Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1491

Search results for: edge computing

1491 The Need for Multi-Edge Strategies and Solutions

Authors: Hugh Taylor


Industry analysts project that edge computing will be generating tens of billions in revenue in coming years. It’s not clear, however, if this will actually happen, and who, if anyone, will make it happen. Edge computing is seen as a critical success factor in industries ranging from telecom, enterprise IT and co-location. However, will any of these industries actually step up to make edge computing into a viable technology business? This paper looks at why the edge seems to be in a chasm, on the edge of realization, so to speak, but failing to coalesce into a coherent technology category like the cloud—and how the segment’s divergent industry players can come together to build a viable business at the edge.

Keywords: edge computing, multi-edge strategies, edge data centers, edge cloud

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1490 An Empirical Investigation of the Challenges of Secure Edge Computing Adoption in Organizations

Authors: Hailye Tekleselassie


Edge computing is a spread computing outline that transports initiative applications closer to data sources such as IoT devices or local edge servers, and possible happenstances would skull the action of new technologies. However, this investigation was attained to investigation the consciousness of technology and communications organization workers and computer users who support the service cloud. Surveys were used to achieve these objectives. Surveys were intended to attain these aims, and it is the functional using survey. Enquiries about confidence are also a key question. Problems like data privacy, integrity, and availability are the factors affecting the company’s acceptance of the service cloud.

Keywords: IoT, data, security, edge computing

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1489 Deep Reinforcement Learning-Based Computation Offloading for 5G Vehicle-Aware Multi-Access Edge Computing Network

Authors: Ziying Wu, Danfeng Yan


Multi-Access Edge Computing (MEC) is one of the key technologies of the future 5G network. By deploying edge computing centers at the edge of wireless access network, the computation tasks can be offloaded to edge servers rather than the remote cloud server to meet the requirements of 5G low-latency and high-reliability application scenarios. Meanwhile, with the development of IOV (Internet of Vehicles) technology, various delay-sensitive and compute-intensive in-vehicle applications continue to appear. Compared with traditional internet business, these computation tasks have higher processing priority and lower delay requirements. In this paper, we design a 5G-based Vehicle-Aware Multi-Access Edge Computing Network (VAMECN) and propose a joint optimization problem of minimizing total system cost. In view of the problem, a deep reinforcement learning-based joint computation offloading and task migration optimization (JCOTM) algorithm is proposed, considering the influences of multiple factors such as concurrent multiple computation tasks, system computing resources distribution, and network communication bandwidth. And, the mixed integer nonlinear programming problem is described as a Markov Decision Process. Experiments show that our proposed algorithm can effectively reduce task processing delay and equipment energy consumption, optimize computing offloading and resource allocation schemes, and improve system resource utilization, compared with other computing offloading policies.

Keywords: multi-access edge computing, computation offloading, 5th generation, vehicle-aware, deep reinforcement learning, deep q-network

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1488 Image Recognition Performance Benchmarking for Edge Computing Using Small Visual Processing Unit

Authors: Kasidis Chomrat, Nopasit Chakpitak, Anukul Tamprasirt, Annop Thananchana


Internet of Things devices or IoT and Edge Computing has become one of the biggest things happening in innovations and one of the most discussed of the potential to improve and disrupt traditional business and industry alike. With rises of new hang cliff challenges like COVID-19 pandemic that posed a danger to workforce and business process of the system. Along with drastically changing landscape in business that left ruined aftermath of global COVID-19 pandemic, looming with the threat of global energy crisis, global warming, more heating global politic that posed a threat to become new Cold War. How emerging technology like edge computing and usage of specialized design visual processing units will be great opportunities for business. The literature reviewed on how the internet of things and disruptive wave will affect business, which explains is how all these new events is an effect on the current business and how would the business need to be adapting to change in the market and world, and example test benchmarking for consumer marketed of newer devices like the internet of things devices equipped with new edge computing devices will be increase efficiency and reducing posing a risk from a current and looming crisis. Throughout the whole paper, we will explain the technologies that lead the present technologies and the current situation why these technologies will be innovations that change the traditional practice through brief introductions to the technologies such as cloud computing, edge computing, Internet of Things and how it will be leading into future.

Keywords: internet of things, edge computing, machine learning, pattern recognition, image classification

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1487 Fog Computing- Network Based Computing

Authors: Navaneeth Krishnan, Chandan N. Bhagwat, Aparajit P. Utpat


Cloud Computing provides us a means to upload data and use applications over the internet. As the number of devices connecting to the cloud grows, there is undue pressure on the cloud infrastructure. Fog computing or Network Based Computing or Edge Computing allows to move a part of the processing in the cloud to the network devices present along the node to the cloud. Therefore the nodes connected to the cloud have a better response time. This paper proposes a method of moving the computation from the cloud to the network by introducing an android like appstore on the networking devices.

Keywords: cloud computing, fog computing, network devices, appstore

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1486 Artificial Intelligent-Based Approaches for Task ‎Offloading, ‎Resource ‎Allocation and Service ‎Placement of ‎Internet of Things ‎Applications: State of the Art

Authors: Fatima Z. Cherhabil, Mammar Sedrati, Sonia-Sabrina Bendib‎


In order to support the continued growth, critical latency of ‎IoT ‎applications, and ‎various obstacles of traditional data centers, ‎mobile edge ‎computing (MEC) has ‎emerged as a promising solution that extends cloud data-processing and decision-making to edge devices. ‎By adopting a MEC structure, IoT applications could be executed ‎locally, on ‎an edge server, different fog nodes, or distant cloud ‎data centers. However, we are ‎often ‎faced with wanting to optimize conflicting criteria such as ‎minimizing energy ‎consumption of limited local capabilities (in terms of CPU, RAM, storage, bandwidth) of mobile edge ‎devices and trying to ‎keep ‎high performance (reducing ‎response time, increasing throughput and service availability) ‎at the same ‎time‎. Achieving one goal may affect the other, making task offloading (TO), ‎resource allocation (RA), and service placement (SP) complex ‎processes. ‎It is a nontrivial multi-objective optimization ‎problem ‎to study the trade-off between conflicting criteria. ‎The paper provides a survey on different TO, SP, and RA recent multi-‎objective optimization (MOO) approaches used in edge computing environments, particularly artificial intelligent (AI) ones, to satisfy various objectives, constraints, and dynamic conditions related to IoT applications‎.

Keywords: mobile edge computing, multi-objective optimization, artificial ‎intelligence ‎approaches, task offloading, resource allocation, ‎ service placement

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1485 An investigation of Leading Edge and Trailing Edge Corrugation for Low Reynolds Number Application

Authors: Syed Hassan Raza Shah, Mohammad Mohammad Ali


The flow over a smoothly profiled airfoil at a low Reynolds number is highly susceptible to separate even at a very low angle of attack. An investigation was made to study the effect of leading-edge and trailing-edge corrugation with the spanwise change in the ridges resulted due to the change in the chord length for an infinite wing. The wind tunnel results using NACA0018 wings revealed that leading and trailing edge corrugation did not have any benefit in terms of aerodynamic efficiency or delayed stall. The leading edge and trailing edge corrugation didn't change the lift curve slope, with the leading edge corrugation wing stalling first in the range of Reynolds number of 50,000 to 125,000.

Keywords: leading and trailing edge corrugations, low reynolds number, wind tunnel testing, NACA0018

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1484 Measurement of VIP Edge Conduction Using Vacuum Guarded Hot Plate

Authors: Bongsu Choi, Tae-Ho Song


Vacuum insulation panel (VIP) is a promising thermal insulator for buildings, refrigerator, LNG carrier and so on. In general, it has the thermal conductivity of 2~4 mW/m•K. However, this thermal conductivity is that measured at the center of VIP. The total effective thermal conductivity of VIP is larger than this value due to the edge conduction through the envelope. In this paper, the edge conduction of VIP is examined theoretically, numerically and experimentally. To confirm the existence of the edge conduction, numerical analysis is performed for simple two-dimensional VIP model and a theoretical model is proposed to calculate the edge conductivity. Also, the edge conductivity is measured using the vacuum guarded hot plate and the experiment is validated against numerical analysis. The results show that the edge conductivity is dependent on the width of panel and thickness of Al-foil. To reduce the edge conduction, it is recommended that the VIP should be made as big as possible or made of thin Al film envelope.

Keywords: envelope, edge conduction, thermal conductivity, vacuum insulation panel

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1483 Effect of Machining Induced Microstructure Changes on the Edge Formability of Titanium Alloys at Room Temperature

Authors: James S. Kwame, E. Yakushina, P. Blackwell


The challenges in forming titanium alloys at room temperature are well researched and are linked both to the limitations imposed by the basic crystal structure and their ability to form texture during plastic deformation. One major issue of concern for the sheet forming of titanium alloys is their high sensitivity to surface inhomogeneity. Various machining processes are utilised in preparing sheet hole edges for edge flanging applications. However, the response of edge forming tendencies of titanium to different edge surface finishes is not well investigated. The hole expansion test is used in this project to elucidate the impact of abrasive water jet (AWJ) and electro-discharge machining (EDM) cutting techniques on the edge formability of CP-Ti (Grade 2) and Ti-3Al-2.5V alloys at room temperature. The results show that the quality of the edge surface finish has a major effect on the edge formability of the materials. The work also found that the variations in the edge forming performance are mainly the result of the influence of machining induced edge surface defects.

Keywords: titanium alloys, hole expansion test, edge formability, non-conventional machining

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1482 An Algorithm to Find Fractional Edge Domination Number and Upper Fractional Edge Domination Number of an Intuitionistic Fuzzy Graph

Authors: Karunambigai Mevani Govindasamy, Sathishkumar Ayyappan


In this paper, we formulate the algorithm to find out the dominating function parameters of Intuitionistic Fuzzy Graphs(IFG). The methodology we adopted here is converting any physical problem into an IFG, and that has been transformed into Intuitionistic Fuzzy Matrix. Using Linear Program Solver software (LiPS), we found the defined parameters for the given IFG. We obtained these parameters for a path and cycle IFG. This study can be extended to other varieties of IFG. In particular, we obtain the definition of edge dominating function, minimal edge dominating function, fractional edge domination number (γ_if^') and upper fractional edge domination number (Γ_if^') of an intuitionistic fuzzy graph. Also, we formulated an algorithm which is appropriate to work on LiPS to find fractional edge domination number and upper fractional edge domination number of an IFG.

Keywords: fractional edge domination number, intuitionistic fuzzy cycle, intuitionistic fuzzy graph, intuitionistic fuzzy path

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1481 Investigation Edge Coverage of Automotive Electrocoats Filled by Nano Silica Particles

Authors: Marzieh Bakhtiary Noodeh, Mahla Zabet


Attempts have been carried out to enhance the anticorrosion properties as well as edge coverage of an automotive electrocoating using the nano silica particles. To this end, the automotive electrocoating was reinforced with the nano silica particles at various weight fractions. The electrocoats were applied on the surface of punched edge followed by curing at 160⁰C for 20 min. The effects of nano silica particles on the rheological properties, influencing edge coverage were studied by a RMS (Rheometric Mechanical Spectrometer) technique. The anticorrosion properties were studied by a salt-spray test. The results obtained revealed that nano silica particles can significantly enhance the edge coverage by increasing minimum melt viscosity of electrocoats. It was shown that using 4 wt% nano silica particles, both anticorrosion properties and edge coverage of the electrocoats were significantly improved.

Keywords: nano silica, electrocoat, edge coverage, anticorrosion

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1480 AI/ML Atmospheric Parameters Retrieval Using the “Atmospheric Retrievals conditional Generative Adversarial Network (ARcGAN)”

Authors: Thomas Monahan, Nicolas Gorius, Thanh Nguyen


Exoplanet atmospheric parameters retrieval is a complex, computationally intensive, inverse modeling problem in which an exoplanet’s atmospheric composition is extracted from an observed spectrum. Traditional Bayesian sampling methods require extensive time and computation, involving algorithms that compare large numbers of known atmospheric models to the input spectral data. Runtimes are directly proportional to the number of parameters under consideration. These increased power and runtime requirements are difficult to accommodate in space missions where model size, speed, and power consumption are of particular importance. The use of traditional Bayesian sampling methods, therefore, compromise model complexity or sampling accuracy. The Atmospheric Retrievals conditional Generative Adversarial Network (ARcGAN) is a deep convolutional generative adversarial network that improves on the previous model’s speed and accuracy. We demonstrate the efficacy of artificial intelligence to quickly and reliably predict atmospheric parameters and present it as a viable alternative to slow and computationally heavy Bayesian methods. In addition to its broad applicability across instruments and planetary types, ARcGAN has been designed to function on low power application-specific integrated circuits. The application of edge computing to atmospheric retrievals allows for real or near-real-time quantification of atmospheric constituents at the instrument level. Additionally, edge computing provides both high-performance and power-efficient computing for AI applications, both of which are critical for space missions. With the edge computing chip implementation, ArcGAN serves as a strong basis for the development of a similar machine-learning algorithm to reduce the downlinked data volume from the Compact Ultraviolet to Visible Imaging Spectrometer (CUVIS) onboard the DAVINCI mission to Venus.

Keywords: deep learning, generative adversarial network, edge computing, atmospheric parameters retrieval

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1479 Multiscale Edge Detection Based on Nonsubsampled Contourlet Transform

Authors: Enqing Chen, Jianbo Wang


It is well known that the wavelet transform provides a very effective framework for multiscale edges analysis. However, wavelets are not very effective in representing images containing distributed discontinuities such as edges. In this paper, we propose a novel multiscale edge detection method in nonsubsampled contourlet transform (NSCT) domain, which is based on the dominant multiscale, multidirection edge expression and outstanding edge location of NSCT. Through real images experiments, simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method is better than other edge detection methods based on Canny operator, wavelet and contourlet. Additionally, the proposed method also works well for noisy images.

Keywords: edge detection, NSCT, shift invariant, modulus maxima

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1478 Detecting the Edge of Multiple Images in Parallel

Authors: Prakash K. Aithal, U. Dinesh Acharya, Rajesh Gopakumar


Edge is variation of brightness in an image. Edge detection is useful in many application areas such as finding forests, rivers from a satellite image, detecting broken bone in a medical image etc. The paper discusses about finding edge of multiple aerial images in parallel .The proposed work tested on 38 images 37 colored and one monochrome image. The time taken to process N images in parallel is equivalent to time taken to process 1 image in sequential. The proposed method achieves pixel level parallelism as well as image level parallelism.

Keywords: edge detection, multicore, gpu, opencl, mpi

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1477 Generator Subgraphs of the Wheel

Authors: Neil M. Mame


We consider only finite graphs without loops nor multiple edges. Let G be a graph with E(G) = {e1, e2, …., em}. The edge space of G, denoted by ε(G), is a vector space over the field Z2. The elements of ε(G) are all the subsets of E(G). Vector addition is defined as X+Y = X Δ Y, the symmetric difference of sets X and Y, for X, Y ∈ ε(G). Scalar multiplication is defined as 1.X =X and 0.X = Ø for X ∈ ε(G). The set S ⊆ ε(G) is called a generating set if every element ε(G) is a linear combination of the elements of S. For a non-empty set X ∈ ε(G), the smallest subgraph with edge set X is called edge-induced subgraph of G, denoted by G[X]. The set EH(G) = { A ∈ ε(G) : G[A] ≅ H } denotes the uniform set of H with respect to G and εH(G) denotes the subspace of ε(G) generated by EH(G). If εH(G) is generating set, then we call H a generator subgraph of G. This paper gives the characterization for the generator subgraphs of the wheel that contain cycles and gives the necessary conditions for the acyclic generator subgraphs of the wheel.

Keywords: edge space, edge-induced subgraph, generator subgraph, wheel

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1476 A Survey on Internet of Things and Fog Computing as a Platform for Internet of Things

Authors: Samira Kalantary, Sara Taghipour, Mansoure Ghias Abadi


The Internet of Things (IOT) is a technological revolution that represents the future of computing and communications. IOT is the convergence of Internet with RFID, NFC, Sensor, and smart objects. Fog Computing is the natural platform for IOT. At present, the IOT as a new network communication technology has rapidly shifted from concept to application under fog computing virtual storage computing platform. In this paper, we describe everything about IOT and difference between cloud computing and fog computing.

Keywords: cloud computing, fog computing, Internet of Things (IoT), IOT application

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1475 Subjective Evaluation of Mathematical Morphology Edge Detection on Computed Tomography (CT) Images

Authors: Emhimed Saffor


In this paper, the problem of edge detection in digital images is considered. Three methods of edge detection based on mathematical morphology algorithm were applied on two sets (Brain and Chest) CT images. 3x3 filter for first method, 5x5 filter for second method and 7x7 filter for third method under MATLAB programming environment. The results of the above-mentioned methods are subjectively evaluated. The results show these methods are more efficient and satiable for medical images, and they can be used for different other applications.

Keywords: CT images, Matlab, medical images, edge detection

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1474 Designing Directed Network with Optimal Controllability

Authors: Liang Bai, Yandong Xiao, Haorang Wang, Songyang Lao


The directedness of links is crucial to determine the controllability in complex networks. Even the edge directions can determine the controllability of complex networks. Obviously, for a given network, we wish to design its edge directions that make this network approach the optimal controllability. In this work, we firstly introduce two methods to enhance network by assigning edge directions. However, these two methods could not completely mitigate the negative effects of inaccessibility and dilations. Thus, to approach the optimal network controllability, the edge directions must mitigate the negative effects of inaccessibility and dilations as much as possible. Finally, we propose the edge direction for optimal controllability. The optimal method has been found to be successfully useful on real-world and synthetic networks.

Keywords: complex network, dynamics, network control, optimization

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1473 Classification of Manufacturing Data for Efficient Processing on an Edge-Cloud Network

Authors: Onyedikachi Ulelu, Andrew P. Longstaff, Simon Fletcher, Simon Parkinson


The widespread interest in 'Industry 4.0' or 'digital manufacturing' has led to significant research requiring the acquisition of data from sensors, instruments, and machine signals. In-depth research then identifies methods of analysis of the massive amounts of data generated before and during manufacture to solve a particular problem. The ultimate goal is for industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) data to be processed automatically to assist with either visualisation or autonomous system decision-making. However, the collection and processing of data in an industrial environment come with a cost. Little research has been undertaken on how to specify optimally what data to capture, transmit, process, and store at various levels of an edge-cloud network. The first step in this specification is to categorise IIoT data for efficient and effective use. This paper proposes the required attributes and classification to take manufacturing digital data from various sources to determine the most suitable location for data processing on the edge-cloud network. The proposed classification framework will minimise overhead in terms of network bandwidth/cost and processing time of machine tool data via efficient decision making on which dataset should be processed at the ‘edge’ and what to send to a remote server (cloud). A fast-and-frugal heuristic method is implemented for this decision-making. The framework is tested using case studies from industrial machine tools for machine productivity and maintenance.

Keywords: data classification, decision making, edge computing, industrial IoT, industry 4.0

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1472 Dynamic Stability of Axially Moving Viscoelastic Plates under Nonuniform in-Plane Edge Excitations

Authors: T. H. Young, S. J. Huang, Y. S. Chiu


This paper investigates the parametric stability of an axially moving web subjected to nonuniform in-plane edge excitations on two opposite, simply-supported edges. The web is modeled as a viscoelastic plate whose constitutive relation obeys the Kelvin-Voigt model, and the in-plane edge excitations are expressed as the sum of a static tension and a periodical perturbation. Due to the in-plane edge excitations, the moving plate may bring about parametric instability under certain situations. First, the in-plane stresses of the plate due to the nonuniform edge excitations are determined by solving the in-plane forced vibration problem. Then, the dependence on the spatial coordinates in the equation of transverse motion is eliminated by the generalized Galerkin method, which results in a set of discretized system equations in time. Finally, the method of multiple scales is utilized to solve the set of system equations analytically if the periodical perturbation of the in-plane edge excitations is much smaller as compared with the static tension of the plate, from which the stability boundaries of the moving plate are obtained. Numerical results reveal that only combination resonances of the summed-type appear under the in-plane edge excitations considered in this work.

Keywords: axially moving viscoelastic plate, in-plane periodic excitation, nonuniformly distributed edge tension, dynamic stability

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1471 Manufacturing of Vacuum Glazing with Metal Edge Seal

Authors: Won Kyeong Kang, Tae-Ho Song


Vacuum glazing (VG) is a super insulator, which is able to greatly improve the energy efficiency of building. However, a significant amount of heat loss occurs through the welded edge of conventional VG. The joining method should be improved for further application and commercialization. For this purpose VG with metal edge seal is conceived. In this paper, the feasibility of joining stainless steel and soda lime glass using glass solder is assessed numerically and experimentally. In the case of very thin stainless steel, partial joining with glass is identified, which need further improvement for practical application.

Keywords: VG, metal edge seal, vacuum glazing, manufacturing,

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1470 LaPEA: Language for Preprocessing of Edge Applications in Smart Factory

Authors: Masaki Sakai, Tsuyoshi Nakajima, Kazuya Takahashi


In order to improve the productivity of a factory, it is often the case to create an inference model by collecting and analyzing operational data off-line and then to develop an edge application (EAP) that evaluates the quality of the products or diagnoses machine faults in real-time. To accelerate this development cycle, an edge application framework for the smart factory is proposed, which enables to create and modify EAPs based on prepared inference models. In the framework, the preprocessing component is the key part to make it work. This paper proposes a language for preprocessing of edge applications, called LaPEA, which can flexibly process several sensor data from machines into explanatory variables for an inference model, and proves that it meets the requirements for the preprocessing.

Keywords: edge application framework, edgecross, preprocessing language, smart factory

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1469 Experimental Investigation on Noise from Rod-Airfoil with Leading Edge Serrations

Authors: Siti Ruhliah Lizarose Samion, Mohamed Sukri Mat Ali, Con Doolan


The present work is an experimental investigation of adapting a passive treatment leading edge serrations over a rod-airfoil flow-induced noise generation. The leading edge serrations are bio-inspired from a barn-owl silent flight. The rod-airfoil configuration is a benchmark configuration taken to investigate airfoil-turbulence interaction noise (ATIN). Location of serrations placed and the wideness of serrations are the two parameters taken in this study. The ATIN is reduced up to 3.5 dB for a wide leading serrations case. A correlation is found between the wideness of serrations and the noise reduction mechanism of the airfoil.

Keywords: aerodynamic noise, leading edge serrations, rod-airfoil, experiment

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1468 A Novel Combination Method for Computing the Importance Map of Image

Authors: Ahmad Absetan, Mahdi Nooshyar


The importance map is an image-based measure and is a core part of the resizing algorithm. Importance measures include image gradients, saliency and entropy, as well as high level cues such as face detectors, motion detectors and more. In this work we proposed a new method to calculate the importance map, the importance map is generated automatically using a novel combination of image edge density and Harel saliency measurement. Experiments of different type images demonstrate that our method effectively detects prominent areas can be used in image resizing applications to aware important areas while preserving image quality.

Keywords: content-aware image resizing, visual saliency, edge density, image warping

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1467 Comparative Analysis of Edge Detection Techniques for Extracting Characters

Authors: Rana Gill, Chandandeep Kaur


Segmentation of images can be implemented using different fundamental algorithms like edge detection (discontinuity based segmentation), region growing (similarity based segmentation), iterative thresholding method. A comprehensive literature review relevant to the study gives description of different techniques for vehicle number plate detection and edge detection techniques widely used on different types of images. This research work is based on edge detection techniques and calculating threshold on the basis of five edge operators. Five operators used are Prewitt, Roberts, Sobel, LoG and Canny. Segmentation of characters present in different type of images like vehicle number plate, name plate of house and characters on different sign boards are selected as a case study in this work. The proposed methodology has seven stages. The proposed system has been implemented using MATLAB R2010a. Comparison of all the five operators has been done on the basis of their performance. From the results it is found that Canny operators produce best results among the used operators and performance of different edge operators in decreasing order is: Canny>Log>Sobel>Prewitt>Roberts.

Keywords: segmentation, edge detection, text, extracting characters

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1466 Prediction of Trailing-Edge Noise under Adverse-Pressure Gradient Effect

Authors: Li Chen


For an aerofoil or hydrofoil in high Reynolds number flows, broadband noise is generated efficiently as the result of the turbulence convecting over the trailing edge. This noise can be related to the surface pressure fluctuations, which can be predicted by either CFD or empirical models. However, in reality, the aerofoil or hydrofoil often operates at an angle of attack. Under this situation, the flow is subjected to an Adverse-Pressure-Gradient (APG), and as a result, a flow separation may occur. This study is to assess trailing-edge noise models for such flows. In the present work, the trailing-edge noise from a 2D airfoil at 6 degree of angle of attach is investigated. Under this condition, the flow is experiencing a strong APG, and the flow separation occurs. The flow over the airfoil with a chord of 300 mm, equivalent to a Reynold Number 4x10⁵, is simulated using RANS with the SST k-ɛ turbulent model. The predicted surface pressure fluctuations are compared with the published experimental data and empirical models, and show a good agreement with the experimental data. The effect of the APG on the trailing edge noise is discussed, and the associated trailing edge noise is calculated.

Keywords: aero-acoustics, adverse-pressure gradient, computational fluid dynamics, trailing-edge noise

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1465 Theoretical Study of Flexible Edge Seals for Vacuum Glazing

Authors: Farid Arya, Trevor Hyde


The development of vacuum glazing represents a significant advancement in the area of low heat loss glazing systems with the potential to substantially reduce building heating and cooling loads. Vacuum glazing consists of two or more glass panes hermetically sealed together around the edge with a vacuum gap between the panes. To avoid the glass panes from collapsing and touching each other under the influence of atmospheric pressure an array of support pillars is provided between the glass panes. A high level of thermal insulation is achieved by evacuating the spaces between the glass panes to a very low pressure which greatly reduces conduction and convection within the space; therefore heat transfer through this kind of glazing is significantly lower when compared with conventional insulating glazing. However, vacuum glazing is subject to inherent stresses due to atmospheric pressure and temperature differentials which can lead to fracture of the glass panes and failure of the edge seal. A flexible edge seal has been proposed to minimise the impact of these issues. In this paper, vacuum glazing system with rigid and flexible edge seals is theoretically studied and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed.

Keywords: flexible edge seal, stress, support pillar, vacuum glazing

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1464 Extraction of Road Edge Lines from High-Resolution Remote Sensing Images Based on Energy Function and Snake Model

Authors: Zuoji Huang, Haiming Qian, Chunlin Wang, Jinyan Sun, Nan Xu


In this paper, the strategy to extract double road edge lines from acquired road stripe image was explored. The workflow is as follows: the road stripes are acquired by probabilistic boosting tree algorithm and morphological algorithm immediately, and road centerlines are detected by thinning algorithm, so the initial road edge lines can be acquired along the road centerlines. Then we refine the results with big variation of local curvature of centerlines. Specifically, the energy function of edge line is constructed by gradient feature and spectral information, and Dijkstra algorithm is used to optimize the initial road edge lines. The Snake model is constructed to solve the fracture problem of intersection, and the discrete dynamic programming algorithm is used to solve the model. After that, we could get the final road network. Experiment results show that the strategy proposed in this paper can be used to extract the continuous and smooth road edge lines from high-resolution remote sensing images with an accuracy of 88% in our study area.

Keywords: road edge lines extraction, energy function, intersection fracture, Snake model

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1463 Effect of Cloud Computing on Enterprises

Authors: Amir Rashid


Today is the world of innovations where everyone is looking for a change. Organizations are now looking toward virtualization in order to minimize their computing cost. Cloud Computing has also introduced itself by the means of reducing computing cost. It offers different approach to make computing better by improving utilization and reducing infrastructure and administrative costs. Cloud Computing is basically the amalgamation of Utility Computing and SaaS (Software as a Service). Cloud Computing is quite new to organizations as it is still at its deploying stage. Due to this reason, organizations are not confident whether to adopt it or not. This thesis investigates the problem for organization concerning the security and cost issues. Benefits and drawbacks are being highlighted which organizations can have or suffer in order to adopt Cloud Computing. In Conclusion, Cloud Computing is a better option available for small and medium organizations with a comparison to large companies both in terms of data security and cost.

Keywords: cloud computing, security, cost, elasticity, PaaS, IaaS, SaaS

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1462 Sub-Pixel Mapping Based on New Mixed Interpolation

Authors: Zeyu Zhou, Xiaojun Bi


Due to the limited environmental parameters and the limited resolution of the sensor, the universal existence of the mixed pixels in the process of remote sensing images restricts the spatial resolution of the remote sensing images. Sub-pixel mapping technology can effectively improve the spatial resolution. As the bilinear interpolation algorithm inevitably produces the edge blur effect, which leads to the inaccurate sub-pixel mapping results. In order to avoid the edge blur effect that affects the sub-pixel mapping results in the interpolation process, this paper presents a new edge-directed interpolation algorithm which uses the covariance adaptive interpolation algorithm on the edge of the low-resolution image and uses bilinear interpolation algorithm in the low-resolution image smooth area. By using the edge-directed interpolation algorithm, the super-resolution of the image with low resolution is obtained, and we get the percentage of each sub-pixel under a certain type of high-resolution image. Then we rely on the probability value as a soft attribute estimate and carry out sub-pixel scale under the ‘hard classification’. Finally, we get the result of sub-pixel mapping. Through the experiment, we compare the algorithm and the bilinear algorithm given in this paper to the results of the sub-pixel mapping method. It is found that the sub-pixel mapping method based on the edge-directed interpolation algorithm has better edge effect and higher mapping accuracy. The results of the paper meet our original intention of the question. At the same time, the method does not require iterative computation and training of samples, making it easier to implement.

Keywords: remote sensing images, sub-pixel mapping, bilinear interpolation, edge-directed interpolation

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