Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7679

Search results for: atmospheric parameters

7679 Determination of Direct Solar Radiation Using Atmospheric Physics Models

Authors: Pattra Pukdeekiat, Siriluk Ruangrungrote


This work was originated to precisely determine direct solar radiation by using atmospheric physics models since the accurate prediction of solar radiation is necessary and useful for solar energy applications including atmospheric research. The possible models and techniques for a calculation of regional direct solar radiation were challenging and compulsory for the case of unavailable instrumental measurement. The investigation was mathematically governed by six astronomical parameters i.e. declination (δ), hour angle (ω), solar time, solar zenith angle (θz), extraterrestrial radiation (Iso) and eccentricity (E0) along with two atmospheric parameters i.e. air mass (mr) and dew point temperature at Bangna meteorological station (13.67° N, 100.61° E) in Bangkok, Thailand. Analyses of five models of solar radiation determination with the assumption of clear sky were applied accompanied by three statistical tests: Mean Bias Difference (MBD), Root Mean Square Difference (RMSD) and Coefficient of determination (R2) in order to validate the accuracy of obtainable results. The calculated direct solar radiation was in a range of 491-505 Watt/m2 with relative percentage error 8.41% for winter and 532-540 Watt/m2 with relative percentage error 4.89% for summer 2014. Additionally, dataset of seven continuous days, representing both seasons were considered with the MBD, RMSD and R2 of -0.08, 0.25, 0.86 and -0.14, 0.35, 3.29, respectively, which belong to Kumar model for winter and CSR model for summer. In summary, the determination of direct solar radiation based on atmospheric models and empirical equations could advantageously provide immediate and reliable values of the solar components for any site in the region without a constraint of actual measurement.

Keywords: atmospheric physics models, astronomical parameters, atmospheric parameters, clear sky condition

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7678 A Statistical Analysis on Relationship between Temperature Variations with Latitude and Altitude regarding Total Amount of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide in Iran

Authors: Masoumeh Moghbel


Nowadays, carbon dioxide which is produced by human activities is considered as the main effective factor in the global warming occurrence. Regarding to the role of CO2 and its ability in trapping the heat, the main objective of this research is study the effect of atmospheric CO2 (which is recorded in Manaloa) on variations of temperature parameters (daily mean temperature, minimum temperature and maximum temperature) in 5 meteorological stations in Iran which were selected according to the latitude and altitude in 40 years statistical period. Firstly, the trend of temperature parameters was studied by Regression and none-graphical Man-Kendal methods. Then, relation between temperature variations and CO2 were studied by Correlation technique. Also, the impact of CO2 amount on temperature in different atmospheric levels (850 and 500 hpa) was analyzed. The results illustrated that correlation coefficient between temperature variations and CO2 in low latitudes and high altitudes is more significant rather than other regions. it is important to note that altitude as the one of the main geographic factor has limitation in affecting the temperature variations, so that correlation coefficient between these two parameters in 850 hpa (r=0.86) is more significant than 500 hpa (r = 0.62).

Keywords: altitude, atmospheric carbon dioxide, latitude, temperature variations

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7677 The Effect of Global Solar Variations on the Performance of n- AlGaAs/ p-GaAs Solar Cells

Authors: A. Guechi, M. Chegaar


This study investigates how AlGaAs/GaAs thin film solar cells perform under varying global solar spectrum due to the changes of environmental parameters such as the air mass and the atmospheric turbidity. The solar irradiance striking the solar cell is simulated using the spectral irradiance model SMARTS2 (Simple Model of the Atmospheric Radiative Transfer of Sunshine) for clear skies on the site of Setif (Algeria). The results show a reduction in the short circuit current due to increasing atmospheric turbidity, it is 63.09% under global radiation. However increasing air mass leads to a reduction in the short circuit current of 81.73%.The efficiency decrease with increasing atmospheric turbidity and air mass.

Keywords: AlGaAs/GaAs, solar cells, environmental parameters, spectral variation, SMARTS

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7676 AI/ML Atmospheric Parameters Retrieval Using the “Atmospheric Retrievals conditional Generative Adversarial Network (ARcGAN)”

Authors: Thomas Monahan, Nicolas Gorius, Thanh Nguyen


Exoplanet atmospheric parameters retrieval is a complex, computationally intensive, inverse modeling problem in which an exoplanet’s atmospheric composition is extracted from an observed spectrum. Traditional Bayesian sampling methods require extensive time and computation, involving algorithms that compare large numbers of known atmospheric models to the input spectral data. Runtimes are directly proportional to the number of parameters under consideration. These increased power and runtime requirements are difficult to accommodate in space missions where model size, speed, and power consumption are of particular importance. The use of traditional Bayesian sampling methods, therefore, compromise model complexity or sampling accuracy. The Atmospheric Retrievals conditional Generative Adversarial Network (ARcGAN) is a deep convolutional generative adversarial network that improves on the previous model’s speed and accuracy. We demonstrate the efficacy of artificial intelligence to quickly and reliably predict atmospheric parameters and present it as a viable alternative to slow and computationally heavy Bayesian methods. In addition to its broad applicability across instruments and planetary types, ARcGAN has been designed to function on low power application-specific integrated circuits. The application of edge computing to atmospheric retrievals allows for real or near-real-time quantification of atmospheric constituents at the instrument level. Additionally, edge computing provides both high-performance and power-efficient computing for AI applications, both of which are critical for space missions. With the edge computing chip implementation, ArcGAN serves as a strong basis for the development of a similar machine-learning algorithm to reduce the downlinked data volume from the Compact Ultraviolet to Visible Imaging Spectrometer (CUVIS) onboard the DAVINCI mission to Venus.

Keywords: deep learning, generative adversarial network, edge computing, atmospheric parameters retrieval

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7675 Production of Plum (Prunus Cerasifera) Concentrate as Edible Color and Evaluation of Color Change Kinetics

Authors: Azade Ghorbani-HasanSaraei, Seyed-Ahmad Shahidi, Sakineh Alizadeh, Adeleh Maghsoudlou


Improvement of color, as a quality attribute of Plum Concentrate, has been made possible by the increase in knowledge of kinetic of color change. Three different heating/evaporation processes were employed for the production of pPlum juice concentrate. The Plum juice was concentrated to a final 55 °Bx from an initial °Bx of 15 by microwave heating, rotary vacuum evaporator and evaporating at atmospheric pressure. The final Plum juice concentration of 55 °Bx was achieved in 17, 24 and 57 min by using the microwave, rotary vacuum and atmospheric heating processes, respectively. The colour change during concentration processes was investigated. Total colour differences, Hunter L, a and b parameters were used to estimate the extent of colour loss. All Hunter colour parameters decreased with time. The zero-order, first-order and a combined kinetics model were applied to the changes in colour parameters. Results indicated that variation in TCD followed both first-order and combined kinetics models, and parameters L, a and b followed only combined model. This model implied that the colour formation and pigment destruction occurred during concentration processes of plum juice.

Keywords: colour, kinetics, concentration, plum juice

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7674 GIS Based Atmospheric Analysis to Predict Future Temperature Rise Caused by Land Use and Land Cover in Okara by Using Environmental Remote Sensing

Authors: Sumaira Hafeez, Saira Akram


Albeit the populace in metropolitan regions on the planet develops each year, the urban communities battling to adapt to the expanded metropolitan movement grow at different rates. Land Surface Temperature and other atmospheric parameters of the area of not really settled using Landsat pictures more than 10 years isolated. The LULC types were moreover arranged using managed gathering techniques. Quick urbanization is changing the current examples of Land Use Land Cover (LULC) all around the world, which is thusly expanding the Land Surface Temperature (LST) other atmospheric parameters in numerous districts. Present review was centered around assessing the current and recreating the future LULC and Land Surface Temperature patterns in the elevated climate of lower Himalayan district of Pakistan. Past examples of LULC and Land Surface Temperature were distinguished through the multi-unearthly Landsat satellite pictures during the 1995–2019 information period. The future forecasts were made for the year 2030 to work out LULC and LST changes separately, utilizing their previous examples. The review presumes that the reliably extending encroachment of the city's as of late advanced provincial regions over the totally open have went with an overall warming of the district's typical. Meteorological parameters over the earlier ten years and that permitting the land to lie void for a significant long time resulting to clearing the country fields for future metropolitan improvement is a preparation that has lamentable natural effects.

Keywords: surface urban heat island, land surface temperature, urban climate change, spatial analysis of meterological and atmospheric science

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7673 Modelling Kinetics of Colour Degradation in American Pokeweed (Phytolacca americana) Extract Concentration

Authors: Seyed-Ahmad Shahidi, Salemeh Kazemzadeh, Mehdi Sharifi Soltani, Azade Ghorbani-HasanSaraei


The kinetics of colour changes of American Pokeweed extract, due to concentration by various heating methods was studied. Three different heating/evaporation processes were employed for production of American Pokeweed extract concentrate. The American Pokeweed extract was concentrated to a final 40 °Brix from an initial °Brix of 4 by microwave heating, rotary vacuum evaporator and evaporating at atmospheric pressure. The final American Pokeweed extract concentration of 40 °Brix was achieved in 188, 216 and 320 min by using microwave, rotary vacuum and atmospheric heating processes, respectively. The colour change during concentration processes was investigated. Total colour differences, Hunter L, a and b parameters were used to estimate the extent of colour loss. All Hunter colour parameters decreased with time. The zero-order, first-order and a combined kinetics model were applied to the changes in colour parameters. All models were found to describe the L, a and b-data adequately. Results indicated that variation in TCD followed both first-order and combined kinetics models. This model implied that the colour formation and pigment destruction occurred during concentration processes of American Pokeweed extract.

Keywords: American pokeweed, colour, concentration, kinetics

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7672 Atmospheric Plasma Treatment to Improve Water and Oil Repellent Finishing for PET and PET/Spandex Fabrics

Authors: Mehtap Çalışkan, Nilüfer Yıldız Varan, Volkan Kaplan


In this study, the effects of an atmospheric plasma treatment on the durability of water and oil repellent finishes of PET and PET/Spandex fabrics were tested. Fabrics were treated with a low-frequency atmospheric pressure glow discharge. After plasma treatments, the water and oil repellent finishes were applied using pad-dry-cure method. It was observed that plasma treatments improved the durability finish for all fabrics.

Keywords: atmospheric plasma, durable coating, oil repellency, PET/spandex fabrics, water repellency

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7671 Direct Synthesis of Composite Materials Type MCM-41/ZSM-5 by Hydrothermal at Atmospheric Pressure in Sealed Pyrex Tubes

Authors: Zoubida Lounis, Naouel Boumesla, Abd El Kader Bengueddach


The main objective of this study is to synthesize a composite materials by direct synthesis at atmospheric pression having the MFI structure and MCM-41 by using double structuring. In the first part of this work we are interested in the study of the synthesis parameters, in addition to temperature, the crystallization time and pH. The second part of this work is to vary the ratio of the concentrations of both structuring C9 [C9H19(CH3)3NBr] and C16 [C16H33(CH3)3NBr] and determining the area of formation of the two materials (microporous and mesoporous at same time), for this reason we performed a battery of experiments ranging from 0 to 100% for both structural. To enhance the economic purposes of this study, the experiments were carried out by using very cheap and simple process, the pyrex tubes were used instead of the reactors, and the synthesis were done at atmospheric pressure and moderate temperature. The final products (composite materials) were obtained at high and pure quality.

Keywords: composite materials, syntheisis, catalysts, mesoporous materials, microporous materials

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7670 Learning Materials of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Process: Turning Hydrophilic Surface to Hydrophobic

Authors: C.W. Kan


This paper investigates the use of atmospheric pressure plasma for improving the surface hydrophobicity of polyurethane synthetic leather with tetramethylsilane (TMS). The atmospheric pressure plasma treatment with TMS is a single-step process to enhance the hydrophobicity of polyurethane synthetic leather. The hydrophobicity of the treated surface was examined by contact angle measurement. The physical and chemical surface changes were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The purpose of this paper is to provide learning materials for understanding how to use atmospheric pressure plasma in the textile finishing process to transform a hydrophilic surface to hydrophobic.

Keywords: Learning materials, atmospheric pressure plasma treatment, hydrophobic, hydrophilic, surface

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7669 Influence of Long-Term Variability in Atmospheric Parameters on Ocean State over the Head Bay of Bengal

Authors: Anindita Patra, Prasad K. Bhaskaran


The atmosphere-ocean is a dynamically linked system that influences the exchange of energy, mass, and gas at the air-sea interface. The exchange of energy takes place in the form of sensible heat, latent heat, and momentum commonly referred to as fluxes along the atmosphere-ocean boundary. The large scale features such as El Nino and Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a classic example on the interaction mechanism that occurs along the air-sea interface that deals with the inter-annual variability of the Earth’s Climate System. Most importantly the ocean and atmosphere as a coupled system acts in tandem thereby maintaining the energy balance of the climate system, a manifestation of the coupled air-sea interaction process. The present work is an attempt to understand the long-term variability in atmospheric parameters (from surface to upper levels) and investigate their role in influencing the surface ocean variables. More specifically the influence of atmospheric circulation and its variability influencing the mean Sea Level Pressure (SLP) has been explored. The study reports on a critical examination of both ocean-atmosphere parameters during a monsoon season over the head Bay of Bengal region. A trend analysis has been carried out for several atmospheric parameters such as the air temperature, geo-potential height, and omega (vertical velocity) for different vertical levels in the atmosphere (from surface to the troposphere) covering a period from 1992 to 2012. The Reanalysis 2 dataset from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction-Department of Energy (NCEP-DOE) was used in this study. The study signifies that the variability in air temperature and omega corroborates with the variation noticed in geo-potential height. Further, the study advocates that for the lower atmosphere the geo-potential heights depict a typical east-west contrast exhibiting a zonal dipole behavior over the study domain. In addition, the study clearly brings to light that the variations over different levels in the atmosphere plays a pivotal role in supporting the observed dipole pattern as clearly evidenced from the trends in SLP, associated surface wind speed and significant wave height over the study domain.

Keywords: air temperature, geopotential height, head Bay of Bengal, long-term variability, NCEP reanalysis 2, omega, wind-waves

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7668 Numerical Modelling of Wind Dispersal Seeds of Bromeliad Tillandsia recurvata L. (L.) Attached to Electric Power Lines

Authors: Bruna P. De Souza, Ricardo C. De Almeida


In some cities in the State of Parana – Brazil and in other countries atmospheric bromeliads (Tillandsia spp - Bromeliaceae) are considered weeds in trees, electric power lines, satellite dishes and other artificial supports. In this study, a numerical model was developed to simulate the seed dispersal of the Tillandsia recurvata species by wind with the objective of evaluating seeds displacement in the city of Ponta Grossa – PR, Brazil, since it is considered that the region is already infested. The model simulates the dispersal of each individual seed integrating parameters from the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) and the local wind, simulated by the Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale atmospheric model for the 2012 to 2015 period. The dispersal model also incorporates the approximate number of bromeliads and source height data collected from most infested electric power lines. The seeds terminal velocity, which is an important input data but was not available in the literature, was measured by an experiment with fifty-one seeds of Tillandsia recurvata. Wind is the main dispersal agent acting on plumed seeds whereas atmospheric turbulence is a determinant factor to transport the seeds to distances beyond 200 meters as well as to introduce random variability in the seed dispersal process. Such variability was added to the model through the application of an Inverse Fast Fourier Transform to wind velocity components energy spectra based on boundary-layer meteorology theory and estimated from micrometeorological parameters produced by the WRF model. Seasonal and annual wind means were obtained from the surface wind data simulated by WRF for Ponta Grossa. The mean wind direction is assumed to be the most probable direction of bromeliad seed trajectory. Moreover, the atmospheric turbulence effect and dispersal distances were analyzed in order to identify likely regions of infestation around Ponta Grossa urban area. It is important to mention that this model could be applied to any species and local as long as seed’s biological data and meteorological data for the region of interest are available.

Keywords: atmospheric turbulence, bromeliad, numerical model, seed dispersal, terminal velocity, wind

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7667 Atmospheric Circulation Drivers Of Nationally-Aggregated Wind Energy Production Over Greece

Authors: Kostas Philippopoulos, Chris G. Tzanis, Despina Deligiorgi


Climate change adaptation requires the exploitation of renewable energy sources such as wind. However, climate variability can affect the regional wind energy potential and consequently the available wind power production. The goal of the research project is to examine the impact of atmospheric circulation on wind energy production over Greece. In the context of synoptic climatology, the proposed novel methodology employs Self-Organizing Maps for grouping and classifying the atmospheric circulation and nationally-aggregated capacity factor time series for a 30-year period. The results indicate the critical effect of atmospheric circulation on the national aggregated wind energy production values and therefore address the issue of optimum distribution of wind farms for a specific region.

Keywords: wind energy, atmospheric circulation, capacity factor, self-organizing maps

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7666 Temperature Calculation for an Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet by Optical Emission Spectroscopy

Authors: H. Lee, Jr., L. Bo-ot, R. Tumlos, H. Ramos


The objective of the study is to be able to calculate excitation and vibrational temperatures of a 2.45 GHz microwave-induced atmospheric pressure plasma jet. The plasma jet utilizes Argon gas as a primary working gas, while Nitrogen is utilized as a shroud gas for protecting the quartz tube from the plasma discharge. Through Optical Emission Spectroscopy (OES), various emission spectra were acquired from the plasma discharge. Selected lines from Ar I and N2 I emissions were used for the Boltzmann plot technique. The Boltzmann plots yielded values for the excitation and vibrational temperatures. The various values for the temperatures were plotted against varying parameters such as the gas flow rates.

Keywords: plasma jet, OES, Boltzmann plots, vibrational temperatures

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7665 An Improved Atmospheric Correction Method with Diurnal Temperature Cycle Model for MSG-SEVIRI TIR Data under Clear Sky Condition

Authors: Caixia Gao, Chuanrong Li, Lingli Tang, Lingling Ma, Yonggang Qian, Ning Wang


Knowledge of land surface temperature (LST) is of crucial important in energy balance studies and environment modeling. Satellite thermal infrared (TIR) imagery is the primary source for retrieving LST at the regional and global scales. Due to the combination of atmosphere and land surface of received radiance by TIR sensors, atmospheric effect correction has to be performed to remove the atmospheric transmittance and upwelling radiance. Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) onboard Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) provides measurements every 15 minutes in 12 spectral channels covering from visible to infrared spectrum at fixed view angles with 3km pixel size at nadir, offering new and unique capabilities for LST, LSE measurements. However, due to its high temporal resolution, the atmosphere correction could not be performed with radiosonde profiles or reanalysis data since these profiles are not available at all SEVIRI TIR image acquisition times. To solve this problem, a two-part six-parameter semi-empirical diurnal temperature cycle (DTC) model has been applied to the temporal interpolation of ECMWF reanalysis data. Due to the fact that the DTC model is underdetermined with ECMWF data at four synoptic times (UTC times: 00:00, 06:00, 12:00, 18:00) in one day for each location, some approaches are adopted in this study. It is well known that the atmospheric transmittance and upwelling radiance has a relationship with water vapour content (WVC). With the aid of simulated data, the relationship could be determined under each viewing zenith angle for each SEVIRI TIR channel. Thus, the atmospheric transmittance and upwelling radiance are preliminary removed with the aid of instantaneous WVC, which is retrieved from the brightness temperature in the SEVIRI channels 5, 9 and 10, and a group of the brightness temperatures for surface leaving radiance (Tg) are acquired. Subsequently, a group of the six parameters of the DTC model is fitted with these Tg by a Levenberg-Marquardt least squares algorithm (denoted as DTC model 1). Although the retrieval error of WVC and the approximate relationships between WVC and atmospheric parameters would induce some uncertainties, this would not significantly affect the determination of the three parameters, td, ts and β (β is the angular frequency, td is the time where the Tg reaches its maximum, ts is the starting time of attenuation) in DTC model. Furthermore, due to the large fluctuation in temperature and the inaccuracy of the DTC model around sunrise, SEVIRI measurements from two hours before sunrise to two hours after sunrise are excluded. With the knowledge of td , ts, and β, a new DTC model (denoted as DTC model 2) is accurately fitted again with these Tg at UTC times: 05:57, 11:57, 17:57 and 23:57, which is atmospherically corrected with ECMWF data. And then a new group of the six parameters of the DTC model is generated and subsequently, the Tg at any given times are acquired. Finally, this method is applied to SEVIRI data in channel 9 successfully. The result shows that the proposed method could be performed reasonably without assumption and the Tg derived with the improved method is much more consistent with that from radiosonde measurements.

Keywords: atmosphere correction, diurnal temperature cycle model, land surface temperature, SEVIRI

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7664 Atmospheric CO2 Capture via Temperature/Vacuum Swing Adsorption in SIFSIX-3-Ni

Authors: Eleni Tsalaporta, Sebastien Vaesen, James M. D. MacElroy, Wolfgang Schmitt


Carbon dioxide capture has attracted the attention of many governments, industries and scientists over the last few decades, due to the rapid increase in atmospheric CO2 composition, with several studies being conducted in this area over the last few years. In many of these studies, CO2 capture in complex Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) cycles has been associated with high energy consumption despite the promising capture performance of such processes. The purpose of this study is the economic capture of atmospheric carbon dioxide for its transformation into a clean type of energy. A single column Temperature /Vacuum Swing Adsorption (TSA/VSA) process is proposed as an alternative option to multi column Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) processes. The proposed adsorbent is SIFSIX-3-Ni, a newly developed MOF (Metal Organic Framework), with extended CO2 selectivity and capacity. There are three stages involved in this paper: (i) SIFSIX-3-Ni is synthesized and pelletized and its physical and chemical properties are examined before and after the pelletization process, (ii) experiments are designed and undertaken for the estimation of the diffusion and adsorption parameters and limitations for CO2 undergoing capture from the air; and (iii) the CO2 adsorption capacity and dynamical characteristics of SIFSIX-3-Ni are investigated both experimentally and mathematically by employing a single column TSA/VSA, for the capture of atmospheric CO2. This work is further supported by a technical-economical study for the estimation of the investment cost and the energy consumption of the single column TSA/VSA process. The simulations are performed using gProms.

Keywords: carbon dioxide capture, temperature/vacuum swing adsorption, metal organic frameworks, SIFSIX-3-Ni

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7663 Major Mechanisms of Atmospheric Moisture Transport and Their Role in Precipitation Extreme Events in the Amazonia

Authors: Luis Gimeno, Rosmeri da Rocha, Raquel Nieto, Tercio Ambrizzi, Alex Ramos, Anita Drumond


The transport of moisture from oceanic sources to the continents represents the atmospheric branch of the water cycle, forming the connection between evaporation from the ocean and precipitation over the continents. In this regard two large scale dynamical/meteorological structures appear to play a key role, namely Low Level Jet (LLJ) systems and Atmospheric Rivers (ARs). The former are particularly important in tropical and subtropical regions; the latter is mostly confined to extratropical regions. A key question relates to the anomalies in the transport of moisture observed during natural hazards related to extremes of precipitation (i.e., drought or wet spells). In this study we will be focused on these two major atmospheric moisture transport mechanisms (LLJs and ARs) and its role in precipitation extreme events (droughts and wet spells) in the Amazonia paying particular attention to i) intensification (decreasing) of moisture transport by them and its role in wet spells (droughts), and ii) changes in their positions and occurrence with associated flooding and wet spells.

Keywords: droughts, wet spells, amazonia, LLJs, atmospheric rivers

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7662 Comparison of Different Reanalysis Products for Predicting Extreme Precipitation in the Southern Coast of the Caspian Sea

Authors: Parvin Ghafarian, Mohammadreza Mohammadpur Panchah, Mehri Fallahi


Synoptic patterns from surface up to tropopause are very important for forecasting the weather and atmospheric conditions. There are many tools to prepare and analyze these maps. Reanalysis data and the outputs of numerical weather prediction models, satellite images, meteorological radar, and weather station data are used in world forecasting centers to predict the weather. The forecasting extreme precipitating on the southern coast of the Caspian Sea (CS) is the main issue due to complex topography. Also, there are different types of climate in these areas. In this research, we used two reanalysis data such as ECMWF Reanalysis 5th Generation Description (ERA5) and National Centers for Environmental Prediction /National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) for verification of the numerical model. ERA5 is the latest version of ECMWF. The temporal resolution of ERA5 is hourly, and the NCEP/NCAR is every six hours. Some atmospheric parameters such as mean sea level pressure, geopotential height, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, sea surface temperature, etc. were selected and analyzed. Some different type of precipitation (rain and snow) was selected. The results showed that the NCEP/NCAR has more ability to demonstrate the intensity of the atmospheric system. The ERA5 is suitable for extract the value of parameters for specific point. Also, ERA5 is appropriate to analyze the snowfall events over CS (snow cover and snow depth). Sea surface temperature has the main role to generate instability over CS, especially when the cold air pass from the CS. Sea surface temperature of NCEP/NCAR product has low resolution near coast. However, both data were able to detect meteorological synoptic patterns that led to heavy rainfall over CS. However, due to the time lag, they are not suitable for forecast centers. The application of these two data is for research and verification of meteorological models. Finally, ERA5 has a better resolution, respect to NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data, but NCEP/NCAR data is available from 1948 and appropriate for long term research.

Keywords: synoptic patterns, heavy precipitation, reanalysis data, snow

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7661 Wind Turbine Wake Prediction and Validation under a Stably-Stratified Atmospheric Boundary Layer

Authors: Yilei Song, Linlin Tian, Ning Zhao


Turbulence energetics and structures in the wake of large-scale wind turbines under the stably-stratified atmospheric boundary layer (SABL) can be complicated due to the presence of low-level jets (LLJs), a region of higher wind speeds than the geostrophic wind speed. With a modified one-k-equation, eddy viscosity model specified for atmospheric flows as the sub-grid scale (SGS) model, a realistic atmospheric state of the stable ABL is well reproduced by large-eddy simulation (LES) techniques. Corresponding to the precursor stably stratification, the detailed wake properties of a standard 5-MW wind turbine represented as an actuator line model are provided. An engineering model is proposed for wake prediction based on the simulation statistics and gets validated. Results confirm that the proposed wake model can provide good predictions for wind turbines under the SABL.

Keywords: large-eddy simulation, stably-stratified atmospheric boundary layer, wake model, wind turbine wake

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7660 Using ALOHA Code to Evaluate CO2 Concentration for Maanshan Nuclear Power Plant

Authors: W. S. Hsu, S. W. Chen, Y. T. Ku, Y. Chiang, J. R. Wang , J. H. Yang, C. Shih


ALOHA code was used to calculate the concentration under the CO2 storage burst condition for Maanshan nuclear power plant (NPP) in this study. Five main data are input into ALOHA code including location, building, chemical, atmospheric, and source data. The data from Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) and some reports were used in this study. The ALOHA results are compared with the failure criteria of R.G. 1.78 to confirm the habitability of control room. The result of comparison presents that the ALOHA result is below the R.G. 1.78 criteria. This implies that the habitability of control room can be maintained in this case. The sensitivity study for atmospheric parameters was performed in this study. The results show that the wind speed has the larger effect in the concentration calculation.

Keywords: PWR, ALOHA, habitability, Maanshan

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7659 Estimation and Restoration of Ill-Posed Parameters for Underwater Motion Blurred Images

Authors: M. Vimal Raj, S. Sakthivel Murugan


Underwater images degrade their quality due to atmospheric conditions. One of the major problems in an underwater image is motion blur caused by the imaging device or the movement of the object. In order to rectify that in post-imaging, parameters of the blurred image are to be estimated. So, the point spread function is estimated by the properties, using the spectrum of the image. To improve the estimation accuracy of the parameters, Optimized Polynomial Lagrange Interpolation (OPLI) method is implemented after the angle and length measurement of motion-blurred images. Initially, the data were collected from real-time environments in Chennai and processed. The proposed OPLI method shows better accuracy than the existing classical Cepstral, Hough, and Radon transform estimation methods for underwater images.

Keywords: image restoration, motion blur, parameter estimation, radon transform, underwater

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7658 Determination of Iodine and Heavy Metals in Two Brands of Iodised Salt

Authors: Z. O. Apotiola, J. F. Fashakin


A study was conducted to investigate the storage stability of Mr Chef and Annapurna salts. The salts were bought from Mile 12 market in Lagos State and were stored for a period of six months. The stability of the iodine content was then investigated by storing some at ambient temperature (24-30oC) and some at atmospheric temperature (21-35 oC), and from each storage condition, a sample each was taken every month to analyze for the iodine and moisture contents. The result shows that there was a significant difference between Mr Chef and the standard and Annapurna and the standard. The iodine content of Mr Chef stored at ambient and atmospheric temperature decreases progressively from 48.70±0.00-37.00±0.00 and 47.60±0.00-11.60±0.00 respectively. And that of Annapurna at both ambient and atmospheric temperature also decreases progressively from 47.60±0.00-36.60±0.00 and 47.60±0.00-10.60±0.00 respectively. Also, the moisture content of both salts at the zero month to the sixth month both at room temperature and atmospheric temperature increases from 1.11±0.00-1.70±0.00 and 1.11±0.00-2.40±0.00 respectively. The results of the heavy metals shows that only Copper, Zinc and Cobalt were detected at the first and the sixth month in both Mr Chef and Annapurna which ranges from 0.15±0.00-0.38±0.00 and 0.18±0.00 - 3.50±0.00 respectively. Hence, the stability of iodine in salt is influenced by the storage conditions it is subjected to and the length of time it is been stored.

Keywords: salt, iodine, stability, ambient, atmospheric temperature

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7657 Study of the Tribological Behavior of a Sliding Contact Brass-Steel Couple with Electrical Current

Authors: C. Boubechou, A. Bouchoucha, H. Zaidi


The aim of this paper is to study the tribological behavior of a dynamic contact steel-brass couple with electric current. This study looks at a dry contact brass-steel couple where friction and wear are studied in terms of mechanical and electrical parameters. For this reason, a tribometer, pin-rotary disc is used in an atmospheric atmosphere. The test parameters are as follows: the normal load (5-30N), the sliding speed (0.1 to 0.5 m / s) and the electric current (3-10A). The duration of each test is 30 minutes. The experimental results show that these parameters have a significant effect on the tribological behavior of the couple studied. The discussion of results is based on observations, using an optical microscope, MEB and a profilometer, worn surfaces and interface phenomena resulting from the process of sliding contact.

Keywords: brass-steel couple, dry friction, electrical current, morphology, normal load, sliding speeds, wear

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7656 Optimizing the Efficiency of Measuring Instruments in Ouagadougou-Burkina Faso

Authors: Moses Emetere, Marvel Akinyemi, S. E. Sanni


At the moment, AERONET or AMMA database shows a large volume of data loss. With only about 47% data set available to the scientist, it is evident that accurate nowcast or forecast cannot be guaranteed. The calibration constants of most radiosonde or weather stations are not compatible with the atmospheric conditions of the West African climate. A dispersion model was developed to incorporate salient mathematical representations like a Unified number. The Unified number was derived to describe the turbulence of the aerosols transport in the frictional layer of the lower atmosphere. Fourteen years data set from Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) was tested using the dispersion model. A yearly estimation of the atmospheric constants over Ouagadougou using the model was obtained with about 87.5% accuracy. It further revealed that the average atmospheric constant for Ouagadougou-Niger is a_1 = 0.626, a_2 = 0.7999 and the tuning constants is n_1 = 0.09835 and n_2 = 0.266. Also, the yearly atmospheric constants affirmed the lower atmosphere of Ouagadougou is very dynamic. Hence, it is recommended that radiosonde and weather station manufacturers should constantly review the atmospheric constant over a geographical location to enable about eighty percent data retrieval.

Keywords: aerosols retention, aerosols loading, statistics, analytical technique

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7655 Wicking and Evaporation of Liquids in Knitted Fabrics: Analytic Solution of Capillary Rise Restrained by Gravity and Evaporation

Authors: N. S. Achour, M. Hamdaoui, S. Ben Nasrallah


Wicking and evaporation of water in porous knitted fabrics is investigated by combining experimental and analytical approaches: The standard wicking model from Lucas and Washburn is enhanced to account for evaporation and gravity effects. The goal is to model the effect of gravity and evaporation on wicking using simple analytical expressions and investigate the influence of fabrics geometrical parameters, such as porosity and thickness on evaporation impact on maximum reachable height values. The results show that fabric properties have a significant influence on evaporation effect. In this paper, an experimental study of determining water kinetics from different knitted fabrics were gravimetrically investigated permitting the measure of the mass and the height of liquid rising in fabrics in various atmospheric conditions. From these measurements, characteristic pore parameters (capillary radius and permeability) can be determined.

Keywords: evaporation, experimental study, geometrical parameters, model, porous knitted fabrics, wicking

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7654 The Realization of a System’s State Space Based on Markov Parameters by Using Flexible Neural Networks

Authors: Ali Isapour, Ramin Nateghi


— Markov parameters are unique parameters of the system and remain unchanged under similarity transformations. Markov parameters from a power series that is convergent only if the system matrix’s eigenvalues are inside the unity circle. Therefore, Markov parameters of a stable discrete-time system are convergent. In this study, we aim to realize the system based on Markov parameters by using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), and this end, we use Flexible Neural Networks. Realization means determining the elements of matrices A, B, C, and D.

Keywords: Markov parameters, realization, activation function, flexible neural network

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7653 Impact of Climate Change on Some Physiological Parameters of Cyclic Female Egyptian Buffalo

Authors: Nabil Abu-Heakal, Ismail Abo-Ghanema, Basma Hamed Merghani


The aim of this investigation is to study the effect of seasonal variations in Egypt on hematological parameters, reproductive and metabolic hormones of Egyptian buffalo-cows. This study lasted one year extending from December 2009 to November 2010 and was conducted on sixty buffalo-cows. Group of 5 buffalo-cows at estrus phase were selected monthly. Then, after blood sampling through tail vein puncture in the 2nd day after natural service, they were divided in two samples: one with anticoagulant for hematological analysis and the other without anticoagulant for serum separation. Results of this investigation revealed that the highest atmospheric temperature was in hot summer 32.61±1.12°C versus 26.18±1.67°C in spring and 19.92±0.70°C in winter season, while the highest relative humidity % was in winter season 43.50±1.60% versus 32.50±2.29% in summer season. The rise in temperature-humidity index from 63.73±1.29 in winter to 78.53±1.58 in summer indicates severe heat stress which is associated with significant reduction in total red blood cell count (3.20±0.15×106), hemoglobin concentration (8.83±0.43 g/dl), packed cell volume (30.73±0.12%), lymphocytes % (40.66±2.33 %), serum progesterone hormone concentration (0.56±0.03 ng/mll), estradiol17-B concentration (16.8±0.64 ng/ml), triiodothyronin (T3) concentration (2.33±0.33 ng/ml) and thyroxin hormone (T4) concentration (21.66±1.66 ng/ml), while hot summer resulted in significant increase in mean cell volume (96.55±2.25 fl), mean cell hemoglobin (30.81±1.33 pg), total white blood cell count (10.63±0.97×103), neutrophils % (49.66±2.33%), serum prolactin hormone (PRL) concentration (23.45±1.72 ng/ml) and cortisol hormone concentration (4.47±0.33 ng/ml) compared to winter season. There was no significant seasonal variation in mean cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). It was concluded that in Egypt there was a seasonal variation in atmospheric temperature, relative humidity, temperature humidity index (THI) and the rise in THI above the upper critical level (72 units), which, for lactating buffalo-cows in Egypt is the major constraint on buffalo-cows' hematological parameters and hormonal secretion that affects animal reproduction. Hence, we should improve climatic conditions inside the dairy farm to eliminate or reduce summer infertility.

Keywords: buffalo, climate change, Egypt, physiological parameters

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7652 Ranking of Managerial Parameters Impacting upon Performance of Football Referees in Iran

Authors: Mohammad Reza Boromand, Masoud Moradi, Amin Eskandari


The present study attempts to determine ranking of managerial parameters impacting upon performance of football referees in Iran. The population consisted of all referees in Leagues 1, 2 and 3 as well as super league of Iran (N=273), of which we selected 160 referees and assistant referees in 2013-2014. A research-designed questionnaire was used for data collection which was divided into two sections: (1) Demographic details (age range, Marital status, employment, refereeing experience, education level, refereeing level and proficiency) and (2) items related to parameters impacting upon performance of referees (structural parameters, operational parameters, environmental parameters, temporal parameters, economic parameters, facilities and tools, personal performance and performance evaluation). Internal consistency was calculated by Cronbach's alpha (r=0.85). For data analysis, we performed Freedman's Test and used SPSS software (α>0.05), along with descriptive statistics. The findings showed the following ranking for the above-mentioned managerial parameters: Facilities and tools, personal performance, economic parameters, structural parameters, operational parameters, environmental parameters, temporal parameters, and performance evaluation.

Keywords: Iran, football referees, managerial parameters, performance

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7651 Atmospheric Pressure Microwave Plasma System and Its Applications

Authors: Waqas A. Toor, Anis U. Baig, Nuaman Shafqat, Raafia Irfan, Muhammad Ashraf


A 2.45GHz microwave plasma system and its few applications have been developed. Argon and helium plasma is produced by metallic nozzle and also in a quartz tube at atmospheric pressure, using WR-340 waveguide and its tapered version. The waveguide applicator is also simulated in HFSS and field patterns are analyzed for maximum power absorption in the load. The system is tuned to operate at less than 10% reflected power. Various experimental techniques are used to initiate and sustain the plasma at atmospheric pressure. Plasma of atmospheric air is also produced without using any other shielding gas. The plasma flame is also characterized by its spectrum. Spectral analyses of plasma flame can be used for online analysis of combustion gases produced in industry. The applications of the system include glass and quartz processing, vitrification, emission spectroscopy, plasma coating. Low pressure plasma applications of the system include intense UV light for water purification and ozone generation.

Keywords: HFSS high frequency structure simulator, Microwave plasma, UV ultraviolet, WR rectangular waveguide

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7650 Utilizing Waste Heat from Thermal Power Plants to Generate Power by Modelling an Atmospheric Vortex Engine

Authors: Mohammed Nabeel Khan, C. Perisamy


Convective vortices are normal highlights of air that ingest lower-entropy-energy at higher temperatures than they dismiss higher-entropy-energy to space. By means of the thermodynamic proficiency, it has been anticipated that the force of convective vortices relies upon the profundity of the convective layer. The atmospheric vortex engine is proposed as a gadget for delivering mechanical energy by methods for artificially produced vortex. The task of the engine is in view of the certainties that the environment is warmed from the base and cooled from the top. By generation of the artificial vortex, it is planned to take out the physical solar updraft tower and decrease the capital of the solar chimney power plants. The study shows the essentials of the atmospheric vortex engine, furthermore, audits the cutting edge in subject. Moreover, the study talks about a thought on using the solar energy as heat source to work the framework. All in all, the framework is attainable and promising for electrical power production.

Keywords: AVE, atmospheric vortex engine, atmosphere, updraft, vortex

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