Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4742

Search results for: clear sky condition

4742 A Framework for the Evaluation of Infrastructures’ Serviceability

Authors: Kyonghoon Kim, Wonyoung Park, Taeil Park

Abstract:

In 1994, Korea experienced a national tragedy of Seongsu Bridge collapse. The accident was severe enough to alert governmental officers to the problem of existing management policy for national infrastructures. As a result, government legislated the ‘Guidelines for the safety inspection and test of infrastructure’ which have been utilized as the primary tool to make decision for the maintenance and rehabilitation of infrastructure for last twenty years. Although it is clear that the guideline established a basics how to evaluate and manage the condition of infrastructures in systematic manner, it is equally clear that the guideline needs improvements in order to obtain reasonable investment decisions for budget allocation. Because its inspection and evaluation procedures mainly focused on the structural condition of infrastructures, it was hard to make decision when the infrastructures were in same level of structural condition. In addition, it did not properly reflect various aspects of infrastructures such as performance, public demand, capacity, etc., which were more valuable to public. Regardless of the importance, these factors were commonly neglected in governmental decision-making process, because there factors were somewhat subjective and difficult to quantify in rational manner. Thus, this study proposes a framework to properly evaluate the serviceability indicators using AHP and Fuzzy approach. The framework is expected to assist governmental agency in establishing effective investment strategies for budget planning.

Keywords: infrastructure, evaluation, serviceability, fuzzy

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4741 Behave Imbalances Comparative Checking of Children with and without Fathers between the Ages of 7 to 11 in Rasht

Authors: Farnoush Haghanipour

Abstract:

Objective: Father loss as one of the major stress factor, can causethe mental imbalances in children. It's clear that children's family condition of lacking a father is very clearly different from the condition of having a father. The goal of this research is to examine mental imbalances comparative checking in complete form and in five subsidiary categories as aggression, stress and depression, social incompatibility, anti-social behavior, and attention deficit imbalances (wackiness) do between children without father and normal ones. Method: This research is in descriptive and analytical method that reimburse to checking mental imbalances from 50 children that are student in one zone of Rasht’s education and nurture office. Material of this research is RATER behavior questionnaire (teacher form) and data analyses were did by SPSS software. Results: The results showed that there are clear different in relation with behavior imbalances between have father children and children without father and in children without a father behavior imbalance is more. Also showed that there is clearly a difference in aggression, stress, and depression and social incompatibility between children without and without fathers, and in children without a father the proportion increases. However, in antisocial behaviours and attention deficit imbalances there are not a clear difference between them. Conclusion: With upper amount of imbalance behaviour detection in children without fathers compared with children with fathers, it is essential that practitioners of society hygienic and remedy put efforts in order to primary and secondary prevention, for mental health of this group of society.

Keywords: child, behave imbalances, children without father, mental imbalances

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4740 Design and Implementation of an Image Based System to Enhance the Security of ATM

Authors: Seyed Nima Tayarani Bathaie

Abstract:

In this paper, an image-receiving system was designed and implemented through optimization of object detection algorithms using Haar features. This optimized algorithm served as face and eye detection separately. Then, cascading them led to a clear image of the user. Utilization of this feature brought about higher security by preventing fraud. This attribute results from the fact that services will be given to the user on condition that a clear image of his face has already been captured which would exclude the inappropriate person. In order to expedite processing and eliminating unnecessary ones, the input image was compressed, a motion detection function was included in the program, and detection window size was confined.

Keywords: face detection algorithm, Haar features, security of ATM

Procedia PDF Downloads 335
4739 Effect of Orientation of the Wall Window on Energy Saving under Clear Sky Conditions

Authors: Madhu Sudan, G. N. Tiwari

Abstract:

In this paper, an attempt has been made to analyze the effect of wall window orientation on Daylight Illuminance Ratio (DIR) and energy saving in a building known as “SODHA BERS COMPLEX (SBC)” at Varanasi, UP, India. The building has been designed incorporating all passive concepts for thermal comfort as well daylighting concepts to maximize the use of natural daylighting for the occupants in the day to day activities. The annual average DIR and the energy saving has been estimated by using the DIR model for wall window with different orientations under clear sky condition. It has been found that for south oriented window the energy saving per square meter is more compared to the other orientations due to the higher level of solar insolation for the south window in northern hemisphere whereas energy saving potential is minimum for north oriented wall window. The energy saving potential was 26%, 81% and 51% higher for east, south and west oriented window in comparison to north oriented window. The average annual DIR has same trends of variation as the annual energy saving and it is maximum for south oriented window and minimum for north oriented window.

Keywords: clear sky, daylight factor, energy saving, wall window

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4738 A Study of Electric Generation Characteristics for Thin-Film Piezoelectric PbZrTiO₃ Ceramic Plate during the Static and Cyclic Loading Conditions

Authors: Tsukasa Ogawa, Mitsuhiro Okayasu

Abstract:

To examine the generation properties of electric power for piezoelectric (PbZrTiO3) ceramic plates, the electric-power generation characteristics were examined experimentally and numerically during cyclic bending under various loading fixtures with different contact condition, i.e., point and area contact. In the low applied loading condition between 10 and 50 N, increasing the load-contact area on the piezoelectric ceramic led to a nonlinear decrease in the generated voltage. Decreasing contact area, including the point contact, basically enhanced the generated voltage, although the voltage saturated during loading when the contact area is less than ϕ5 mm, which was attributed to the high strain status, resulting in the material failure, i.e., high stress concentration. In this case, severe plastic deformation and the domain switching were dominated failure modes in the ceramic. From this approach, it is clear that the applied load became more larger (50 ~100 N), larger contact area (ϕ10 ~ ϕ20 mm) became advantageous for power generation. Based upon this cyclic loading was carried out to investigate the fatigue characteristics of the piezoelectric ceramic late. For all contact conditions, electric voltage dropped in the beginning of the cyclic loading, although the higher electric generation was stable in the further cyclic loading for the contact area of ϕ10 ~ ϕ20 mm. In constant, further decrement of electric generation occurred for the point contact condition, and the low electric voltage was generated for the larger contact condition.

Keywords: electric power generation, piezoelectric ceramic, lead zirconate titanate ceramic, loading conditions

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4737 Forage Quality of Chickpea - Barley as Affected by Mixed Cropping System in Water Stress Condition

Authors: Masoud Rafiee

Abstract:

To study the quality response of forage to chickpea-barley mixed cropping under drought stress and vermicompost consumption, an experiment was carried out under well watered and %70 water requirement (stress condition) in RCBD as split plot with four replications in temperate condition of Khorramabad in 2013. Chickpea-barley mix cropping (%100 chickpea, %75:25 chickpea:barley, %50:50 chickpea:barley, %25:75 chickpea:barley, and %100 barley) was studied. Results showed that wet and dry forage yield were significantly affected by environment and decreased in stress condition. Also, crude protein content decreased from %26.2 in well watered to %17.3 in stress condition.

Keywords: crude protein, wet forage yield, dry forage yield, water stress condition, well watered

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4736 Condition Optimization for Trypsin and Chymotrypsin Activities in Economic Animals

Authors: Mallika Supa-Aksorn, Buaream Maneewan, Jiraporn Rojtinnakorn

Abstract:

For animals, trypsin and chymotrypsin are the 2 proteases that play the important role in protein digestion and involving in growth rate. In many animals, these two enzymes are indicated as growth parameter by feed. Although enzyme assay at optimal condition is significant for its accuracy activity determination. There is less report of trypsin and chymotrypsin. Therefore, in this study, optimization of pH and temperature for trypsin (T) and chymotrypsin (C) in economic species; i.e. Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), sand goby (Oxyeleotoris marmoratus), giant freshwater prawn (Macrobachium rosenberchii) and native chicken (Gallus gallus) were investigated. Each enzyme of each species was assaying for its specific activity with variation of pH in range of 2-12 and temperature in range of 30-80 °C. It revealed that, for Nile tilapia, T had optimal condition at pH 9 and temperature 50-80 °C, whereas C had optimal condition at pH 8 and temperature 60 °C. For sand goby, T had optimal condition at pH 7 and temperature of 50 °C, while C had optimal condition at pH 11 and temperature of 70-75 °C. For juvenile freshwater prawn, T had optimal condition at pH 10-11 and temperature of 60-65 °C, C had optimal condition at pH 8 and temperature of 70°C. For starter native chicken, T has optimal condition at pH 7 and temperature of 70 °C, whereas C had o optimal condition at pH 8 and temperature of 60°C. This information of optimal conditions will be high valuable in further for, actual enzyme measurement of T and C activities that benefit for growth and feed analysis.

Keywords: trypsin, chymotrypsin, Oreochromis niloticus, Oxyeleotoris marmoratus, Macrobachium rosenberchii, Gallus gallus

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4735 Processes Controlling Release of Phosphorus (P) from Catchment Soils and the Relationship between Total Phosphorus (TP) and Humic Substances (HS) in Scottish Loch Waters

Authors: Xiaoyun Hui, Fiona Gentle, Clemens Engelke, Margaret C. Graham

Abstract:

Although past work has shown that phosphorus (P), an important nutrient, may form complexes with aqueous humic substances (HS), the principal component of natural organic matter, the nature of such interactions is poorly understood. Humic complexation may not only enhance P concentrations but it may change its bioavailability within such waters and, in addition, influence its transport within catchment settings. This project is examining the relationships and associations of P, HS, and iron (Fe) in Loch Meadie, Sutherland, North Scotland, a mesohumic freshwater loch which has been assessed as reference condition with respect to P. The aim is to identify characteristic spectroscopic parameters which can enhance the performance of the model currently used to predict reference condition TP levels for highly-coloured Scottish lochs under the Water Framework Directive. In addition to Loch Meadie, samples from other reference condition lochs in north Scotland and Shetland were analysed. By including different types of reference condition lochs (clear water, mesohumic and polyhumic water) this allowed the relationship between total phosphorus (TP) and HS to be more fully explored. The pH, [TP], [Fe], UV/Vis absorbance/spectra, [TOC] and [DOC] for loch water samples have been obtained using accredited methods. Loch waters were neutral to slightly acidic/alkaline (pH 6-8). [TP] in loch waters were lower than 50 µg L-1, and in Loch Meadie waters were typically <10 µg L-1. [Fe] in loch waters were mainly <0.6 mg L-1, but for some loch water samples, [Fe] were in the range 1.0-1.8 mg L-1and there was a positive correlation with [TOC] (r2=0.61). Lochs were classified as clear water, mesohumic or polyhumic based on water colour. The range of colour values of sampled lochs in each category were 0.2–0.3, 0.2–0.5 and 0.5–0.8 a.u. (10 mm pathlength), respectively. There was also a strong positive correlation between [DOC] and water colour (R2=0.84). The UV/Vis spectra (200-700 nm) for water samples were featureless with only a slight “shoulder” observed in the 270–290 nm region. Ultrafiltration was then used to separate colloidal and truly dissolved components from the loch waters and, since it contained the majority of aqueous P and Fe, the colloidal component was fractionated by gel filtration chromatography method. Gel filtration chromatographic fractionation of the colloids revealed two brown-coloured bands which had distinctive UV/Vis spectral features. The first eluting band had larger and more aromatic HS molecules than the second band, and in addition both P and Fe were primarily associated with the larger, more aromatic HS. This result demonstrated that P was able to form complexes with Fe-rich components of HS, and thus provided a scientific basis for the significant correlation between [Fe] and [TP] that the previous monitoring data of reference condition lochs from Scottish Environment Protection Agency (SEPA) showed. The distinctive features of the HS will be used as the basis for an improved spectroscopic tool.

Keywords: total phosphorus, humic substances, Scottish loch water, WFD model

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4734 Component-Based Approach in Assessing Sewer Manholes

Authors: Khalid Kaddoura, Tarek Zayed

Abstract:

Sewer networks are constructed to protect the communities and the environment from any contact with the sewer mediums. Pipelines, being laterals or sewer mains, and manholes form the huge underground infrastructure in every urban city. Due to the sewer networks importance, the infrastructure asset management field has extensive advancement in condition assessment and rehabilitation decision models. However, most of the focus was devoted to pipelines giving little attention toward manholes condition assessment. In fact, recent studies started to emerge in this area to preserve manholes from any malfunction. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to propose a condition assessment model for sewer manholes. The model divides the manhole into several components and determines the relative importance weight of each component using the Analytic Network Process (ANP) decision-making method. Later, the condition of the manhole is computed by aggregating the condition of each component with its corresponding weight. Accordingly, the proposed assessment model will enable decision-makers to have a final index suggesting the overall condition of the manhole and a backward analysis to check the condition of each component. Consequently, better decisions are made pertinent to maintenance, rehabilitation, and replacement actions.

Keywords: Analytic Network Process (ANP), condition assessment, decision-making, manholes

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4733 The Condition Testing of Damaged Plates Using Acoustic Features and Machine Learning

Authors: Kyle Saltmarsh

Abstract:

Acoustic testing possesses many benefits due to its non-destructive nature and practicality. There hence exists many scenarios in which using acoustic testing for condition testing shows powerful feasibility. A wealth of information is contained within the acoustic and vibration characteristics of structures, allowing the development meaningful features for the classification of their respective condition. In this paper, methods, results, and discussions are presented on the use of non-destructive acoustic testing coupled with acoustic feature extraction and machine learning techniques for the condition testing of manufactured circular steel plates subjected to varied levels of damage.

Keywords: plates, deformation, acoustic features, machine learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 240
4732 Using Equipment Telemetry Data for Condition-Based maintenance decisions

Authors: John Q. Todd

Abstract:

Given that modern equipment can provide comprehensive health, status, and error condition data via built-in sensors, maintenance organizations have a new and valuable source of insight to take advantage of. This presentation will expose what these data payloads might look like and how they can be filtered, visualized, calculated into metrics, used for machine learning, and generate alerts for further action.

Keywords: condition based maintenance, equipment data, metrics, alerts

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4731 Efficient Signal Detection Using QRD-M Based on Channel Condition in MIMO-OFDM System

Authors: Jae-Jeong Kim, Ki-Ro Kim, Hyoung-Kyu Song

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose an efficient signal detector that switches M parameter of QRD-M detection scheme is proposed for MIMO-OFDM system. The proposed detection scheme calculates the threshold by 1-norm condition number and then switches M parameter of QRD-M detection scheme according to channel information. If channel condition is bad, the parameter M is set to high value to increase the accuracy of detection. If channel condition is good, the parameter M is set to low value to reduce complexity of detection. Therefore, the proposed detection scheme has better trade off between BER performance and complexity than the conventional detection scheme. The simulation result shows that the complexity of proposed detection scheme is lower than QRD-M detection scheme with similar BER performance.

Keywords: MIMO-OFDM, QRD-M, channel condition, BER

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4730 The Norm, Singular Value and Condition Number Analysis for the Hadamard Matrices

Authors: Emine Tuğba Akyüz

Abstract:

In this study, the analysis of Hadamard matrices, which is a special type of matrix, was made under three headings: norms, singular values, condition number. Six norm types was applied to Hadamard matrices and the relationship between the results and the size of the matrix has been studied. As a result of the investigation when 2-norm was used on the problem Hx =f, the equation ‖x‖_2= ‖f‖_2/√n was shown (H is n-dimensional Hadamard matrix). Related with this, the relationship between the the singular value of H and 2-norm and eigenvalues was shown. Then, the evaluation of condition number for Hx =f was made.

Keywords: condition number, Hadamard matrix, norm, singular value

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4729 Vancomycin Resistance Enterococcus and Implications to Trauma and Orthopaedic Care

Authors: O. Davies, K. Veravalli, P. Panwalkar, M. Tofighi, P. Butterick, B. Healy, A. Mofidi

Abstract:

Vancomycin resistant enterococcus infection is a condition that usually impacts ICUs, transplant, dialysis, and cancer units, often as a nosocomial infection. After an outbreak in the acute trauma and orthopaedic unit in Morriston hospital, we aimed to access the conditions that predispose VRE infections in our unit. Thirteen cases of VRE infection and five cases of VRE colonisations were identified in patients who were treated for orthopaedic care between 1/1/2020 and 1/11/2021. Cases were reviewed to identify predisposing factors, specifically looking at age, presenting condition and treatment, presence of infection and antibiotic care, active haemo-oncological condition, long term renal dialysis, previous hospitalisation, VRE predisposition, and clearance (PREVENT) scores, and outcome of care. The presenting condition, treatment, presence of postoperative infection, VRE scores, age was compared between colonised and the infected cohort. VRE type in both colonised and infection group was Enterococcus Faecium in all but one patient. The colonised group had the same age (T=0.6 P>0.05) and sex (2=0.115, p=0.74), presenting condition and treatment which consisted of peri-femoral fixation or arthroplasty in all patients. The infected group had one case of myelodysplasia and four cases of chronic renal failure requiring dialysis. All of the infected patient had sustained an infected complication of their fracture fixation or arthroplasty requiring reoperation and antibiotics. The infected group had an average VRE predisposition score of 8.5 versus the score of 3 in the colonised group (F=36, p<0.001). PREVENT score was 7 in the infected group and 2 in the colonised group(F=153, p<0.001). Six patients(55%) succumbed to their infection, and one VRE infection resulted in limb loss. In the orthopaedic cohort, VRE infection is a nosocomial condition that has peri-femoral predilection and is seen in association with immunosuppression or renal failure. The VRE infection cohort has been treated for infective complication of original surgery weeks prior to VRE infection. Based on our findings, we advise avoidance of infective complications, change of practice in use of antibiotics and use radical surgery and surveillance for VRE infections beyond infective precautions. PREVENT score shows that the infected group are unlikely to clear their VRE in the future but not the colonised group.

Keywords: surgical site infection, enterococcus, orthopaedic surgery, vancomycin resistance

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4728 Investigation of Several Parameters on Local Scour around Inclined Dual Bridge Piers

Authors: Murat Çeşme

Abstract:

For a bridge engineer to ensure a safe footing design, it is very important to estimate the maximum scour depth around the piers as accurately as possible. Many experimental studies have been performed by several investigators to obtain information about scouring mechanism. In order to examine the effect of inclination of dual bridge piers on scour depth under clear-water conditions for various uniform flow depths, an experimental research on scaled dual bridge piers has been carried over in METU Hydromechanics Lab. Dimensional and non-dimensional curves were developed and presented to show the variation of scour depth with respect to various parameters such as footing angle with the vertical, flow depth and footing dimensions. Results of the study were compared to those obtained from a similar study performed with single inclined piers to see the effect of the second pier on scour depths. Useful equations for the design engineers were developed based on multiple regression analyses to be used for predicting local scour depths around inclined piers in uniform and non-uniform sediments.

Keywords: experimental research, inclined dual bridge piers, footing safety, scour depth, clear water condition

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4727 Analysis of the Influence of Support Failure on the Dynamic Effect of Bridge Structure

Authors: Sun Fan, Wu Xiaoguang, Fang Miaomiao, Wei Chi

Abstract:

The degree of damage to the support is simulated by finite element software, and its influence on the static and dynamic effects of the bridge structure is analyzed. Four working conditions are selected for the study of bearing damage impact: the bearing is intact (condition 1), the bearing damage coefficient is 0.8 (condition 2), the bearing damage coefficient is 0.6 (condition 3), and the bearing damage coefficient is 0.4 (Working Condition 4). The effect value of the bridge structure under each working condition is calculated, and the simple-supported girder bridge and continuous girder bridge with typical spans are taken as examples to analyze the overall change of the bridge structure after the bearing completely fails.

Keywords: bridge bearing damage, dynamic response, finite element analysis, load conditions

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4726 Thinking in a Foreign Language Overcomes the Developmental Reversal in Risky Decision-Making: The Foreign Language Effect in Risky Decision-Making

Authors: Rendong Cai, Bei Peng, Yanping Dong

Abstract:

In risk decision making, individuals are found to be susceptible to 'frames': people tend to be risk averse when the choice is described in terms of potential 'gains' (gain frame), whereas they tend to be risk seeking when the same choice is described in terms of potential 'losses' (loss frame); this effect is termed the framing effect. The framing effect has been well documented and some studies even find a developmental reversal in the framing effect: The more experience an individual has in a certain field, the easier for him to be influenced by the frame relevant to the field, resulting in greater decision inconsistency. Recent studies reported that using a foreign language can reduce the framing effect. However, it is not clear whether foreign language use can overcome the developmental reversal in the framing effect. The present study investigated three potential factors that may influence the developmental reversal in the framing effect: specialized knowledge of the participants, the language in which the problem is presented, and the types of problems. The present study examined the decision making behavior of 188 Chinese-English bilinguals who majored in Finance, with a group of 277 English majors as the control group. They were asked to solve a financial problem (experimental condition) and a life problem (control condition). Each problem was presented in one of the following four versions: native language-gain frame, foreign language-gain frame, native language-loss frame, and foreign language-loss frame. Results revealed that for the life problem, under the native condition, both groups were affected by the frame; but under the foreign condition, this framing effect disappeared for the financial majors. This confirmed that foreign language use modulates framing effects in general decision making, which served as an effective baseline. For the financial problem, under the native condition, only the financial major was observed to be influenced by the frame, which was a developmental reversal; under the foreign condition, however, this framing effect disappeared. The results provide further empirical evidence for the universal of the developmental reversal in risky decision making. More importantly, the results suggest that using a foreign language can overcome such reversal, which has implications for the reduction of decision biases in professionals. The findings also shed new light on the complex interaction between general decision-making and bilingualism.

Keywords: the foreign language effect, developmental reversals, the framing effect, bilingualism

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4725 Reliability Analysis of Dam under Quicksand Condition

Authors: Manthan Patel, Vinit Ahlawat, Anshh Singh Claire, Pijush Samui

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the analysis of quicksand condition for a dam foundation. The quicksand condition occurs in cohesion less soil when effective stress of soil becomes zero. In a dam, the saturated sediment may appear quite solid until a sudden change in pressure or shock initiates liquefaction. This causes the sand to form a suspension and lose strength hence resulting in failure of dam. A soil profile shows different properties at different points and the values obtained are uncertain thus reliability analysis is performed. The reliability is defined as probability of safety of a system in a given environment and loading condition and it is assessed as Reliability Index. The reliability analysis of dams under quicksand condition is carried by Gaussian Process Regression (GPR). Reliability index and factor of safety relating to liquefaction of soil is analysed using GPR. The results of reliability analysis by GPR is compared to that of conventional method and it is demonstrated that on applying GPR the probabilistic analysis reduces the computational time and efforts.

Keywords: factor of safety, GPR, reliability index, quicksand

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4724 Power Transformer Risk-Based Maintenance by Optimization of Transformer Condition and Transformer Importance

Authors: Kitti Leangkrua

Abstract:

This paper presents a risk-based maintenance strategy of a power transformer in order to optimize operating and maintenance costs. The methodology involves the study and preparation of a database for the collection the technical data and test data of a power transformer. An evaluation of the overall condition of each transformer is performed by a program developed as a result of the measured results; in addition, the calculation of the main equipment separation to the overall condition of the transformer (% HI) and the criteria for evaluating the importance (% ImI) of each location where the transformer is installed. The condition assessment is performed by analysis test data such as electrical test, insulating oil test and visual inspection. The condition of the power transformer will be classified from very poor to very good condition. The importance is evaluated from load criticality, importance of load and failure consequence. The risk matrix is developed for evaluating the risk of each power transformer. The high risk power transformer will be focused firstly. The computerized program is developed for practical use, and the maintenance strategy of a power transformer can be effectively managed.

Keywords: asset management, risk-based maintenance, power transformer, health index

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4723 Responses of Grain Yield, Anthocyanin and Antioxidant Capacity to Water Condition in Wetland and Upland Purple Rice Genotypes

Authors: Supaporn Yamuangmorn, Chanakan Prom-U-Thai

Abstract:

Wetland and upland purple rice are the two major types classified by its original ecotypes in Northern Thailand. Wetland rice is grown under flooded condition from transplanting until the mutuality, while upland rice is naturally grown under well-drained soil known as aerobic cultivations. Both ecotypes can be grown and adapted to the reverse systems but little is known on its responses of grain yield and qualities between the 2 ecotypes. This study evaluated responses of grain yield as well as anthocyanin and antioxidant capacity between the wetland and upland purple rice genotypes grown in the submerged and aerobic conditions. A factorial arrangement in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with two factors of rice genotype and water condition were carried out in three replications. The two wetland genotypes (Kum Doi Saket: KDK and Kum Phayao: KPY) and two upland genotypes (Kum Hom CMU: KHCMU and Pieisu1: PES1) were used in this study by growing under submerged and aerobic conditions. Grain yield was affected by the interaction between water condition and rice genotype. The wetland genotypes, KDK and KPY grown in the submerged condition produced about 2.7 and 0.8 times higher yield than in the aerobic condition, respectively. The 0.4 times higher grain yield of upland genotype (PES1) was found in the submerged condition than in the aerobic condition, but no significant differences in KHCMU. In the submerged condition, all genotypes produced higher yield components of tiller number, panicle number and percent filled grain than in the aerobic condition by 24% and 32% and 11%, respectively. The thousand grain weight and spikelet number were affected by water condition differently among genotypes. The wetland genotypes, KDK and KPY, and upland genotype, PES1, grown in the submerged condition produced about 19-22% higher grain weight than in the aerobic condition. The similar effect was found in spikelet number which the submerged condition of wetland genotypes, KDK and KPY, and the upland genotype, KHCMU, had about 28-30% higher than the aerobic condition. In contrast, the anthocyanin concentration and antioxidant capacity were affected by both the water condition and genotype. Rice grain grown in the aerobic condition had about 0.9 and 2.6 times higher anthocyanin concentration than in the submerged condition was found in the wetland rice, KDK and upland rice, KHCMU, respectively. Similarly, the antioxidant capacity of wetland rice, KDK and upland rice, KHCMU were 0.5 and 0.6 times higher in aerobic condition than in the submerged condition. There was a negative correlation between grain yield and anthocyanin concentration in wetland genotype KDK and upland genotype KHCMU, but it was not found in the other genotypes. This study indicating that some rice genotype can be adapted in the reverse ecosystem in both grain yield and quality, especially in the wetland genotype KPY and upland genotype PES1. To maximize grain yield and quality of purple rice, proper water management condition is require with a key consideration on difference responses among genotypes. Increasing number of rice genotypes in both ecotypes is needed to confirm their responses on water management.

Keywords: purple rice, water condition, anthocyanin, grain yield

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4722 Effect of Boundary Condition on Granular Pressure of Gas-Solid Flow in a Rotating Drum

Authors: Rezwana Rahman

Abstract:

Various simulations have been conducted to understand the particle's macroscopic behavior in the solid-gas multiphase flow in rotating drums in the past. In these studies, the particle-wall no-slip boundary condition was usually adopted. However, the non-slip boundary condition is rarely encountered in real systems. A little effort has been made to investigate the particle behavior at slip boundary conditions. The paper represents a study of the gas-solid flow in a horizontal rotating drum at a slip boundary wall condition. Two different sizes of particles with the same density have been considered. The Eulerian–Eulerian multiphase model with the kinetic theory of granular flow was used in the simulations. The granular pressure at the rolling flow regime with specularity coefficient 1 was examined and compared with that obtained based on the no-slip boundary condition. The results reveal that the profiles of granular pressure distribution on the transverse plane of the drum are similar for both boundary conditions. But, overall, compared with those for the no-slip boundary condition, the values of granular pressure for specularity coefficient 1 are larger for the larger particle and smaller for the smaller particle.

Keywords: boundary condition, eulerian–eulerian, multiphase, specularity coefficient, transverse plane

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4721 Causes of Deteriorations of Flexible Pavement, Its Condition Rating and Maintenance

Authors: Pooja Kherudkar, Namdeo Hedaoo

Abstract:

There are various causes for asphalt pavement distresses which can develop prematurely or with aging in services. These causes are not limited to aging of bitumen binder but include poor quality materials and construction, inadequate mix design, inadequate pavement structure design considering the traffic and lack of preventive maintenance. There is physical evidence available for each type of pavement distress. Distress in asphalt pavements can be categorized in different distress modes like fracture (cracking and spalling), distortion (permanent deformation and slippage), and disintegration (raveling and potholes). This study shows the importance of severity determination of distresses for the selection of appropriate preventive maintenance treatment. Distress analysis of the deteriorated roads was carried out. Four roads of urban flexible pavements from Pune city was selected as a case study. The roads were surveyed to detect the types, to measure the severity and extent of the distresses. Causes of distresses were investigated. The pavement condition rating values of the roads were calculated. These ranges of ratings were as follows; 1 for poor condition road, 1.1 to 2 for fair condition road and 2.1 to 3 for good condition road. Out of the four roads, two roads were found to be in fair condition and the other two were found in good condition. From the various preventive maintenance treatments like crack seal, fog seal, slurry seal, microsurfacing, surface dressing and thin hot mix/cold mix bituminous overlays, the effective maintenance treatments with respect to the surface condition and severity levels of the existing pavement were recommended.

Keywords: distress analysis, pavement condition rating, preventive maintenance treatments, surface distress measurement

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4720 Type A Quadricuspid Aortic Valve; Rarer than a Four-Leaf Clover, an Example of Availability Heuristic

Authors: Frazer Kirk, Rohen Skiba, Pankaj Saxena

Abstract:

The natural history of the QAV is poorly understood due to the exceeding rarity of the condition. Incidence rates vary between 0.00028-1%. Classically patients present with Aortic Regurgitation (AR) between 40-60 years of age experiencing palpitations, chest pain, or heart failure. (1, 2) Echocardiography is the mainstay of diagnosis for this condition; however, given the rarity of this condition, it can easily be overlooked, as demonstrated here. The case report that follows serves as a reminder of the condition to reduce the innate cognitive bias to overlook the diagnosis due to the availability heuristic. Intraoperative photography, echocardiographic and magnetic resonance imaging from this case for reference to demonstrate that while the diagnosis of Aortic regurgitation was recognized early, the valve morphology was underappreciated.

Keywords: quadricuspid aortic valve, cardiac surgery, echocardiography, congenital

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4719 Cell Biomass and Lipid Productivities of Meyerella planktonica under Autotrophic and Heterotrophic Growth Conditions

Authors: Rory Anthony Hutagalung, Leonardus Widjaja

Abstract:

Microalgae Meyerella planktonica is a potential biofuel source because it can grow in bulk in either autotrophic or heterotrophic condition. However, the quantitative growth of this algal type is still low as it tends to precipitates on the bottom. Beside, the lipid concentration is still low when grown in autotrophic condition. In contrast, heterotrophic condition can enhance the lipid concentration. The combination of autotrophic condition and agitation treatment was conducted to increase the density of the culture. On the other hand, a heterotrophic condition was set up to raise the lipid production. A two-stage experiment was applied to increase the density at the first step and to increase the lipid concentration in the next step. The autotrophic condition resulted higher density but lower lipid concentration compared to heterotrophic one. The agitation treatment produced higher density in both autotrophic and heterotrophic conditions. The two-stage experiment managed to enhance the density during the autotrophic stage and the lipid concentration during the heterotrophic stage. The highest yield was performed by using 0.4% v/v glycerol as a carbon source (2.9±0.016 x 106 cells w/w) attained 7 days after the heterotrophic stage began. The lipid concentration was stable starting from day 7.

Keywords: agitation, glycerol, heterotrophic, lipid productivity, Meyerella planktonica

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4718 Condition Assessment of State-Owned Immovable Assets in South Africa

Authors: Collen Maseloane, Chris Cloete

Abstract:

The study investigated the status of building condition assessments of state-owned immovable assets in South Africa. A stratified random sample of 200 (out of 372) personnel was drawn from the eight rele-vant business units of the Department of Public Works (DPW). A questionnaire comprising open-ended questions was distributed to the sampled participants and a total of 139 completed questionnaires were received. A significant number of state asset properties were found to be in poor condition owing to the asset managers’ inability to access automated information on the conditions of assets. It is recommended that the immovable asset register of the Department requires constant enhancement to update information on the condition of each state-owned immovable asset under its custodianship. Implementation of the proposals should contribute to the maintenance of the value of state assets in South Africa.

Keywords: building condition assessment, immovable asset register, life cycle asset management, public works, South Africa

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4717 Smart Water Main Inspection and Condition Assessment Using a Systematic Approach for Pipes Selection

Authors: Reza Moslemi, Sebastien Perrier

Abstract:

Water infrastructure deterioration can result in increased operational costs owing to increased repair needs and non-revenue water and consequently cause a reduced level of service and customer service satisfaction. Various water main condition assessment technologies have been introduced to the market in order to evaluate the level of pipe deterioration and to develop appropriate asset management and pipe renewal plans. One of the challenges for any condition assessment and inspection program is to determine the percentage of the water network and the combination of pipe segments to be inspected in order to obtain a meaningful representation of the status of the entire water network with a desirable level of accuracy. Traditionally, condition assessment has been conducted by selecting pipes based on age or location. However, this may not necessarily offer the best approach, and it is believed that by using a smart sampling methodology, a better and more reliable estimate of the condition of a water network can be achieved. This research investigates three different sampling methodologies, including random, stratified, and systematic. It is demonstrated that selecting pipes based on the proposed clustering and sampling scheme can considerably improve the ability of the inspected subset to represent the condition of a wider network. With a smart sampling methodology, a smaller data sample can provide the same insight as a larger sample. This methodology offers increased efficiency and cost savings for condition assessment processes and projects.

Keywords: condition assessment, pipe degradation, sampling, water main

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4716 Length Weight Relationship and Relative Condition Factor of Atropus atropos (Bloch and Schneider, 1801) from Mangalore Coast, India

Authors: D. P. Rajesh, H. N. Anjanayappa, P. Nayana, S. Benakappa

Abstract:

The present study deals with length-weight relationship of Atropus atropos for which no information is available on this aspect from Mangalore coast. Therefore the present investigation was undertaken. Fish samples were collected from fish landing center (Mangalore) and fish market. The regression co-efficient of male was found to be lower than female. From this observation it may be opined that female gained more weight with increase in length compared to male. Data on seasonal variation in condition factor (Kn) showed that Kn values were more or less similar in both the sexes, indicating almost identical metabolic activity. Gonadal development and high feeding intensity are the factors which influenced the condition factor. The seasonal fluctuations in the relative condition factor of both the sexes could be attributed to the sexual cycle, food intake and environmental factors. From the present study, it can be inferred that the variation in the condition of Atropus atropos was due to feeding activity and gonadal maturity.

Keywords: Atropus atropos, length-weight relationship, Mangalore coast, relative condition factor, Kn

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4715 The Most Desirable Individual Relationship

Authors: Ali Babaei

Abstract:

There is a significant relationship between Soul Faculties and human relationships. Man has at least three levels of relationship according to three levels of his Faculties: individual (with himself), dual (with another) and collective (with others). Since all human actions are organized by the type of use of their internal faculties, their "hierarchy of relations" is related to the "hierarchy of their Faculties." In the final explanation based on the ontology of Islamic wisdom, one can consider the hierarchy of human Faculties in three levels: 1. senses, 2. intellect and heart, and 3. Soul. The best relationship, in the individual one is that every human being, with healthy senses, achieves both the intellectual growth and the perfection of the heart, which we call "Clear-headed" and "Good-hearted.” The result of human evolution in this two aspects will lead to the development of a powerful personality which can be interpreted as "spiritual prosperity"; having a great soul is the result of such evolution. A smart brain without a "Good-heart"ince can lead to criminality; and mere "Good-heart"ince" without "Clear-head"ince leads to "naivety". “clear-head”ince is achieved through thoughtfulness and study, and "Good-heart"ince through love and worship. So the best way to achieve perfection in a personal relationship is to have a dependable appearance, a coherent thinking

Keywords: Ontology , good-heartince, wisdom, relationship, clear-head”ince, criminality, naivety

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4714 The Diversity in the Concept of Existence from Kierkegaard to Sartre

Authors: Mohammad Motiee

Abstract:

From Kierkegaard to Sartre, the concept of 'being' was debated over various angles in the philosophy of being. Then, the futility, nothingness and absurdity of human condition in the world were all justified and led to a kind of solution by different approaches like Christianity, loss of faith, authentic existence and responsibility. In an extreme concern, the human condition in the world was pondered in different ways and the philosophy of thought tried to render an awareness of such condition for human beings. The present study aims at illustration of some approaches presented by prominent existentialists to justify the controversies in the concept of existence in human life.

Keywords: existence, existentialism, alienation, being

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4713 Comprehensive Feature Extraction for Optimized Condition Assessment of Fuel Pumps

Authors: Ugochukwu Ejike Akpudo, Jank-Wook Hur

Abstract:

The increasing demand for improved productivity, maintainability, and reliability has prompted rapidly increasing research studies on the emerging condition-based maintenance concept- Prognostics and health management (PHM). Varieties of fuel pumps serve critical functions in several hydraulic systems; hence, their failure can have daunting effects on productivity, safety, etc. The need for condition monitoring and assessment of these pumps cannot be overemphasized, and this has led to the uproar in research studies on standard feature extraction techniques for optimized condition assessment of fuel pumps. By extracting time-based, frequency-based and the more robust time-frequency based features from these vibrational signals, a more comprehensive feature assessment (and selection) can be achieved for a more accurate and reliable condition assessment of these pumps. With the aid of emerging deep classification and regression algorithms like the locally linear embedding (LLE), we propose a method for comprehensive condition assessment of electromagnetic fuel pumps (EMFPs). Results show that the LLE as a comprehensive feature extraction technique yields better feature fusion/dimensionality reduction results for condition assessment of EMFPs against the use of single features. Also, unlike other feature fusion techniques, its capabilities as a fault classification technique were explored, and the results show an acceptable accuracy level using standard performance metrics for evaluation.

Keywords: electromagnetic fuel pumps, comprehensive feature extraction, condition assessment, locally linear embedding, feature fusion

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