Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 462

Search results for: audiovisual translation

462 The Relation between Subtitling and General Translation from a Didactic Perspective

Authors: Sonia Gonzalez Cruz

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Subtitling activities allow for acquiring and developing certain translation skills, and they also have a great impact on the students' motivation. Active subtitling is a relatively recent activity that has generated a lot of interest particularly in the field of second-language acquisition, but it is also present within both the didactics of general translation and language teaching for translators. It is interesting to analyze the level of inclusion of these new resources into the existent curricula and observe to what extent these different teaching methods are being used in the translation classroom. Although subtitling has already become an independent discipline of study and it is considered to be a type of translation on its own, it is necessary to do further research on the different didactic varieties that this type of audiovisual translation offers. Therefore, this project is framed within the field of the didactics of translation, and it focuses on the relationship between the didactics of general translation and active subtitling as a didactic tool. Its main objective is to analyze the inclusion of interlinguistic active subtitling in general translation curricula at different universities. As it has been observed so far, the analyzed curricula do not make any type of reference to the use of this didactic tool in general translation classrooms. However, they do register the inclusion of other audiovisual activities such as dubbing, script translation or video watching, among others. By means of online questionnaires and interviews, the main goal is to confirm the results obtained after the observation of the curricula and find out to what extent subtitling has actually been included into general translation classrooms.

Keywords: subtitling, general translation, didactics, translation competence

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461 Analysis of Feminist Translation in Subtitling from Arabic into English: A Case Study

Authors: Ghada Ahmed

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Feminist translation is one of the strategies adopted in the field of translation studies when a gendered content is being rendered from one language to another, and this strategy has been examined in previous studies on written texts. This research, however, addresses the practice of feminist translation in audiovisual texts that are concerned with the screen, dialogue, image and visual aspects. In this thesis, the objectives are studying feminist translation and its adaptation in subtitling from Arabic into English. It addresses the connections between gender and translation as one domain and feminist translation practices with particular consideration of feminist translation strategies in English subtitles. It examines the visibility of the translator throughout the process, assuming that feminist translation is a product directed by the translator’s feminist position, culture, and ideology as a means of helping unshadow women. It also discusses how subtitling constraints impact feminist translation and how the image that has a narrative value can be integrated into the content of the English subtitles. The reasons for conducting this research project are to study language sexism in English and look into Arabic into English gendered content, taking into consideration the Arabic cultural concepts that may lose their connotations when they are translated into English. This research is also analysing the image in an audiovisual text and its contribution to the written dialogue in subtitling. Thus, this research attempts to answer the following questions: To what extent is there a form of affinity between a gendered content and translation? Is feminist translation an act of merely working on a feminist text or feminising the language of any text, by incorporating the translator’s ideology? How can feminist translation practices be applied in an audiovisual text? How likely is it to adapt feminist translation looking into visual components as well as subtitling constraints? Moreover, the paper searches into the fields of gender and translation; feminist translation, language sexism, media studies, and the gap in the literature related to feminist translation practice in visual texts. For my case study, the "Speed Sisters" film has been chosen so as to analyze its English subtitles for my research. The film is a documentary that was produced in 2015 and directed by Amber Fares. It is about five Palestinian women who try to break the stereotypes about women, and have taken their passion about car-racing forward to be the first all-women car-racing driving team in the Middle East. It tackles the issue of gender in both content and language and this is reflected in the translation. As the research topic is semiotic-channelled, the choice for the theoretical approaches varies and combines between translation studies, audiovisual translation, gender studies, and media studies. Each of which will contribute to understanding a specific field of the research and the results will eventually be integrated to achieve the intended objectives in a way that demonstrates rendering a gendered content in one of the audiovisual translation modes from a language into another.

Keywords: audiovisual translation, feminist translation, films gendered content, subtitling conventions and constraints

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460 Manipulation of Ideological Items in the Audiovisual Translation of Voiced-Over Documentaries in the Arab World

Authors: S. Chabbak

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In a widely globalized world, the influence of audiovisual translation on the culture and identity of audiences is unmistakable. However, in the Arab World, there is a noticeable disproportion between this growing influence and the research carried out in the field. As a matter of fact, the voiced-over documentary is one of the most abundantly translated genres in the Arab World that carries lots of ideological elements which are in many cases rendered by manipulation. However, voiced-over documentaries have hardly received any focused attention from researchers in the Arab World. This paper attempts to scrutinize the process of translation of voiced-over documentaries in the Arab World, from French into Arabic in the present case study, by sub-categorizing the ideological items subject to manipulation, identifying the techniques utilized in their translation and exploring the potential extra-linguistic factors that prompt translation agents to opt for manipulative translation. The investigation is based on a corpus of 94 episodes taken from a series entitled 360° GEO Reports, produced by the French German network ARTE in French, and acquired, translated and aired by Al Jazeera Documentary Channel for Arab audiences. The results yielded 124 cases of manipulation in four sub-categories of ideological items, and the use of 10 different oblique procedures in the process of manipulative translation. The study also revealed that manipulation is in most of the instances dictated by the editorial line of the broadcasting channel, in addition to the religious, geopolitical and socio-cultural peculiarities of the target culture.

Keywords: audiovisual translation, ideological items, manipulation, voiced-over documentaries

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459 Teaching Audiovisual Translation (AVT):Linguistic and Technical Aspects of Different Modes of AVT

Authors: Juan-Pedro Rica-Peromingo

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Teachers constantly need to innovate and redefine materials for their lectures, especially in areas such as Language for Specific Purposes (LSP) and Translation Studies (TS). It is therefore essential for the lecturers to be technically skilled to handle the never-ending evolution in software and technology, which are necessary elements especially in certain courses at university level. This need becomes even more evident in Audiovisual Translation (AVT) Modules and Courses. AVT has undergone considerable growth in the area of teaching and learning of languages for academic purposes. We have witnessed the development of a considerable number of masters and postgraduate courses where AVT becomes a tool for L2 learning. The teaching and learning of different AVT modes are components of undergraduate and postgraduate courses. Universities, in which AVT is offered as part of their teaching programme or training, make use of professional or free software programs. This paper presents an approach in AVT withina specific university context, in which technology is used by means of professional and nonprofessional software. Students take an AVT subject as part of their English Linguistics Master’s Degree at the Complutense University (UCM) in which they are using professional (Spot) and nonprofessional (Subtitle Workshop, Aegisub, Windows Movie Maker) software packages. The students are encouraged to develop their tasks and projects simulating authentic professional experiences and contexts in the different AVT modes: subtitling for hearing and deaf and hard of hearing population, audio description and dubbing. Selected scenes from TV series such as X-Files, Gossip girl, IT Crowd; extracts from movies: Finding Nemo, Good Will Hunting, School of Rock, Harry Potter, Up; and short movies (Vincent) were used. Hence, the complexity of the audiovisual materials used in class as well as the activities for their projects were graded. The assessment of the diverse tasks carried out by all the students are expected to provide some insights into the best way to improve their linguistic accuracy and oral and written productions with the use of different AVT modes in a very specific ESP university context.

Keywords: ESP, audiovisual translation, technology, university teaching, teaching

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458 The Challenges of Intercultural Transfer: The Italian Reception of Aotearoa/New Zealand Films

Authors: Martina Depentor

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While the cinematic medium contributes to bringing images of a culture to foreign audiences, Audiovisual Translation contributes to deciphering those cultural representations to those same audiences. Through Audiovisual Translation, in fact, elements permeate the reception system and contribute to forging a cultural image of the original/source system in the target/reception system. By analyzing a number of Italian critical reviews, blogs and forum posts, this paper examines the impact and reception in Italy of five of the most successful and influential New Zealand films of the last two decades - An Angel at my Table (1990), The Piano (1993), Heavenly Creatures (1994), Once Were Warriors (1994), Whale Rider (2002) - with the aim of exploring how the adaptation of New Zealand films might condition the representation of New Zealand in the Italian imaginary. The analysis seeks to identify whether a certain degree of cultural loss results from the 'translation' of these films. The films selected share common ground in that they all reveal cultural, social and historical characteristics of New Zealand, from aspects that are unique to this country and that on the surface may render it difficult to penetrate (unfamiliar landscapes, aspects of indigenous culture) to more universal themes (intimate family stories, dysfunctional relationship). They contributed to situating New Zealand on an international stage and to bringing images of the country to many audiences, the Italian one included, with little previous cultural knowledge of the social and political history of New Zealand. Differences in film types pose clearly different levels of interpretative challenges to non-New Zealander audiences, and examples from the films will show how these challenges are or are not overcome if the adaptations display misinterpretations or rendition gaps, and how the process of intercultural transfer further 'domesticates' or 'exoticises' the source culture.

Keywords: audiovisual translation, cultural representation, intercultural transfer, New Zealand Films

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457 Degree in Translation and Years of Professional Experience: Predictors of Translation Quality

Authors: Mohsen Varzande

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Translators’ professional and academic characteristics may directly influence their translation quality. The present study aimed at investigating whether translators’ degree in translation and years of professional experience predict their translation quality. Following a causal-comparative study, a sample of one hundred professional translators was selected using purposive sampling method. The participants were divided into two groups each containing individuals with and without a degree in translation, respectively. The participants were asked to translate a paragraph to assess their translation quality. For data analysis, appropriate statistical procedures including correlation and regression were used. Results showed that both degree in translation and years of professional experience significantly predict translation quality. Also, the interaction of translators’ years of professional experience and degree in translation significantly affect their translation quality. An implication could be that besides providing translators with academic knowledge and theories, practical training in translation is necessary as a prerequisite for a competent translator.

Keywords: translation, degree in translation, translation quality, professional experience

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456 Comparison of Dubbing and Subtitling through Critical Discourse Analysis: Detecting Lexical Differences and Similarities in the Movie 'The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo'

Authors: Saber Noie, F. Jafarpour

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Translation of the movies was one of important issues of the translators. In this study, the notions of ‘foreignization’, ‘domestication’, and ‘critical discourse analysis’ (CDA) in translation studies were discussed. This study is a comparative study and attempts towards clarifying the lexical differences and similarities between dubbing and subtitling in audiovisual translation through CDA. The strategies proposed by Venuti (1995) and Newmark (1988) used first by researcher and then, the researcher went back to the Van Dijk’s CDA (1995), in the part dominance. This study shows that according to CDA, the dominant strategy in subtitling is foreignization and dominant strategy in dubbing is domestication.

Keywords: critical discourse analysis, CDA, dub, subtitle, foreignization, domestication

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455 Direct Translation vs. Pivot Language Translation for Persian-Spanish Low-Resourced Statistical Machine Translation System

Authors: Benyamin Ahmadnia, Javier Serrano

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In this paper we compare two different approaches for translating from Persian to Spanish, as a language pair with scarce parallel corpus. The first approach involves direct transfer using an statistical machine translation system, which is available for this language pair. The second approach involves translation through English, as a pivot language, which has more translation resources and more advanced translation systems available. The results show that, it is possible to achieve better translation quality using English as a pivot language in either approach outperforms direct translation from Persian to Spanish. Our best result is the pivot system which scores higher than direct translation by (1.12) BLEU points.

Keywords: statistical machine translation, direct translation approach, pivot language translation approach, parallel corpus

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454 Translation Quality Assessment: Proposing a Linguistic-Based Model for Translation Criticism with Considering Ideology and Power Relations

Authors: Mehrnoosh Pirhayati

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In this study, the researcher tried to propose a model of Translation Criticism (TC) regarding the phenomenon of Translation Quality Assessment (TQA). With changing the general view on re/writing as an illegal act, the researcher defined a scale for the act of translation and determined the redline of translation with other products. This research attempts to show TC as a related phenomenon to TQA. This study shows that TQA with using the rules and factors of TC as depicted in both product-oriented analysis and process-oriented analysis, determines the orientation or the level of the quality of translation. This study also depicts that TC, regarding TQA’s perspective, reveals the aim of the translation of original text and the root of ideological manipulation and re/writing. On the other hand, this study stresses the existence of a direct relationship between the linguistic materials and semiotic codes of a text or book. This study can be fruitful for translators, scholars, translation criticizers, and translation quality assessors, and also it is applicable in the area of pedagogy.

Keywords: a model of translation criticism, a model of translation quality assessment, critical discourse analysis (CDA), re/writing, translation criticism (TC), translation quality assessment (TQA)

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453 Perception and Implementation of Machine Translation Applications by the Iranian English Translators

Authors: Abdul Amir Hazbavi

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The present study is an attempt to provide a relatively comprehensive preview of the Iranian English translators’ perception on Machine Translation. Furthermore, the study tries to shed light on the status of implementation of Machine Translation among the Iranian English Translators. To reach the aforementioned objectives, the Localization Industry Standards Association’s questioner for measuring perceptions with regard to the adoption of a technology innovation was adapted and used to investigate three parameter among the participants of the study, namely familiarity with Machine Translation, general perception on Machine Translation and implementation of Machine Translation systems in translation tasks. The participants of the study were 224 last-year undergraduate Iranian students of English translation at 10 universities across the country. The study revealed a very low level of adoption and a very high level of willingness to get familiar with and learn about Machine Translation, as well as a positive perception of and attitude toward Machine Translation by the Iranian English translators.

Keywords: translation technology, machine translation, perception, implementation

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452 An Analysis of Machine Translation: Instagram Translation vs Human Translation on the Perspective Translation Quality

Authors: Aulia Fitri

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This aims to seek which part of the linguistics with the common mistakes occurred between Instagram translation and human translation. Instagram is a social media account that is widely used by people in the world. Everyone with the Instagram account can consume the captions and pictures that are shared by their friends, celebrity, and public figures across countries. Instagram provides the machine translation under its caption space that will assist users to understand the language of their non-native. The researcher takes samples from an Indonesian public figure whereas the account is followed by many followers. The public figure tries to help her followers from other countries understand her posts by putting up the English version after the Indonesian version. However, the research on Instagram account has not been done yet even though the account is widely used by the worldwide society. There are 20 samples that will be analysed on the perspective of translation quality and linguistics tools. As the MT, Instagram tends to give a literal translation without regarding the topic meant. On the other hand, the human translation tends to exaggerate the translation which leads a different meaning in English. This is an interesting study to discuss when the human nature and robotic-system influence the translation result.

Keywords: human translation, machine translation (MT), translation quality, linguistic tool

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451 Literary Translation Human vs Machine: An Essay about Online Translation

Authors: F. L. Bernardo, R. A. S. Zacarias

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The ways to translate are manifold since textual genres undergoing translations are diverse. In this essay, our goal is to give special attention to the literary genre and to the online translation tool Google Translate (GT), widely used either by nonprofessionals or by scholars, in order to show evidence of the indispensability of human wit in a good translation. Our study has its basis on a literary review of prominent authors, with emphasis on translation categories. Also highlighting the issue of polysemous literary translation, we aim to shed light on the translator’s craft and the fallible nature of online translation. To better illustrate these principles, the methodology consisted on performing a comparative analysis involving the original text Moll Flanders by Daniel Defoe in English to its online translation given by GT and to a translation into Brazilian Portuguese performed by a human. We proceeded to identifying and analyzing the degrees of textual equivalence according to the following categories: volume, levels and order. The results have attested the unsuitability in a translation done by a computer connected to the World Wide Web.

Keywords: Google Translator, human translation, literary translation, Moll Flanders

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450 L2 Strategies in the English Translation of Fengshen Yanyi

Authors: Yanbin Cai

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L2 Translation, or translation out of one’s native language, is often adopted for Chinese classical literature. The purpose of this study is to investigate problems arisen in this process and the strategies different from translation by native speakers. Texts selected for this study is a Ming dynasty novel, Fengshen Yanyi, written by Xu Zhonglin and translated into English by Gu Zhizhong. Translated proper names and dialogues are analyzed, followed with a review on translator’s shifting focus on text selection. The result reveals not the problem of linguistic incompetence or cultural negligence, but translation strategies adopted for specific purposes and target readers.

Keywords: L2 translation, Chinese literature, literature translation, Fengshen Yanyi

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449 The Effect of Using Computer-Assisted Translation Tools on the Translation of Collocations

Authors: Hassan Mahdi

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The integration of computer-assisted translation (CAT) tools in translation creates several opportunities for translators. However, this integration is not useful in all types of English structures. This study aims at examining the impact of using CAT tools in translating collocations. Seventy students of English as a foreign language participated in this study. The participants were divided into three groups (i.e., CAT tools group, Machine Translation group, and the control group). The comparison of the results obtained from the translation output of the three groups demonstrated the improvement of translation using CAT tools. The results indicated that the participants who used CAT tools outscored the participants who used MT, and in turn, both groups outscored the control group who did not use any type of technology in translation. In addition, there was a significant difference in the use of CAT for translation different types of collocations. The results also indicated that CAT tools were more effective in translation fixed and medium-strength collocations than weak collocations. Finally, the results showed that CAT tools were effective in translation collocations in both types of languages (i.e. target language or source language). The study suggests some guidelines for translators to use CAT tools.

Keywords: machine translation, computer-assisted translation, collocations, technology

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448 Translation Quality Assessment in Fansubbed English-Chinese Swearwords: A Corpus-Based Study of the Big Bang Theory

Authors: Qihang Jiang

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Fansubbing, the combination of fan and subtitling, is one of the main branches of Audiovisual Translation (AVT) having kindled more and more interest of researchers into the AVT field in recent decades. In particular, the quality of so-called non-professional translation seems questionable due to the non-transparent qualification of subtitlers in a huge community network. This paper attempts to figure out how YYeTs aka 'ZiMuZu', the largest fansubbing group in China, translates swearwords from English to Chinese for its fans of the prevalent American sitcom The Big Bang Theory, taking cultural, social and political elements into account in the context of China. By building a bilingual corpus containing both the source and target texts, this paper found that most of the original swearwords were translated in a toned-down manner, probably due to Chinese audiences’ cultural and social network features as well as the strict censorship under the Chinese government. Additionally, House (2015)’s newly revised model of Translation Quality Assessment (TQA) was applied and examined. Results revealed that most of the subtitled swearwords achieved their pragmatic functions and exerted a communicative effect for audiences. In conclusion, this paper enriches the empirical research concerning House’s new TQA model, gives a full picture of the subtitling of swearwords in AVT field and provides a practical guide for the practitioners in their career of subtitling.

Keywords: corpus-based approach, fansubbing, pragmatic functions, swearwords, translation quality assessment

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447 Statistical Comparison of Machine and Manual Translation: A Corpus-Based Study of Gone with the Wind

Authors: Yanmeng Liu

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This article analyzes and compares the linguistic differences between machine translation and manual translation, through a case study of the book Gone with the Wind. As an important carrier of human feeling and thinking, the literature translation poses a huge difficulty for machine translation, and it is supposed to expose distinct translation features apart from manual translation. In order to display linguistic features objectively, tentative uses of computerized and statistical evidence to the systematic investigation of large scale translation corpora by using quantitative methods have been deployed. This study compiles bilingual corpus with four versions of Chinese translations of the book Gone with the Wind, namely, Piao by Chunhai Fan, Piao by Huairen Huang, translations by Google Translation and Baidu Translation. After processing the corpus with the software of Stanford Segmenter, Stanford Postagger, and AntConc, etc., the study analyzes linguistic data and answers the following questions: 1. How does the machine translation differ from manual translation linguistically? 2. Why do these deviances happen? This paper combines translation study with the knowledge of corpus linguistics, and concretes divergent linguistic dimensions in translated text analysis, in order to present linguistic deviances in manual and machine translation. Consequently, this study provides a more accurate and more fine-grained understanding of machine translation products, and it also proposes several suggestions for machine translation development in the future.

Keywords: corpus-based analysis, linguistic deviances, machine translation, statistical evidence

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446 The Spatial Circuit of the Audiovisual Industry in Argentina: From Monopoly and Geographic Concentration to New Regionalization and Democratization Policies

Authors: André Pasti

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Historically, the communication sector in Argentina is characterized by intense monopolization and geographical concentration in the city of Buenos Aires. In 2000, the four major media conglomerates in operation – Clarín, Telefónica, America and Hadad – controlled 84% of the national media market. By 2009, new policies were implemented as a result of civil society organizations demands. Legally, a new regulatory framework was approved: the law 26,522 of Audiovisual Communications Services. Supposedly, these policies intend to create new conditions for the development of the audiovisual economy in the territory of Argentina. The regionalization of audiovisual production and the democratization of channels and access to media were among the priorities. This paper analyses the main changes and continuities in the organization of the spatial circuit of the audiovisual industry in Argentina provoked by these new policies. These new policies aim at increasing the diversity of audiovisual producers and promoting regional audiovisual industries. For this purpose, a national program for the development of audiovisual centers within the country was created. This program fostered a federalized production network, based on nine audiovisual regions and 40 nodes. Each node has created technical, financial and organizational conditions to gather different actors in audiovisual production – such as SMEs, social movements and local associations. The expansion of access to technical networks was also a concern of other policies, such as ‘Argentina connected’, whose objective was to expand access to broadband Internet. The Open Digital Television network also received considerable investments. Furthermore, measures have been carried out in order to impose limits on the concentration of ownership as well as to eliminate the oligopolies and to ensure more competition in the sector. These actions intended to force a divide of the media conglomerates into smaller groups. Nevertheless, the corporations that compose these conglomerates resist strongly, making full use of their economic and judiciary power. Indeed, the absence of effective impact of such measures can be testified by the fact that the audiovisual industry remains strongly concentrated in Argentina. Overall, these new policies were designed properly to decentralize audiovisual production and expand the regional diversity of the audiovisual industry. However, the effective transformation of the organization of the audiovisual circuit in the territory faced several resistances. This can be explained firstly and foremost by the ideological and economic power of the media conglomerates. In the second place, there is an inherited inertia from the unequal distribution of the objects needed for the audiovisual production and consumption. Lastly, the resistance also relies on financial needs and in the excessive dependence of the state for the promotion of regional audiovisual production.

Keywords: Argentina, audiovisual industry, communication policies, geographic concentration, regionalization, spatial circuit

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445 Prospective English Language Teachers’ Views on Translation Use in Foreign Language Teaching

Authors: Ozlem Bozok, Yusuf Bozok

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The importance of using mother tongue and translation in foreign language classrooms cannot be ignored and translation can be utilized as a method in English Language Teaching courses. There exist researches advocating or objecting to the use of translation in foreign language learning but they all have a point in common: Translation should be used as an aid to teaching, not an end in itself. In this research, prospective English language teachers’ opinions about translation use and use of mother tongue in foreign language teaching are investigated and according to the findings, some explanations and recommendations are made.

Keywords: exposure to foreign language translation, foreign language learning, prospective teachers’ opinions, use of L1

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444 Teaching Translation during Covid-19 Outbreak: Challenges and Discoveries

Authors: Rafat Alwazna

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Translation teaching is a particular activity that includes translators and interpreters training either inside or outside institutionalised settings, such as universities. It can also serve as a means of teaching other fields, such as foreign languages. Translation teaching began in the twentieth century. Teachers of translation hold the responsibilities of educating students, developing their translation competence and training them to be professional translators. The activity of translation teaching involves various tasks, including curriculum design, course delivery, material writing as well as application and implementation. The present paper addresses translation teaching during COVID-19 outbreak, seeking to find out the challenges encountered by translation teachers in online translation teaching and the discoveries/solutions arrived at to resolve them. The paper makes use of a comprehensive questionnaire, containing closed-ended and open-ended questions to elicit both quantitative as well as qualitative data from about sixty translation teachers who have been teaching translation at BA and MA levels during COVID-19 outbreak. The data shows that about 40% of the participants evaluate their online translation teaching experience during COVID-19 outbreak as enjoyable and exhilarating. On the contrary, no participant has evaluated his/her online translation teaching experience as being not good, nor has any participant evaluated his/her online translation teaching experience as being terrible. The data also presents that about 23.33% of the participants evaluate their online translation teaching experience as very good, and the same percentage applies to those who evaluate their online translation teaching experience as good to some extent. Moreover, the data indicates that around 13.33% of the participants evaluate their online translation teaching experience as good. The data also demonstrates that the majority of the participants have encountered obstacles in online translation teaching and have concurrently proposed solutions to resolve them.

Keywords: online translation teaching, electronic learning platform, COVID-19 outbreak, challenges, solutions

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443 Retrospection and Introspection on the Three-Decade Sight Translation Research in China—Bibliometric Analysis of CNKI (1987—2015) Relevant Articles

Authors: Wei Deng

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Based on sorting and analyzing related literature on CNKI for nearly three decades between 1987—2015, this paper, adopting the method of bibliometrics, summarized and reviewed the domestic research on sight translation from three aspects. The analysis concluded the following findings: 1) The majority research had focused on the noumenon of sight translation. The rest of the three main research perspectives are in descending order: sight translation teaching, sight translation skills and other associated skills, and cognitive research of sight translation. 2) The domestic research increased significantly in recent five years, but there is much room for the quality. 3) The non-empirical study has had higher proportion, while the empirical study is unitary with the lack of triangle validation. This paper suggested that sight translation being in sore need of unified definition, multilingual, even interdisciplinary cooperation.

Keywords: bibliometric analysis, perspectives, sight translation, tendency

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442 Foreignization and Domestication in the West and the East: A Comparative Study of Lawrence Venuti and Lu Xun’s Translation Theories

Authors: Xijinyan Chen

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The study of translation is one of the fields that have been dominated by the voices from the west. Both Lawrence Venuti and Lu Xun advocate a translation strategy of 'foreignization' sixty years apart from each other: the former in 1995 and the latter in 1935. And yet only Venuti’s idea has become one of the best-accepted ones in the translation paradigm, while Lu’s was rarely mentioned or even unknown to some. The paper attempts to provide a comprehensive comparative study of the theories proposed by the American translation scholar and the Chinese writer/translator scholar and re-examine the alleged Eurocentrism in translation studies. The paper first compares and contrasts the backgrounds, developments and main ideas of Venuti and Lu’s translation theories and then discusses the possible reasons behind the distinct receptions. The paper argues that in addition to lacking a systematic development, Lu’s idea seems to be limited to a certain Chinese political and cultural context and thus fail to reach out to a larger group of audiences. By introducing Lu’s idea and comparing it with Venuti’s, the paper aims at drawing some attention and interests to non-western voices in the translation field, so as to enrich and inspire the current translation scholarship. It is hoped that the study demonstrates the significance of establishing a field of comparative translation theories.

Keywords: comparative translation theories, eurocentrism, domestication and foreignization, Lawrence Venuti, Lu Xun

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441 Corpus Linguistics as a Tool for Translation Studies Analysis: A Bilingual Parallel Corpus of Students’ Translations

Authors: Juan-Pedro Rica-Peromingo

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Nowadays, corpus linguistics has become a key research methodology for Translation Studies, which broadens the scope of cross-linguistic studies. In the case of the study presented here, the approach used focuses on learners with little or no experience to study, at an early stage, general mistakes and errors, the correct or incorrect use of translation strategies, and to improve the translational competence of the students. Led by Sylviane Granger and Marie-Aude Lefer of the Centre for English Corpus Linguistics of the University of Louvain, the MUST corpus (MUltilingual Student Translation Corpus) is an international project which brings together partners from Europe and worldwide universities and connects Learner Corpus Research (LCR) and Translation Studies (TS). It aims to build a corpus of translations carried out by students including both direct (L2 > L1) an indirect (L1 > L2) translations, from a great variety of text types, genres, and registers in a wide variety of languages: audiovisual translations (including dubbing, subtitling for hearing population and for deaf population), scientific, humanistic, literary, economic and legal translation texts. This paper focuses on the work carried out by the Spanish team from the Complutense University (UCMA), which is part of the MUST project, and it describes the specific features of the corpus built by its members. All the texts used by UCMA are either direct or indirect translations between English and Spanish. Students’ profiles comprise translation trainees, foreign language students with a major in English, engineers studying EFL and MA students, all of them with different English levels (from B1 to C1); for some of the students, this would be their first experience with translation. The MUST corpus is searchable via Hypal4MUST, a web-based interface developed by Adam Obrusnik from Masaryk University (Czech Republic), which includes a translation-oriented annotation system (TAS). A distinctive feature of the interface is that it allows source texts and target texts to be aligned, so we can be able to observe and compare in detail both language structures and study translation strategies used by students. The initial data obtained point out the kind of difficulties encountered by the students and reveal the most frequent strategies implemented by the learners according to their level of English, their translation experience and the text genres. We have also found common errors in the graduate and postgraduate university students’ translations: transfer errors, lexical errors, grammatical errors, text-specific translation errors, and cultural-related errors have been identified. Analyzing all these parameters will provide more material to bring better solutions to improve the quality of teaching and the translations produced by the students.

Keywords: corpus studies, students’ corpus, the MUST corpus, translation studies

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440 Comics Scanlation and Publishing Houses Translation

Authors: Sharifa Alshahrani

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Comics is a multimodal text wherein meaning is created by taking in all modes of expression at once. It uses two different semiotic modes, the verbal and the visual modes, together to make meaning and these different semiotic modes can be socially and culturally shaped to give meaning. Therefore, comics translation cannot treat comics as a monomodal text by translating only the verbal mode inside or outside the speech balloons as the cultural differences are encoded in the visual mode as well. Due to the development of the internet and editing software, comics translation is not anymore confined to the publishing houses and official translation as scanlation, or the fan translation took the initiative in translating comics for being emotionally attracted to the culture and genre. Scanlation is carried out by volunteering fans who translate out of passion. However, quality is one of the debatable issues relating to scanlation and fan translation. This study will investigate how the dynamic multimodal relationship in comics is exploited and interpreted in the translation by exploring the translation strategies and procedures adopted by the publishing houses and scanlation in interpreting comics into Arabic using three analytical frameworks; cultural references model, multimodal relation model and translation strategies and procedures models.

Keywords: comics, multimodality, translation, scanlation

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439 Tracing the Concept of Equivalence in Translation Theories from the Linguistics Oriented Era to Present

Authors: Fatma Ülkü Kavruk

Abstract:

The comparison of the old and new approaches reveals that the concept of equivalence has been interpreted and categorized in different ways by different scholars throughout the history. The aim of this study is to trace the concept of equivalence in translation theories from the linguistics-oriented era to present, referring to various translation scholars and to provide a critical evaluation of the nature and applicability of the concept of equivalence in today’s world of translation studies. Within the study, various interpretations of equivalence proposed by international scholars in translation studies are to be presented. In order to find out the reflections of these scholars’ approaches to the Turkish scholars’ research, the interpretations of equivalence by various Turkish scholars are to be examined. At the end of the paper, the applicability of the concept of equivalence in real life is to be discussed in light of these approaches.

Keywords: translation studies, equivalence, translation theories, evaluation

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438 Mistakes in Translation Causing Translation Problems for Undergraduate Students in Thailand

Authors: Benjawan Tipprachaban

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This research aims to investigate mistakes in translation, particularly from Thai to English, which cause translation problems for undergraduate students in Thailand. The researcher had the non-English major students of Suratthani Rajabhat University as samples. The data were collected by having 27 non-English major students translate 50 Thai sentences into English. After the translation, lots of mistakes were found and the researcher categorized them into 3 main types which were the grammatical mistake, the usage mistake, and the spelling mistake. However, this research is currently in the process of analyzing the data and shall be completed in August. The researcher, nevertheless, predicts that, of all the mistakes, the grammatical mistake will principally be made, the usage mistake and the spelling one respectively, which will support the researcher’s hypothesizes, i.e. 1) the grammatical mistake, mainly caused by language transfer, essentially leads to considerable translation problems; 2) the usage mistake is another critical problem that causes translation problems; 3) basic knowledge in Thai to English translation of undergraduate students in Thailand is at low level.

Keywords: English, language, Thai, translation

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437 Exploring the Mechanisms of Quality Assurance in the Chinese Translation Industry

Authors: Youru Zhou

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This paper seeks to unveil the quality assurance practices in the Chinese translation industry. Since China’s reform and opening up, the Chinese language service industry has enjoyed impressively rapid growth. However, while still in its early stage of professionalization, the Chinese translation industry is also facing many challenges, such as the lack of clear admission requirements, a powerful regulation authority and a great number of qualified professionals. ‘How quality is assured’ means a great deal to translation in China at this stage. In order to examine the mechanisms in which quality is assured, this paper studied four international and national standards that have gained widespread adoption by Chinese translation companies and examined the content that is relevant to translation quality assurance. Case studies with six selected Chinese translation companies of different sizes were conducted to confirm and exemplify the descriptions on the standards. It has been found that quality in the industry is a relative concept which is mainly determined by the demand of clients. Furthermore, the procedures of translation can vary from task to task dependent on the agreement made between the service provider and clients. Finally, there are companies relying on expert-oriented mechanisms to assure the quality of translation, while other companies and standards insist on process-oriented ones.

Keywords: case study, Chinese translation industry, professional practice, translation quality assurance, translation standards

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436 Focusing on Effective Translation Teaching in the Classroom: A Case Study

Authors: Zhi Huang

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This study follows on from previous survey and focus group research exploring the effective teaching process in a translation classroom in Australian universities through case study method. The data analysis draws on social constructivist theory in translation teaching and focuses on teaching process aiming to discover how effective translation teachers conduct teaching in the classroom. The results suggest that effective teaching requires the teacher to have ability in four aspects: classroom management, classroom pedagogy, classroom communication, and teacher roles. Effective translation teachers are able to control the whole learning process, facilitate students in independent learning, guide students to be more critical about translation, giving both positive and negative feedback for students to reflect on their own, and being supportive, patient and encouraging to students for better classroom communication and learning outcomes. This study can be applied to other teachers in translation so that they can reflect on their own teaching in their education contexts and strive for being a more qualified translation teacher and achieving teaching effectiveness.

Keywords: case study, classroom observation, classroom teaching, effective translation teaching, teacher effectiveness

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435 An Innovative Poly System Theory for the Go-Out of Chinese Culture

Authors: Jianhua Wang, Ying Zhou, Han Guo

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Translation underwent culture turn for more than half a century, which brought translation and its studies beyond intra-texts. Different cultures in recent years have developed towards a translation turn, which made a great contribution to relocate national or local cultures being localized to become regional or global cultures. As China grows quickly economically integrating into the world, it becomes urgent to relate China’s story and disseminate the Chinese culture. Due to the weaknesses and drawbacks of different existing cultural translation theories for Chinese culture to go out, a new perspective on translation turn for the go-out of Chinese culture should be drawn to spread better and disseminate Chinese culture to other countries. Based on the existing cultural translation theories, the equivalence of ideology, style of the translator and agency of the support are proposed to draw a new perspective: an innovative poly-system theory for Chinese culture translation.

Keywords: cultural translation theory, Chinese culture, innovative poly system, global cultures

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434 The Changes in Motivations and the Use of Translation Strategies in Crowdsourced Translation: A Case Study on Global Voices’ Chinese Translation Project

Authors: Ya-Mei Chen

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Online crowdsourced translation, an innovative translation practice brought by Web 2.0 technologies and the democratization of information, has become increasingly popular in the Internet era. Carried out by grass-root internet users, crowdsourced translation contains fundamentally different features from its off-line traditional counterpart, such as voluntary participation and parallel collaboration. To better understand such a participatory and collaborative nature, this paper will use the online Chinese translation project of Global Voices as a case study to investigate the following issues: (1) the changes in volunteer translators’ and reviewers’ motivations for participation, (2) translators’ and reviewers’ use of translation strategies and (3) the correlations of translators’ and reviewers’ motivations and strategies with the organizational mission, the translation style guide, the translator-reviewer interaction, the mediation of the translation platform and various types of capital within the translation field. With an aim to systematically explore the above three issues, this paper will collect both quantitative and qualitative data and then draw upon Engestrom’s activity theory and Bourdieu’s field theory as a theoretical framework to analyze the data in question. An online anonymous questionnaire will be conducted to obtain the quantitative data. The questionnaire will contain questions related to volunteer translators’ and reviewers’ backgrounds, participation motivations, translation strategies and mutual relations as well as the operation of the translation platform. Concerning the qualitative data, they will come from (1) a comparative study between some English news texts published on Global Voices and their Chinese translations, (2) an analysis of the online discussion forum associated with Global Voices’ Chinese translation project and (3) the information about the project’s translation mission and guidelines. It is hoped that this research, through a detailed sociological analysis of a cause-driven crowdsourced translation project, can enable translation researchers and practitioners to adequately meet the translation challenges appearing in the digital age.

Keywords: crowdsourced translation, global voices, motivation, translation strategies

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433 Colloquialism in Audiovisual Translation: English Subtitling of the Lebanese Film Capernaum as a Case Study

Authors: Fatima Saab

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This paper attempts to study colloquialism in audio-visual translation, with particular emphasis given to investigating the difficulties and challenges encountered by subtitlers in translating Lebanese colloquial into English. To achieve the main objectives of this study, ample and thorough cultural and translational analysis of examples drawn from the subtitled movie Capernaum are presented in order to identify the strategies used to overcome cultural barriers and differences and to show the process of decision-making by the translator. Also, special attention is given to explain the technicalities in translating subtitles and how they affect the translation process. The research is a descriptive analytical study whereby the writer sets out empirical observations, consisting of descriptive and analytical examination of the difficulties and problems associated with translating Arabic colloquialisms, specifically Lebanese, into English in the subtitled film, Capernaum. The research methodology utilizes a qualitative approach to group the selected data into the subtitling strategies presented by Gottlieb under the domesticating or foreignizing strategies according to Venuti's Model. It is shown that producing the same meanings to a foreign audience is not an easy task. The background of cultural elements and the stories that make up the history and mindset of the Lebanese and Arabic peoples leads to the use of the transfer and paraphrase methodologies most of the time (81% of the sample used for analysis). The research shows that translating and subtitling colloquialism needs special skills by the translators to overcome the challenges imposed by the limited presentation space as well as cultural differences. Translation of colloquial Arabic/Lebanese can be achieved to a certain extent and delivering the meaning and effect of the source language culture is accomplished in as much as the translator investigates and relates to the target culture.

Keywords: Lebanese colloquial, audio-visual translation, subtitling, Capernaum

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