Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5874

Search results for: atmospheric physics models

5874 Determination of Direct Solar Radiation Using Atmospheric Physics Models

Authors: Pattra Pukdeekiat, Siriluk Ruangrungrote


This work was originated to precisely determine direct solar radiation by using atmospheric physics models since the accurate prediction of solar radiation is necessary and useful for solar energy applications including atmospheric research. The possible models and techniques for a calculation of regional direct solar radiation were challenging and compulsory for the case of unavailable instrumental measurement. The investigation was mathematically governed by six astronomical parameters i.e. declination (δ), hour angle (ω), solar time, solar zenith angle (θz), extraterrestrial radiation (Iso) and eccentricity (E0) along with two atmospheric parameters i.e. air mass (mr) and dew point temperature at Bangna meteorological station (13.67° N, 100.61° E) in Bangkok, Thailand. Analyses of five models of solar radiation determination with the assumption of clear sky were applied accompanied by three statistical tests: Mean Bias Difference (MBD), Root Mean Square Difference (RMSD) and Coefficient of determination (R2) in order to validate the accuracy of obtainable results. The calculated direct solar radiation was in a range of 491-505 Watt/m2 with relative percentage error 8.41% for winter and 532-540 Watt/m2 with relative percentage error 4.89% for summer 2014. Additionally, dataset of seven continuous days, representing both seasons were considered with the MBD, RMSD and R2 of -0.08, 0.25, 0.86 and -0.14, 0.35, 3.29, respectively, which belong to Kumar model for winter and CSR model for summer. In summary, the determination of direct solar radiation based on atmospheric models and empirical equations could advantageously provide immediate and reliable values of the solar components for any site in the region without a constraint of actual measurement.

Keywords: atmospheric physics models, astronomical parameters, atmospheric parameters, clear sky condition

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5873 Teaching Physics: History, Models, and Transformation of Physics Education Research

Authors: N. Didiş Körhasan, D. Kaltakçı Gürel


Many students have difficulty in learning physics from elementary to university level. In addition, students' expectancy, attitude, and motivation may be influenced negatively with their experience (failure) and prejudice about physics learning. For this reason, physics educators, who are also physics teachers, search for the best ways to make students' learning of physics easier by considering cognitive, affective, and psychomotor issues in learning. This research critically discusses the history of physics education, fundamental pedagogical approaches, and models to teach physics, and transformation of physics education with recent research.

Keywords: pedagogy, physics, physics education, science education

Procedia PDF Downloads 177
5872 Analysis of Atomic Models in High School Physics Textbooks

Authors: Meng-Fei Cheng, Wei Fneg


New Taiwan high school standards emphasize employing scientific models and modeling practices in physics learning. However, to our knowledge. Few studies address how scientific models and modeling are approached in current science teaching, and they do not examine the views of scientific models portrayed in the textbooks. To explore the views of scientific models and modeling in textbooks, this study investigated the atomic unit in different textbook versions as an example and provided suggestions for modeling curriculum. This study adopted a quantitative analysis of qualitative data in the atomic units of four mainstream version of Taiwan high school physics textbooks. The models were further analyzed using five dimensions of the views of scientific models (nature of models, multiple models, purpose of the models, testing models, and changing models); each dimension had three levels (low, medium, high). Descriptive statistics were employed to compare the frequency of describing the five dimensions of the views of scientific models in the atomic unit to understand the emphasis of the views and to compare the frequency of the eight scientific models’ use to investigate the atomic model that was used most often in the textbooks. Descriptive statistics were further utilized to investigate the average levels of the five dimensions of the views of scientific models to examine whether the textbooks views were close to the scientific view. The average level of the five dimensions of the eight atomic models were also compared to examine whether the views of the eight atomic models were close to the scientific views. The results revealed the following three major findings from the atomic unit. (1) Among the five dimensions of the views of scientific models, the most portrayed dimension was the 'purpose of models,' and the least portrayed dimension was 'multiple models.' The most diverse view was the 'purpose of models,' and the most sophisticated scientific view was the 'nature of models.' The least sophisticated scientific view was 'multiple models.' (2) Among the eight atomic models, the most mentioned model was the atomic nucleus model, and the least mentioned model was the three states of matter. (3) Among the correlations between the five dimensions, the dimension of 'testing models' was highly related to the dimension of 'changing models.' In short, this study examined the views of scientific models based on the atomic units of physics textbooks to identify the emphasized and disregarded views in the textbooks. The findings suggest how future textbooks and curriculum can provide a thorough view of scientific models to enhance students' model-based learning.

Keywords: atomic models, textbooks, science education, scientific model

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5871 Mobile Games Applications Android-Based Physics Education to Improve Student Motivation and Interest in Learning Physics

Authors: Rizky Dwi A, Mikha Herlina Pi


Physics lessons for high school students, especially in Indonesia is less desirable because many people believe that physics is very difficult, especially the development of increasingly sophisticated era make online gaming more attractive many people especially school children with a variety of increasingly sophisticated gadgets. Therefore, if those two things combined to attract students in physics, the physics-based educational game android can motivate students' interest and understanding of the physics because while playing, they can also learn physics.

Keywords: education, game physics, interest, student's motivation

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
5870 Modeling of Diurnal Pattern of Air Temperature in a Tropical Environment: Ile-Ife and Ibadan, Nigeria

Authors: Rufus Temidayo Akinnubi, M. O. Adeniyi


Existing diurnal air temperature models simulate night time air temperature over Nigeria with high biases. An improved parameterization is presented for modeling the diurnal pattern of air temperature (Ta) which is applicable in the calculation of turbulent heat fluxes in Global climate models, based on Nigeria Micrometeorological Experimental site (NIMEX) surface layer observations. Five diurnal Ta models for estimating hourly Ta from daily maximum, daily minimum, and daily mean air temperature were validated using root-mean-square error (RMSE), Mean Error Bias (MBE) and scatter graphs. The original Fourier series model showed better performance for unstable air temperature parameterizations while the stable Ta was strongly overestimated with a large error. The model was improved with the inclusion of the atmospheric cooling rate that accounts for the temperature inversion that occurs during the nocturnal boundary layer condition. The MBE and RMSE estimated by the modified Fourier series model reduced by 4.45 oC and 3.12 oC during the transitional period from dry to wet stable atmospheric conditions. The modified Fourier series model gave good estimation of the diurnal weather patterns of Ta when compared with other existing models for a tropical environment.

Keywords: air temperature, mean bias error, Fourier series analysis, surface energy balance,

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
5869 Virtual Practical Work as Formation of Physics Concept for Student

Authors: Sepdiana W. Rahmawati, Santi A. P. Anggraini


The world of education has made progress with the various new technologies with help of computer. No exception physics education, especially virtual physics practical work. By doing practical work, memory of physics concept will be more advantageous for student and they will understand the essence of actual physics, not only spiked formula. With help of computers, created a variety of applications that can be used by students to perform virtual practical work and students will start thinking systematically to be able find its own concepts and understand the application of physics.

Keywords: essence of physics, formation concept, physics concept, virtual practical work

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
5868 AI/ML Atmospheric Parameters Retrieval Using the “Atmospheric Retrievals conditional Generative Adversarial Network (ARcGAN)”

Authors: Thomas Monahan, Nicolas Gorius, Thanh Nguyen


Exoplanet atmospheric parameters retrieval is a complex, computationally intensive, inverse modeling problem in which an exoplanet’s atmospheric composition is extracted from an observed spectrum. Traditional Bayesian sampling methods require extensive time and computation, involving algorithms that compare large numbers of known atmospheric models to the input spectral data. Runtimes are directly proportional to the number of parameters under consideration. These increased power and runtime requirements are difficult to accommodate in space missions where model size, speed, and power consumption are of particular importance. The use of traditional Bayesian sampling methods, therefore, compromise model complexity or sampling accuracy. The Atmospheric Retrievals conditional Generative Adversarial Network (ARcGAN) is a deep convolutional generative adversarial network that improves on the previous model’s speed and accuracy. We demonstrate the efficacy of artificial intelligence to quickly and reliably predict atmospheric parameters and present it as a viable alternative to slow and computationally heavy Bayesian methods. In addition to its broad applicability across instruments and planetary types, ARcGAN has been designed to function on low power application-specific integrated circuits. The application of edge computing to atmospheric retrievals allows for real or near-real-time quantification of atmospheric constituents at the instrument level. Additionally, edge computing provides both high-performance and power-efficient computing for AI applications, both of which are critical for space missions. With the edge computing chip implementation, ArcGAN serves as a strong basis for the development of a similar machine-learning algorithm to reduce the downlinked data volume from the Compact Ultraviolet to Visible Imaging Spectrometer (CUVIS) onboard the DAVINCI mission to Venus.

Keywords: deep learning, generative adversarial network, edge computing, atmospheric parameters retrieval

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5867 A Review of Gas Hydrate Rock Physics Models

Authors: Hemin Yuan, Yun Wang, Xiangchun Wang


Gas hydrate is drawing attention due to the fact that it has an enormous amount all over the world, which is almost twice the conventional hydrocarbon reserves, making it a potential alternative source of energy. It is widely distributed in permafrost and continental ocean shelves, and many countries have launched national programs for investigating the gas hydrate. Gas hydrate is mainly explored through seismic methods, which include bottom simulating reflectors (BSR), amplitude blanking, and polarity reverse. These seismic methods are effective at finding the gas hydrate formations but usually contain large uncertainties when applying to invert the micro-scale petrophysical properties of the formations due to lack of constraints. Rock physics modeling links the micro-scale structures of the rocks to the macro-scale elastic properties and can work as effective constraints for the seismic methods. A number of rock physics models have been proposed for gas hydrate modeling, which addresses different mechanisms and applications. However, these models are generally not well classified, and it is confusing to determine the appropriate model for a specific study. Moreover, since the modeling usually involves multiple models and steps, it is difficult to determine the source of uncertainties. To solve these problems, we summarize the developed models/methods and make four classifications of the models according to the hydrate micro-scale morphology in sediments, the purpose of reservoir characterization, the stage of gas hydrate generation, and the lithology type of hosting sediments. Some sub-categories may overlap each other, but they have different priorities. Besides, we also analyze the priorities of different models, bring up the shortcomings, and explain the appropriate application scenarios. Moreover, by comparing the models, we summarize a general workflow of the modeling procedure, which includes rock matrix forming, dry rock frame generating, pore fluids mixing, and final fluid substitution in the rock frame. These procedures have been widely used in various gas hydrate modeling and have been confirmed to be effective. We also analyze the potential sources of uncertainties in each modeling step, which enables us to clearly recognize the potential uncertainties in the modeling. In the end, we explicate the general problems of the current models, including the influences of pressure and temperature, pore geometry, hydrate morphology, and rock structure change during gas hydrate dissociation and re-generation. We also point out that attenuation is also severely affected by gas hydrate in sediments and may work as an indicator to map gas hydrate concentration. Our work classifies rock physics models of gas hydrate into different categories, generalizes the modeling workflow, analyzes the modeling uncertainties and potential problems, which can facilitate the rock physics characterization of gas hydrate bearding sediments and provide hints for future studies.

Keywords: gas hydrate, rock physics model, modeling classification, hydrate morphology

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5866 Berry Phase and Quantum Skyrmions: A Loop Tour in Physics

Authors: Sinuhé Perea Puente


In several physics systems the whole can be obtained as an exact copy of each of its parts, which facilitates the study of a complex system by looking carefully at its elements, separately. Reducionism offers simplified models which makes the problems easier, but “there’s plenty of the mesoscopic scale”. Here we present a tour for two of its representants: Berry phase and skyrmions, studying some of its basic definitions and properties, and two cases in which both arise together, to finish constraining the scale for our mesoscopic system in the quest of quantum skyrmions, discovering which properties are conserved and which others may be destroyed.

Keywords: condensed mattter, quantum physics, skyrmions, topological defects

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5865 Atmospheric Plasma Treatment to Improve Water and Oil Repellent Finishing for PET and PET/Spandex Fabrics

Authors: Mehtap Çalışkan, Nilüfer Yıldız Varan, Volkan Kaplan


In this study, the effects of an atmospheric plasma treatment on the durability of water and oil repellent finishes of PET and PET/Spandex fabrics were tested. Fabrics were treated with a low-frequency atmospheric pressure glow discharge. After plasma treatments, the water and oil repellent finishes were applied using pad-dry-cure method. It was observed that plasma treatments improved the durability finish for all fabrics.

Keywords: atmospheric plasma, durable coating, oil repellency, PET/spandex fabrics, water repellency

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5864 Learning Materials of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Process: Turning Hydrophilic Surface to Hydrophobic

Authors: C.W. Kan


This paper investigates the use of atmospheric pressure plasma for improving the surface hydrophobicity of polyurethane synthetic leather with tetramethylsilane (TMS). The atmospheric pressure plasma treatment with TMS is a single-step process to enhance the hydrophobicity of polyurethane synthetic leather. The hydrophobicity of the treated surface was examined by contact angle measurement. The physical and chemical surface changes were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The purpose of this paper is to provide learning materials for understanding how to use atmospheric pressure plasma in the textile finishing process to transform a hydrophilic surface to hydrophobic.

Keywords: Learning materials, atmospheric pressure plasma treatment, hydrophobic, hydrophilic, surface

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
5863 Evaluation of Turbulence Prediction over Washington, D.C.: Comparison of DCNet Observations and North American Mesoscale Model Outputs

Authors: Nebila Lichiheb, LaToya Myles, William Pendergrass, Bruce Hicks, Dawson Cagle


Atmospheric transport of hazardous materials in urban areas is increasingly under investigation due to the potential impact on human health and the environment. In response to health and safety concerns, several dispersion models have been developed to analyze and predict the dispersion of hazardous contaminants. The models of interest usually rely on meteorological information obtained from the meteorological models of NOAA’s National Weather Service (NWS). However, due to the complexity of the urban environment, NWS forecasts provide an inadequate basis for dispersion computation in urban areas. A dense meteorological network in Washington, DC, called DCNet, has been operated by NOAA since 2003 to support the development of urban monitoring methodologies and provide the driving meteorological observations for atmospheric transport and dispersion models. This study focuses on the comparison of wind observations from the DCNet station on the U.S. Department of Commerce Herbert C. Hoover Building against the North American Mesoscale (NAM) model outputs for the period 2017-2019. The goal is to develop a simple methodology for modifying NAM outputs so that the dispersion requirements of the city and its urban area can be satisfied. This methodology will allow us to quantify the prediction errors of the NAM model and propose adjustments of key variables controlling dispersion model calculation.

Keywords: meteorological data, Washington D.C., DCNet data, NAM model

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5862 Uncertainty in Near-Term Global Surface Warming Linked to Pacific Trade Wind Variability

Authors: M. Hadi Bordbar, Matthew England, Alex Sen Gupta, Agus Santoso, Andrea Taschetto, Thomas Martin, Wonsun Park, Mojib Latif


Climate models generally simulate long-term reductions in the Pacific Walker Circulation with increasing atmospheric greenhouse gases. However, over two recent decades (1992-2011) there was a strong intensification of the Pacific Trade Winds that is linked with a slowdown in global surface warming. Using large ensembles of multiple climate models forced by increasing atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations and starting from different ocean and/or atmospheric initial conditions, we reveal very diverse 20-year trends in the tropical Pacific climate associated with a considerable uncertainty in the globally averaged surface air temperature (SAT) in each model ensemble. This result suggests low confidence in our ability to accurately predict SAT trends over 20-year timescale only from external forcing. We show, however, that the uncertainty can be reduced when the initial oceanic state is adequately known and well represented in the model. Our analyses suggest that internal variability in the Pacific trade winds can mask the anthropogenic signal over a 20-year time frame, and drive transitions between periods of accelerated global warming and temporary slowdown periods.

Keywords: trade winds, walker circulation, hiatus in the global surface warming, internal climate variability

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5861 Atmospheric Circulation Drivers Of Nationally-Aggregated Wind Energy Production Over Greece

Authors: Kostas Philippopoulos, Chris G. Tzanis, Despina Deligiorgi


Climate change adaptation requires the exploitation of renewable energy sources such as wind. However, climate variability can affect the regional wind energy potential and consequently the available wind power production. The goal of the research project is to examine the impact of atmospheric circulation on wind energy production over Greece. In the context of synoptic climatology, the proposed novel methodology employs Self-Organizing Maps for grouping and classifying the atmospheric circulation and nationally-aggregated capacity factor time series for a 30-year period. The results indicate the critical effect of atmospheric circulation on the national aggregated wind energy production values and therefore address the issue of optimum distribution of wind farms for a specific region.

Keywords: wind energy, atmospheric circulation, capacity factor, self-organizing maps

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5860 PM₁₀ and PM2.5 Concentrations in Bangkok over Last 10 Years: Implications for Air Quality and Health

Authors: Tin Thongthammachart, Wanida Jinsart


Atmospheric particulate matter particles with a diameter less than 10 microns (PM₁₀) and less than 2.5 microns (PM₂.₅) have adverse health effect. The impact from PM was studied from both health and regulatory perspective. Ambient PM data was collected over ten years in Bangkok and vicinity areas of Thailand from 2007 to 2017. Statistical models were used to forecast PM concentrations from 2018 to 2020. Monitoring monthly data averaged concentration of PM₁₀ and PM₂.₅ were used as input to forecast the monthly average concentration of PM. The forecasting results were validated by root means square error (RMSE). The predicted results were used to determine hazard risk for the carcinogenic disease. The health risk values were interpolated with GIS with ordinary kriging technique to create hazard maps in Bangkok and vicinity area. GIS-based maps illustrated the variability of PM distribution and high-risk locations. These evaluated results could support national policy for the sake of human health.

Keywords: PM₁₀, PM₂.₅, statistical models, atmospheric particulate matter

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5859 Physics’s Practical Based on Android as a Motivator in Learning Physics

Authors: Yuni Rochmawati, Luluk Il Mukarromah


Android is a mobile operating system (OS) based on the linux kerrnel and currently developed by google. With a user interface based on direct manipulation, Android is designed primarily for touchscreen mobile deviced such as smartphone and tablet computer, with specialized user interface for television (Android TV), cars (Android Auto), and wrist watches (Android Wear). Now, almost all peoples using smartphone. Smartphone seems to be a must-have object, because smartphone has many benefits. In addition, of course smartphone have many benefits for education, like resume of lesson that form of e-book. However, this article is not about resume of lesson. This article is about practical based on android, exactly for physics. Therefore, we will explain our idea about physics’s practical based on android and for output, we wish many students will be like to studying physics and always remember about physics’s phenomenon by physics’s practical based on android.

Keywords: android, smartphone, physics, practical

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
5858 Application of Web Aided Education on Laboratory of the Physics Course

Authors: Nigmet Koklu, Dundar Yener


Recently, distance education that make use of web technology is used widely all around the world to overcome geographical and time based problems in education. Graphics, animation and other auxiliary visual sources help student to understand the subjects easily. Especially some theoretical courses that are quite difficult to understand such as physics and chemistry require visual material for students to understand topics clearly. In this study, physics applications for laboratory of physics course were developed. All facilities of web-based educational technology were used for students in laboratory studies to avoid making mistakes and to learn better physics subjects.

Keywords: physics education, laboratory, web-based education, distance education

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5857 Modelling Kinetics of Colour Degradation in American Pokeweed (Phytolacca americana) Extract Concentration

Authors: Seyed-Ahmad Shahidi, Salemeh Kazemzadeh, Mehdi Sharifi Soltani, Azade Ghorbani-HasanSaraei


The kinetics of colour changes of American Pokeweed extract, due to concentration by various heating methods was studied. Three different heating/evaporation processes were employed for production of American Pokeweed extract concentrate. The American Pokeweed extract was concentrated to a final 40 °Brix from an initial °Brix of 4 by microwave heating, rotary vacuum evaporator and evaporating at atmospheric pressure. The final American Pokeweed extract concentration of 40 °Brix was achieved in 188, 216 and 320 min by using microwave, rotary vacuum and atmospheric heating processes, respectively. The colour change during concentration processes was investigated. Total colour differences, Hunter L, a and b parameters were used to estimate the extent of colour loss. All Hunter colour parameters decreased with time. The zero-order, first-order and a combined kinetics model were applied to the changes in colour parameters. All models were found to describe the L, a and b-data adequately. Results indicated that variation in TCD followed both first-order and combined kinetics models. This model implied that the colour formation and pigment destruction occurred during concentration processes of American Pokeweed extract.

Keywords: American pokeweed, colour, concentration, kinetics

Procedia PDF Downloads 394
5856 Physics-Informed Machine Learning for Displacement Estimation in Solid Mechanics Problem

Authors: Feng Yang


Machine learning (ML), especially deep learning (DL), has been extensively applied to many applications in recently years and gained great success in solving different problems, including scientific problems. However, conventional ML/DL methodologies are purely data-driven which have the limitations, such as need of ample amount of labelled training data, lack of consistency to physical principles, and lack of generalizability to new problems/domains. Recently, there is a growing consensus that ML models need to further take advantage of prior knowledge to deal with these limitations. Physics-informed machine learning, aiming at integration of physics/domain knowledge into ML, has been recognized as an emerging area of research, especially in the recent 2 to 3 years. In this work, physics-informed ML, specifically physics-informed neural network (NN), is employed and implemented to estimate the displacements at x, y, z directions in a solid mechanics problem that is controlled by equilibrium equations with boundary conditions. By incorporating the physics (i.e. the equilibrium equations) into the learning process of NN, it is showed that the NN can be trained very efficiently with a small set of labelled training data. Experiments with different settings of the NN model and the amount of labelled training data were conducted, and the results show that very high accuracy can be achieved in fulfilling the equilibrium equations as well as in predicting the displacements, e.g. in setting the overall displacement of 0.1, a root mean square error (RMSE) of 2.09 × 10−4 was achieved.

Keywords: deep learning, neural network, physics-informed machine learning, solid mechanics

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5855 Major Mechanisms of Atmospheric Moisture Transport and Their Role in Precipitation Extreme Events in the Amazonia

Authors: Luis Gimeno, Rosmeri da Rocha, Raquel Nieto, Tercio Ambrizzi, Alex Ramos, Anita Drumond


The transport of moisture from oceanic sources to the continents represents the atmospheric branch of the water cycle, forming the connection between evaporation from the ocean and precipitation over the continents. In this regard two large scale dynamical/meteorological structures appear to play a key role, namely Low Level Jet (LLJ) systems and Atmospheric Rivers (ARs). The former are particularly important in tropical and subtropical regions; the latter is mostly confined to extratropical regions. A key question relates to the anomalies in the transport of moisture observed during natural hazards related to extremes of precipitation (i.e., drought or wet spells). In this study we will be focused on these two major atmospheric moisture transport mechanisms (LLJs and ARs) and its role in precipitation extreme events (droughts and wet spells) in the Amazonia paying particular attention to i) intensification (decreasing) of moisture transport by them and its role in wet spells (droughts), and ii) changes in their positions and occurrence with associated flooding and wet spells.

Keywords: droughts, wet spells, amazonia, LLJs, atmospheric rivers

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5854 Students' Perception of Using Dental E-Models in an Inquiry-Based Curriculum

Authors: Yanqi Yang, Chongshan Liao, Cheuk Hin Ho, Susan Bridges


Aim: To investigate student’s perceptions of using e-models in an inquiry-based curriculum. Approach: 52 second-year dental students completed a pre- and post-test questionnaire relating to their perceptions of e-models and their use in inquiry-based learning. The pre-test occurred prior to any learning with e-models. The follow-up survey was conducted after one year's experience of using e-models. Results: There was no significant difference between the two sets of questionnaires regarding student’s perceptions of the usefulness of e-models and their willingness to use e-models in future inquiry-based learning. Most of the students preferred using both plaster models and e-models in tandem. Conclusion: Students did not change their attitude towards e-models and most of them agreed or were neutral that e-models are useful in inquiry-based learning. Whilst recognizing the utility of 3D models for learning, student's preference for combining these with solid models has implications for the development of haptic sensibility in an operative discipline.

Keywords: e-models, inquiry-based curriculum, education, questionnaire

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5853 De Broglie Wavelength Defined by the Rest Energy E0 and Its Velocity

Authors: K. Orozović, B. Balon


In this paper, we take a different approach to de Broglie wavelength, as we relate it to relativistic physics. The quantum energy of the photon radiated by a body with de Broglie wavelength, as it moves with velocity v, can be defined within relativistic physics by rest energy E₀. In this way, we can show the connection between the quantum of radiation energy of the body and the rest of energy E₀ and thus combine what has been incompatible so far, namely relativistic and quantum physics. So, here we discuss the unification of relativistic and quantum physics by introducing the factor k that is analog to the Lorentz factor in Einstein's theory of relativity.

Keywords: de Brogli wavelength, relativistic physics, rest energy, quantum physics

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5852 Comparison of Different Reanalysis Products for Predicting Extreme Precipitation in the Southern Coast of the Caspian Sea

Authors: Parvin Ghafarian, Mohammadreza Mohammadpur Panchah, Mehri Fallahi


Synoptic patterns from surface up to tropopause are very important for forecasting the weather and atmospheric conditions. There are many tools to prepare and analyze these maps. Reanalysis data and the outputs of numerical weather prediction models, satellite images, meteorological radar, and weather station data are used in world forecasting centers to predict the weather. The forecasting extreme precipitating on the southern coast of the Caspian Sea (CS) is the main issue due to complex topography. Also, there are different types of climate in these areas. In this research, we used two reanalysis data such as ECMWF Reanalysis 5th Generation Description (ERA5) and National Centers for Environmental Prediction /National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) for verification of the numerical model. ERA5 is the latest version of ECMWF. The temporal resolution of ERA5 is hourly, and the NCEP/NCAR is every six hours. Some atmospheric parameters such as mean sea level pressure, geopotential height, relative humidity, wind speed and direction, sea surface temperature, etc. were selected and analyzed. Some different type of precipitation (rain and snow) was selected. The results showed that the NCEP/NCAR has more ability to demonstrate the intensity of the atmospheric system. The ERA5 is suitable for extract the value of parameters for specific point. Also, ERA5 is appropriate to analyze the snowfall events over CS (snow cover and snow depth). Sea surface temperature has the main role to generate instability over CS, especially when the cold air pass from the CS. Sea surface temperature of NCEP/NCAR product has low resolution near coast. However, both data were able to detect meteorological synoptic patterns that led to heavy rainfall over CS. However, due to the time lag, they are not suitable for forecast centers. The application of these two data is for research and verification of meteorological models. Finally, ERA5 has a better resolution, respect to NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data, but NCEP/NCAR data is available from 1948 and appropriate for long term research.

Keywords: synoptic patterns, heavy precipitation, reanalysis data, snow

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5851 Physical Physics: Enhancing the Learning Experience for Undergraduate Game Development Students

Authors: Y. Kavanagh, N. O'Hara, R. Palmer, P. Lowe, D. Rafferty


Physical Physics is a physics education methodology for games programfmes that integrates physical activity with movement tracking and modelling. It significantly enhances the learning experience and it is effective in illustrating how physics is core in games design and programming, while allowing students to be active participants and take ownership of the learning process. It has been successfully piloted with undergraduate students studying Games Development.

Keywords: activity, enhanced learning, game development, physics

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5850 Wind Turbine Wake Prediction and Validation under a Stably-Stratified Atmospheric Boundary Layer

Authors: Yilei Song, Linlin Tian, Ning Zhao


Turbulence energetics and structures in the wake of large-scale wind turbines under the stably-stratified atmospheric boundary layer (SABL) can be complicated due to the presence of low-level jets (LLJs), a region of higher wind speeds than the geostrophic wind speed. With a modified one-k-equation, eddy viscosity model specified for atmospheric flows as the sub-grid scale (SGS) model, a realistic atmospheric state of the stable ABL is well reproduced by large-eddy simulation (LES) techniques. Corresponding to the precursor stably stratification, the detailed wake properties of a standard 5-MW wind turbine represented as an actuator line model are provided. An engineering model is proposed for wake prediction based on the simulation statistics and gets validated. Results confirm that the proposed wake model can provide good predictions for wind turbines under the SABL.

Keywords: large-eddy simulation, stably-stratified atmospheric boundary layer, wake model, wind turbine wake

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5849 PM10 Prediction and Forecasting Using CART: A Case Study for Pleven, Bulgaria

Authors: Snezhana G. Gocheva-Ilieva, Maya P. Stoimenova


Ambient air pollution with fine particulate matter (PM10) is a systematic permanent problem in many countries around the world. The accumulation of a large number of measurements of both the PM10 concentrations and the accompanying atmospheric factors allow for their statistical modeling to detect dependencies and forecast future pollution. This study applies the classification and regression trees (CART) method for building and analyzing PM10 models. In the empirical study, average daily air data for the city of Pleven, Bulgaria for a period of 5 years are used. Predictors in the models are seven meteorological variables, time variables, as well as lagged PM10 variables and some lagged meteorological variables, delayed by 1 or 2 days with respect to the initial time series, respectively. The degree of influence of the predictors in the models is determined. The selected best CART models are used to forecast future PM10 concentrations for two days ahead after the last date in the modeling procedure and show very accurate results.

Keywords: cross-validation, decision tree, lagged variables, short-term forecasting

Procedia PDF Downloads 116
5848 The Physics of Cold Spray Technology

Authors: Ionel Botef


Studies show that, for qualitative coatings, the knowledge of cold spray technology must focus on a variety of interdisciplinary fields and a framework for problem solving. The integrated disciplines include, but are not limited to, engineering, material sciences, and physics. Due to its importance, the purpose of this paper is to summarize the state of the art of this technology alongside its theoretical and experimental studies, and explore the role and impact of physics upon cold spraying technology.

Keywords: surface engineering, cold spray, physics, modelling

Procedia PDF Downloads 445
5847 The Effect of Global Solar Variations on the Performance of n- AlGaAs/ p-GaAs Solar Cells

Authors: A. Guechi, M. Chegaar


This study investigates how AlGaAs/GaAs thin film solar cells perform under varying global solar spectrum due to the changes of environmental parameters such as the air mass and the atmospheric turbidity. The solar irradiance striking the solar cell is simulated using the spectral irradiance model SMARTS2 (Simple Model of the Atmospheric Radiative Transfer of Sunshine) for clear skies on the site of Setif (Algeria). The results show a reduction in the short circuit current due to increasing atmospheric turbidity, it is 63.09% under global radiation. However increasing air mass leads to a reduction in the short circuit current of 81.73%.The efficiency decrease with increasing atmospheric turbidity and air mass.

Keywords: AlGaAs/GaAs, solar cells, environmental parameters, spectral variation, SMARTS

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5846 Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Blast Pressure on Discrete Model in Shock Tube

Authors: Aldin Justin Sundararaj, Austin Lord Tennyson, Divya Jose, A. N. Subash


Blast waves are generated due to the explosions of high energy materials. An explosion yielding a blast wave has the potential to cause severe damage to buildings and its personnel. In order to understand the physics of effects of blast pressure on buildings, studies in the shock tube on generic configurations are carried out at various pressures on discrete models. The strength of shock wave is systematically varied by using different driver gases and diaphragm thickness. The basic material of the diaphragm is Aluminum. To simulate the effect of shock waves on discrete models a shock tube was used. Generic models selected for this study are suitably scaled cylinder, cone and cubical blocks. The experiments were carried out with 2mm diaphragm with burst pressure ranging from 28 to 31 bar. Numerical analysis was carried out over these discrete models. A 3D model of shock-tube with different discrete models inside the tube was used for CFD computation. It was found that cone has dissipated most of the shock pressure compared to cylinder and cubical block. The robustness and the accuracy of the numerical model were validation with the analytical and experimental data.

Keywords: shock wave, blast wave, discrete models, shock tube

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5845 Determination of Iodine and Heavy Metals in Two Brands of Iodised Salt

Authors: Z. O. Apotiola, J. F. Fashakin


A study was conducted to investigate the storage stability of Mr Chef and Annapurna salts. The salts were bought from Mile 12 market in Lagos State and were stored for a period of six months. The stability of the iodine content was then investigated by storing some at ambient temperature (24-30oC) and some at atmospheric temperature (21-35 oC), and from each storage condition, a sample each was taken every month to analyze for the iodine and moisture contents. The result shows that there was a significant difference between Mr Chef and the standard and Annapurna and the standard. The iodine content of Mr Chef stored at ambient and atmospheric temperature decreases progressively from 48.70±0.00-37.00±0.00 and 47.60±0.00-11.60±0.00 respectively. And that of Annapurna at both ambient and atmospheric temperature also decreases progressively from 47.60±0.00-36.60±0.00 and 47.60±0.00-10.60±0.00 respectively. Also, the moisture content of both salts at the zero month to the sixth month both at room temperature and atmospheric temperature increases from 1.11±0.00-1.70±0.00 and 1.11±0.00-2.40±0.00 respectively. The results of the heavy metals shows that only Copper, Zinc and Cobalt were detected at the first and the sixth month in both Mr Chef and Annapurna which ranges from 0.15±0.00-0.38±0.00 and 0.18±0.00 - 3.50±0.00 respectively. Hence, the stability of iodine in salt is influenced by the storage conditions it is subjected to and the length of time it is been stored.

Keywords: salt, iodine, stability, ambient, atmospheric temperature

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