Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 52

Search results for: avian audiogram

52 Bird-Adapted Filter for Avian Species and Individual Identification Systems Improvement

Authors: Ladislav Ptacek, Jan Vanek, Jan Eisner, Alexandra Pruchova, Pavel Linhart, Ludek Muller, Dana Jirotkova

Abstract:

One of the essential steps of avian song processing is signal filtering. Currently, the standard methods of filtering are the Mel Bank Filter or linear filter distribution. In this article, a new type of bank filter called the Bird-Adapted Filter is introduced; whereby the signal filtering is modifiable, based upon a new mathematical description of audiograms for particular bird species or order, which was named the Avian Audiogram Unified Equation. According to the method, filters may be deliberately distributed by frequency. The filters are more concentrated in bands of higher sensitivity where there is expected to be more information transmitted and vice versa. Further, it is demonstrated a comparison of various filters for automatic individual recognition of chiffchaff (Phylloscopus collybita). The average Equal Error Rate (EER) value for Linear bank filter was 16.23%, for Mel Bank Filter 18.71%, the Bird-Adapted Filter gave 14.29%, and Bird-Adapted Filter with 1/3 modification was 12.95%. This approach would be useful for practical use in automatic systems for avian species and individual identification. Since the Bird-Adapted Filter filtration is based on the measured audiograms of particular species or orders, selecting the distribution according to the avian vocalization provides the most precise filter distribution to date.

Keywords: avian audiogram, bird individual identification, bird song processing, bird species recognition, filter bank

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51 Binding of Avian Excreta-Derived Enteroccoci to a Streptococcocus mutans: Implications for Avian to Human Transmission

Authors: Richard K. Jolley, Jonathan A. Coffman

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Since Enterococci has been implicated in oral disease, we hypothesized the transmission of avian Enterococci to humans via fecal-oral transmission facilitated by adherence to dental plaque. To demonstrate the capability of Enterococci to bind to a dental plaque we filtered avian excreta and incubated the filtrate on a sucrose-induced, Streptococcus mutans biofilm. The biofilm was washed several times with a detergent to remove bacteria binding non-specifically to the biofilm, DNA was isolated from the biofilm, 16S rDNA was amplified, sequenced by Ion Torrent DNA sequencing and analyzed with bioinformatics. Enterococci and other known bacterial pathogens were shown to adhere to the biofilm. Culturing the washed biofilm with Bile Esculin Azide (BEA) agar also confirmed the presence of Enterococci as verified with Sanger sequencing. The results suggest that Enteroccoci in avian excreta has the ability to adhere to human dental plaque and may be a mechanism of entry when humans encounter contaminated aerosols, water or food.

Keywords: Enterococci, avian excreta, dental plaque, NGS

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50 Prerequisites for the Acquisition of Mammalian Pathogenicity by Influenza A Virus with a Prototypic Avian PB2 Gene

Authors: Chung-Young Lee, Se-Hee Ahn, Ilhwan Kim, Du-Min Go, Dae-Yong Kim, Jun-Gu Choi, Youn-Jeong Lee, Jae-Hong Kim, Hyuk-Joon Kwon

Abstract:

The polymerase of avian influenza A virus (AIV) is a heterotrimer composed of PB2, PB1 and PA. PB2 plays a role in overcoming the host barrier; however, the genetic prerequisites for avian PB2 to acquire mammalian pathogenic mutations have not been well elucidated. Here, we demonstrated that key amino acid mutations (I66M, I109V and I133V, collectively referred to as MVV) of prototypic avian PB2 increase the replication efficiency of recombinant PR8 virus carrying the mutated PB2 in both avian and mammalian hosts. The MVV mutations caused no weight loss in mice, but they did allow replication in infected lungs, and the viruses acquired fatal mammalian pathogenic mutations such as Q591R/K, E627K, or D701N in the infected lungs. The MVV mutations are located at the interfaces of the trimer and are predicted to increase the strength of this structure. Thus, gaining MVV mutations might be the first step for AIV to acquire mammalian pathogenicity. These results provide new insights into the evolution of AIV in birds and mammals.

Keywords: avian influenza A virus, prototypic PB2, polymerase activity, mammalian pathogenicity, first-step mutations

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49 The New Insight about Interspecies Transmission of Iranian H9N2 Influenza Viruses from Avian to Human

Authors: Masoud Soltanialvar, Ali Bagherpour

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Documented cases of human infection with H9N2 avian influenza viruses, first detected in 1999 in Hong Kong and China, indicate that these viruses can be directly transmitted from birds to humans. In this study, we characterized the mutation in the Hemagglutinin (HA) genes and proteins that correlates with a shift in affinity of the Hemagglutinin (HA) protein from the “avian” type sialic receptors to the “human” type in 10 Iranian isolates. We delineated the genomes and receptor binding profile of HA gene of some field isolates and established their phylogenetic relationship to the other Asian H9N2 sub lineages. A total of 1200 tissue samples collected from 40 farms located in various states of Iran during 2008 – 2010 as part of a program to monitor Avian Influenza Viruses (AIV) infection. To determine the genetic relationship of Iranian viruses, the Hemagglutinin (HA) genes from ten isolates were amplified and sequenced (by RT-PCR method). Nucleotide sequences (orf) of the (HA) genes were used for phylogenetic tree construction. Deduced amino acid sequences showed the presence of L226 (234 in H9 numbering) in all ten Iranian isolates which indicates a preference to binding of α (2–6) sialic acid receptors, so these Iranian H9N2 viruses have the potential to infect human beings. These isolates showed high degree of homology with 2 human H9N2 isolates A/HK/1073/99, A/HK/1074/99. Phylogenetic analysis of showed that all the HA genes of the Iranian H9N2 viruses fall into a single group within a G1-like sublineage which had contributed as donor of six internal genes to H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza. The results of this study indicated that all Iranian viruses have the potential to emerge as highly pathogenic influenza virus, and considering the homology of these isolates with human H9N2 strains, it seems that the potential of these avian influenza isolates to infect human should not be overlooked.

Keywords: influenza virus, hemagglutinin, neuraminidase, Iran

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48 Evaluation of Broiler Parent Breeds under Libyan Conditions

Authors: Salem A. Abdalla Bozrayda, Abulgasem M. Hubara

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The use of commercial poultry breeds in Libya may result in large economic losses because genotypes selected in temperate climates may respond differently to other climate conditions and management. Therefore three commercial breeds (Hypeco, Avian, and Shaver) were evaluated in two regions. The data were obtained from weekly records of three parental flocks for each breed at Ghout El-sultan and Tawargha region. Feed Hen Housed (FHH), Hen Housed Egg Production (HHEP) Mortility % were the studied traits. Statistical model include location, year, month, age and breed. Hypeco produced more HHEP 68.6 with Less FHH 22.9 kg but with higher mortility 8.5 % than Avian and shaver breeds. The breeds exhibited different responses to the different months in Libya. In conclusion, the differences, which exhibited between the breeds in traits studied, indicate that genotype x environment must be considered when select breed to perform under Libyan conditions.

Keywords: hypeco avian shaver, feed hen housed, hen housed egg production, mortility, Libya

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47 Poultry in Motion: Text Mining Social Media Data for Avian Influenza Surveillance in the UK

Authors: Samuel Munaf, Kevin Swingler, Franz Brülisauer, Anthony O’Hare, George Gunn, Aaron Reeves

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Background: Avian influenza, more commonly known as Bird flu, is a viral zoonotic respiratory disease stemming from various species of poultry, including pets and migratory birds. Researchers have purported that the accessibility of health information online, in addition to the low-cost data collection methods the internet provides, has revolutionized the methods in which epidemiological and disease surveillance data is utilized. This paper examines the feasibility of using internet data sources, such as Twitter and livestock forums, for the early detection of the avian flu outbreak, through the use of text mining algorithms and social network analysis. Methods: Social media mining was conducted on Twitter between the period of 01/01/2021 to 31/12/2021 via the Twitter API in Python. The results were filtered firstly by hashtags (#avianflu, #birdflu), word occurrences (avian flu, bird flu, H5N1), and then refined further by location to include only those results from within the UK. Analysis was conducted on this text in a time-series manner to determine keyword frequencies and topic modeling to uncover insights in the text prior to a confirmed outbreak. Further analysis was performed by examining clinical signs (e.g., swollen head, blue comb, dullness) within the time series prior to the confirmed avian flu outbreak by the Animal and Plant Health Agency (APHA). Results: The increased search results in Google and avian flu-related tweets showed a correlation in time with the confirmed cases. Topic modeling uncovered clusters of word occurrences relating to livestock biosecurity, disposal of dead birds, and prevention measures. Conclusions: Text mining social media data can prove to be useful in relation to analysing discussed topics for epidemiological surveillance purposes, especially given the lack of applied research in the veterinary domain. The small sample size of tweets for certain weekly time periods makes it difficult to provide statistically plausible results, in addition to a great amount of textual noise in the data.

Keywords: veterinary epidemiology, disease surveillance, infodemiology, infoveillance, avian influenza, social media

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46 Proteome-Wide Convergent Evolution on Vocal Learning Birds Reveals Insight into cAMP-Based Learning Pathway

Authors: Chul Lee, Seoae Cho, Erich D. Jarvis, Heebal Kim

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Vocal learning, the ability to imitate vocalizations based on auditory experience, is a homoplastic character state observed in different independent lineages of animals such as songbirds, parrots, hummingbirds and human. It has now become possible to perform genome-wide molecular analyses across vocal learners and vocal non-learners with the recent expansion of avian genome data. It was analyzed the whole genomes of human and 48 avian species including those belonging to the three avian vocal learning lineages, to determine if behavior and neural convergence are associated with molecular convergence in divergent species of vocal learners. Analyses of 8295 orthologous genes across bird species revealed 141 genes with amino acid substitutions specific to vocal learners. Out of these, 25 genes have vocal learner specific genetic homoplasies, and their functions were enriched for learning. Several sites in these genes are estimated under convergent evolution and positive selection. A potential role for a subset of these genes in vocal learning was supported by associations with gene expression profiles in vocal learning brain regions of songbirds and human disease that cause language dysfunctions. The key candidate gene with multiple independent lines of the evidences specific to vocal learners was DRD5. Our findings suggest cAMP-based learning pathway in avian vocal learners, indicating molecular homoplastic changes associated with a complex behavioral trait, vocal learning.

Keywords: amino acid substitutions, convergent evolution, positive selection, vocal learning

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45 Enhanced Near-Infrared Upconversion Emission Based Lateral Flow Immunoassay for Background-Free Detection of Avian Influenza Viruses

Authors: Jaeyoung Kim, Heeju Lee, Huijin Jung, Heesoo Pyo, Seungki Kim, Joonseok Lee

Abstract:

Avian influenza viruses (AIV) are the primary cause of highly contagious respiratory diseases caused by type A influenza viruses of the Orthomyxoviridae family. AIV are categorized on the basis of types of surface glycoproteins such as hemagglutinin and neuraminidase. Certain H5 and H7 subtypes of AIV have evolved to the high pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus, which has caused considerable economic loss to the poultry industry and led to severe public health crisis. Several commercial kits have been developed for on-site detection of AIV. However, the sensitivity of these methods is too low to detect low virus concentrations in clinical samples and opaque stool samples. Here, we introduced a background-free near-infrared (NIR)-to-NIR upconversion nanoparticle-based lateral flow immunoassay (NNLFA) platform to yield a sensor that detects AIV within 20 minutes. Ca²⁺ ion in the shell was used to enhance the NIR-to-NIR upconversion photoluminescence (PL) emission as a heterogeneous dopant without inducing significant changes in the morphology and size of the UCNPs. In a mixture of opaque stool samples and gold nanoparticles (GNPs), which are components of commercial AIV LFA, the background signal of the stool samples mask the absorption peak of GNPs. However, UCNPs dispersed in the stool samples still show strong emission centered at 800 nm when excited at 980 nm, which enables the NNLFA platform to detect 10-times lower viral load than a commercial GNP-based AIV LFA. The detection limit of NNLFA for low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H5N2 and HPAI H5N6 viruses was 10² EID₅₀/mL and 10³.⁵ EID₅₀/mL, respectively. Moreover, when opaque brown-colored samples were used as the target analytes, strong NIR emission signal from the test line in NNLFA confirmed the presence of AIV, whereas commercial AIV LFA detected AIV with difficulty. Therefore, we propose that this rapid and background-free NNLFA platform has the potential of detecting AIV in the field, which could effectively prevent the spread of these viruses at an early stage.

Keywords: avian influenza viruses, lateral flow immunoassay on-site detection, upconversion nanoparticles

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44 Comparison of the Use of Vaccines or Drugs against Parasitic Diseases

Authors: H. Al-Khalaifa, A. Al-Nasser

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The viewpoint towards the use of drugs or vaccines against avian parasitic diseases is one of the most striking challenges in avian medical parasitology. This includes many difficulties associated with drug resistance and in developing prophylactic vaccines. In many instances, the potential success of a vaccination in controlling parasitic diseases in poultry is well-documented. However, some medical, technical and financial limitations are still paramount. On the other hand, chemotherapy is not very well-recommended due to a number of medical limitations. But in the absence of an effective vaccine, drugs are used against parasitic diseases. This paper sheds light on some the advantages and disadvantages of using vaccination and drugs in controlling parasitic diseases in poultry species. The usage of chemotherapeutic drugs is discussed with some examples. Then, more light will be shed on using vaccines as a potentially effective and promising control tool.

Keywords: drugs, parasitology, poultry, vaccines

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43 Root Cause Analysis of Surveillance Quality in Tanjung Priok Port to Prevent Epidemic Potential Disease as a Form of Bioterrorism Threat

Authors: Dina A. Amu, Fifi N. Afifah, Catur Rosidati, Tirton Nefianto

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Indonesia was shaken up by the avian influenza cases that had caused the country suffered losses of millions of dollars. The avian influenza case had even been suspected as a bioterrorism attack since it was an uncommon case in epidemiology. Furthermore, this avian influenza virus is a high pathogenic one and Indonesia has the highest case of fatality rate in the world. Bioterrorism threats or epidemic potential disease outbreaks currently does not exist in Tanjung Priok port yet. However, the surveillance system enhancement on epidemic potential diseases should be taken as a prevention, especially because Indonesia is currently facing the ASEAN Economic Society (AES). Therefore, this research evaluates the health surveillance system which is organized by Control, Quarantine and Surveillance Department, Health Office of Tanjung Priok Port. This study uses qualitative-evaluative method which utilizes Urgency Seriousness Growth (USG) method to determine priority issues and Root Cause analysis to determine the cause of prior problem. The result of this research shows that the implementation of epidemic potential disease surveillance in Tanjung Priok port has not done in the best possible way. It is because the lack of time allocation and the succinctness of the check list of ship's environmental health inspection. Therefore, Health Ministry of Indonesia should recruit more employees at the health office of Tanjung Priok port, hold a simulation of ship's inspection and simplify the list for ship's environmental health inspection.

Keywords: surveillance, epidemic potential disease, port health, bioterrorism

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42 A Description Analysis of Mortality Rate of Human Infection with Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus in China

Authors: Lei Zhou, Chao Li, Ruiqi Ren, Dan Li, Yali Wang, Daxin Ni, Zijian Feng, Qun Li

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Background: Since the first human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) case was reported in China on 31 March 2013, five epidemics have been observed in China through February 2013 and September 2017. Though the overall mortality rate of H7N9 has remained as high as around 40% throughout the five epidemics, the specific mortality rate in Mainland China varied by provinces. We conducted a descriptive analysis of mortality rates of H7N9 cases to explore the various severity features of the disease and then to provide clues of further analyses of potential factors associated with the severity of the disease. Methods: The data for analysis originated from the National Notifiable Infectious Disease Report and Surveillance System (NNIDRSS). The surveillance system and identification procedure for H7N9 infection have not changed in China since 2013. The definition of a confirmed H7N9 case is as same as previous reports. Mortality rates of H7N9 cases are described and compared by time and location of reporting, age and sex, and genetic features of H7N9 virus strains. Results: The overall mortality rate, the male and female specific overall rates of H7N9 is 39.6% (608/1533), 40.3% (432/1072) and 38.2% (176/461), respectively. There was no significant difference between the mortality rates of male and female. The age-specific mortality rates are significantly varied by age groups (χ²=38.16, p < 0.001). The mortality of H7N9 cases in the age group between 20 and 60 (33.17%) and age group of over 60 (51.16%) is much higher than that in the age group of under 20 (5.00%). Considering the time of reporting, the mortality rates of cases which were reported in the first (40.57%) and fourth (42.51%) quarters of each year are significantly higher than the mortality of cases which were reported in the second (36.02%) and third (27.27%) quarters (χ²=75.18, p < 0.001). The geographic specific mortality rates vary too. The mortality rates of H7N9 cases reported from the Northeast China (66.67%) and Westeast China (56.52%) are significantly higher than that of H7N9 cases reported from the remained area of mainland China. The mortality rate of H7N9 cases reported from the Central China is the lowest (34.38%). The mortality rates of H7N9 cases reported from rural (37.76%) and urban (38.96%) areas are similar. The mortality rate of H7N9 cases infected with the highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H7N9) virus (48.15%) is higher than the rate of H7N9 cases infected with the low pathogenic avian influenza A(H7N9) virus (37.57%), but the difference is not statistically significant. Preliminary analyses showed that age and some clinical complications such as respiratory failure, heart failure, and septic shock could be potential risk factors associated with the death of H7N9 cases. Conclusions: The mortality rates of H7N9 cases varied by age, sex, time of reporting and geographical location in mainland China. Further in-depth analyses and field investigations of the factors associated with the severity of H7N9 cases need to be considered.

Keywords: H7N9 virus, Avian Influenza, mortality, China

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41 Prevalent Features of Human Infections with Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A(H7N9) Virus, China, 2017

Authors: Lei Zhou, Dan Li, Ruiqi Ren, Chao Li, Yali Wang, Daxin Ni, Zijian Feng, Timothy M. Uyeki, Qun Li

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Since the first human infections with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus were identified in early 2013, 1533 cases of laboratory-confirmed A(H7N9) virus infections were reported and confirmed as of September 13, 2017. The fifth epidemic was defined as starting from September 1, 2016, and the number of A(H7N9) cases has surged since the end of December in 2016. On February 18, 2017, the A(H7N9) cases who were infected with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus was reported from Southern China. The HPAI A(H7N9) cases were identified and then an investigation and analyses were conducted to assess whether disease severity in humans has changed with HPAI A(H7N9) compared with low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) A(H7N9) virus infection. Methods: All confirmed cases with A(H7N9) virus infections reported throughout mainland China from September 1, 2016, to September 13, 2017, were included. Cases' information was extracted from field investigation reports and the notifiable infectious surveillance system to describe the demographic, clinical, and epidemiologic characteristics. Descriptive statistics were used to compare HPAI A(H7N9) cases with all LPAI A(H7N9) cases reported during the fifth epidemic. Results: A total of 27 cases of HPAI A(H7N9) virus were identified infection from five provinces, including Guangxi (44%), Guangdong (33%), Hunan (15%), Hebei (4%) and Shangxi (4%). The median age of cases of HPAI A(H7N9) virus infection was 60 years (range, 15 to 80) and most of them were male (59%) and lived in rural areas (78%). All 27 cases had live poultry related exposures within 10 days before their illness onset. In comparison with LPAI A(H7N9) case-patients, HPAI A(H7N9) case-patients were significantly more likely to live in rural areas (78% vs. 51%; p = 0.006), have exposure to the sick or dead poultry (56% vs. 19%; p = 0.000), and be hospitalized earlier (median 3 vs. 4 days; p = 0.007). No significant differences were observed in median age, sex, prevalence of underlying chronic medical conditions, median time from illness onset to first medical service seeking, starting antiviral treatment, and diagnosis. Although the median time from illness onset to death (9 vs. 13 days) was shorter and the overall case-fatality proportion (48% vs. 38%) was higher for HPAI A(H7N9) case-patients than for LPAI A(H7N9) case-patients, these differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that HPAI A(H7N9) virus infection was associated with exposure to sick and dead poultry in rural areas when visited live poultry market or in the backyard. In the fifth epidemic in mainland China, HPAI A (H7N9) case-patients were hospitalized earlier than LPAI A(H7N9) case-patients. Although the difference was not statistically significant, the mortality of HPAI A (H7N9) case-patients was obviously higher than that of LPAI A(H7N9) case-patients, indicating a potential severity change of HPAI A(H7N9) virus infection.

Keywords: Avian influenza A (H7N9) virus, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), case-patients, poultry

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40 Prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in Free-Living Wild Birds by Using Carbol Fuchsin Staining Methods in Konya, Turkey

Authors: Nermin Isik

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Cryptosporidiosis is one of the most common parasitic infection in domesticated, caged, wild birds. Cryptosporidium sp. has been reported in over 30 avian species worldwide. Cryptosporidium meleagridis, Cryptosporidium baileyi and Cryptosporidium galli are recognised avian species of Cryptosporidium. This study was carried out to determine the prevalance of Cryptosporidium sp. in wild birds in Konya province, Turkey. Faecal samples were collected from 65 wild birds including 52 Podicipedidae (Podiceps cristatus), 11 Rallidae (Fulicia Atra), 2 Anitadia (Aytha ferina). Faecal samples were stained with Modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining technigue, they were examined under light microscope for the presence of Cryptosporidium sp. oocyts. Among the 65 faecal samples, 11 (16.9%) were found to be infected with Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts. The results of this study indicate that wild birds may play an important role in the epidemiology of Cryptosporidium. In conclusion, Cryptosporidiosis has suggested zoonotic potential and thus warrant further attention. In addition, biological and genetic studies are required to provide more information on Cryptosporidiosis.

Keywords: Cryptosporidium sp, wild birds, Konya, Turkey

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39 Identification of Avian Fauna of Bara Gali Summer Campus, University of Peshawar

Authors: Saif Ullah

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Survey of avian fauna of Bara Gali Summer Campus, University of Peshawar in the Hazara District was conducted from April to October, 2013. A total of 21 species belonging to 5 orders and 15 families were recorded. Out of these 6 were resident, 12 were summer visitor and 3 were rare. Order Passeriformes was represented by 16 species which are Certhia himalayana, Megalaima virens, Phylloscopus trochiloides, Garrulax lineatus, Passer rutilans, Corvus macrorhynchos, Hypsipetes leucocephalus, Acridotheres tristis, Delichon dasypus cashmeriensis, Hirundo rustica, Muscicapa thalassina, Saxicola ferrea, Myiophoneus caeruleus, Parus melonolophus, Parus rufonuchalis, Parus monticolus, belonging to 11 families. Two species Dendrocopos himalayansis and Picus squamatus belongs to only 1 family of order Piciformes. Only one species from the remaining 3 orders were recorded i.e. Accipiter virgatus belongs to order Accipitriformes, Upupa epops from order Coraciformes, while order Psittaciformes represented by Psittacula himalayana .The distribution and abundance varied with season and maximum number of species was found during the monsoon season when most of the birds migrate for breeding. Some habits and behaviors like nesting, feeding, breeding and vocalizations were also studied which are very unique from other birds. Among bird species adapted to diverse habitat in the field, Himalayan Jungle Crow, Common Mynas, Bulbuls, Barn Swallows, barbets were prominent. Interesting feature of the avian fauna is familiarity with flora was greatly observed. Human related impacts such as grazing by livestock, removal of shrub cover, disturbance of habitat etc. were also studied.

Keywords: birds, summer visitor, Phylloscopus trochiloides, Parus monticolus

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38 Avian and Rodent Pest Infestations of Lowland Rice (Oryza sativa L.) and Evaluation of Attributable Losses in Savanna Transition Environment

Authors: Okwara O. S., Osunsina I. O. O., Pitan O. R., Afolabi C. G.

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Rice (Oryza sativa L.) belongs to the family poaceae and has become the most popular food. Globally, this crop is been faced with the menace of vertebrate pests, of which birds and rodents are the most implicated. The study avian and rodents’ infestations and the evaluation of attributable losses was carried out in 2020 and 2021 with the objectives of identifying the types of bird and rodent species associated with lowland rice and to determine the infestation levels, damage intensity, and the crop loss induced by these pests. The experiment was laid out in a split plot arrangement fitted into a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD), with the main plots being protected and unprotected groups and the sub-plots being four rice varieties, Ofada, WITA-4, NERICA L-34, and Arica-3. Data collection was done over a 16-week period, and the data obtained were transformed using square root transformation model before Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was done at 5% probability level. The results showed the infestation levels of both birds and rodents across all the treatment means of thevarieties as not significantly different (p > 0.05) in both seasons. The damage intensity by these pests in both years were also not significantly different (p > 0.05) among the means of the varieties, which explains the diverse feeding nature of birds and rodents when it comes to infestations. The infestation level under the protected group was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than the infestation level recorded under the unprotected group.Consequently, an estimated crop loss of 91.94 % and 90.75 % were recorded in 2020 and 2021, respectively, andthe identified pest birds were Ploceus melanocephalus, Ploceus cuculatus, and Spermestes cucullatus. Conclusively, vertebrates pest cause damage to lowland rice which could result to a high percentage crop loss if left uncontrolled.

Keywords: pests, infestations, evaluation, losses, rodents, avian

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37 Broad Protection against Avian Influenza Virus by Using a Modified Vaccinia Ankara Virus Expressing a Mosaic Hemagglutinin

Authors: Attapon Kamlangdee, Brock Kingstad-Bakke, Tavis K. Anderson, Tony L. Goldberg, Jorge E. Osorio

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A critical failure in our preparedness for an influenza pandemic is the lack of a universal vaccine. Influenza virus strains diverge by 1 to 2% per year, and commercially available vaccines often do not elicit protection from one year to the next, necessitating frequent formulation changes. This represents a major challenge to the development of a cross-protective vaccine that can protect against circulating viral antigenic diversity. We have constructed a recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) that expresses an H5N1 mosaic hemagglutinin (H5M) (MVA-H5M). This mosaic was generated in silico using 2,145 field-sourced H5N1 isolates. A single dose of MVA-H5M provided 100% protection in mice against clade 0, 1, and 2 avian influenza viruses and also protected against seasonal H1N1 virus (A/Puerto Rico/8/34). It also provided short-term (10 days) and long-term (6 months) protection post vaccination. Both neutralizing antibodies and antigen-specific CD4+and CD8+ T cells were still detected at 5 months post vaccination, suggesting that MVA-H5M provides long-lasting immunity.

Keywords: modified vaccinia Ankara, MVA, H5N1, hemagglutinin, influenza vaccine

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36 Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Thermophilic Campylobacter Strains Isolated from Humans and Poultry in Batna

Authors: Baali Mohamed

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Campylobacter are among the most common human bacterial gastroenteritis cases in many countries, and poultry meat is considered as a major source of human campylobacteriosis. This study is conducted, on one hand, to determine the prevalence of infection with thermotolerant Campylobacter both in broiler flocks and men, and to study their sensitivity to antibiotics, and secondly for comparing the two methods of isolation of Campylobacter thermotolerant: technique of passive filtration and selective isolation technique using the Karmali medium. This study examined 310 samples, 260 of avian origin and 50 of human origin, during the period from June 2011 to March 2012. Detecting Campylobacter thermotolerant is conducted using the standard ISO 10272. The results show that 66% (95% CI : 60-72%) of avian samples are contaminated with C. TT (172/260). The study of antibiotic susceptibility revealed that all strains (100%) are resistant to ampicillin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, 90% to erythromycin, 66.3% to tetracycline, 53.3% to chloramphenicol and 46.7% to enrofloxacin. However, no resistance is noted to gentamycin. In human samples, three strains of C. thermotolerant are detected, with a contamination rate of 6%. The results of the statistical analysis using the chi-square test (χ2) showed that Campylobacter infection, on the one hand, had seasonal variation with a summer peak (p < 0.05) and, on the other hand, are not influenced by the size of the herd.

Keywords: thermotolerant campylobacter, broiler, man, Karmali

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35 Temporal Variation of Shorebirds Population in Two Different Mudflats Areas

Authors: N. Norazlimi, R. Ramli

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A study was conducted to determine the diversity and abundance of shorebird species habituating the mudflat area of Jeram Beach and Remis Beach, Selangor, Peninsular Malaysia. Direct observation technique (using binoculars and video camera) was applied to record the presence of bird species in the sampling sites from August 2013 until July 2014. A total of 32 species of shorebird were recorded during both migratory and non-migratory seasons. Of these, eleven species (47.8%) are migrants, six species (26.1%) have both migrant and resident populations, four species (17.4%) are vagrants and two species (8.7%) are residents. The compositions of the birds differed significantly in all months (χ2=84.35, p<0.001). There is a significant difference in avian abundance between migratory and non-migratory seasons (Mann-Whitney, t=2.39, p=0.036). The avian abundance were differed significantly in Jeram and Remis Beaches during migratory periods (t=4.39, p=0.001) but not during non-migratory periods (t=0.78, p=0.456). Shorebird diversity was also affected by tidal cycle. There is a significance difference between high tide and low tide (Mann-Whitney, t=78.0, p<0.005). Frequency of disturbance also affected the shorebird distribution (Mann-Whitney, t=57.0, p= 0.0134). Therefore, this study concluded that tides and disturbances are two factors that affecting temporal distribution of shorebird in mudflats area.

Keywords: biodiversity, distribution, migratory birds, direct observation

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34 Dual-functional Peptide With Defective Interfering Genes Protecting Mice From Avian and Seasonal Influenza Virus Infection

Authors: Hanjun Zhao

Abstract:

Limited efficacy of current antivirals and antiviral-resistant mutations impair anti-influenza treatment. Here, we evaluated the in vitro and in vivo antiviral effect of three defective interfering genes (DIG-3) of influenza virus. Virus replication was significantly reduced in 293T and A549 cells transfected with DIG-3. Mice transfected with DIG-3 encoded by jetPEI-vector, as prophylaxis and therapeutics against A(H7N7) virus respectively, had significantly better survivals (80% and 50%) than control mice (0%). We further developed a dual-functional peptide TAT-P1, which delivers DIG-3 with high transfection efficiency and concomitantly exerts antiviral activity by preventing endosomal acidification. TAT-P1/DIG-3 was more effective than jetPEI/DIG-3 in treating A(H7N7) or A(H1N1)pdm09-infected mice and showed potent prophylactic protection on A(H7N7) or A(H1N1)pdm09-infected mice. The addition of P1 peptide, preventing endosomal acidification, could enhance the protection of TAT-P1/DIG-3 on A(H1N1)pdm09-infected mice. Dual-functional TAT-P1 with DIG-3 can effectively protect or treat mice infected by avian and seasonal influenza virus infection.

Keywords: antiviral peptide, dual-functional peptide, defective interfering genes, influenza virus

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33 Techniques to Characterize Subpopulations among Hearing Impaired Patients and Its Impact for Hearing Aid Fitting

Authors: Vijaya K. Narne, Gerard Loquet, Tobias Piechowiak, Dorte Hammershoi, Jesper H. Schmidt

Abstract:

BEAR, which stands for better hearing rehabilitation is a large-scale project in Denmark designed and executed by three national universities, three hospitals, and the hearing aid industry with the aim to improve hearing aid fitting. A total of 1963 hearing impaired people were included and were segmented into subgroups based on hearing-loss, demographics, audiological and questionnaires data (i.e., the speech, spatial and qualities of hearing scale [SSQ-12] and the International Outcome Inventory for Hearing-Aids [IOI-HA]). With the aim to provide a better hearing-aid fit to individual patients, we applied modern machine learning techniques with traditional audiograms rule-based systems. Results show that age, speech discrimination scores, and audiogram configurations were evolved as important parameters in characterizing sub-population from the data-set. The attempt to characterize sub-population reveal a clearer picture about the individual hearing difficulties encountered and the benefits derived from more individualized hearing aids.

Keywords: hearing loss, audiological data, machine learning, hearing aids

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32 Avifauna of Bara Gali Summer Campus, University of Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

Authors: Saif Ullah, Zaigham Hasan, Muhammad Ali, Qaisar Jamal, Kiran Salahuddin, Muhammad Awais

Abstract:

Survey of avian fauna of Bara Gali Summer Campus, University of Peshawar situated in Abbottabad was conducted from April to October, 2013. A total of 21 species belonging to 5 orders and 15 families were recorded. Out of these, 6 were resident, 12 summer visitor and 3 rare. Order Passeriformes was represented by 16 species which are Certhia himalayana, Megalaima virens, Phylloscopus trochiloides, Garrulax lineatus, Passer rutilans, Corvus macrorhynchos, Hypsipetes leucocephalus, Acridotheres tristis, Delichon dasypus cashmeriensis, Hirundo rustica, Muscicapa thalassina, Saxicola ferrea, Myiophoneus caeruleus, Parus melonolophus, Parus rufonuchalis, Parus monticolus, belonging to 11 families. Two species Dendrocopos himalayansis and Picus squamatus belong to only one family Picidae of order Piciformes. Among rest of the three orders each is represented by only a single species; Accipitriformes by Accipiter virgatus, Coraciformes by Upupa epops while order Psittaciformes has been represented by Psittacula himalayana. The distribution and abundance varied with season and maximum number of species were found during the monsoon season when most of the birds migrate for breeding. Some habits and behaviors like nesting, feeding, breeding and vocalizations were also studied which are very unique from other birds found at lower elevations. Among bird species adapted to diverse habitat in the field, Himalayan Jungle Crow, Common Mynas, Bulbuls, Barn Swallows, barbets were prominent. Interesting feature of the avian fauna is its familiarity with flora, was also observed during the present studies that some birds are very quick and active in their movement on a tree surface i.e Certhia himalayana.

Keywords: avifauna diversity, distribution, Bara Gali, Abbottabad

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31 Heterogeneity of Genes Encoding the Structural Proteins of Avian Infectious Bronchitis Virus

Authors: Shahid Hussain Abro, Siamak Zohari, Lena H. M. Renström, Désirée S. Jansson, Faruk Otman, Karin Ullman, Claudia Baule

Abstract:

Infectious bronchitis is an acute, highly contagious respiratory, nephropathogenic and reproductive disease of poultry that is caused by infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). The present study used a large data set of structural gene sequences, including newly generated ones and sequences available in the GenBank database to further analyze the diversity and to identify selective pressures and recombination spots. There were some deletions or insertions in the analyzed regions in isolates of the Italy-02 and D274 genotypes. Whereas, there were no insertions or deletions observed in the isolates of the Massachusetts and 4/91 genotype. The hypervariable nucleotide sequence regions spanned positions 152–239, 554–582, 686–737 and 802–912 in the S1 sub-unit of the all analyzed genotypes. The nucleotide sequence data of the E gene showed that this gene was comparatively unstable and subjected to a high frequency of mutations. The M gene showed substitutions consistently distributed except for a region between nucleotide positions 250–680 that remained conserved. The lowest variation in the nucleotide sequences of ORF5a was observed in the isolates of the D274 genotype. While, ORF5b and N gene sequences showed highly conserved regions and were less subjected to variation. Genes ORF3a, ORF3b, M, ORF5a, ORF5b and N presented negative selective pressure among the analyzed isolates. However, some regions of the ORFs showed favorable selective pressure(s). The S1 and E proteins were subjected to a high rate of mutational substitutions and non-synonymous amino acids. Strong signals of recombination breakpoints and ending break point were observed in the S and N genes. Overall, the results of this study revealed that very likely the strong selective pressures in E, M and the high frequency of substitutions in the S gene can probably be considered the main determinants in the evolution of IBV.

Keywords: IBV, avian infectious bronchitis, structural genes, genotypes, genetic diversity

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30 Identification of Mx Gene Polymorphism in Indragiri Hulu duck by PCR-RFLP

Authors: Restu Misrianti

Abstract:

The amino acid variation of Asn (allele A) at position 631 in Mx gene was specific to positive antiviral to avian viral desease. This research was aimed at identifying polymorphism of Mx gene in duck using molecular technique. Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique was used to select the genotype of AA, AG and GG. There were thirteen duck from Indragiri Hulu regency (Riau Province) used in this experiment. DNA amplification results showed that the Mx gene in duck is found in a 73 bp fragment. Mx gene in duck did not show any polymorphism. The frequency of the resistant allele (AA) was 0%, while the frequency of the susceptible allele (GG) was 100%.

Keywords: duck, Mx gene, PCR, RFLP

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29 Diagnosis of Avian Pathology in the East of Algeria

Authors: Khenenou Tarek, Benzaoui Hassina, Melizi Mohamed

Abstract:

The diagnosis requires a background of current knowledge in the field and also complementary means in which the laboratory occupies the central place for a better investigation. A correct diagnosis allows to establish the most appropriate treatment as soon as possible and avoids both the economic losses associated with mortality and growth retardation often observed in poultry furthermore it may reduce the high cost of treatment. Epedemiologic survey, hematologic and histopathologic study’s are three aspects of diagnosis heavily used in both human and veterinary pathology and the advanced researches in human medicine would be exploited to be applied in veterinary medicine with given modification .Whereas, the diagnostic methods in the east of Algeria are limited to the clinical signs and necropsy finding. Therefore, the diagnosis is based simply on the success or the failure of the therapeutic methods (therapeutic diagnosis).

Keywords: chicken, diagnosis, hematology, histopathology

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28 Rapid Detection System of Airborne Pathogens

Authors: Shigenori Togashi, Kei Takenaka

Abstract:

We developed new processes which can collect and detect rapidly airborne pathogens such as the avian flu virus for the pandemic prevention. The fluorescence antibody technique is known as one of high-sensitive detection methods for viruses, but this needs up to a few hours to bind sufficient fluorescence dyes to viruses for detection. In this paper, we developed a mist-labeling can detect substitution viruses in a short time to improve the binding rate of fluorescent dyes and substitution viruses by the micro reaction process. Moreover, we developed the rapid detection system with the above 'mist labeling'. The detection system set with a sampling bag collecting patient’s breath and a cartridge can detect automatically pathogens within 10 minutes.

Keywords: viruses, sampler, mist, detection, fluorescent dyes, microreaction

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27 Detection and Identification of Chlamydophila psittaci in Asymptomatic and Symptomatic Parrots in Isfahan

Authors: Mehdi Moradi Sarmeidani, Peyman Keyhani, Hasan Momtaz

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Chlamydophila psittaci is a avian pathogen that may cause respiratory disorders in humans. Conjunctival and cloacal swabs from 54 captive psittacine birds presented at veterinary clinics were collected to determine the prevalence of C. psittaci in domestic birds in Isfahan. Samples were collected during 2014 from a total of 10 different species of parrots, with African gray(33), Cockatiel lutino(3), Cockatiel gray(2), Cockatiel cinnamon(1), Pearl cockatiel(6), Timneh African grey(1), Ringneck parakeet(2), Melopsittacus undulatus(1), Alexander parakeet(2), Green Parakeet(3) being the most representative species sampled. C. psittaci was detected in 27 (50%) birds using molecular detection (PCR) method. The detection of this bacterium in captive psittacine birds shows that there is a potential risk for human whom has a direct contact and there is a possibility of infecting other birds.

Keywords: chlamydophila psittaci, psittacine birds, PCR, Isfahan

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26 Lipopolysaccharide Induced Avian Innate Immune Expression in Heterophils

Authors: Rohita Gupta, G. S. Brah, R. Verma, C. S. Mukhopadhayay

Abstract:

Although chicken strains show differences in susceptibility to a number of diseases, the underlying immunological basis is yet to be elucidated. In the present study, heterophils were subjected to LPS stimulation and total RNA extraction, further differential gene expression was studied in broiler, layer and indigenous Aseel strain by Real Time RT-PCR at different time periods before and after induction. The expression of the 14 AvBDs and chTLR 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 15 and 21 was detectable in heterophils. The expression level of most of the AvBDs significantly increased (P<0.05) 3 hours post in vitro lipopolysaccharide challenge. Higher expression level and stronger activation of most AvBDs, NFkB-1 and IRF-3 in heterophils was observed, with the stimulation of LPS in layer compared to broiler, and in Aseel compared to both layer and broiler. This investigation will allow more refined interpretation of immuno-genetic basis of the variable disease resistance/susceptibility in divergent stock of chicken including indigenous breed. Moreover this study will be helpful in formulation of strategy for isolation of antimicrobial peptides from heterophils.

Keywords: differential expression, heterophils, cytokines, defensin, TLR

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25 Effect of Intraperitoneal Administration of Ghrelin on Serum Glucose and Insulin Levels in Turkey

Authors: Habib Aghdam Shahryar

Abstract:

The aim of the present study was investigation on the effect of intraperipheral (IP) injection of ghrelin on serum insulin and glucose levels in native turkey. Seventy-two 28 day (d)-old native turkey were assigned into three treatments and four replicate for 40 days experimental rearing period: group 1, intact without any injection, group 2, injected 50 ng ghrelin/kg body weight (BW), and group 3, injected 100 ng ghrelin/kg BW. Intraperitoneal injection of rat ghrelin was conducted on d 28 and before the onset of the experimental rearing period. Blood samples were taken 12 hr after injection and 40 days after injection. The result showed glucose concentrations have been affected by administered ghrelin and significant between groups (P<0.01). Injection of ghrelin at G 100 increased glucose level of serum in 12 hr after injection and 40 days after injection (276.6 and 260.0 mg/dl, respectively). Also, by increasing the dose of injected ghrelin, insulin levels than the control group showed an increase (P < 0.001). This study suggests roles of ghrelin in serum biochemical regulation may show a different effect of ghrelin on blood parameters in avian species.

Keywords: ghrelin injection, insulin, glucose, turkey

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24 Correlation between Resistance to Non-Specific Inhibitor and Mammalian Pathogenicity of an Egg Adapted H9N2 Virus

Authors: Chung-Young Lee, Se-Hee Ahn, Jun-Gu Choi, Youn-Jeong Lee, Hyuk-Joon Kwon, Jae-Hong Kim

Abstract:

A/chicken/Korea/01310/2001 (H9N2) (01310) was passaged through embryonated chicken eggs (ECEs) by 20 times (01310-E20), and it has been used for an inactivated oil emulsion vaccine in Korea. After sequential passages, 01310-E20 showed higher pathogenicity in ECEs and acquired multiple mutations including a potential N-glycosylation at position 133 (H3 numbering) in HA and 18aa-deletion in NA stalk. To evaluate the effect of these mutations on the mammalian pathogenicity and resistance to non-specific inhibitors, we generated four PR8-derived recombinant viruses with different combinations of HA and NA from 01310-E2 and 01310-E20 (rH2N2, rH2N20, rH20N2, and rH20N20). According to our results, recombinant viruses containing 01310 E20 HA showed higher growth property in MDCK cells and higher virulence on mice than those containing 01310 E2 HA regardless of NA. The hemagglutination activity of rH20N20 was less inhibited by egg white and mouse lung extract than that of other recombinant viruses. Thus, the increased pathogenicity of 01310-E20 may be related to both higher replication efficiency and resistance to non-specific inhibitors in mice.

Keywords: avian influenza virus, egg adaptation, H9N2, N-glycosylation, stalk deletion of neuraminidase

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23 Vaccine Development for Newcastle Disease Virus in Poultry

Authors: Muhammad Asif Rasheed

Abstract:

Newcastle disease virus (NDV), an avian orthoavulavirus, is a causative agent of Newcastle disease named (NDV) and can cause even the epidemics when the disease is not treated. Previously several vaccines based on attenuated and inactivated viruses have been reported, which are rendered useless with the passage of time due to versatile changes in viral genome. Therefore, we aimed to develop an effective multi-epitope vaccine against the haemagglutinin neuraminidase (HN) protein of 26 NDV strains from Pakistan through a modern immunoinformatic approaches. As a result, a vaccine chimaera was constructed by combining T-cell and B-cell epitopes with the appropriate linkers and adjuvant. The designed vaccine was highly immunogenic, non-allergen, and antigenic; therefore, the potential 3D-structureof multi epitope vaccine was constructed, refined, and validated. A molecular docking study of a multiepitope vaccine candidate with the chicken Toll-like receptor-4 indicated successful binding. An In silico immunological simulation was used to evaluate the candidate vaccine's ability to elicit an effective immune response. According to the computational studies, the proposed multiepitope vaccine is physically stable and may induce immune responses, whichsuggested it a strong candidate against 26 Newcastle disease virus strains from Pakistan. A wet lab study is under process to confirm the results.

Keywords: epitopes, newcastle disease virus, paramyxovirus virus, vaccine

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