Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Search results for: Summera Yasmeen

13 Length-Weight and Length-Length Relationships of Oreochromis aureus in Relation to Body Size from Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Naeem, Amina Zubari, Abdus Salam, Summera Yasmeen, Syed Ali Ayub Bukhari, Abir Ishtiaq

Abstract:

In the present study, eighty three wild Oreochromis aureus of different body size ranging 5.3-14.6 cm in total length were collected from the River Chenab, District Muzzafer Garh, Pakistan to investigate the parameters of length –weight, length-length relationships and condition factor in relation to size. Each fish was measured and weighed on arrival at laboratory. Log transformed regressions were used to test the allometric growth. Length-weight relationship was found highly significant (r = 0.964; P < 0.01). The values of exponent “ b” in Length–weight regression (W=aLb), deviated from 3, showing isometric growth (b = 2.75). Results for LLRs indicated that these are highly correlated (P< 0.001). Condition factor (K) found constant with increasing body weight, however, showed negative influence with increasing total length.

Keywords: Oreochromis aureus, weight-length relationship, condition factor, predictive equations

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12 Simultaneous Determination of Some Phenolic Pesticides in Environmental and Biological Samples

Authors: Yasmeen F. Pervez, Etesh K. Janghel, Santosh Kumar Sar

Abstract:

Simple and sensitive analytical thermal gradient-thin layer chromatography technique has been developed for the simultaneous determination of phenolic pesticides like carbaryl, propoxur and carbofuran. It is based on the differential migration of colored derivatives formed by the reaction of hydrolysed phenolic compound with diazotized 3, 4 dimethyl aniline on a silica gel plate. Quantitative evaluation of hydrolyzed phenolic compound is made by visual comparison of intensities of color by spectrophotometry. The color system obeys Beer’s law in the following working range in ppm : carbaryl, 0.5-6.6; propoxur, 0.8-7.2; and carbofuran, 0.2-3.3 respectively. The Molar absorptivity, Sandell’s sensitivity, Correlation coefficient have been determined. The effects of analytical parameters on migration and analysis have been evaluated. The methods are highly reproducible and have been successfully applied to determination of phenolic pesticides in environmental and biological samples.

Keywords: phenolic pesticides (carbaryl, propoxur and carbofuran), 3.4 dimethyl aniline, environmental, biological samples

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11 Experimental Testing of a Synthetic Mulch to Reduce Runoff and Evaporative Water Losses

Authors: Yasmeen Saleem, Pedro Berliner, Nurit Agam

Abstract:

The most severe limitation for plant production in arid areas is water. Rainfall events are rare but can have pulses of high intensity. As a result, crusts are formed, which decreases infiltration into the soil, and results additionally in erosive losses of soil. Direct evaporation of water from the wetted soil can account for large fractions of the water stored in the soil. Different kinds of mulches have been used to decrease the loss of water in arid and semi-arid region. This study aims to evaluate the effect of polystyrene styrofoam pellets mulch on soil infiltration, runoff, and evaporation as a more efficient and economically viable mulch alternative. Polystyrene styrofoam pellets of two sizes (0.5 and 1 cm diameter) will be placed on top of the soil in two mulch layer depths (1 and 2 cm), in addition to the non-mulched treatment. The rainfall simulator will be used as an artificial source of rain. The preliminary results in the prototype experiment indicate that polystyrene styrofoam pellets decreased runoff, increased soil-water infiltration. We are still testing the effect of these pellets on decreasing the soil-water evaporation.

Keywords: synthetic mulch, runoff, evaporation, infiltration

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10 Elemental Graph Data Model: A Semantic and Topological Representation of Building Elements

Authors: Yasmeen A. S. Essawy, Khaled Nassar

Abstract:

With the rapid increase of complexity in the building industry, professionals in the A/E/C industry were forced to adopt Building Information Modeling (BIM) in order to enhance the communication between the different project stakeholders throughout the project life cycle and create a semantic object-oriented building model that can support geometric-topological analysis of building elements during design and construction. This paper presents a model that extracts topological relationships and geometrical properties of building elements from an existing fully designed BIM, and maps this information into a directed acyclic Elemental Graph Data Model (EGDM). The model incorporates BIM-based search algorithms for automatic deduction of geometrical data and topological relationships for each building element type. Using graph search algorithms, such as Depth First Search (DFS) and topological sortings, all possible construction sequences can be generated and compared against production and construction rules to generate an optimized construction sequence and its associated schedule. The model is implemented in a C# platform.

Keywords: building information modeling (BIM), elemental graph data model (EGDM), geometric and topological data models, graph theory

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9 Native Language Identification with Cross-Corpus Evaluation Using Social Media Data: 'Reddit'

Authors: Yasmeen Bassas, Sandra Kuebler, Allen Riddell

Abstract:

Native Language Identification is one of the growing subfields in Natural Language Processing (NLP). The task of Native Language Identification (NLI) is mainly concerned with predicting the native language of an author’s writing in a second language. In this paper, we investigate the performance of two types of features; content-based features vs. content independent features when they are evaluated on a different corpus (using social media data “Reddit”). In this NLI task, the predefined models are trained on one corpus (TOEFL) and then the trained models are evaluated on a different data using an external corpus (Reddit). Several features that have been proven useful for NLI tasks are used in this work (such as word n-grams, character n-grams, POS n-grams and function words). Three classifiers are used in this task; the baseline, linear SVM, and Logistic Regression. Two experiments are conducted in this paper. The first one is to explore the performance of the content-based features versus the content independent ones within one domain using TOEFL corpus. The second experiment is to examine how the trained models perform in a different data using an external corpus called Reddit. The aim is to find out which features (content-based vs content independent features) are more accurate when tested on a different corpus. Results show that content-based features are more accurate and robust than content independent ones when tested within corpus and across corpus.

Keywords: Native Language Identification, Social Media Data: Reddit, NLP, Content-based features, Content independent features

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8 Unstructured-Data Content Search Based on Optimized EEG Signal Processing and Multi-Objective Feature Extraction

Authors: Qais M. Yousef, Yasmeen A. Alshaer

Abstract:

Over the last few years, the amount of data available on the globe has been increased rapidly. This came up with the emergence of recent concepts, such as the big data and the Internet of Things, which have furnished a suitable solution for the availability of data all over the world. However, managing this massive amount of data remains a challenge due to their large verity of types and distribution. Therefore, locating the required file particularly from the first trial turned to be a not easy task, due to the large similarities of names for different files distributed on the web. Consequently, the accuracy and speed of search have been negatively affected. This work presents a method using Electroencephalography signals to locate the files based on their contents. Giving the concept of natural mind waves processing, this work analyses the mind wave signals of different people, analyzing them and extracting their most appropriate features using multi-objective metaheuristic algorithm, and then classifying them using artificial neural network to distinguish among files with similar names. The aim of this work is to provide the ability to find the files based on their contents using human thoughts only. Implementing this approach and testing it on real people proved its ability to find the desired files accurately within noticeably shorter time and retrieve them as a first choice for the user.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, data contents search, human active memory, mind wave, multi-objective optimization

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7 Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles, Their Toxicity and Biomedical Applications

Authors: Kiran Shehzadi, Yasmeen Akhtar, Mujahid Ameen, Tabinda Ijaz, Shoukat Siddique

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Nanoparticles, due to their different sizes and morphologies, are employed in various fields such as the medical field, cosmetics, pharmaceutical, textile industry as well as in paints, adhesives, and electronics. Metal nanoparticles exhibit excellent antimicrobial activity, dye degradation and can be used as anti-cancerous drug loading agents. In this study, sZilver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) were synthesized employing doxycycline (antibiotic) as a reducing and capping agent (biological/green synthesis). Produced Ag-NPS were characterized using UV/VIS spectrophotometry, XRD, SEM, and FTIR. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of silver nanoparticles was observed at 411nm with 90nm size with homogenized spherical shape. These particles revealed good inhibition zones for Fungi such as Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis. In this study, toxic properties of Ag-NPs were monitored by allowing them to penetrate in the cell, causing an abrupt increase in oxidative stress, which resulted ultimately in cell death. Histopathological analysis of mice organs was performed by administering definite concentrations of silver nanoparticles orally to mice for 14 days. Toxic properties were determined, and it was revealed that the toxicity of silver nanoparticles mainly depends on the size. Silver nanoparticles of this work presented mild toxicity for different organs (liver, kidney, spleen, heart, and stomach) of mice.

Keywords: metal nanoparticles, green/biological methods, toxicity, Candida albicans, Candida tropicalis

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6 Incidence, Pattern and Risk Factors of Congenial Heart Diseases in Neonates in a Tertiary Care Hospital, Egyptian Study

Authors: Gehan Hussein, Hams Ahmad, Baher Matta, Yasmeen Mansi, Mohamad Fawzi

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Background: Congenital heart disease (CHD) is a common problem worldwide with variable incidence in different countries. The exact etiology is unknown, suggested to be multifactorial. We aimed to study the incidence of various CHD in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in a tertiary care hospital in Egypt and the possible associations with variable risk factors. Methods: Prospective study was conducted over a period of one year (2013 /2014) at NICU KasrAlAini School of Medicine, Cairo University. Questionnaire about possible maternal and/or paternal risk factors for CHD, clinical examination, bedside echocardiography were done. Cases were classified into groups: group 1 without CHD and group 2 with CHD. Results: from 723 neonates admitted to NICU, 180 cases were proved to have CHD, 58 % of them were males. patent ductus arteriosus(PDA) was the most common CHD (70%), followed by an atrial septal defect (ASD8%), while Fallot tetralogy and single ventricle were the least common (0.45 %) for each. CHD was found in 30 % of consanguineous parents Maternal age ≥ 35 years at the time of conception was associated with increased incidence of PDA (p= 0.45 %). Maternal diabetes and insulin intake were significantly associated with cases of CHD (p=0.02 &0.001 respectively), maternal hypertension and hypothyroidism were both associated with VSD, but the difference did not reach statistical significance (P=0.36 &0.44respectively). Maternal passive smoking was significantly associated with PDA (p=0.03). Conclusion: The most frequent CHD in the studied population was PDA, followed by ASD. Maternal conditions as diabetes was associated with VSD occurrence.

Keywords: NICU, risk factors, congenital heart disease, echocardiography

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5 Challenges in Providing Protection to the Conflict-Affected Refugee Children in Pakistan: A Critical Analysis of the 1951 Refugee Convention

Authors: Faiz Bakhsh, Tahira Yasmeen

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The Afghan refugee children in Pakistan are considered as the most vulnerable persons in danger of being abused and treated badly as compared to the minimum criteria of the protection of refugee children under 1951 refugee convention. This paper explores the impact of the 1951 refugee convention on the protection of refugee children, affected by the armed conflict in Afghanistan, residing in refugee camps in Pakistan. Despite, protection available under Refugee Convention, there exist millions of refugees in the world, including a huge portion of women and children, that remain unprotected, and their protection remains a challenging task for the world community. This study investigates the status and number of refugees in Pakistan, especially children; protection and assistance of refugees under Refugee Convention; protection of the rights of refugee children in Pakistan; and implementation of the rules of Refugee Convention relating refugee children in Pakistan and measures for the protection of refugee children in Pakistan. This socio-legal study utilizes a qualitative research approach and applies mixed methods of data collection. The primary data is collected through the interpretation of the legal framework available for the protection of refugees as well as domestic laws of Pakistan. The secondary data is collected through previous studies available on the same topic. The result of this study indicates that lack of proper implementation of the rules, of the Refugee Convention, relating protection of refugee children cause sufferings to refugee children including the provision of basic health, nutrition, family life, education and protection from child abuse. Pakistan needs a comprehensive domestic legal framework for the protection of refugees, especially refugee children. Moreover, the government of Pakistan with the help of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) must prioritize the protection of Afghan refugee children as per standard criteria provided by the refugee convention 1951.

Keywords: refugee children, refugee convention, armed conflict, Pakistan

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4 Non-Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs, Plant Extracts, and Characterized Microparticles to Modulate Antimicrobial Resistance of Epidemic Meca Positive S. Aureus of Dairy Origin

Authors: Amjad I. Aqib, Shanza R. Khan, Tanveer Ahmad, Syed A. R. Shah, Muhammad A. Naseer, Muhammad Shoaib, Iqra Sarwar, Muhammad F. A. Kulyar, Zeeshan A. Bhutta, Mumtaz A. Khan, Mahboob Ali, Khadija Yasmeen

Abstract:

The current study focused on resistance modulation of dairy linked epidemic mec A positive S. aureus for resistance modulation by plant extract (Eucalyptus globolus, Calotropis procera), NSAIDs, and star like microparticles. Zinc oxide {ZnO}c and {Zn (OH)₂} microparticles were synthesized by solvothermal method and characterized by calcination, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Plant extracts were prepared by the Soxhlet extraction method. The study found 34% of subclinical samples (n=200) positive for S. aureus from dairy milk having significant (p < 0.05) association of assumed risk factors with pathogen. The antimicrobial assay showed 55, 42, 41, and 41% of S. aureus resistant to oxacillin, ciprofloxacin, streptomycin, and enoxacin. Amoxicillin showed the highest percentage of increase in zone of inhibitions (ZOI) at 100mg of Calotropis procera extract (31.29%) followed by 1mg/mL (28.91%) and 10mg/mL (21.68%) of Eucalyptus globolus. Amoxicillin increased ZOI by 42.85, 37.32, 29.05, and 22.78% in combination with 500 ug/ml with each of diclofenac, aspirin, ibuprofen, and meloxicam, respectively. Fractional inhibitory concentration indices (FICIs) showed synergism of amoxicillin with diclofenac and aspirin and indifferent synergy with ibuprofen and meloxicam. The preliminary in vitro finding of combination of microparticles with amoxicillin proved to be synergistic, giving rise to 26.74% and 14.85% increase in ZOI of amoxicillin in combination with zinc oxide and zinc hydroxide, respectively. The modulated antimicrobial resistance incurred by NSAIDs, plant extracts, and microparticles against pathogenic S. aureus invite immediate attention to probe alternative antimicrobial sources.

Keywords: antimicrobial resistance, dairy milk, nanoparticles, NSIDs, plant extracts, resistance modulation, S. aureus

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3 White-Rot Hymenomycetes as Oil Palm Log Treatments: Accelerating Biodegradation of Basal Stem Rot-Affected Oil Palm Stumps

Authors: Yuvarani Naidu, Yasmeen Siddiqui, Mohd Yusof Rafii , Abu Seman Idris

Abstract:

Sustainability of oil palm production in Southeast Asia, especially in Indonesia and Malaysia, is jeopardized by Ganoderma boninense, the fungus which causes basal stem rot (BSR) in oil palm. The root contact with unattended infected debris left in the plantations during replanting is known to be the primary source of inoculum. Abiding by the law, potentially effective technique of managing Ganoderma infected oil palm debris is deemed necessary because of the zero-burning policy in Malaysian oil palm plantations. White-rot hymenomycetes antagonistic to Ganoderma sp were selected to test their efficacy as log treatments in degrading Ganoderma infected oil palm logs and to minimize the survival of Ganoderma inoculum. Decay rate in terms of mass loss was significantly higher after the application of solid-state cultivation (SSC) of Trametes lactinea FBW (64% ±1.2), followed by Pycnoporus sanguineus FBR (55% ±1.7) in infected log block tissues, after 10 months of treatments. The degradation pattern was clearly distinguished between the treated and non-treated log blocks with the developed SSC formulations. The control infected log blocks showed the highest, whereas infected log blocks treated with either P. sanguineus FBR or T. lactinea FBW SSC formulations exhibited statistically lowest number of Ganoderma spp. recovery on Ganoderma Selective Medium (GSM), after 8 months of treatment. Out of that, the lowest recovery of Ganoderma spp. was reported in infected log blocks inoculated with the strain T. lactinea FBW (21% ± 0.9) followed by P. sanguineus FBR (33% ± 2.2), after 8 months, Further, no recovery of Ganoderma was noticeable, 10 months after treatment applications in log blocks treated with both of the formulations. This is the first nursery-base study to substantiate the initial colonization of white-rot hymenomycetes on oil palm log blocks previously infected with BSR pathogen, G. boninense. The present study has indicated that log blocks treatment with white-rot hymenomycetes significantly affected the mass loss of diseased and healthy log block tissues. This study provides a basis of biotechnological approaches inefficient degradation of oil palm-generated crop debris, under natural conditions with an ultimate aim of reducing the Ganoderma inoculum under heavy BSR infection pressure in eco-friendly manner.

Keywords: basal stem rot disease, ganoderma boninense, oil palm, white-rot fungi

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2 Using the Synchronous Online Flipped Learning Approach to Facilitate Student Podcasting

Authors: Yasmeen Coaxum

Abstract:

The year 2020 became synonymous with the words “Emergency Remote Teaching,” which was imposed upon educators during the COVID-19 pandemic. Consequently, teachers were compelled to find new and engaging ways to educate their students outside of the face-to-face classroom setting. Now online instruction has become more of the norm rather than a way to manage educational expectations during a crisis. Therefore, implementing a strategic way to create online environments for students to thrive, create, and fully engage in their learning process is essential. The Synchronous Online Flipped Learning Approach or SOFLA® is a distance learning model that most closely replicates actual classroom teaching. SOFLA® includes structured, interactive, multimodal activities in an eight-step learning cycle with both asynchronous and synchronous components that foster autonomous and interactive learning among today’s online learners. The results of a pilot study in an Intensive English Program at a university, using SOFLA® methodology to facilitate podcasting in an online learning environment will be shared. Previous findings on student-produced podcasting projects have shown that students felt they improved their pronunciation, vocabulary, and speaking skills. However, few if any studies have been conducted on using a structured online flipped learning approach to facilitate such projects. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to assess the effect of using the SOFLA® framework to enhance optimum engagement in the online environment while using podcasts as the primary tool of instruction. Through data from interviews, questionnaires, and the results of formative and summative assessments, this study also investigates the affective and academic impact this flipped learning method combined with podcasting has on the students in terms of speaking confidence and vocabulary retention, and production. The steps of SOFLA will be illustrated, a video demonstration of the Anchor podcasting app will be shown, and final student projects and questionnaire responses will be shared. The specific context is a 14-week advanced level conversation and listening class. Participants vary in age but are all adult language learners representing a diverse array of countries.

Keywords: mall online flipped learning, podcasting, productive vocabulary

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1 The Role of Social Media in the Rise of Islamic State in India: An Analytical Overview

Authors: Yasmeen Cheema, Parvinder Singh

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The evolution of Islamic State (acronym IS) has an ultimate goal of restoring the caliphate. IS threat to the global security is main concern of international community but has also raised a factual concern for India about the regular radicalization of IS ideology among Indian youth. The incident of joining Arif Ejaz Majeed, an Indian as ‘jihadist’ in IS has set strident alarm in law & enforcement agencies. On 07.03.2017, many people were injured in an Improvised Explosive Device (IED) blast on-board of Bhopal Ujjain Express. One perpetrator of this incident was killed in encounter with police. But, the biggest shock is that the conspiracy was pre-planned and the assailants who carried out the blast were influenced by the ideology perpetrated by the Islamic State. This is the first time name of IS has cropped up in a terror attack in India. It is a red indicator of violent presence of IS in India, which is spreading through social media. The IS have the capacity to influence the younger Muslim generation in India through its brutal and aggressive propaganda videos, social media apps and hatred speeches. It is a well known fact that India is on the radar of IS, as well on its ‘Caliphate Map’. IS uses Twitter, Facebook and other social media platforms constantly. Islamic State has used enticing videos, graphics, and articles on social media and try to influence persons from India & globally that their jihad is worthy. According to arrested perpetrator of IS in different cases in India, the most of Indian youths are victims to the daydreams which are fondly shown by IS. The dreams that the Muslim empire as it was before 1920 can come back with all its power and also that the Caliph and its caliphate can be re-established are shown by the IS. Indian Muslim Youth gets attracted towards these euphemistic ideologies. Islamic State has used social media for disseminating its poisonous ideology, recruitment, operational activities and for future direction of attacks. IS through social media inspired its recruits & lone wolfs to continue to rely on local networks to identify targets and access weaponry and explosives. Recently, a pro-IS media group on its Telegram platform shows Taj Mahal as the target and suggested mode of attack as a Vehicle Born Improvised Explosive Attack (VBIED). Islamic State definitely has the potential to destroy the Indian national security & peace, if timely steps are not taken. No doubt, IS has used social media as a critical mechanism for recruitment, planning and executing of terror attacks. This paper will therefore examine the specific characteristics of social media that have made it such a successful weapon for Islamic State. The rise of IS in India should be viewed as a national crisis and handled at the central level with efficient use of modern technology.

Keywords: ideology, India, Islamic State, national security, recruitment, social media, terror attack

Procedia PDF Downloads 158