The heterogeneous nature of the subsurface requires the use of factual information to deal with rather than assumptions or generalized equations. Therefore, there is need to determine the actual rate of settlement possible in the soil before structures are built on it. This information will help in determining the type of foundation design and the kind of reinforcement that will be necessary in constructions. This paper presents a simplified and a faster approach for determining foundation settlement in any type of soil using real field data acquired from seismic refraction techniques and cone penetration tests. This approach was also able to determine the depth of settlement of each strata of soil. The results obtained revealed the different settlement time and depth of settlement possible.

Keywords: heterogeneous, settlement, foundation, seismic, technique

Procedia PDF Downloads 347
7834 Experimental Investigation on the Efficiency of Expanded Polystyrene Geofoam Post and Beam System in Protecting Lifelines

Authors: Masood Abdollahi, Seyed Naser Moghaddas Tafreshi


Expanded polystyrene (EPS) geofoam is a cellular geosynthetic material that can be used to protect lifelines (e.g. pipelines, electricity cables, etc.) below ground. Post and beam system is the most recent configuration of EPS blocks which can be implemented for this purpose. It provides a void space atop lifelines which allows settlement of the loading surface with imposing no pressure on the lifelines system. This paper investigates the efficiency of the configuration of post-beam system subjected to static loading. To evaluate the soil surface settlement, beam deformation and transferred pressure over the beam, laboratory tests using two different densities for EPS blocks are conducted. The effect of geogrid-reinforcing the cover soil on system response is also investigated. The experimental results show favorable performance of EPS post and beam configuration in protecting underground lifelines. 

Keywords: beam deformation, EPS block, laboratory test, post-Beam system, soil surface settlement

Procedia PDF Downloads 147
7833 Dynamic Study on the Evaluation of the Settlement of Soil under Sea Dam

Authors: Faroudja Meziani, Amar Kahil


In order to study the variation in settlement of soil under a dyke dam, the modelisation in our study consists of applying an imposed displacement at the base of the mass of soil (consisting of a saturated sand). The imposed displacement follows the evolution of acceleration of the earthquake of Boumerdes 2003 in Algeria. Moreover, the gravity load is taken into consideration by taking account the specific weight of the materials constituting the dyke. The results obtained show that the gravity loads have a direct influence on the evolution of settlement, especially at the center of the dyke where these loads are higher.

Keywords: settlement, dynamic analysis, rockfill dam, effect of earthquake, soil dynamics

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
7832 Numerical Static and Seismic Evaluation of Pile Group Settlement: A Case Study

Authors: Seyed Abolhassan Naeini, Hamed Yekehdehghan


Shallow foundations cannot be used when the bedding soil is soft. A suitable method for constructing foundations on soft soil is to employ pile groups to transfer the load to the bottom layers. The present research used results from tests carried out in northern Iran (Langarud) and the FLAC3D software to model a pile group for investigating the effects of various parameters on pile cap settlement under static and seismic conditions. According to the results, changes in the strength parameters of the soil, groundwater level, and the length of and distance between the piles affect settlement differently.

Keywords: FLACD 3D software, pile group, settlement, soil

Procedia PDF Downloads 36
7831 Non-Linear Numerical Modeling of the Interaction of Twin Tunnels-Structure

Authors: A. Bayoumi, M. Abdallah, F. Hage Chehade


Structures on the ground surface bear impact from the tunneling-induced settlement, especially when twin tunnels are constructed. The tunneling influence on the structure is considered as a critical issue based on the construction procedure and relative position of tunnels. Lebanon is suffering from a traffic phenomenon caused by the lack of transportation systems. After several traffic counts and geotechnical investigations in Beirut city, efforts aim for the construction of tunneling systems. In this paper, we present a non-linear numerical modeling of the effect of the twin tunnels constructions on the structures located at soil surface for a particular site in Beirut. A parametric study, which concerns the geometric configuration of tunnels, the distance between their centers, the construction order, and the position of the structure, is performed. The tunnel-soil-structure interaction is analyzed by using the non-linear finite element modeling software PLAXIS 2D. The results of the surface settlement and the bending moment of the structure reveal significant influence when the structure is moved away, especially in vertical aligned tunnels.

Keywords: bending moment, elastic modulus, horizontal twin tunnels, soil, structure location, surface settlement, vertical twin tunnels

Procedia PDF Downloads 230
7830 A Solution to Analyze the Geosynthetic Reinforced Piled Embankments Considering Pile-Soil Interaction

Authors: Feicheng Liu, Weiming Liao, Jianjing Zhang


A pile-supported embankment with geosynthetic-reinforced mat (PSGR embankment) has been considered as an effective solution to reduce the total and differential settlement of the embankment constructed over soft soil. In this paper, a new simplified method proposed firstly incorporates the load transfer between piles and surrounding soil and the settlement of pile, and also considers arching effect in embankment fill, membrane effect of geosynthetic reinforcement, and subsoil resistance, to evaluate the behavior of PSGR embankment. Subsoil settlement is assumed to consist of two parts:(1) the settlement of subsoil surface between piles equivalent to that of pile caps assuming the geosynthetic reinforcement without deformation yet; (2) the subsoil subsiding along with the geosynthetic deforming, and the deflected geosynthetic being considered as centenary. The force equilibrium, including loads acting on the upper surface of geosynthetic, subsoil resistance, as well as the stress-strain relationship of the geosynthetic reinforcement at the edge of pile cap, is established, thus the expression of subsoil resistance is deduced, and subsequently the tension of geosynthetic and stress concentration ratio between piles can be calculated. The proposed method is validated through observed data from three field tests and also compared with other eight analytical solutions available in the literature. In addition, a sensitive analysis is provided to demonstrate the influence of with/without considering pile-soil interaction for evaluating the performance of PSGR embankment.

Keywords: pile-supported embankment, geosynthetic, analytical solution, soil arching effect, the settlement of pile, sensitive analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 91
7829 Numerical Analysis of the Effect of Geocell Reinforcement above Buried Pipes on Surface Settlement and Vertical Pressure

Authors: Waqed H. Almohammed, Mohammed Y. Fattah, Sajjad E. Rasheed


Dynamic traffic loads cause deformation of underground pipes, resulting in vehicle discomfort. This makes it necessary to reinforce the layers of soil above underground pipes. In this study, the subbase layer was reinforced. Finite element software (PLAXIS 3D) was used to in the simulation, which includes geocell reinforcement, vehicle loading, soil layers and Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic (GRP) pipe. Geocell reinforcement was modeled using a geogrid element, which was defined as a slender structure element that has the ability to withstand axial stresses but not to resist bending. Geogrids cannot withstand compression but they can withstand tensile forces. Comparisons have been made between the numerical models and experimental works, and a good agreement was obtained. Using the mathematical model, the performance of three different pipes of diameter 600 mm, 800 mm, and 1000 mm, and three different vehicular speeds of 20 km/h, 40 km/h, and 60 km/h, was examined to determine their impact on surface settlement and vertical pressure at the pipe crown for two cases: with and without geocell reinforcement. The results showed that, for a pipe diameter of 600 mm under geocell reinforcement, surface settlement decreases by 94 % when the speed of the vehicle is 20 km/h and by 98% when the speed of the vehicle is 60 km/h. Vertical pressure decreases by 81 % when the diameter of the pipe is 600 mm, while the value decreases to 58 % for a pipe with diameter 1000 mm. The results show that geocell reinforcement causes a significant and positive reduction in surface settlement and vertical stress above the pipe crown, leading to an increase in pipe safety.

Keywords: dynamic loading, finite element, geocell-reinforcement, GRP pipe, PLAXIS 3D, surface settlement

Procedia PDF Downloads 184
7828 Study of the Behavior of Geogrid Mechanically Stabilized Earth Walls Under Cyclic Loading

Authors: Yongzhe Zhao, Ying Liu, Zhiyong Liu, Hui You


The soil behind retaining wall is normally subjected to cyclic loading, for example traffic loading. Geotextile has been widely used to reinforce the soil for the purpose of reducing the settlement of the soil. A series of physical model tests were performed to investigate the settlement of footing under cyclic loading. The settlement of the footing, ground deformation and the vertical earth pressure in subsoil were presented and discussed under different types of geotextiles. The results indicate that including geotextiles significantly decreases the footing settlement and the stiffer the geotextile, the less the settlement. Under cyclic loading, the soil below the footing shows dilation within certain depths and beyond that it experiences contraction. The location of footing relative to the retaining wall has important effects on the deformation behavior of the soil in the ground, and the closer the footing to the retaining wall, the greater the contraction soil shows. This is because the retaining wall experienced greater lateral displacement.

Keywords: physical model tests, reinforced retaining wall, cyclic loading, footing

Procedia PDF Downloads 17
7827 Settlement Prediction for Tehran Subway Line-3 via FLAC3D and ANFIS

Authors: S. A. Naeini, A. Khalili


Nowadays, tunnels with different applications are developed, and most of them are related to subway tunnels. The excavation of shallow tunnels that pass under municipal utilities is very important, and the surface settlement control is an important factor in the design. The study sought to analyze the settlement and also to find an appropriate model in order to predict the behavior of the tunnel in Tehran subway line-3. The displacement in these sections is also determined by using numerical analyses and numerical modeling. In addition, the Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) method is utilized by Hybrid training algorithm. The database pertinent to the optimum network was obtained from 46 subway tunnels in Iran and Turkey which have been constructed by the new Austrian tunneling method (NATM) with similar parameters based on type of their soil. The surface settlement was measured, and the acquired results were compared to the predicted values. The results disclosed that computing intelligence is a good substitute for numerical modeling.

Keywords: settlement, Subway Line, FLAC3D, ANFIS Method

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
7826 A Numerical Study for Mixing Depth and Applicability of Partial Cement Mixing Method Utilizing Geogrid and Fixing Unit

Authors: Woo-seok Choi, Eun-sup Kim, Nam-Seo Park


The demand for new technique in soft ground improvement continuously increases as general soft ground methods like PBD and DCM have a application problem in soft grounds with deep depth and wide distribution in Southern coast of Korea and Southeast. In this study, partial cement mixing method utilizing geogrid and fixing unit(CMG) is suggested and Finite element analysis is performed for analyzing the depth of surface soil and deep soil stabilization and comparing with DCM method. In the result of the experiment, the displacement in DCM method were lower than the displacement in CMG, it's because the upper load is transferred to deep part soil not treated by cement in CMG method case. The differential settlement in DCM method was higher than the differential settlement in CMG, because of the effect load transfer effect by surface part soil treated by cement and geogrid. In conclusion, CMG method has the advantage of economics and constructability in embankment road, railway, etc in which differential settlement is the important consideration.

Keywords: soft ground, geogrid, fixing unit, partial cement mixing, finite element analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 312
7825 Effects of the Slope Embankment Variation on Influence Areas That Causes the Differential Settlement around of Embankment

Authors: Safitri W. Nur, Prathisto Panuntun L. Unggul, M. Ivan Adi Perdana, R. Dary Wira Mahadika


On soft soil areas, high embankment as a preloading needed to improve the bearing capacity of the soil. For sustainable development, the construction of embankment must not disturb the area around of them. So, the influence area must be known before the contractor applied their embankment design. For several cases in Indonesia, the area around of embankment construction is housing resident and other building. So that, the influence area must be identified to avoid the differential settlement occurs on the buildings around of them. Differential settlement causes the building crack. Each building has a limited tolerance for the differential settlement. For concrete buildings, the tolerance is 0,002 – 0,003 m and for steel buildings, the tolerance is 0,006 – 0,008 m. If the differential settlement stands on the range of that value, building crack can be avoided. In fact, the settlement around of embankment is assumed as zero. Because of that, so many problems happen when high embankment applied on soft soil area. This research used the superposition method combined with plaxis analysis to know the influences area around of embankment in some location with the differential characteristic of the soft soil. The undisturbed soil samples take on 55 locations with undisturbed soil samples at some soft soils location in Indonesia. Based on this research, it was concluded that the effects of embankment variation are if more gentle the slope, the influence area will be greater and vice versa. The largest of the influence area with h initial embankment equal to 2 - 6 m with slopes 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4, 1:5, 1:6, 1:7, 1:8 is 32 m from the edge of the embankment.

Keywords: differential settlement, embankment, influence area, slope, soft soil

Procedia PDF Downloads 325
7824 Analysis of Reinforced Granular Pile in Soft Soil

Authors: G. Nitesh


Stone column or granular pile is a proven technique to mitigate settlement in soft soil. Granular pile increases both rate of consolidation and stiffness of the ground. In this paper, a method to analyze further reduction in settlement of granular column reinforced with lime pile is presented treating the system as a unit cell and considering one-dimensional compression approach. The core of the granular pile is stiffened with a steel rod or lime column. Influence of a wide range of parameters such as area ratio of granular pile-soft soil, area ratio of lime pile-granular pile, modular ratio of granular pile and modular ratio of lime pile with respect to granular pile on settlement reduction factor, etc. are obtained and presented.

Keywords: lime pile, granular pile, soft soil, settlement

Procedia PDF Downloads 322
7823 3D Modeling of Tunis Soft Soil Settlement Reinforced with Plastic Wastes

Authors: Aya Rezgui, Lasaad Ajam, Belgacem Jalleli


The Tunis soft soils present a difficult challenge as construction sites and for Geotechnical works. Currently, different techniques are used to improve such soil properties taking into account the environmental considerations. One of the recent methods is involving plastic wastes as a reinforcing materials. The present study pertains to the development of a numerical model for predicting the behavior of Tunis Soft soil (TSS) improved with recycled Monobloc chair wastes.3D numerical models for unreinforced TSS and reinforced TSS aims to evaluate settlement reduction and the values of consolidation times in oedometer conditions.

Keywords: Tunis soft soil, settlement, plastic wastes, finte -difference, FLAC3D modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
7822 Estimation of Consolidating Settlement Based on a Time-Dependent Skin Friction Model Considering Column Surface Roughness

Authors: Jiang Zhenbo, Ishikura Ryohei, Yasufuku Noriyuki


Improvement of soft clay deposits by the combination of surface stabilization and floating type cement-treated columns is one of the most popular techniques worldwide. On the basis of one dimensional consolidation model, a time-dependent skin friction model for the column-soil interaction is proposed. The nonlinear relationship between column shaft shear stresses and effective vertical pressure of the surrounding soil can be described in this model. The influence of column-soil surface roughness can be represented using a roughness coefficient R, which plays an important role in the design of column length. Based on the homogenization method, a part of floating type improved ground will be treated as an unimproved portion, which with a length of αH1 is defined as a time-dependent equivalent skin friction length. The compression settlement of this unimproved portion can be predicted only using the soft clay parameters. Apart from calculating the settlement of this composited ground, the load transfer mechanism is discussed utilizing model tests. The proposed model is validated by comparing with calculations and laboratory results of model and ring shear tests, which indicate the suitability and accuracy of the solutions in this paper.

Keywords: floating type improved foundation, time-dependent skin friction, roughness, consolidation

Procedia PDF Downloads 397
7821 Effect of Deep Mixing Columns and Geogrid on Embankment Settlement on the Soft Soil

Authors: Seyed Abolhasan Naeini, Saeideh Mohammadi


Embankment settlement on soft clays has always been problematic due to the high compaction and low shear strength of the soil. Deep soil mixing and geosynthetics are two soil improvement methods in such fields. Here, a numerical study is conducted on the embankment performance on the soft ground improved by deep soil mixing columns and geosynthetics based on the data of a real project. For this purpose, the finite element method is used in the Plaxis 2D software. The Soft Soil Creep model considers the creep phenomenon in the soft clay layer while the Mohr-Columb model simulates other soil layers. Results are verified using the data of an experimental embankment built on deep mixing columns. The effect of depth and diameter of deep mixing columns and the stiffness of geogrid on the vertical and horizontal movements of embankment on clay subsoil will be investigated in the following.

Keywords: PLAXIS 2D, embankment settlement, horizontal movement, deep soil mixing column, geogrid

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
7820 Soil Micromorphological Analysis from the Hinterland of the Pharaonic Town, Sai Island, Sudan

Authors: Sayantani Neogi, Sean Taylor, Julia Budka


This paper presents the results of the investigations of soil/sediment sequences associated with the New Kingdom town at Sai Island, Sudan. During the course of this study, geoarchaeological surveys have been undertaken in the vicinity of this Pharaonic town within the island and the soil block samples for soil micromorphological analysis were accordingly collected. The intention was to better understand the archaeological site in its environmental context and the nature of the land surface prior to the establishment of the settlement. Soil micromorphology, a very powerful geoarchaeological methodology, is concerned with the description, measurement and interpretation of soil components and pedological features at a microscopic scale. Since soil profiles themselves are archives of their own history, soil micromorphology investigates the environmental and cultural signatures preserved within buried soils and sediments. A study of the thin sections from these soils/sediments has been able to provide robust data for providing interesting insights into the various nuances of this site, for example, the nature of the topography and existent environmental condition during the time of Pharaonic site establishment. These geoarchaeological evaluations have indicated that there is a varied hidden landscape context for this pharaonic settlement, which indicates a symbiotic relationship with the Nilotic environmental system.

Keywords: geoarchaeology, New Kingdom, Nilotic environment, soil micromorphology

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
7819 Numerical Modelling of Prestressed Geogrid Reinforced Soil System

Authors: Soukat Kumar Das


Rapid industrialization and increase in population has resulted in the scarcity of suitable ground conditions. It has driven the need of ground improvement by means of reinforcement with geosynthetics with the minimum possible settlement and with maximum possible safety. Prestressing the geosynthetics offers an economical yet safe method of gaining the goal. Commercially available software PLAXIS 3D has made the analysis of prestressed geosynthetics simpler with much practical simulations of the ground. Attempts have been made so far to analyse the effect of prestressing geosynthetics and the effect of interference of footing on Unreinforced (UR), Geogrid Reinforced (GR) and Prestressed Geogrid Reinforced (PGR) soil on the load bearing capacity and the settlement characteristics of prestressed geogrid reinforced soil using the numerical analysis by using the software PLAXIS 3D. The results of the numerical analysis have been validated and compared with those given in the referred paper. The results have been found to be in very good agreement with those of the actual field values with very small variation. The GR soil has been found to be improve the bearing pressure 240 % whereas the PGR soil improves it by almost 500 % for 1mm settlement. In fact, the PGR soil has enhanced the bearing pressure of the GR soil by almost 200 %. The settlement reduction has also been found to be very significant as for 100 kPa bearing pressure the settlement reduction of the PGR soil has been found to be about 88 % with respect to UR soil and it reduced to up to 67 % with respect to GR soil. The prestressing force has resulted in enhanced reinforcement mechanism, resulting in the increased bearing pressure. The deformation at the geogrid layer has been found to be 13.62 mm for GR soil whereas it decreased down to mere 3.5 mm for PGR soil which certainly ensures the effect of prestressing on the geogrid layer. The parameter Improvement factor or conventionally known as Bearing Capacity Ratio for different settlements and which depicts the improvement of the PGR with respect to UR and GR soil and the improvement of GR soil with respect to UR soil has been found to vary in the range of 1.66-2.40 in the present analysis for GR soil and was found to be vary between 3.58 and 5.12 for PGR soil with respect to UR soil. The effect of prestressing was also observed in case of two interfering square footings. The centre to centre distance between the two footings (SFD) was taken to be B, 1.5B, 2B, 2.5B and 3B where B is the width of the footing. It was found that for UR soil the improvement of the bearing pressure was up to 1.5B after which it remained almost same. But for GR soil the zone of influence rose up to 2B and for PGR it further went up to 2.5B. So the zone of interference for PGR soil has increased by 67% than Unreinforced (UR) soil and almost 25 % with respect to GR soil.

Keywords: bearing, geogrid, prestressed, reinforced

Procedia PDF Downloads 331
7818 Settlement of Group of Stone Columns

Authors: Adel Hanna, Tahar Ayadat, Mohammad Etezad, Cyrille Cros


A number of theoretical methods have been developed over the years to calculate the amount settlement of the soil reinforced with group of stone columns. The results deduced from these methods sometimes show large disagreement with the experimental observations. The reason of this divergence might be due to the fact that many of the previous methods assumed the deform shape of the columns which is different with the actual case. A new method to calculate settlement of the ground reinforced with group of stone columns is presented in this paper which overcomes the restrictions made by previous theories. This method is based on results deduced from numerical modeling. Results obtained from the model are validated.

Keywords: stone columns, group, soft soil, settlement, prediction

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7817 Comparative Settlement Analysis on the under of Embankment with Empirical Formulas and Settlement Plate Measurement for Reducing Building Crack around of Embankments

Authors: Safitri Nur Wulandari, M. Ivan Adi Perdana, Prathisto L. Panuntun Unggul, R. Dary Wira Mahadika


In road construction on the soft soil, we need a soil improvement method to improve the soil bearing capacity of the land base so that the soil can withstand the traffic loads. Most of the land in Indonesia has a soft soil, where soft soil is a type of clay that has the consistency of very soft to medium stiff, undrained shear strength, Cu <0:25 kg/cm2, or the estimated value of NSPT <5 blows/ft. This study focuses on the analysis of the effect on preloading load (embarkment) to the amount of settlement ratio on the under of embarkment that will impact on the building cracks around of embarkment. The method used in this research is a superposition method for embarkment distribution on 27 locations with undisturbed soil samples at some borehole point in Java and Kalimantan, Indonesia. Then correlating the results of settlement plate monitoring on the field with Asaoka method. The results of settlement plate monitoring taken from an embarkment of Ahmad Yani airport in Semarang on 32 points. Where the value of Cc (index compressible) soil data based on some laboratory test results, while the value of Cc is not tested obtained from empirical formula Ardhana and Mochtar, 1999. From this research, the results of the field monitoring showed almost the same results with an empirical formulation with the standard deviation of 4% where the formulation of the empirical results of this analysis obtained by linear formula. Value empirical linear formula is to determine the effect of compression heap area as high as 4,25 m is 3,1209x + y = 0.0026 for the slope of the embankment 1: 8 for the same analysis with an initial height of embankment on the field. Provided that at the edge of the embankment settlement worth is not equal to 0 but at a quarter of embankment has a settlement ratio average 0.951 and at the edge of embankment has a settlement ratio 0,049. The influence areas around of embankment are approximately 1 meter for slope 1:8 and 7 meters for slope 1:2. So, it can cause the building cracks, to build in sustainable development.

Keywords: building cracks, influence area, settlement plate, soft soil, empirical formula, embankment

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
7816 Numerical Investigation of Soft Clayey Soil Improved by Soil-Cement Columns under Harmonic Load

Authors: R. Ziaie Moayed, E. Ghanbari Alamouty


Deep soil mixing is one of the improvement methods in geotechnical engineering which is widely used in soft soils. This article investigates the consolidation behavior of a soft clay soil which is improved by soil-cement column (SCC) by numerical modeling using Plaxis2D program. This behavior is simulated under vertical static and cyclic load which is applied on the soil surface. The static load problem is the simulation of a physical model test in an axisymmetric condition which uses a single SCC in the model center. The results of numerical modeling consist of settlement of soft soil composite, stress on soft soil and column, and excessive pore water pressure in the soil show a good correspondence with the test results. The response of soft soil composite to the cyclic load in vertical direction also compared with the static results. Also the effects of two variables namely the cement content used in a SCC and the area ratio (the ratio of the diameter of SCC to the diameter of composite soil model, a) is investigated. The results show that the stress on the column with the higher value of a, is lesser compared with the stress on other columns. Different rate of consolidation and excessive pore pressure distribution is observed in cyclic load problem. Also comparing the results of settlement of soil shows higher compressibility in the cyclic load problem.

Keywords: area ratio, consolidation behavior, cyclic load, numerical modeling, soil-cement column

Procedia PDF Downloads 82
7815 1-g Shake Table Tests to Study the Impact of PGA on Foundation Settlement in Liquefiable Soil

Authors: Md. Kausar Alam, Mohammad Yazdi, Peiman Zogh, Ramin Motamed


The liquefaction-induced ground settlement has caused severe damage to structures in the past decades. However, the amount of building settlement caused by liquefaction is directly proportional to the intensity of the ground shaking. To reduce this soil liquefaction effect, it is essential to examine the influence of peak ground acceleration (PGA). Unfortunately, limited studies have been carried out on this issue. In this study, a series of moderate scale 1g shake table experiments were conducted at the University of Nevada Reno to evaluate the influence of PGA with the same duration in liquefiable soil layers. The model is prepared based on a large-scale shake table with a scaling factor of N = 5, which has been conducted at the University of California, San Diego. The model ground has three soil layers with relative densities of 50% for crust, 30% for liquefiable, and 90% for dense layer, respectively. In addition, a shallow foundation is seated over an unsaturated crust layer. After preparing the model, the input motions having various peak ground accelerations (i.e., 0.16g, 0.25g, and 0.37g) for the same duration (10 sec) were applied. Based on the experimental results, when the PGA increased from 0.16g to 0.37g, the foundation increased from 20 mm to 100 mm. In addition, the expected foundation settlement based on the scaling factor was 25 mm, while the actual settlement for PGA 0.25g for 10 seconds was 50 mm.

Keywords: foundation settlement, liquefaction, peak ground acceleration, shake table test

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7814 The Damage Assessment of Industrial Buildings Located on Clayey Soils Using in-Situ Tests

Authors: Ismail Akkaya, Mucip Tapan, Ali Ozvan


Some of the industrially prefabricated buildings located on clayey soils were damaged due to soil conditions. The reasons of these damages are generally due to different settlement capacity, the different plasticity of soils and the level of ground water. The aim of this study is to determine the source of these building damages by conducting in situ tests. Therefore, pressuremeter test, which is one of the borehole loading test conducted to determine the properties of soils under the foundations and Standart Penetration Test (SPT). The results of these two field tests were then used to accurately obtain the consistency and firmness of soils. Pressuremeter Deformation Module (EM) and Net Limiting Pressure (PL) of soils were calculated after the pressuremeter tests. These values were then compared with the SPT (N30) and SPT (N60) results. An empirical equation was developed to obtain EM and PL values of such soils from SPT test results. These values were then used to calculate soil bearing capacity as well as the soil settlement. Finally, the relationship between the foundation settlement and the damage of these buildings were checked. It was found that calculated settlement values were almost the same as measured settlement values.

Keywords: damaged building, pressuremeter, standard penetration test, low and high plasticity clay

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
7813 Measuring the Amount of Eroded Soil and Surface Runoff Water in the Field

Authors: Abdulfatah Faraj Aboufayed


Water erosion is the most important problems of the soil in the Jebel Nefusa area located in north west of Libya, therefore erosion station had been established in the Faculty of Veterinary and rainfed agriculture research Station, University of the Jepel Algherbee in Zentan. The length of the station is 72.6 feet, 6 feet width, and the percentage of it's slope is 3%. The station was established to measure the mount of soil eroded and amount of surface water produced during the seasons 95/96 and 96/97 from each rain storms. The Monitoring shows that there was a difference between the two seasons in the number of rainstorms which made differences in the amount of surface runoff water and the amount of soil eroded between the two seasons. Although the slope is low (3%), the soil texture is sandy and the land ploughed twice during each season surface runoff and soil eroded occurred. The average amount of eroded soil was 3792 grams (gr) per season and the average amount of surface runoff water was 410 litter (L) per season. The amount of surface runoff water would be much greater from Jebel Nefusa upland with steep slopes and collecting of them will save a valuable amount of water which lost as a runoff while this area is in desperate of this water. The regression analysis of variance show strong correlation between rainfall depth and the other two depended variable (the amount of surface runoff water and the amount of eroded soil). It shows also strong correlation between amount of surface runoff water and amount of eroded soil.

Keywords: rain, surface runoff water, soil, water erosion, soil erosion

Procedia PDF Downloads 313
7812 Design Charts for Strip Footing on Untreated and Cement Treated Sand Mat over Underlying Natural Soft Clay

Authors: Sharifullah Ahmed, Sarwar Jahan Md. Yasin


Shallow foundations on unimproved soft natural soils can undergo a high consolidation and secondary settlement. For low and medium rise building projects on such soil condition, pile foundation may not be cost effective. In such cases an alternative to pile foundations may be shallow strip footings placed on a double layered improved soil system soil. The upper layer of this system is untreated or cement treated compacted sand and underlying layer is natural soft clay. This system will reduce the settlement to an allowable limit. The current research has been conducted with the settlement of a rigid plane-strain strip footing of 2.5 m width placed on the surface of a soil consisting of an untreated or cement treated sand layer overlying a bed of homogeneous soft clay. The settlement of the mentioned shallow foundation has been studied considering both cases with the thicknesses of the sand layer are 0.3 to 0.9 times the width of footing. The response of the clay layer is assumed as undrained for plastic loading stages and drained during consolidation stages. The response of the sand layer is drained during all loading stages. FEM analysis was done using PLAXIS 2D Version 8.0. A natural clay deposit of 15 m thickness and 18 m width has been modeled using Hardening Soil Model, Soft Soil Model, Soft Soil Creep Model, and upper improvement layer has been modeled using only Hardening Soil Model. The groundwater level is at the top level of the clay deposit that made the system fully saturated. Parametric study has been conducted to determine the effect of thickness, density, cementation of the sand mat and density, shear strength of the soft clay layer on the settlement of strip foundation under the uniformly distributed vertical load of varying value. A set of the chart has been established for designing shallow strip footing on the sand mat over thick, soft clay deposit through obtaining the particular thickness of sand mat for particular subsoil parameter to ensure no punching shear failure and no settlement beyond allowable level. Design guideline in the form of non-dimensional charts has been developed for footing pressure equivalent to medium-rise residential or commercial building foundation with strip footing on soft inorganic Normally Consolidated (NC) soil of Bangladesh having void ratio from 1.0 to 1.45.

Keywords: design charts, ground improvement, PLAXIS 2D, primary and secondary settlement, sand mat, soft clay

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7811 Application of Micro-Tunneling Technique to Rectify Tilted Structures Constructed on Cohesive Soil

Authors: Yasser R. Tawfic, Mohamed A. Eid


Foundation differential settlement and supported structure tilting is an occasionally occurred engineering problem. This may be caused by overloading, changes in ground soil properties or unsupported nearby excavations. Engineering thinking points directly toward the logic solution for such problem by uplifting the settled side. This can be achieved with deep foundation elements such as micro-piles and macro-piles™, jacked piers and helical piers, jet grouted soil-crete columns, compaction grout columns, cement grouting or with chemical grouting, or traditional pit underpinning with concrete and mortar. Although, some of these techniques offer economic, fast and low noise solutions, many of them are quite the contrary. For tilted structures, with limited inclination, it may be much easier to cause a balancing settlement on the less-settlement side which shall be done carefully in a proper rate. This principal has been applied in Leaning Tower of Pisa stabilization with soil extraction from the ground surface. In this research, the authors attempt to introduce a new solution with a different point of view. So, micro-tunneling technique is presented in here as an intended ground deformation cause. In general, micro-tunneling is expected to induce limited ground deformations. Thus, the researchers propose to apply the technique to form small size ground unsupported holes to produce the target deformations. This shall be done in four phases: •Application of one or more micro-tunnels, regarding the existing differential settlement value, under the raised side of the tilted structure. •For each individual tunnel, the lining shall be pulled out from both sides (from jacking and receiving shafts) in slow rate. •If required, according to calculations and site records, an additional surface load can be applied on the raised foundation side. •Finally, a strengthening soil grouting shall be applied for stabilization after adjustment. A finite element based numerical model is presented to simulate the proposed construction phases for different tunneling positions and tunnels group. For each case, the surface settlements are calculated and induced plasticity points are checked. These results show the impact of the suggested procedure on the tilted structure and its feasibility. Comparing results also show the importance of the position selection and tunnels group gradual effect. Thus, a new engineering solution is presented to one of the structural and geotechnical engineering challenges.

Keywords: differential settlement, micro-tunneling, soil-structure interaction, tilted structures

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7810 Effect of Confinement on the Bearing Capacity and Settlement of Spread Foundations

Authors: Tahsin Toma Sabbagh, Ihsan Al-Abboodi, Ali Al-Jazaairry


Allowable-bearing capacity is the competency of soil to safely carries the pressure from the superstructure without experiencing a shear failure with accompanying excessive settlements. Ensuring a safe bearing pressure with respect to failure does not tolerate settlement of the foundation will be within acceptable limits. Therefore, settlement analysis should always be performed since most structures are settlement sensitive. When visualising the movement of a soil wedge in the bearing capacity criterion, both vertically and horizontally, it becomes clear that by confining the soil surrounding the foundation, both the bearing capacity and settlement values improve. In this study, two sizes of spread foundation were considered; (2×4) m and (3×5) m. These represent two real problem case studies of an existing building. The foundations were analysed in terms of dimension as well as position with respect to a confining wall (i.e., sheet piles on both sides). Assuming B is the least foundation dimension, the study comprised the analyses of three distances; (0.1 B), (0.5 B), and (0.75 B) between the sheet piles and foundations alongside three depths of confinement (0.5 B), (1 B), and (1.5 B). Nonlinear three-dimensional finite element analysis (ANSYS) was adopted to perform an analytical investigation on the behaviour of the two foundations contained by the case study. Results showed that confinement of foundations reduced the overall stresses near the foundation by 65% and reduced the vertical displacement by 90%. Moreover, the most effective distance between the confinement wall and the foundation was found to be 0.5 B.

Keywords: bearing capacity, cohesionless soils, soil confinement, soil modelling, spread footings

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7809 Comparison of Different Techniques to Estimate Surface Soil Moisture

Authors: S. Farid F. Mojtahedi, Ali Khosravi, Behnaz Naeimian, S. Adel A. Hosseini


Land subsidence is a gradual settling or sudden sinking of the land surface from changes that take place underground. There are different causes of land subsidence; most notably, ground-water overdraft and severe weather conditions. Subsidence of the land surface due to ground water overdraft is caused by an increase in the intergranular pressure in unconsolidated aquifers, which results in a loss of buoyancy of solid particles in the zone dewatered by the falling water table and accordingly compaction of the aquifer. On the other hand, exploitation of underground water may result in significant changes in degree of saturation of soil layers above the water table, increasing the effective stress in these layers, and considerable soil settlements. This study focuses on estimation of soil moisture at surface using different methods. Specifically, different methods for the estimation of moisture content at the soil surface, as an important term to solve Richard’s equation and estimate soil moisture profile are presented, and their results are discussed through comparison with field measurements obtained from Yanco1 station in south-eastern Australia. Surface soil moisture is not easy to measure at the spatial scale of a catchment. Due to the heterogeneity of soil type, land use, and topography, surface soil moisture may change considerably in space and time.

Keywords: artificial neural network, empirical method, remote sensing, surface soil moisture, unsaturated soil

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
7808 Plane of Equal Settlement above HDD’s Borehole before Operational Condition

Authors: Shokoufeh Sadeghifard


This study is a review of the nature of soil arching that develops in the upper layer of soil during drilling processes before pulling product pipe inside the hole. This study is based on the results of some parametric studies which are investigating the behavior of drained sandy soil above HDD borehole using Plaxis finite element solution. The influence of drilling mud injection in these series of analyses has been ignored. However, a suitable drilling mud pressure helps to achieve stable arch when the height of soil cover over the drilling borehole is not enough. In this study, the soil response to the formation of a HDD borehole is compared to arching theory developed by Terzaghi (1943). It is found that Terzaghi’s approach is capable of describing all of the behaviour seen when a stable arch forms. According to the numerical results, a suitable safe depth of 4D, D is borehole diameter, is suggested for typical range of HDD borehole in sandy soil.

Keywords: HDD, Plaxis, finite element, arching, settlement, drilling

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7807 Soil Surface Insect Diversity of Tobacco Agricultural Ecosystem in Imogiri, Bantul District of Yogyakarta Special Region, Indonesia

Authors: Martina Faika Harianja, Zahtamal, Indah Nuraini, Septi Mutia Handayani, R. C. Hidayat Soesilohadi


Tobacco is a valuable commodity that supports economic growth in Indonesia. Soil surface insects are important components that influence productivity of tobacco. Thus, diversity of soil surface insects needs to be studied in order to acquire information about specific roles of each species in ecosystem. This research aimed to study the soil surface insect diversity of tobacco agricultural ecosystem in Imogiri, Bantul District of Yogyakarta Special Region, Indonesia. Samples were collected by pitfall-sugar bait trap in August 2015. Result showed 5 orders, 8 families, and 17 genera of soil surface insects were found. The diversity category of soil surface insects in tobacco agricultural ecosystem was poor. Dominant genus was Monomorium with dominance index score 0.07588. Percentages of insects’ roles were omnivores 43%, detritivores 24%, predators 19%, and herbivores 14%.

Keywords: diversity, Indonesia, soil surface insect, tobacco

Procedia PDF Downloads 244