Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6853

Search results for: free space optical

6853 Study and Analysis of Optical Intersatellite Links

Authors: Boudene Maamar, Xu Mai


Optical Intersatellite Links (OISLs) are wireless communications using optical signals to interconnect satellites. It is expected to be the next generation wireless communication technology according to its inherent characteristics like: an increased bandwidth, a high data rate, a data transmission security, an immunity to interference, and an unregulated spectrum etc. Optical space links are the best choice for the classical communication schemes due to its distinctive properties; high frequency, small antenna diameter and lowest transmitted power, which are critical factors to define a space communication. This paper discusses the development of free space technology and analyses the parameters and factors to establish a reliable intersatellite links using an optical signal to exchange data between satellites.

Keywords: optical intersatellite links, optical wireless communications, free space optical communications, next generation wireless communication

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6852 Impact of Different Modulation Techniques on the Performance of Free-Space Optics

Authors: Naman Singla, Ajay Pal Singh Chauhan


As the demand for providing high bit rate and high bandwidth is increasing at a rapid rate so there is a need to see in this problem and finds a technology that provides high bit rate and also high bandwidth. One possible solution is by use of optical fiber. Optical fiber technology provides high bandwidth in THz. But the disadvantage of optical fiber is of high cost and not used everywhere because it is not possible to reach all the locations on the earth. Also high maintenance required for usage of optical fiber. It puts a lot of cost. Another technology which is almost similar to optical fiber is Free Space Optics (FSO) technology. FSO is the line of sight technology where modulated optical beam whether infrared or visible is used to transfer information from one point to another through the atmosphere which works as a channel. This paper concentrates on analyzing the performance of FSO in terms of bit error rate (BER) and quality factor (Q) using different modulation techniques like non return to zero on off keying (NRZ-OOK), differential phase shift keying (DPSK) and differential quadrature phase shift keying (DQPSK) using OptiSystem software. The findings of this paper show that FSO system based on DQPSK modulation technique performs better.

Keywords: attenuation, bit rate, free space optics, link length

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
6851 Wireless Optic Last Mile Multi-Gbit/s Communication System

Authors: Manea Viorel, Puscoci Sorin, Stoichescu Dan Alexandru


Free Space Optics (FSO) is an optical telecommunication system that uses laser beam to transmit data at high bit rates via terrestrial atmosphere. This article describes a method to obtain higher bit rates, under unfavorable weather conditions using multiple optical beams, which carry information with low optical power. Optical link quality assessment is given by the attenuation on different weather conditions. The goal of this paper is to compare two transmission techniques: mono and multi beam, both affected by atmospheric attenuation, using OOK and L-PPM modulation. Link availability is evaluated using eye-diagram that provides information about the overall bit error rate of the system.

Keywords: free space optics, wireless optic, laser communication, spatial diversity

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6850 Performance Analysis of M-Ary Pulse Position Modulation in Multihop Multiple Input Multiple Output-Free Space Optical System over Uncorrelated Gamma-Gamma Atmospheric Turbulence Channels

Authors: Hechmi Saidi, Noureddine Hamdi


The performance of Decode and Forward (DF) multihop Free Space Optical ( FSO) scheme deploying Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) configuration under Gamma-Gamma (GG) statistical distribution, that adopts M-ary Pulse Position Modulation (MPPM) coding, is investigated. We have extracted exact and estimated values of Symbol-Error Rates (SERs) respectively. A closed form formula related to the Probability Density Function (PDF) is expressed for our designed system. Thanks to the use of DF multihop MIMO FSO configuration and MPPM signaling, atmospheric turbulence is combatted; hence the transmitted signal quality is improved.

Keywords: free space optical, multiple input multiple output, M-ary pulse position modulation, multihop, decode and forward, symbol error rate, gamma-gamma channel

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
6849 Impact of Weather Conditions on Generalized Frequency Division Multiplexing over Gamma Gamma Channel

Authors: Muhammad Sameer Ahmed, Piotr Remlein, Tansal Gucluoglu


The technique called as Generalized frequency division multiplexing (GFDM) used in the free space optical channel can be a good option for implementation free space optical communication systems. This technique has several strengths e.g. good spectral efficiency, low peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR), adaptability and low co-channel interference. In this paper, the impact of weather conditions such as haze, rain and fog on GFDM over the gamma-gamma channel model is discussed. A Trade off between link distance and system performance under intense weather conditions is also analysed. The symbol error probability (SEP) of GFDM over the gamma-gamma turbulence channel is derived and verified with the computer simulations.

Keywords: free space optics, generalized frequency division multiplexing, weather conditions, gamma gamma distribution

Procedia PDF Downloads 82
6848 Patented Free-Space Optical System for Auto Aligned Optical Beam Allowing to Compensate Mechanical Misalignments

Authors: Aurelien Boutin


In optical systems such as Variable Optical Delay Lines, where a collimated beam has to go back and forth, corner cubes are used in order to keep the reflected beam parallel to the incoming beam. However, the reflected beam can be laterally shifted, which will lead to losses. In this paper, we report on a patented optical design that allows keeping the reflected beam with the exact same position and direction whatever the displacement of the corner cube leading to zero losses. After explaining how the optical design works and theoretically allows to compensate for any defects in the translation of the corner cube, we will present the results of experimental comparisons between a standard layout (i.e., only corner cubes) and our optical layout. To compare both optical layouts, we used a fiber-to-fiber coupling setup. It consists of a couple of lights from one fiber to the other, thanks to two lenses. The ensemble [fiber+lense] is fixed and called a collimator so that the light is coupled from one collimator to another. Each collimator was precisely made in order to have a precise working distance. In the experiment, we measured and compared the Insertion Losses (IL) variations between both collimators with the distance between them (i.e., natural Gaussian beam coupling losses) and between both collimators in the different optical layouts tested, with the same optical length propagation. We will show that the IL variations of our setup are less than 0.05dB with respect to the IL variations of collimators alone.

Keywords: free-space optics, variable optical delay lines, optical cavity, auto-alignment

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6847 Performance Analysis of a Hybrid DF-AF Hybrid RF/FSO System under Gamma Gamma Atmospheric Turbulence Channel Using MPPM Modulation

Authors: Hechmi Saidi, Noureddine Hamdi


The performance of hybrid amplify and forward - decode and forward (AF-DF) hybrid radio frequency/free space optical (RF/FSO) communication system, that adopts M-ary pulse position modulation (MPPM) techniques, is analyzed. Both exact and approximate symbol-error rates (SERs) are derived. The random variations of the received optical irradiance, produced by the atmospheric turbulence, is modeled by the gamma-gamma (GG) statistical distribution. A closed-form expression for the probability density function (PDF) is derived for the whole above system is obtained. Thanks to the use of hybrid AF-DF hybrid RF/FSO configuration and MPPM, the effects of atmospheric turbulence is mitigated; hence the capacity of combating atmospheric turbulence and the transmissitted signal quality are improved.

Keywords: free space optical, gamma gamma channel, radio frequency, decode and forward, error pointing, M-ary pulse position modulation, symbol error rate

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
6846 End-to-End Performance of MPPM in Multihop MIMO-FSO System Over Dependent GG Atmospheric Turbulence Channels

Authors: Hechmi Saidi, Noureddine Hamdi


The performance of decode and forward (DF) multihop free space optical (FSO) scheme deploying multiple input multiple output (MIMO) configuration under gamma-gamma (GG) statistical distribution, that adopts M-ary pulse position modulation (MPPM) coding, is investigated. We have extracted exact and estimated values of symbol-error rates (SERs) respectively. The probability density function (PDF)’s closed-form formula is expressed for our designed system. Thanks to the use of DF multihop MIMO FSO configuration and MPPM signaling, atmospheric turbulence is combatted; hence the transmitted signal quality is improved.

Keywords: free space optical, gamma gamma channel, radio frequency, decode and forward, multiple-input multiple-output, M-ary pulse position modulation, symbol error rate

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
6845 Compact Low Loss Design of SOI 1x2 Y-Branch Optical Power Splitter with S-Bend Waveguide and Study on the Variation of Transmitted Power with Various Waveguide Parameters

Authors: Nagaraju Pendam, C. P. Vardhani


A simple technology–compatible design of silicon-on-insulator based 1×2 optical power splitter is proposed. For developing large area Opto-electronic Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) devices, the power splitter is a key passive device. The SOI rib- waveguide dimensions (height, width, and etching depth, refractive indices, length of waveguide) leading simultaneously to single mode propagation. In this paper a low loss optical power splitter is designed by using R Soft cad tool and simulated by Beam propagation method, here s-bend waveguides proposed. We concentrate changing the refractive index difference, branching angle, width of the waveguide, free space wavelength of the waveguide and observing transmitted power, effective refractive index in the designed waveguide, and choosing the best simulated results to be fabricated on silicon-on insulator platform. In this design 1550 nm free spacing are used.

Keywords: beam propagation method, insertion loss, optical power splitter, rib waveguide, transmitted power

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6844 Use of EPR in Experimental Mechanics

Authors: M. Sikoń, E. Bidzińska


An attempt to apply EPR (Electron Paramagnetic Resonance) spectroscopy to experimental analysis of the mechanical state of the loaded material is considered in this work. Theory concerns the participation of electrons in transfer of mechanical action. The model of measurement is shown by applying classical mechanics and quantum mechanics. Theoretical analysis is verified using EPR spectroscopy twice, once for the free spacemen and once for the mechanical loaded spacemen. Positive results in the form of different spectra for free and loaded materials are used to describe the mechanical state in continuum based on statistical mechanics. Perturbation of the optical electrons in the field of the mechanical interactions inspires us to propose new optical properties of the materials with mechanical stresses.

Keywords: Cosserat medium, EPR spectroscopy, optical active electrons, optical activity

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6843 Structural and Optical Properties of Pr3+ Doped ZnO and PVA:Zn98Pr2O Nanocomposites Free Standing Film

Authors: Pandiyarajan Thangaraj, Mangalaraja Ramalinga Viswanathan, Karthikeyan Balasubramanian, Héctor D. Mansilla, José Ruiz, David Contreras


We report a systematic study of structural and optical properties of Pr-doped ZnO nanostructures and PVA:Zn98Pr2O polymer matrix nanocomposites free standing films are performed. These particles are synthesized through simple wet chemical route and solution casting technique at room temperature, respectively. Structural studies carried out by X-ray diffraction method, confirms that the prepared pure ZnO and Pr-doped ZnO nanostructures are in hexagonal wurtzite structure and the microstrain is increased upon doping. TEM analysis reveals that the prepared materials are in the sheet-like nature. Absorption spectra show free excitonic absorption band at 370 nm and red shift for the Pr-doped ZnO nanostructures. The PVA:Zn98Pr2O composite film exhibits both free excitonic and PVA absorption bands at 282 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectral studies confirm the presence of A1 (TO) and E1 (TO) modes of Zn-O bond vibration and the formation of polymer composite materials.

Keywords: Pr doped ZnO, polymer nanocomposites, optical properties, free standing film

Procedia PDF Downloads 390
6842 Experimental and Finite Element Forming Limit Diagrams for Interstitial Free Steels

Authors: Basavaraj Vadavadagi, Satishkumar Shekhawat


Interstitial free steels posses better formability and have many applications in automotive industries. Forming limit diagrams (FLDs) indicate the formability of materials which can be determined by experimental and finite element (FE) simulations. FLDs were determined experimentally by LDH test, utilizing optical strain measurement system for measuring the strains in different width specimens and by FE simulations in Interstitial Free (IF) and Interstitial Free High Strength (IFHS) steels. In this study, the experimental and FE simulated FLDs are compared and also the stress based FLDs were investigated.

Keywords: forming limit diagram, limiting dome height, optical strain measurement, interstitial

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6841 Required SNR for PPM in Downlink Gamma-Gamma Turbulence Channel

Authors: Selami Şahin


In this paper, in order to achieve sufficient bit error rate (BER) according to zenith angle of the satellite to ground station, SNR requirement is investigated utilizing pulse position modulation (PPM). To realize explicit results, all parameters such as link distance, Rytov variance, scintillation index, wavelength, aperture diameter of the receiver, Fried's parameter and zenith angle have been taken into account. Results indicate that after some parameters are determined since the constraints of the system, to achieve desired BER, required SNR values are in wide range while zenith angle changes from small to large values. Therefore, in order not to utilize high link margin, either SNR should adjust according to zenith angle or link should establish with predetermined intervals of the zenith angle.

Keywords: Free-space optical communication, optical downlink channel, atmospheric turbulence, wireless optical communication

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6840 Quantum Localization of Vibrational Mirror in Cavity Optomechanics

Authors: Madiha Tariq, Hena Rabbani


Recently, cavity-optomechanics becomes an extensive research field that has manipulated the mechanical effects of light for coupling of the optical field with other physical objects specifically with regards to dynamical localization. We investigate the dynamical localization (both in momentum and position space) for a vibrational mirror in a Fabry-Pérot cavity driven by a single mode optical field and a transverse probe field. The weak probe field phenomenon results in classical chaos in phase space and spatio temporal dynamics in position |ψ(x)²| and momentum space |ψ(p)²| versus time show quantum localization in both momentum and position space. Also, we discuss the parametric dependencies of dynamical localization for a designated set of parameters to be experimentally feasible. Our work opens an avenue to manipulate the other optical phenomena and applicability of proposed work can be prolonged to turn-able laser sources in the future.

Keywords: dynamical localization, cavity optomechanics, Hamiltonian chaos, probe field

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6839 An Optimal Matching Design Method of Space-Based Optical Payload for Typical Aerial Target Detection

Authors: Yin Zhang, Kai Qiao, Xiyang Zhi, Jinnan Gong, Jianming Hu


In order to effectively detect aerial targets over long distances, an optimal matching design method of space-based optical payload is proposed. Firstly, main factors affecting optical detectability of small targets under complex environment are analyzed based on the full link of a detection system, including band center, band width and spatial resolution. Then a performance characterization model representing the relationship between image signal-to-noise ratio (SCR) and the above influencing factors is established to describe a detection system. Finally, an optimal matching design example is demonstrated for a typical aerial target by simulating and analyzing its SCR under different scene clutter coupling with multi-scale characteristics, and the optimized detection band and spatial resolution are presented. The method can provide theoretical basis and scientific guidance for space-based detection system design, payload specification demonstration and information processing algorithm optimization.

Keywords: space-based detection, aerial targets, optical system design, detectability characterization

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6838 Design and Simulation of an Inter-Satellite Optical Wireless Communication System Using Diversity Techniques

Authors: Sridhar Rapuru, D. Mallikarjunreddy, Rajanarendra Sai


In this reign of the internet, the access of any multimedia file to the users at any time with a superior quality is needed. To achieve this goal, it is very important to have a good network without any interruptions between the satellites along with various earth stations. For that purpose, a high speed inter-satellite optical wireless communication system (IsOWC) is designed with space and polarization diversity techniques. IsOWC offers a high bandwidth, small size, less power requirement and affordable when compared with the present microwave satellite systems. To improve the efficiency and to reduce the propagation delay, inter-satellite link is established between the satellites. High accurate tracking systems are required to establish the reliable connection between the satellites as they have their own orbits. The only disadvantage of this IsOWC system is laser beam width is narrower than the RF because of this highly accurate tracking system to meet this requirement. The satellite uses the 'ephemerides data' for rough pointing and tracking system for fine pointing to the other satellite. In this proposed IsOWC system, laser light is used as a wireless connectedness between the source and destination and free space acts as the channel to carry the message. The proposed system will be designed, simulated and analyzed for 6000km with an improvement of data rate over previously existing systems. The performance parameters of the system are Q-factor, eye opening, bit error rate, etc., The proposed system for Inter-satellite Optical Wireless Communication System Design Using Diversity Techniques finds huge scope of applications in future generation communication purposes.

Keywords: inter-satellite optical wireless system, space and polarization diversity techniques, line of sight, bit error rate, Q-factor

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
6837 Simulation Analysis of Wavelength/Time/Space Codes Using CSRZ and DPSK-RZ Formats for Fiber-Optic CDMA Systems

Authors: Jaswinder Singh


In this paper, comparative analysis is carried out to study the performance of wavelength/time/space optical CDMA codes using two well-known formats; those are CSRZ and DPSK-RZ using RSoft’s OptSIM. The analysis is carried out under the real-like scenario considering the presence of various non-linear effects such as XPM, SPM, SRS, SBS and FWM. Fiber dispersion and the multiple access interference are also considered. The codes used in this analysis are 3-D wavelength/time/space codes. These are converted into 2-D wavelength-time codes so that their requirement of space couplers and fiber ribbons is eliminated. Under the conditions simulated, this is found that CSRZ performs better than DPSK-RZ for fiber-optic CDMA applications.

Keywords: Optical CDMA, Multiple access interference (MAI), CSRZ, DPSK-RZ

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6836 The Impact of Varying the Detector and Modulation Types on Inter Satellite Link (ISL) Realizing the Allowable High Data Rate

Authors: Asmaa Zaki M., Ahmed Abd El Aziz, Heba A. Fayed, Moustafa H. Aly


ISLs are the most popular choice for deep space communications because these links are attractive alternatives to present day microwave links. This paper explored the allowable high data rate in this link over different orbits, which is affected by variation in modulation scheme and detector type. Moreover, the objective of this paper is to optimize and analyze the performance of ISL in terms of Q-factor and Minimum Bit Error Rate (Min-BER) based on different detectors comprising some parameters.

Keywords: free space optics (FSO), field of view (FOV), inter satellite link (ISL), optical wireless communication (OWC)

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6835 Hidden Oscillations in the Mathematical Model of the Optical Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) Costas Loop

Authors: N. V. Kuznetsov, O. A. Kuznetsova, G. A. Leonov, M. V. Yuldashev, R. V. Yuldashev


Nonlinear analysis of the phase locked loop (PLL)-based circuits is a challenging task. Thus, the simulation is widely used for their study. In this work, we consider a mathematical model of the optical Costas loop and demonstrate the limitations of simulation approach related to the existence of so-called hidden oscillations in the phase space of the model.

Keywords: optical Costas loop, mathematical model, simulation, hidden oscillation

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6834 Monitoring and Prediction of Intra-Crosstalk in All-Optical Network

Authors: Ahmed Jedidi, Mesfer Mohammed Alshamrani, Alwi Mohammad A. Bamhdi


Optical performance monitoring and optical network management are essential in building a reliable, high-capacity, and service-differentiation enabled all-optical network. One of the serious problems in this network is the fact that optical crosstalk is additive, and thus the aggregate effect of crosstalk over a whole AON may be more nefarious than a single point of crosstalk. As results, we note a huge degradation of the Quality of Service (QoS) in our network. For that, it is necessary to identify and monitor the impairments in whole network. In this way, this paper presents new system to identify and monitor crosstalk in AONs in real-time fashion. particular, it proposes a new technique to manage intra-crosstalk in objective to relax QoS of the network.

Keywords: all-optical networks, optical crosstalk, optical cross-connect, crosstalk, monitoring crosstalk

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6833 Terahertz Surface Plasmon in Carbon Nanotube Dielectric Interface via Amplitude Modulated Laser

Authors: Monika Singh


A carbon nanotube thin film coated on dielectric interface is employed to produce THz surface plasma wave (SPW). The carbon nanotube has its plasmon frequency in the THz range. The SPW field falls off away from the metal film both inside the dielectric as well as in free space. An amplitude modulated laser pulse normally incident, from free space on slow wave structure, exert a modulation frequency ponderomotive force on the free electrons of the CNT film and resonantly excite the THz surface plasma wave at the modulation frequency. Carbon nanotube based plasmonic nano-structure materials provides potentially more versatile approach to tightly confined surface modes in the THz range in comparison to noble metals.

Keywords: surface plasmons, surface waves, thin films, THz radiation

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
6832 Optical Multicast over OBS Networks: An Approach Based on Code-Words and Tunable Decoders

Authors: Maha Sliti, Walid Abdallah, Noureddine Boudriga


In the frame of this work, we present an optical multicasting approach based on optical code-words. Our approach associates, in the edge node, an optical code-word to a group multicast address. In the core node, a set of tunable decoders are used to send a traffic data to multiple destinations based on the received code-word. The use of code-words, which correspond to the combination of an input port and a set of output ports, allows the implementation of an optical switching matrix. At the reception of a burst, it will be delayed in an optical memory. And, the received optical code-word is split to a set of tunable optical decoders. When it matches a configured code-word, the delayed burst is switched to a set of output ports.

Keywords: optical multicast, optical burst switching networks, optical code-words, tunable decoder, virtual optical memory

Procedia PDF Downloads 447
6831 Rapid Monitoring of Earthquake Damages Using Optical and SAR Data

Authors: Saeid Gharechelou, Ryutaro Tateishi


Earthquake is an inevitable catastrophic natural disaster. The damages of buildings and man-made structures, where most of the human activities occur are the major cause of casualties from earthquakes. A comparison of optical and SAR data is presented in the case of Kathmandu valley which was hardly shaken by 2015-Nepal Earthquake. Though many existing researchers have conducted optical data based estimated or suggested combined use of optical and SAR data for improved accuracy, however finding cloud-free optical images when urgently needed are not assured. Therefore, this research is specializd in developing SAR based technique with the target of rapid and accurate geospatial reporting. Should considers that limited time available in post-disaster situation offering quick computation exclusively based on two pairs of pre-seismic and co-seismic single look complex (SLC) images. The InSAR coherence pre-seismic, co-seismic and post-seismic was used to detect the change in damaged area. In addition, the ground truth data from field applied to optical data by random forest classification for detection of damaged area. The ground truth data collected in the field were used to assess the accuracy of supervised classification approach. Though a higher accuracy obtained from the optical data then integration by optical-SAR data. Limitation of cloud-free images when urgently needed for earthquak evevent are and is not assured, thus further research on improving the SAR based damage detection is suggested. Availability of very accurate damage information is expected for channelling the rescue and emergency operations. It is expected that the quick reporting of the post-disaster damage situation quantified by the rapid earthquake assessment should assist in channeling the rescue and emergency operations, and in informing the public about the scale of damage.

Keywords: Sentinel-1A data, Landsat-8, earthquake damage, InSAR, rapid damage monitoring, 2015-Nepal earthquake

Procedia PDF Downloads 105
6830 Enhanced Constraint-Based Optical Network (ECON) for Enhancing OSNR

Authors: G. R. Kavitha, T. S. Indumathi


With the constantly rising demands of the multimedia services, the requirements of long haul transport network are constantly changing in the area of optical network. Maximum data transmission using optimization of the communication channel poses the biggest challenge. Although there has been a constant focus on this area from the past decade, there was no evidence of a significant result that has been accomplished. Hence, after reviewing some potential design of optical network from literatures, it was understood that optical signal to noise ratio was one of the elementary attributes that can define the performance of the optical network. In this paper, we propose a framework termed as ECON (Enhanced Constraint-based Optical Network) that primarily optimize the optical signal to noise ratio using ROADM. The simulation is performed in Matlab and optical signal to noise ratio is extracted considering the system matrix. The outcome of the proposed study shows that optimized OSNR as compared to the existing studies.

Keywords: component, optical network, reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer, optical signal-to-noise ratio

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6829 Fabrication of Optical Tissue Phantoms Simulating Human Skin and Their Application

Authors: Jihoon Park, Sungkon Yu, Byungjo Jung


Although various optical tissue phantoms (OTPs) simulating human skin have been actively studied, their completeness is unclear because skin tissue has the intricate optical property and complicated structure disturbing the optical simulation. In this study, we designed multilayer OTP mimicking skin structure, and fabricated OTP models simulating skin-blood vessel and skin pigmentation in the skin, which are useful in Biomedical optics filed. The OTPs were characterized with the optical property and the cross-sectional structure, and analyzed by using various optical tools such as a laser speckle imaging system, OCT and a digital microscope to show the practicality. The measured optical property was within 5% error, and the thickness of each layer was uniform within 10% error in micrometer scale.

Keywords: blood vessel, optical tissue phantom, optical property, skin tissue, pigmentation

Procedia PDF Downloads 333
6828 All-Optical Function Based on Self-Similar Spectral Broadening for 2R Regeneration in High-Bit-Rate Optical Transmission Systems

Authors: Leila Graini


In this paper, we demonstrate basic all-optical functions for 2R regeneration (Re-amplification and Re-shaping) based on self-similar spectral broadening in low normal dispersion and highly nonlinear fiber (ND-HNLF) to regenerate the signal through optical filtering including the transfer function characteristics, and output extinction ratio. Our approach of all-optical 2R regeneration is based on those of Mamyshev. The numerical study reveals the self-similar spectral broadening very effective for 2R all-optical regeneration; the proposed design presents high stability compared to a conventional regenerator using SPM broadening with reduction of the intensity fluctuations and improvement of the extinction ratio.

Keywords: all-optical function, 2R optical regeneration, self-similar broadening, Mamyshev regenerator

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6827 Characterization of Optical Communication Channels as Non-Deterministic Model

Authors: Valentina Alessandra Carvalho do Vale, Elmo Thiago Lins Cöuras Ford


Increasingly telecommunications sectors are adopting optical technologies, due to its ability to transmit large amounts of data over long distances. However, as in all systems of data transmission, optical communication channels suffer from undesirable and non-deterministic effects, being essential to know the same. Thus, this research allows the assessment of these effects, as well as their characterization and beneficial uses of these effects.

Keywords: optical communication, optical fiber, non-deterministic effects, telecommunication

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6826 In-Situ Studies of Cyclohexane Oxidation Using Laser Raman Spectroscopy for the Refinement of Mechanism Based Kinetic Models

Authors: Christine Fräulin, Daniela Schurr, Hamed Shahidi Rad, Gerrit Waters, Günter Rinke, Roland Dittmeyer, Michael Nilles


The reaction mechanisms of many liquid-phase reactions in organic chemistry have not yet been sufficiently clarified. Process conditions of several hundred degrees celsius and pressures to ten megapascals complicate the sampling and the determination of kinetic data. Space resolved in-situ measurements promises new insights. A non-invasive in-situ measurement technique has the advantages that no sample preparation is necessary, there is no change in sample mixture before analysis and the sampling do no lead to interventions in the flow. Thus, the goal of our research was the development of a contact-free spatially resolved measurement technique for kinetic studies of liquid phase reaction under process conditions. Therefore we used laser Raman spectroscopy combined with an optical transparent microchannel reactor. To show the performance of the system we choose the oxidation of cyclohexane as sample reaction. Cyclohexane oxidation is an economically important process. The products are intermediates for caprolactam and adipic acid, which are starting materials for polyamide 6 and 6.6 production. To maintain high selectivities of 70 to 90 %, the reaction is performed in industry at a low conversion of about six percent. As Raman spectroscopy is usually very selective but not very sensitive the detection of the small product concentration in cyclohexane oxidation is quite challenging. To meet these requirements, an optical experimental setup was optimized to determine the concentrations by laser Raman spectroscopy with respect to good detection sensitivity. With this measurement technique space resolved kinetic studies of uncatalysed and homogeneous catalyzed cyclohexane oxidation were carried out to obtain details about the reaction mechanism.

Keywords: in-situ laser raman spectroscopy, space resolved kinetic measurements, homogeneous catalysis, chemistry

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6825 Study of the Optical Illusion Effects of Color Contrasts on Body Image Perception

Authors: A. Hadj Taieb, H. Ennouri


The current study aimed to investigate the effect that optical illusion garments have on a woman’s self-perception of her own body shape. First, we created different optical illusion garment by using color contrasts. Second, a short survey based on visual perception is addressed to women in order to compare the different optical illusion garments to determine if they met the established 'ideal' body shape. A ‘visual analysis method’ was used to investigate the clothing models with optical illusions. The theories in relation with the optical illusion were used through this method. The effects of the optical illusion of color contrast on body shape in the fashion sector were tried to be revealed.

Keywords: optical illusion, color contrasts, body image perception, self-esteem

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
6824 Wavelength Conversion of Dispersion Managed Solitons at 100 Gbps through Semiconductor Optical Amplifier

Authors: Kadam Bhambri, Neena Gupta


All optical wavelength conversion is essential in present day optical networks for transparent interoperability, contention resolution, and wavelength routing. The incorporation of all optical wavelength convertors leads to better utilization of the network resources and hence improves the efficiency of optical networks. Wavelength convertors that can work with Dispersion Managed (DM) solitons are attractive due to their superior transmission capabilities. In this paper, wavelength conversion for dispersion managed soliton signals was demonstrated at 100 Gbps through semiconductor optical amplifier and an optical filter. The wavelength conversion was achieved for a 1550 nm input signal to1555nm output signal. The output signal was measured in terms of BER, Q factor and system margin.    

Keywords: all optical wavelength conversion, dispersion managed solitons, semiconductor optical amplifier, cross gain modultation

Procedia PDF Downloads 358