Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Search results for: Pattra Pukdeekiat

4 Determination of Direct Solar Radiation Using Atmospheric Physics Models

Authors: Pattra Pukdeekiat, Siriluk Ruangrungrote


This work was originated to precisely determine direct solar radiation by using atmospheric physics models since the accurate prediction of solar radiation is necessary and useful for solar energy applications including atmospheric research. The possible models and techniques for a calculation of regional direct solar radiation were challenging and compulsory for the case of unavailable instrumental measurement. The investigation was mathematically governed by six astronomical parameters i.e. declination (δ), hour angle (ω), solar time, solar zenith angle (θz), extraterrestrial radiation (Iso) and eccentricity (E0) along with two atmospheric parameters i.e. air mass (mr) and dew point temperature at Bangna meteorological station (13.67° N, 100.61° E) in Bangkok, Thailand. Analyses of five models of solar radiation determination with the assumption of clear sky were applied accompanied by three statistical tests: Mean Bias Difference (MBD), Root Mean Square Difference (RMSD) and Coefficient of determination (R2) in order to validate the accuracy of obtainable results. The calculated direct solar radiation was in a range of 491-505 Watt/m2 with relative percentage error 8.41% for winter and 532-540 Watt/m2 with relative percentage error 4.89% for summer 2014. Additionally, dataset of seven continuous days, representing both seasons were considered with the MBD, RMSD and R2 of -0.08, 0.25, 0.86 and -0.14, 0.35, 3.29, respectively, which belong to Kumar model for winter and CSR model for summer. In summary, the determination of direct solar radiation based on atmospheric models and empirical equations could advantageously provide immediate and reliable values of the solar components for any site in the region without a constraint of actual measurement.

Keywords: atmospheric physics models, astronomical parameters, atmospheric parameters, clear sky condition

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3 Pancreatic Lipase and Cholesterol Esterase Inhibitors from Thai Medicinal Plants

Authors: Kwanchai Ratanamanee, Pattra Ahmadi Pirshahid, Yaowaluk Khamphan, Sirinan Thubthimthad


Obesity is a main global health problem. The obesity rated has continued to be higher and higher. It causes to serious systems, diabetes, coronary artery disease, stroke, and some types of cancer. Oristat is one of the best drugs worldwide used as a pancreatic lipase inhibitor. To develop the new therapeutic drugs from medicinal plant always explored. In this study, 24 medicinal plants were investigated for their pancreatic lipase and cholesterol esterase inhibitory effects with Fluorometer assay and oristat as a positive control. It showed that the ethanolic extract of pods of Acacia concinna (Willd.) D.C., possess pancreatic lipase and cholesterol esterase inhibitory activities of IC50 at 2.73 and 3.77 mg/ml respectively as well as oral acute toxicity of the extract (LD50) was 6,300 mg/kg body weight. The extract of A.concinna should be further investigated in animal testing. The results of pancreatic lipase and cholesterol esterase inhibitor of the extracts will lead us to utilize A.concinna for developing as obesity dietary supplement from a medicinal plant.

Keywords: Acacia concinna (Willd.) D. C., cholesterol esterase, obesity, pancreatic lipase

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2 Outcome of Bowel Management Program in Patient with Spinal Cord Injury

Authors: Roongtiwa Chobchuen, Angkana Srikhan, Pattra Wattanapan


Background: Neurogenic bowel is common condition after spinal cord injury. Most of spinal cord injured patients have motor weakness, mobility impairment which leads to constipation. Moreover, the neural pathway involving bowel function is interrupted. Therefore, the bowel management program should be implemented in nursing care in the earliest time after the onset of the disease to prevent the morbidity and mortality. Objective: To study the outcome of bowel management program of the patients with spinal cord injury who admitted for rehabilitation program. Study design: Descriptive study. Setting: Rehabilitation ward in Srinagarind Hospital. Populations: patients with subacute to chronic spinal cord injury who admitted at rehabilitation ward, Srinagarind hospital, aged over 18 years old. Instrument: The neurogenic bowel dysfunction score (NBDS) was used to determine the severity of neurogenic bowel. Procedure and statistical analysis: All participants were asked to complete the demographic data; age gender, duration of disease, diagnosis. The individual bowel function was assessed using NBDS at admission. The patients and caregivers were trained by nurses about the bowel management program which consisted of diet modification, abdominal massage, digital stimulation, stool evacuation including medication and physical activity. The outcome of the bowel management program was assessed by NBDS at discharge. The chi-square test was used to detect the difference in severity of neurogenic bowel at admission and discharge. Results: Sixteen spinal cord injured patients were enrolled in the study (age 45 ± 17 years old, 69% were male). Most of them (50%) were tetraplegia. On the admission, 12.5%, 12.5%, 43.75% and 31.25% were categorized as very minor (NBDS 0-6), minor (NBDS 7-9), moderate (NBDS 10-13) and severe (NBDS 14+) respectively. The severity of neurogenic bowel was decreased significantly at discharge (56.25%, 18.755%, 18.75% and 6.25% for very minor, minor, moderate and severe group respectively; p < 0.001) compared with NBDS at admission. Conclusions: Implementation of the effective bowel program decrease the severity of the neurogenic bowel in patient with spinal cord injury.

Keywords: neurogenic bowel, NBDS, spinal cord injury, bowel program

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1 The Use of Five Times Sit-To-Stand Test in Ambulatory People with Spinal Cord Injury When Tested with or without Hands

Authors: Lalita Khuna, Sugalya Amatachaya, Pipatana Amatachaya, Thiwabhorn Thaweewannakij, Pattra Wattanapan


The five times sit-to-stand test (FTSST) has been widely used to quantify lower extremity motor strength (LEMS), dynamic balance ability, and risk of falls in many individuals. Recently, it has been used in ambulatory patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) but variously using with or without hands according to patients’ ability. This difference might affect the validity of the test in these individuals. Thus, this study assessed the concurrent validity of the FTSST in ambulatory individuals with SCI, separately for those who could complete the test with or without hands using LEMS and standard functional measures as gold standards. Moreover, the data of the tests from those who completed the FTSST with and without hands were compared. A total of 56 ambulatory participants with SCI who could complete sit-to-stand with or without hands were assessed for the time to complete the FTSST according to their ability. Then they were assessed for their LEMS scores and functional abilities, including the 10-meter walk test (10MWT), the walking index for spinal cord injury II (WISCI II), the timed up and go test (TUGT), and the 6-minute walk test (6MWT). The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the different findings between the participants who performed the FTSST with and without hands. The Spearman rank correlation coefficient (ρ) was applied to analyze the levels of correlation between the FTSST and standard tests (LEMS scores and functional measures). There were significant differences in the data between the participants who performed the test with and without hands (p < 0.01). The time to complete the FTSST of the participants who performed the test without hands showed moderate to strong correlation with total LEMS scores and all functional measures (ρ = -0.71 to 0.69, p < 0.001). On the contrary, the FTSST data of those who performed the test with hands were significantly correlated only with the 10MWT, TUGT, and 6MWT (ρ = -0.47 to 0.57, p < 0.01). The present findings confirm the concurrent validity of the FTSST when performed without hands for LEMS and functional mobility necessary for the ability of independence and safety of ambulatory individuals with SCI. However, the test using hands distort the ability of the outcomes to reflect LEMS and WISCI II that reflect lower limb functions. By contrast, the 10MWT, TUGT, and 6MWT allowed upper limb contribution in the tests. Therefore, outcomes of these tests showed a significant correlation to the outcomes of FTSST when assessed using hands. Consequently, the use of FTSST with or without hands needs to consider the clinical application of the outcomes, i.e., to reflect lower limb functions or mobility of the patients.

Keywords: mobility, lower limb muscle strength, clinical test, rehabilitation

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