Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Search results for: comics

10 Comics as Third Space: An Analysis of the Continuous Negotiation of Identities in Postcolonial Philippines

Authors: Anna Camille V. Flores


Comics in the Philippines has taken on many uses for the Filipino people. They have been sources of entertainment, education, and political and social commentaries. History has been witnessed to the rise and fall of Philippine comics but the 21st century is seeing a revival of the medium and the industry. It is within this context that an inquiry about Filipino identity is situated. Employing the analytical framework of postcolonialism, particularly Homi K. Bhabha’s concepts of Hybridity and the Third Space, this study analyzes three contemporary Philippine comics, Trese, Filipino Heroes League, and Dead Balagtas. The study was able to draw three themes that represent how Filipinos inhabit hybrid worlds and hybridized identities. First, the third space emerged through the use of hybrid worlds in the comics. Second, (re)imagined communities are established through the use of intertextual signifiers. Third, (re)negotiated identities are expressed through visual and narrative devices such as the use of Philippine mythology, historical and contemporary contexts, and language. In conclusion, comics can be considered as Third Space where these identities have the agency and opportunity to be expressed and represented.

Keywords: comics, hybridity and third space, Philippine comics, postcolonialism

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9 Comics Scanlation and Publishing Houses Translation

Authors: Sharifa Alshahrani


Comics is a multimodal text wherein meaning is created by taking in all modes of expression at once. It uses two different semiotic modes, the verbal and the visual modes, together to make meaning and these different semiotic modes can be socially and culturally shaped to give meaning. Therefore, comics translation cannot treat comics as a monomodal text by translating only the verbal mode inside or outside the speech balloons as the cultural differences are encoded in the visual mode as well. Due to the development of the internet and editing software, comics translation is not anymore confined to the publishing houses and official translation as scanlation, or the fan translation took the initiative in translating comics for being emotionally attracted to the culture and genre. Scanlation is carried out by volunteering fans who translate out of passion. However, quality is one of the debatable issues relating to scanlation and fan translation. This study will investigate how the dynamic multimodal relationship in comics is exploited and interpreted in the translation by exploring the translation strategies and procedures adopted by the publishing houses and scanlation in interpreting comics into Arabic using three analytical frameworks; cultural references model, multimodal relation model and translation strategies and procedures models.

Keywords: comics, multimodality, translation, scanlation

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8 Comics as an Intermediary for Media Literacy Education

Authors: Ryan C. Zlomek


The value of using comics in the literacy classroom has been explored since the 1930s. At that point in time researchers had begun to implement comics into daily lesson plans and, in some instances, had started the development process for comics-supported curriculum. In the mid-1950s, this type of research was cut short due to the work of psychiatrist Frederic Wertham whose research seemingly discovered a correlation between comic readership and juvenile delinquency. Since Wertham’s allegations the comics medium has had a hard time finding its way back to education. Now, over fifty years later, the definition of literacy is in mid-transition as the world has become more visually-oriented and students require the ability to interpret images as often as words. Through this transition, comics has found a place in the field of literacy education research as the shift focuses from traditional print to multimodal and media literacies. Comics are now believed to be an effective resource in bridging the gap between these different types of literacies. This paper seeks to better understand what students learn from the process of reading comics and how those skills line up with the core principles of media literacy education in the United States. In the first section, comics are defined to determine the exact medium that is being examined. The different conventions that the medium utilizes are also discussed. In the second section, the comics reading process is explored through a dissection of the ways a reader interacts with the page, panel, gutter, and different comic conventions found within a traditional graphic narrative. The concepts of intersubjective acts and visualization are attributed to the comics reading process as readers draw in real world knowledge to decode meaning. In the next section, the learning processes that comics encourage are explored parallel to the core principles of media literacy education. Each principle is explained and the extent to which comics can act as an intermediary for this type of education is theorized. In the final section, the author examines comics use in his computer science and technology classroom. He lays out different theories he utilizes from Scott McCloud’s text Understanding Comics and how he uses them to break down media literacy strategies with his students. The article concludes with examples of how comics has positively impacted classrooms around the United States. It is stated that integrating comics into the classroom will not solve all issues related to literacy education but, rather, that comics can be a powerful multimodal resource for educators looking for new mediums to explore with their students.

Keywords: comics, graphics novels, mass communication, media literacy, metacognition

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7 A Feminist Critical Discourse Analysis of Selected Marvel Comics

Authors: Onaza Ajmal


The purpose of the study is to explore the power relations linguistically and visually with reference to the representation of gender, race, violence, and empowerment through male characters and female superheroes from the two selected Marvel comics, Ms. Marvel (2014) and Captain Marvel (2019-). The study also aims to elaborate on the different cultural backgrounds of female superheroes and their choices and behaviors concerning the male characters. Moreover, it also seeks to explore whether the female superheroes reassert or resists the established gender roles. Using the tenets of critical discourse analysis (CDA) and feminist critical discourse analysis (FCDA) by Lazar (2005), the study analyzed the power relations from a feminist viewpoint. The linguistic analysis of textual features such as ‘adjectives’, ‘lexical items’, ‘metaphors’, and ‘use of pronouns’, etc., found in the selected comics is carried out under the framework of CDA given by Fairclough (1989). Kress and van Leeuwen's model of reading images (2006) are used to analyze the visual images in this study. The findings of the study show that despite the empowering nature of female superheroes, the unequal power relations between male and female characters are established linguistically and visually, which further sustains and reinforces the racial and patriarchal gender ideologies in the selected comics. Moreover, it is recommended that the female representations in the feminist themes of empowerment with respect to the Pakistani female superheroes should also be explored for further research.

Keywords: feminist critical discourse analysis, patriarchal gender ideology, power relations, superhero comics

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6 Transmogrification of the Danse Macabre Image: Capturing the Journey towards Creativity

Authors: Javaria Farooqui


This study, “Transmogrification of the Danse Macabre Image: Capturing the Journey towards Creativity,” traces the evolution of the concept of Danse Macabre. In Every man death takes away the sinful when they least expect it, in Solyman and Perseda everyone falls prey to death irrespective of their deeds and in Tauba-tun-Nasuh, the sinner is plagued. The climatic point in this brief research comes with the Modern texts, The Moon and Sixpence, Roohe-e-Insani and Amédéé, ou Comment s’en débarrasser, when Danse Macabre extends its boundaries, uniting the idea of creativity with death. Similarly in the visual context, Danse Macabre image, initially a horrifying idea, becomes a part of the present day comics and serves an entertaining rather than a cathartic purpose.

Keywords: Danse macabre, transmogrification, Medieval, death, character

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5 Analyzing Architectural Narrative in 21st-Century Museums

Authors: Ihjaz Zubair Pallakkan Tharammal, Lakshmi S. R.


Storytelling has been an important part of human life throughout history. It allows communities to unlearn, learn and relearn. There are different mediums of storytelling that are used in an individual's day to day life. For instance, ideas are shared through oral stories, comics, music, art, architecture, etc. This paper explores the concept of architectural narrative and its significance in conveying messages and stories. The research aims to study and analyse the potential of museums and the importance of incorporating architectural narratives in museums, particularly in 21st century India. The research is also an exploratory and comparative analysis of narrative elements like semiotics, symbolism, spatial structure, etc., and finally derives strategies to design spaces that speak to the users.

Keywords: museum, architectural narrative, narratology, spatial storytelling

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4 Graphic Narratives: Representations of Refugeehood in the Form of Illustration

Authors: Pauline Blanchet


In a world where images are a prominent part of our daily lives and a way of absorbing information, the analysis of the representation of migration narratives is vital. This thesis raises questions concerning the power of illustrations, drawings and visual culture in order to represent the migration narratives in the age of Instagram. The rise of graphic novels and comics has come about in the last fifteen years, specifically regarding contemporary authors engaging with complex social issues such as migration and refugeehood. Due to this, refugee subjects are often in these narratives, whether they are autobiographical stories or whether the subject is included in the creative process. Growth in discourse around migration has been present in other art forms; in 2018, there has been dedicated exhibitions around migration such as Tania Bruguera at the TATE (2018-2019), ‘Journeys Drawn’ at the House of Illustration (2018-2019) and dedicated film festivals (2018; the Migration Film Festival), which have shown the recent considerations of using the arts as a medium of expression regarding themes of refugeehood and migration. Graphic visuals are fast becoming a key instrument when representing migration, and the central thesis of this paper is to show the strength and limitations of this form as well the methodology used by the actors in the production process. Recent works which have been released in the last ten years have not being analysed in the same context as previous graphic novels such as Palestine and Persepolis. While a lot of research has been done on the mass media portrayals of refugees in photography and journalism, there is a lack of literature on the representation with illustrations. There is little research about the accessibility of graphic novels such as where they can be found and what the intentions are when writing the novels. It is interesting to see why these authors, NGOs, and curators have decided to highlight these migrant narratives in a time when the mainstream media has done extensive coverage on the ‘refugee crisis’. Using primary data by doing one on one interviews with artists, curators, and NGOs, this paper investigates the efficiency of graphic novels for depicting refugee stories as a viable alternative to other mass medium forms. The paper has been divided into two distinct sections. The first part is concerned with the form of the comic itself and how it either limits or strengthens the representation of migrant narratives. This will involve analysing the layered and complex forms that comics allow such as multimedia pieces, use of photography and forms of symbolism. It will also show how the illustration allows for anonymity of refugees, the empathetic aspect of the form and how the history of the graphic novel form has allowed space for positive representations of women in the last decade. The second section will analyse the creative and methodological process which takes place by the actors and their involvement with the production of the works.

Keywords: graphic novel, refugee, communication, media, migration

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3 AINA: Disney Animation Information as Educational Resources

Authors: Piedad Garrido, Fernando Repulles, Andy Bloor, Julio A. Sanguesa, Jesus Gallardo, Vicente Torres, Jesus Tramullas


With the emergence and development of Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs), Higher Education is experiencing rapid changes, not only in its teaching strategies but also in student’s learning skills. However, we have noticed that students often have difficulty when seeking innovative, useful, and interesting learning resources for their work. This is due to the lack of supervision in the selection of good query tools. This paper presents AINA, an Information Retrieval (IR) computer system aimed at providing motivating and stimulating content to both students and teachers working on different areas and at different educational levels. In particular, our proposal consists of an open virtual resource environment oriented to the vast universe of Disney comics and cartoons. Our test suite includes Disney’s long and shorts films, and we have performed some activities based on the Just In Time Teaching (JiTT) methodology. More specifically, it has been tested by groups of university and secondary school students.

Keywords: information retrieval, animation, educational resources, JiTT

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2 Knowledge, Attitudes and Preventive Practices of Indigenous Adolescents on Dog Associated Zoonotic Infections

Authors: Fairuz Fadzilah Rahim


Introduction: Indigenous adolescents are at higher risk of dog associated zoonotic infections (DAZI) as they live closely with free-roaming dogs and have limited access to veterinary care. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of health education interventions towards knowledge, attitudes, and preventive practices (KAP) of adolescents on DAZI. Methods: This one-group pre-and post-intervention study in 5 months period was conducted among Jahai adolescents aged 12 years and above. Jahai is one of the three major tribes of indigenous people in Peninsular Malaysia. Health education intervention programs using posters, slide presentations, comics, video clips, and discussion on DAZI were employed. Repeated measures of within-subjects analysis were used to identify the pre- and post- KAP of the adolescents. Results: There were 54 adolescents participated in this study with a mean age of 15.72 (SD: 2.49) and equal proportions of males (50%) and females (50%). Among the adolescents, 22.2% were married, 5.6% were illiterate, and 44.4% not continuing education at the time of data collection. The majority of them keep dogs as pets (64.8%), and few used dogs for hunting (11.1%). There was significant increase in mean scores of knowledge (F = 40.92, p < 0.001) and attitudes (F = 6.43, p = 0.014) of the adolescents. However, the preventive practices towards DAZI showed non-significant improvement on the intervention. Conclusions: The health education intervention programs showed to be effective in improving the attitudes and practices related to dog associated zoonotic infections. Emphasis on sustained health education programs is important to foster good health and wellbeing of the indigenous community.

Keywords: adolescent health, dog associated infection, zoonotic, KAP, indigenous

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1 Manufacturing the Authenticity of Dokkaebi’s Visual Representation in Tourist Marketing

Authors: Mikyung Bak


The dokkaebi, a beloved icon of Korean culture, is represented as an elf, goblin, monster, dwarf, or any similar creature in different media, such as animated shows, comics, soap operas, and movies. It is often described as a mythical creature with a horn or horns and long teeth, wearing tiger-skin pants or a grass skirt, and carrying a magic stick. Many Korean researchers agree on the similarity of the image of the Korean dokkaebi with that of the Japanese oni, a view that is regard as negative from an anti-colonial or nationalistic standpoint. They cite such similarity between the two mythical creatures as evidence that Japanese colonialism persists in Korea. The debate on the originality of dokkaebi’s visual representation is an issue that must be addressed urgently. This research demonstrates through a diagram the plurality of interpretations of dokkaebi’s visual representations in what are considered ‘authentic’ images of dokkaebi in Korean art and culture. This diagram presents the opinions of four major groups in the debate, namely, the scholars of Korean literature and folklore, art historians, authors, and artists. It also shows the creation of new dokkaebi visual representations in popular media, including those influenced by the debate. The diagram further proves that dokkaebi’s representations varied, which include the typical persons or invisible characters found in Korean literature, original Korean folk characters in traditional art, and even universal spirit characters. They are also visually represented by completely new creatures as well as oni-based mythical beings and the actual oni itself. The earlier dokkaebi representations were driven by the creation of a national ideology or national cultural paradigm and, thus, were more uniform and protected. In contrast, the more recent representations are influenced by the Korean industrial strategy of ‘cultural economics,’ which is concerned with the international rather than the domestic market. This recent Korean cultural strategy emphasizes diversity and commonality with the global culture rather than originality and locality. It employs traditional cultural resources to construct a global image. Consequently, dokkaebi’s recent representations have become more common and diverse, thereby incorporating even oni’s characteristics. This argument has rendered the grounds of the debate irrelevant. The dokkaebi has been used recently for tourist marketing purposes, particularly in revitalizing interest in regions considered the cradle of various traditional dokkaebi tales. These campaign strategies include the Jeju-do Dokkaebi Park, Koksung Dokkaebi Land, as well as the Taebaek and Sokri-san Dokkaebi Festivals. Almost dokkaebi characters are identical to the Japanese oni in tourist marketing. However, the pursuit for dokkaebi’s authentic visual representation is less interesting and fruitful than the appreciation of the entire spectrum of dokkaebi images that have been created. Thus, scholars and stakeholders must not exclude the possibilities for a variety of potentials within the visual culture. The same sentiment applies to traditional art and craft. This study aims to contribute to a new visualization of the dokkaebi that embraces the possibilities of both folk craft and art, which continue to be uncovered by diverse and careful researchers in a still-developing field.

Keywords: Dokkaebi, post-colonial period, representation, tourist marketing

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