Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 647

Search results for: atmospheric discharges

647 Simulation and Performance Evaluation of Transmission Lines with Shield Wire Segmentation against Atmospheric Discharges Using ATPDraw

Authors: Marcio S. da Silva, Jose Mauricio de B. Bezerra, Antonio E. de A. Nogueira

Abstract:

This paper aims to make a performance analysis of shield wire transmission lines against atmospheric discharges when it is made the option of sectioning the shield wire and verify if the tolerability of the change. As a goal of this work, it was established to make complete modeling of a transmission line in the ATPDraw program with shield wire grounded in all the towers and in some towers. The methodology used to make the proposed evaluation was to choose an actual transmission line that served as a case study. From the choice of transmission line and verification of all its topology and materials, complete modeling of the line using the ATPDraw software was performed. Then several atmospheric discharges were simulated by striking the grounded shield wires in each tower. These simulations served to identify the behavior of the existing line against atmospheric discharges. After this first analysis, the same line was reconsidered with shield wire segmentation. The shielding wire segmentation technique aims to reduce induced losses in shield wires and is adopted in some transmission lines in Brazil. With the same conditions of atmospheric discharge the transmission line, this time with shield wire segmentation was again evaluated. The results obtained showed that it is possible to obtain similar performances against atmospheric discharges between a shield wired line in multiple towers and the same line with shield wire segmentation if some precautions are adopted as verification of the ground resistance of the wire segmented shield, adequacy of the maximum length of the segmented gap, evaluation of the separation length of the electrodes of the insulator spark, among others. As a conclusion, it is verified that since the correct assessment and adopted the correct criteria of adjustment a transmission line with shielded wire segmentation can perform very similar to the traditional use with multiple earths. This solution contributes in a very important way to the reduction of energy losses in transmission lines.

Keywords: atmospheric discharges, ATPDraw, shield wire, transmission lines

Procedia PDF Downloads 81
646 Insulation Properties of Rod-Plane Electrode Covered with ATH/SIR Nano-Composite in Dry-Air

Authors: Jae-Yong Sim, Jung-Hun Kwon, Ji-Sung Park, Kee-Joe Lim

Abstract:

One of the latest trends for insulation systems to improve the insulation performance is the use of eco-friendly hybrid insulation using compressed dry-air. Despite the excellent insulation performance of sulphurhexafluoride (SF6) gas, its use has been restricted due to the problems with significant global warming potential (GWP). Accordingly, lightning impulse performance of the hybrid insulation system covered with an aluminum trihydrate/silicone rubber (ATH/SIR) nanocomposite was examined in air at atmospheric pressure and in compressed air at pressures between 0.2 and 0.6 MPa. In the experiments, the most common breakdown path took place along the surface of the covered rod. The insulation reliability after several discharges should be guaranteed in hybrid insulation. On the other hand, the surface of the covered rod was carbonized after several discharges. Therefore, nanoscale ATH can be used as a reinforcement of covered dielectrics to inhibit carbonization on the surface of a covered rod. The results were analyzed in terms of the surface resistivity of the cover dielectrics.

Keywords: nanocomposite, hybrid insulation, ATH, dry-air

Procedia PDF Downloads 364
645 Intelligent Tutor Using Adaptive Learning to Partial Discharges with Virtual Reality Systems

Authors: Hernández Yasmín, Ochoa Alberto, Hurtado Diego

Abstract:

The aim of this study is developing an intelligent tutoring system for electrical operators training with virtual reality systems at the laboratory center of partials discharges LAPEM. The electrical domain requires efficient and well trained personnel, due to the danger involved in the partials discharges field, qualified electricians are required. This paper presents an overview of the intelligent tutor adaptive learning design and user interface with VR. We propose the develop of constructing a model domain of a subset of partial discharges enables adaptive training through a trainee model which represents the affective and knowledge states of trainees. According to the success of the intelligent tutor system with VR, it is also hypothesized that the trainees will able to learn the electrical domain installations of partial discharges and gain knowledge more efficient and well trained than trainees using traditional methods of teaching without running any risk of being in danger, traditional methods makes training lengthily, costly and dangerously.

Keywords: intelligent tutoring system, artificial intelligence, virtual reality, partials discharges, adaptive learning

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
644 Electronic Device Robustness against Electrostatic Discharges

Authors: Clara Oliver, Oibar Martinez

Abstract:

This paper is intended to reveal the severity of electrostatic discharge (ESD) effects in electronic and optoelectronic devices by performing sensitivity tests based on Human Body Model (HBM) standard. We explain here the HBM standard in detail together with the typical failure modes associated with electrostatic discharges. In addition, a prototype of electrostatic charge generator has been designed, fabricated, and verified to stress electronic devices, which features a compact high voltage source. This prototype is inexpensive and enables one to do a battery of pre-compliance tests aimed at detecting unexpected weaknesses to static discharges at the component level. Some tests with different devices were performed to illustrate the behavior of the proposed generator. A set of discharges was applied according to the HBM standard to commercially available bipolar transistors, complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor transistors and light emitting diodes. It is observed that high current and voltage ratings in electronic devices not necessarily provide a guarantee that the device will withstand high levels of electrostatic discharges. We have also compared the result obtained by performing the sensitivity tests based on HBM with a real discharge generated by a human. For this purpose, the charge accumulated in the person is monitored, and a direct discharge against the devices is generated by touching them. Every test has been performed under controlled relative humidity conditions. It is believed that this paper can be of interest for research teams involved in the development of electronic and optoelectronic devices which need to verify the reliability of their devices in terms of robustness to electrostatic discharges.

Keywords: human body model, electrostatic discharge, sensitivity tests, static charge monitoring

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643 Electro-Hydrodynamic Effects Due to Plasma Bullet Propagation

Authors: Panagiotis Svarnas, Polykarpos Papadopoulos

Abstract:

Atmospheric-pressure cold plasmas continue to gain increasing interest for various applications due to their unique properties, like cost-efficient production, high chemical reactivity, low gas temperature, adaptability, etc. Numerous designs have been proposed for these plasmas production in terms of electrode configuration, driving voltage waveform and working gas(es). However, in order to exploit most of the advantages of these systems, the majority of the designs are based on dielectric-barrier discharges (DBDs) either in filamentary or glow regimes. A special category of the DBD-based atmospheric-pressure cold plasmas refers to the so-called plasma jets, where a carrier noble gas is guided by the dielectric barrier (usually a hollow cylinder) and left to flow up to the atmospheric air where a complicated hydrodynamic interplay takes place. Although it is now well established that these plasmas are generated due to ionizing waves reminding in many ways streamer propagation, they exhibit discrete characteristics which are better mirrored on the terms 'guided streamers' or 'plasma bullets'. These 'bullets' travel with supersonic velocities both inside the dielectric barrier and the channel formed by the noble gas during its penetration into the air. The present work is devoted to the interpretation of the electro-hydrodynamic effects that take place downstream of the dielectric barrier opening, i.e., in the noble gas-air mixing area where plasma bullet propagate under the influence of local electric fields in regions of variable noble gas concentration. Herein, we focus on the role of the local space charge and the residual ionic charge left behind after the bullet propagation in the gas flow field modification. The study communicates both experimental and numerical results, coupled in a comprehensive manner. The plasma bullets are here produced by a custom device having a quartz tube as a dielectric barrier and two external ring-type electrodes driven by sinusoidal high voltage at 10 kHz. Helium gas is fed to the tube and schlieren photography is employed for mapping the flow field downstream of the tube orifice. Mixture mass conservation equation, momentum conservation equation, energy conservation equation in terms of temperature and helium transfer equation are simultaneously solved, leading to the physical mechanisms that govern the experimental results. Namely, we deal with electro-hydrodynamic effects mainly due to momentum transfer from atomic ions to neutrals. The atomic ions are left behind as residual charge after the bullet propagation and gain energy from the locally created electric field. The electro-hydrodynamic force is eventually evaluated.

Keywords: atmospheric-pressure plasmas, dielectric-barrier discharges, schlieren photography, electro-hydrodynamic force

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642 Atmospheric Plasma Treatment to Improve Water and Oil Repellent Finishing for PET and PET/Spandex Fabrics

Authors: Mehtap Çalışkan, Nilüfer Yıldız Varan, Volkan Kaplan

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In this study, the effects of an atmospheric plasma treatment on the durability of water and oil repellent finishes of PET and PET/Spandex fabrics were tested. Fabrics were treated with a low-frequency atmospheric pressure glow discharge. After plasma treatments, the water and oil repellent finishes were applied using pad-dry-cure method. It was observed that plasma treatments improved the durability finish for all fabrics.

Keywords: atmospheric plasma, durable coating, oil repellency, PET/spandex fabrics, water repellency

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
641 Learning Materials of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Process: Turning Hydrophilic Surface to Hydrophobic

Authors: C.W. Kan

Abstract:

This paper investigates the use of atmospheric pressure plasma for improving the surface hydrophobicity of polyurethane synthetic leather with tetramethylsilane (TMS). The atmospheric pressure plasma treatment with TMS is a single-step process to enhance the hydrophobicity of polyurethane synthetic leather. The hydrophobicity of the treated surface was examined by contact angle measurement. The physical and chemical surface changes were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The purpose of this paper is to provide learning materials for understanding how to use atmospheric pressure plasma in the textile finishing process to transform a hydrophilic surface to hydrophobic.

Keywords: Learning materials, atmospheric pressure plasma treatment, hydrophobic, hydrophilic, surface

Procedia PDF Downloads 244
640 Atmospheric Circulation Drivers Of Nationally-Aggregated Wind Energy Production Over Greece

Authors: Kostas Philippopoulos, Chris G. Tzanis, Despina Deligiorgi

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Climate change adaptation requires the exploitation of renewable energy sources such as wind. However, climate variability can affect the regional wind energy potential and consequently the available wind power production. The goal of the research project is to examine the impact of atmospheric circulation on wind energy production over Greece. In the context of synoptic climatology, the proposed novel methodology employs Self-Organizing Maps for grouping and classifying the atmospheric circulation and nationally-aggregated capacity factor time series for a 30-year period. The results indicate the critical effect of atmospheric circulation on the national aggregated wind energy production values and therefore address the issue of optimum distribution of wind farms for a specific region.

Keywords: wind energy, atmospheric circulation, capacity factor, self-organizing maps

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639 Comprehensive Study of X-Ray Emission by APF Plasma Focus Device

Authors: M. Habibi

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The time-resolved studies of soft and hard X-ray were carried out over a wide range of argon pressures by employing an array of eight filtered photo PIN diodes and a scintillation detector, simultaneously. In 50% of the discharges, the soft X-ray is seen to be emitted in short multiple pulses corresponding to different compression, whereas it is a single pulse for hard X-rays corresponding to only the first strong compression. It should be stated that multiple compressions dominantly occur at low pressures and high pressures are mostly in the single compression regime. In 43% of the discharges, at all pressures except for optimum pressure, the first period is characterized by two or more sharp peaks.The X–ray signal intensity during the second and subsequent compressions is much smaller than the first compression.

Keywords: plasma focus device, SXR, HXR, Pin-diode, argon plasma

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638 Effect of Plasma Radiation on Keratinocyte Cells Involved in the Wound Healing Process

Authors: B. Fazekas, I. Korolov, K. Kutasi

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Plasma medicine, which involves the use of gas discharge plasmas for medical applications is a rapidly growing research field. The use of non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasmas in dermatology to assist tissue regeneration by improving the healing of infected and/or chronic wounds is a promising application. It is believed that plasma can activate cells, which are involved in the wound closure. Non-thermal atmospheric plasmas are rich in chemically active species (such as O and N-atoms, O2(a) molecules) and radiative species such as the NO, N2+ and N2 excited molecules, which dominantly radiate in the 200-500 nm spectral range. In order to understand the effect of plasma species, both of chemically active and radiative species on wound healing process, the interaction of physical plasma with the human skin cells is necessary. In order to clarify the effect of plasma radiation on the wound healing process we treated keratinocyte cells – that are one of the main cell types in human skin epidermis – covered with a layer of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) with a low power atmospheric pressure plasma. For the generation of such plasma we have applied a plasma needle. Here, the plasma is ignited at the tip of the needle in flowing helium gas in contact with the ambient air. To study the effect of plasma radiation we used a plasma needle configuration, where the plasma species – chemically active radicals and charged species – could not reach the treated cells, but only the radiation. For the comparison purposes, we also irradiated the cells using a UV-B light source (FS20 lamp) with a 20 and 40 mJ cm-2 dose of 312 nm. After treatment the viability and the proliferation of the cells have been examined. The proliferation of cells has been studied with a real time monitoring system called Xcelligence. The results have indicated, that the 20 mJ cm-2 dose did not affect cell viability, whereas the 40 mJ cm-2 dose resulted a decrease in cell viability. The results have shown that the plasma radiation have no quantifiable effect on the cell proliferation as compared to the non-treated cells.

Keywords: UV radiation, non-equilibrium gas discharges (non-thermal plasmas), plasma emission, keratinocyte cells

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637 Major Mechanisms of Atmospheric Moisture Transport and Their Role in Precipitation Extreme Events in the Amazonia

Authors: Luis Gimeno, Rosmeri da Rocha, Raquel Nieto, Tercio Ambrizzi, Alex Ramos, Anita Drumond

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The transport of moisture from oceanic sources to the continents represents the atmospheric branch of the water cycle, forming the connection between evaporation from the ocean and precipitation over the continents. In this regard two large scale dynamical/meteorological structures appear to play a key role, namely Low Level Jet (LLJ) systems and Atmospheric Rivers (ARs). The former are particularly important in tropical and subtropical regions; the latter is mostly confined to extratropical regions. A key question relates to the anomalies in the transport of moisture observed during natural hazards related to extremes of precipitation (i.e., drought or wet spells). In this study we will be focused on these two major atmospheric moisture transport mechanisms (LLJs and ARs) and its role in precipitation extreme events (droughts and wet spells) in the Amazonia paying particular attention to i) intensification (decreasing) of moisture transport by them and its role in wet spells (droughts), and ii) changes in their positions and occurrence with associated flooding and wet spells.

Keywords: droughts, wet spells, amazonia, LLJs, atmospheric rivers

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636 Wind Turbine Wake Prediction and Validation under a Stably-Stratified Atmospheric Boundary Layer

Authors: Yilei Song, Linlin Tian, Ning Zhao

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Turbulence energetics and structures in the wake of large-scale wind turbines under the stably-stratified atmospheric boundary layer (SABL) can be complicated due to the presence of low-level jets (LLJs), a region of higher wind speeds than the geostrophic wind speed. With a modified one-k-equation, eddy viscosity model specified for atmospheric flows as the sub-grid scale (SGS) model, a realistic atmospheric state of the stable ABL is well reproduced by large-eddy simulation (LES) techniques. Corresponding to the precursor stably stratification, the detailed wake properties of a standard 5-MW wind turbine represented as an actuator line model are provided. An engineering model is proposed for wake prediction based on the simulation statistics and gets validated. Results confirm that the proposed wake model can provide good predictions for wind turbines under the SABL.

Keywords: large-eddy simulation, stably-stratified atmospheric boundary layer, wake model, wind turbine wake

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635 New Findings on the Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) of Aluminium

Authors: J. Martin, A. Nominé, T. Czerwiec, G. Henrion, T. Belmonte

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The plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) is a particular electrochemical process to produce protective oxide ceramic coatings on light-weight metals (Al, Mg, Ti). When applied to aluminum alloys, the resulting PEO coating exhibit improved wear and corrosion resistance because thick, hard, compact and adherent crystalline alumina layers can be achieved. Several investigations have been carried out to improve the efficiency of the PEO process and one particular way consists in tuning the suitable electrical regime. Despite the considerable interest in this process, there is still no clear understanding of the underlying discharge mechanisms that make possible metal oxidation up to hundreds of µm through the ceramic layer. A key parameter that governs the PEO process is the numerous short-lived micro-discharges (micro-plasma in liquid) that occur continuously over the processed surface when the high applied voltage exceeds the critical dielectric breakdown value of the growing ceramic layer. By using a bipolar pulsed current to supply the electrodes, we previously observed that micro-discharges are delayed with respect to the rising edge of the anodic current. Nevertheless, explanation of the origin of such phenomena is still not clear and needs more systematic investigations. The aim of the present communication is to identify the relationship that exists between this delay and the mechanisms responsible of the oxide growth. For this purpose, the delay of micro-discharges ignition is investigated as the function of various electrical parameters such as the current density (J), the current pulse frequency (F) and the anodic to cathodic charge quantity ratio (R = Qp/Qn) delivered to the electrodes. The PEO process was conducted on Al2214 aluminum alloy substrates in a solution containing potassium hydroxide [KOH] and sodium silicate diluted in deionized water. The light emitted from micro-discharges was detected by a photomultiplier and the micro-discharge parameters (number, size, life-time) were measured during the process by means of ultra-fast video imaging (125 kfr./s). SEM observations and roughness measurements were performed to characterize the morphology of the elaborated oxide coatings while XRD was carried out to evaluate the amount of corundum -Al203 phase. Results show that whatever the applied current waveform, the delay of micro-discharge appearance increases as the process goes on. Moreover, the delay is shorter when the current density J (A/dm2), the current pulse frequency F (Hz) and the ratio of charge quantity R are high. It also appears that shorter delays are associated to stronger micro-discharges (localized, long and large micro-discharges) which have a detrimental effect on the elaborated oxide layers (thin and porous). On the basis of the results, a model for the growth of the PEO oxide layers will be presented and discussed. Experimental results support that a mechanism of electrical charge accumulation at the oxide surface / electrolyte interface takes place until the dielectric breakdown occurs and thus until micro-discharges appear.

Keywords: aluminium, micro-discharges, oxidation mechanisms, plasma electrolytic oxidation

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634 Oxygenation in Turbulent Flows over Block Ramps

Authors: Thendiyath Roshni, Stefano Pagliara

Abstract:

Block ramps (BR) or rock chutes are eco-friendly natural river restoration structures. BR are made of ramp of rocks and flows over BR develop turbulence and helps in the entrainment of ambient air. These act as natural aerators in river flow and therefore leads to oxygenation of water. As many of the hydraulic structures in rivers, hinders the natural path for aquatic habitat. However, flows over BR ascertains a natural rocky flow and ensures safe and natural movement for aquatic habitat. Hence, BR is considered as a better alternative for drop structures. As water quality is concerned, turbulent and aerated flows over BR or macro-roughness conditions improves aeration and thereby oxygenation. Hence, the objective of this paper is to study the oxygenation in the turbulent flows over BR. Experimental data were taken for a slope (S) of 27.5% for three discharges (Q = 9, 15 and 21 lps) conditions. Air concentration were measured with the help of air concentration probe for three different discharges in the uniform flow region. Oxygen concentration is deduced from the air concentration as ambient air is entrained in the flows over BR. Air concentration profiles and oxygen profiles are plotted in the uniform flow region for three discharges and found that air concentration and oxygen concentration does not show any remarkable variation in properties in the longitudinal profile in uniform flow region. An empirical relation is developed for finding the average oxygen concentration (Oₘ) for S = 27.5% in the uniform flow region for 9 < Q < 21 lps. The results show that as the discharge increases over BR, there is a reduction of oxygen concentration in the uniform flow region.

Keywords: aeration, block ramps, oxygenation, turbulent flows

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633 The Effect of Global Solar Variations on the Performance of n- AlGaAs/ p-GaAs Solar Cells

Authors: A. Guechi, M. Chegaar

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This study investigates how AlGaAs/GaAs thin film solar cells perform under varying global solar spectrum due to the changes of environmental parameters such as the air mass and the atmospheric turbidity. The solar irradiance striking the solar cell is simulated using the spectral irradiance model SMARTS2 (Simple Model of the Atmospheric Radiative Transfer of Sunshine) for clear skies on the site of Setif (Algeria). The results show a reduction in the short circuit current due to increasing atmospheric turbidity, it is 63.09% under global radiation. However increasing air mass leads to a reduction in the short circuit current of 81.73%.The efficiency decrease with increasing atmospheric turbidity and air mass.

Keywords: AlGaAs/GaAs, solar cells, environmental parameters, spectral variation, SMARTS

Procedia PDF Downloads 326
632 Determination of Iodine and Heavy Metals in Two Brands of Iodised Salt

Authors: Z. O. Apotiola, J. F. Fashakin

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A study was conducted to investigate the storage stability of Mr Chef and Annapurna salts. The salts were bought from Mile 12 market in Lagos State and were stored for a period of six months. The stability of the iodine content was then investigated by storing some at ambient temperature (24-30oC) and some at atmospheric temperature (21-35 oC), and from each storage condition, a sample each was taken every month to analyze for the iodine and moisture contents. The result shows that there was a significant difference between Mr Chef and the standard and Annapurna and the standard. The iodine content of Mr Chef stored at ambient and atmospheric temperature decreases progressively from 48.70±0.00-37.00±0.00 and 47.60±0.00-11.60±0.00 respectively. And that of Annapurna at both ambient and atmospheric temperature also decreases progressively from 47.60±0.00-36.60±0.00 and 47.60±0.00-10.60±0.00 respectively. Also, the moisture content of both salts at the zero month to the sixth month both at room temperature and atmospheric temperature increases from 1.11±0.00-1.70±0.00 and 1.11±0.00-2.40±0.00 respectively. The results of the heavy metals shows that only Copper, Zinc and Cobalt were detected at the first and the sixth month in both Mr Chef and Annapurna which ranges from 0.15±0.00-0.38±0.00 and 0.18±0.00 - 3.50±0.00 respectively. Hence, the stability of iodine in salt is influenced by the storage conditions it is subjected to and the length of time it is been stored.

Keywords: salt, iodine, stability, ambient, atmospheric temperature

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631 Determination of Direct Solar Radiation Using Atmospheric Physics Models

Authors: Pattra Pukdeekiat, Siriluk Ruangrungrote

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This work was originated to precisely determine direct solar radiation by using atmospheric physics models since the accurate prediction of solar radiation is necessary and useful for solar energy applications including atmospheric research. The possible models and techniques for a calculation of regional direct solar radiation were challenging and compulsory for the case of unavailable instrumental measurement. The investigation was mathematically governed by six astronomical parameters i.e. declination (δ), hour angle (ω), solar time, solar zenith angle (θz), extraterrestrial radiation (Iso) and eccentricity (E0) along with two atmospheric parameters i.e. air mass (mr) and dew point temperature at Bangna meteorological station (13.67° N, 100.61° E) in Bangkok, Thailand. Analyses of five models of solar radiation determination with the assumption of clear sky were applied accompanied by three statistical tests: Mean Bias Difference (MBD), Root Mean Square Difference (RMSD) and Coefficient of determination (R2) in order to validate the accuracy of obtainable results. The calculated direct solar radiation was in a range of 491-505 Watt/m2 with relative percentage error 8.41% for winter and 532-540 Watt/m2 with relative percentage error 4.89% for summer 2014. Additionally, dataset of seven continuous days, representing both seasons were considered with the MBD, RMSD and R2 of -0.08, 0.25, 0.86 and -0.14, 0.35, 3.29, respectively, which belong to Kumar model for winter and CSR model for summer. In summary, the determination of direct solar radiation based on atmospheric models and empirical equations could advantageously provide immediate and reliable values of the solar components for any site in the region without a constraint of actual measurement.

Keywords: atmospheric physics models, astronomical parameters, atmospheric parameters, clear sky condition

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630 Optimizing the Efficiency of Measuring Instruments in Ouagadougou-Burkina Faso

Authors: Moses Emetere, Marvel Akinyemi, S. E. Sanni

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At the moment, AERONET or AMMA database shows a large volume of data loss. With only about 47% data set available to the scientist, it is evident that accurate nowcast or forecast cannot be guaranteed. The calibration constants of most radiosonde or weather stations are not compatible with the atmospheric conditions of the West African climate. A dispersion model was developed to incorporate salient mathematical representations like a Unified number. The Unified number was derived to describe the turbulence of the aerosols transport in the frictional layer of the lower atmosphere. Fourteen years data set from Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) was tested using the dispersion model. A yearly estimation of the atmospheric constants over Ouagadougou using the model was obtained with about 87.5% accuracy. It further revealed that the average atmospheric constant for Ouagadougou-Niger is a_1 = 0.626, a_2 = 0.7999 and the tuning constants is n_1 = 0.09835 and n_2 = 0.266. Also, the yearly atmospheric constants affirmed the lower atmosphere of Ouagadougou is very dynamic. Hence, it is recommended that radiosonde and weather station manufacturers should constantly review the atmospheric constant over a geographical location to enable about eighty percent data retrieval.

Keywords: aerosols retention, aerosols loading, statistics, analytical technique

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629 Technico-Economical Study of a Rapeseed Based Biorefinery Using High Voltage Electrical Discharges and Ultrasounds as Pretreatment Technologies

Authors: Marwa Brahim, Nicolas Brosse, Nadia Boussetta, Nabil Grimi, Eugene Vorobiev

Abstract:

Rapeseed plant is an established product in France which is mainly dedicated to oil production. However, the economic potential of residues from this industry (rapeseed hulls, rapeseed cake, rapeseed straw etc.), has not been fully exploited. Currently, only low-grade applications are found in the market. As a consequence, it was deemed of interest to develop a technological platform aiming to convert rapeseed residues into value- added products. Specifically, a focus is given on the conversion of rapeseed straw into valuable molecules (e.g. lignin, glucose). Existing pretreatment technologies have many drawbacks mainly the production of sugar degradation products that limit the effectiveness of saccharification and fermentation steps in the overall scheme of the lignocellulosic biorefinery. In addition, the viability of fractionation strategies is a challenge in an environmental context increasingly standardized. Hence, the need to find cleaner alternatives with comparable efficiency by implementing physical phenomena that could destabilize the structural integrity of biomass without necessarily using chemical solvents. To meet environmental standards increasingly stringent, the present work aims to study the new pretreatment strategies involving lower consumption of chemicals with an attenuation of the severity of the treatment. These strategies consist on coupling physical treatments either high voltage electrical discharges or ultrasounds to conventional chemical pretreatments (soda and organosolv). Ultrasounds treatment is based on the cavitation phenomenon, and high voltage electrical discharges cause an electrical breakdown accompanied by many secondary phenomena. The choice of process was based on a technological feasibility study taking into account the economic profitability of the whole chain after products valorization. Priority was given to sugars valorization into bioethanol and lignin sale.

Keywords: high voltage electrical discharges, organosolv, pretreatment strategies, rapeseed straw, soda, ultrasounds

Procedia PDF Downloads 287
628 AI/ML Atmospheric Parameters Retrieval Using the “Atmospheric Retrievals conditional Generative Adversarial Network (ARcGAN)”

Authors: Thomas Monahan, Nicolas Gorius, Thanh Nguyen

Abstract:

Exoplanet atmospheric parameters retrieval is a complex, computationally intensive, inverse modeling problem in which an exoplanet’s atmospheric composition is extracted from an observed spectrum. Traditional Bayesian sampling methods require extensive time and computation, involving algorithms that compare large numbers of known atmospheric models to the input spectral data. Runtimes are directly proportional to the number of parameters under consideration. These increased power and runtime requirements are difficult to accommodate in space missions where model size, speed, and power consumption are of particular importance. The use of traditional Bayesian sampling methods, therefore, compromise model complexity or sampling accuracy. The Atmospheric Retrievals conditional Generative Adversarial Network (ARcGAN) is a deep convolutional generative adversarial network that improves on the previous model’s speed and accuracy. We demonstrate the efficacy of artificial intelligence to quickly and reliably predict atmospheric parameters and present it as a viable alternative to slow and computationally heavy Bayesian methods. In addition to its broad applicability across instruments and planetary types, ARcGAN has been designed to function on low power application-specific integrated circuits. The application of edge computing to atmospheric retrievals allows for real or near-real-time quantification of atmospheric constituents at the instrument level. Additionally, edge computing provides both high-performance and power-efficient computing for AI applications, both of which are critical for space missions. With the edge computing chip implementation, ArcGAN serves as a strong basis for the development of a similar machine-learning algorithm to reduce the downlinked data volume from the Compact Ultraviolet to Visible Imaging Spectrometer (CUVIS) onboard the DAVINCI mission to Venus.

Keywords: deep learning, generative adversarial network, edge computing, atmospheric parameters retrieval

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
627 Atmospheric Pressure Microwave Plasma System and Its Applications

Authors: Waqas A. Toor, Anis U. Baig, Nuaman Shafqat, Raafia Irfan, Muhammad Ashraf

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A 2.45GHz microwave plasma system and its few applications have been developed. Argon and helium plasma is produced by metallic nozzle and also in a quartz tube at atmospheric pressure, using WR-340 waveguide and its tapered version. The waveguide applicator is also simulated in HFSS and field patterns are analyzed for maximum power absorption in the load. The system is tuned to operate at less than 10% reflected power. Various experimental techniques are used to initiate and sustain the plasma at atmospheric pressure. Plasma of atmospheric air is also produced without using any other shielding gas. The plasma flame is also characterized by its spectrum. Spectral analyses of plasma flame can be used for online analysis of combustion gases produced in industry. The applications of the system include glass and quartz processing, vitrification, emission spectroscopy, plasma coating. Low pressure plasma applications of the system include intense UV light for water purification and ozone generation.

Keywords: HFSS high frequency structure simulator, Microwave plasma, UV ultraviolet, WR rectangular waveguide

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626 Utilizing Waste Heat from Thermal Power Plants to Generate Power by Modelling an Atmospheric Vortex Engine

Authors: Mohammed Nabeel Khan, C. Perisamy

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Convective vortices are normal highlights of air that ingest lower-entropy-energy at higher temperatures than they dismiss higher-entropy-energy to space. By means of the thermodynamic proficiency, it has been anticipated that the force of convective vortices relies upon the profundity of the convective layer. The atmospheric vortex engine is proposed as a gadget for delivering mechanical energy by methods for artificially produced vortex. The task of the engine is in view of the certainties that the environment is warmed from the base and cooled from the top. By generation of the artificial vortex, it is planned to take out the physical solar updraft tower and decrease the capital of the solar chimney power plants. The study shows the essentials of the atmospheric vortex engine, furthermore, audits the cutting edge in subject. Moreover, the study talks about a thought on using the solar energy as heat source to work the framework. All in all, the framework is attainable and promising for electrical power production.

Keywords: AVE, atmospheric vortex engine, atmosphere, updraft, vortex

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625 Learning Materials of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Process: Application in Wrinkle-Resistant Finishing of Cotton Fabric

Authors: C. W. Kan

Abstract:

Cotton fibre is a commonly-used natural fibre because of its good fibre strength, high moisture absorption behaviour and minimal static problems. However, one of the main drawbacks of cotton fibre is wrinkling after washing, which is recently overcome by wrinkle-resistant treatment. 1,2,3,4-butanetetracarboxylic acid (BTCA) could improve the wrinkle-resistant properties of cotton fibre. Although the BTCA process is an effective method for wrinkle resistant application of cotton fabrics, reduced fabric strength was observed after treatment. Therefore, this paper would explore the use of atmospheric pressure plasma treatment under different discharge powers as a pretreatment process to enhance the application of BTCA process on cotton fabric without generating adverse effect. The aim of this study is to provide learning information to the users to know how the atmospheric pressure plasma treatment can be incorporated in textile finishing process with positive impact.

Keywords: learning materials, atmospheric pressure plasma treatment, cotton, wrinkle-resistant, BTCA

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624 Performance Analysis of a Hybrid DF-AF Hybrid RF/FSO System under Gamma Gamma Atmospheric Turbulence Channel Using MPPM Modulation

Authors: Hechmi Saidi, Noureddine Hamdi

Abstract:

The performance of hybrid amplify and forward - decode and forward (AF-DF) hybrid radio frequency/free space optical (RF/FSO) communication system, that adopts M-ary pulse position modulation (MPPM) techniques, is analyzed. Both exact and approximate symbol-error rates (SERs) are derived. The random variations of the received optical irradiance, produced by the atmospheric turbulence, is modeled by the gamma-gamma (GG) statistical distribution. A closed-form expression for the probability density function (PDF) is derived for the whole above system is obtained. Thanks to the use of hybrid AF-DF hybrid RF/FSO configuration and MPPM, the effects of atmospheric turbulence is mitigated; hence the capacity of combating atmospheric turbulence and the transmissitted signal quality are improved.

Keywords: free space optical, gamma gamma channel, radio frequency, decode and forward, error pointing, M-ary pulse position modulation, symbol error rate

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
623 A Statistical Analysis on Relationship between Temperature Variations with Latitude and Altitude regarding Total Amount of Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide in Iran

Authors: Masoumeh Moghbel

Abstract:

Nowadays, carbon dioxide which is produced by human activities is considered as the main effective factor in the global warming occurrence. Regarding to the role of CO2 and its ability in trapping the heat, the main objective of this research is study the effect of atmospheric CO2 (which is recorded in Manaloa) on variations of temperature parameters (daily mean temperature, minimum temperature and maximum temperature) in 5 meteorological stations in Iran which were selected according to the latitude and altitude in 40 years statistical period. Firstly, the trend of temperature parameters was studied by Regression and none-graphical Man-Kendal methods. Then, relation between temperature variations and CO2 were studied by Correlation technique. Also, the impact of CO2 amount on temperature in different atmospheric levels (850 and 500 hpa) was analyzed. The results illustrated that correlation coefficient between temperature variations and CO2 in low latitudes and high altitudes is more significant rather than other regions. it is important to note that altitude as the one of the main geographic factor has limitation in affecting the temperature variations, so that correlation coefficient between these two parameters in 850 hpa (r=0.86) is more significant than 500 hpa (r = 0.62).

Keywords: altitude, atmospheric carbon dioxide, latitude, temperature variations

Procedia PDF Downloads 316
622 Behavior of Printing Inks on Historical Documents Subjected to Cold RF Plasma Discharges

Authors: Dorina Rusu, Emil Ghiocel Ioanid, Marta Ursescu, Ana Maria Vlad, Mihaela Popescu

Abstract:

During the last decades the cold plasma discharges made the subject of numerous studies concerning the applications in the cultural heritage field, especially concentrated on ecological and non-invasive aspect of these conservation procedures. The conservation treatment using cold plasma is based, on the one hand, on the well-known property of plasma discharges to inactivate the contaminant biological species and, on the other hand, on the surface cleaning effect. Moreover the plasma discharge produces the functionalization of the treated surface, allowing subsequent deposition of protective layers. The paper presents the behavior of printing inks on historical documents treated in cold RF plasma. Two types of printing inks were studied, namely red and black ink, used on a religious book published in 19 century. SEM-EDX analysis results in the identification of the two inks as carbon black ink (C presence in the EDX spectrum) and cinnabar based red ink (Hg and S lines in the spectrum), result confirmed by XRF analysis. The experiments have been performed on paper samples written with laboratory- made inks, of similar composition with the inks identified on historical documents. The samples were subjected to RF plasma discharge, operating in nitrogen gaseous medium, at 1.2 MHz frequency and low-pressure (0.5 mbar), performed in a self-designed equipment for the application of conservation treatments on naturally aged paper supports. The impact of plasma discharge on the inks has been evaluated by SEM, XRD and color analysis. The color analysis revealed a slight discoloration of cinnabar ink on the historical document. SEM and XRD analyses have been carried out in an attempt to elucidate the process responsable for color modification.

Keywords: RF plasma, printing inks, historical documents, surface cleaning effect

Procedia PDF Downloads 376
621 Chaotic Response of Electrical Insulation System with Gaseous Dielectric under High AC and DC Voltages

Authors: Arijit Basuray

Abstract:

It is well known that if an electrical insulation system is stressed under high voltage then discharge may occur in various form and if the system is made of composite dielectric having interfaces of materials having different dielectric constant discharge may occur due to gross mismatch of dielectric constant causing intense local field in the interfaces. Here author has studied, firstly, behavior of discharges in gaseous dielectric circuit under AC and DC voltages. A gaseous dielectric circuit is made such that a pair of electrode of typical geometry is used to make the discharges occur under application of AC and DC voltages. Later on, composite insulation system with air gap is also studied. Discharge response of the dielectric circuit is measured across a typically designed impedance. The time evolution of the discharge characteristics showed some interesting chaotic behavior. Author here proposed some analysis of such behavior of the discharge pattern and discussed about the possibility of presence of such discharge circuit in lumped electric circuit.

Keywords: electrical insulation system, EIS, composite dielectric, discharge, chaos

Procedia PDF Downloads 81
620 Verification and Application of Finite Element Model Developed for Flood Routing in Rivers

Authors: A. L. Qureshi, A. A. Mahessar, A. Baloch

Abstract:

Flood wave propagation in river channel flow can be enunciated by nonlinear equations of motion for unsteady flow. However, it is difficult to find analytical solution of these complex non-linear equations. Hence, verification of the numerical model should be carried out against field data and numerical predictions. This paper presents the verification of developed finite element model applying for unsteady flow in the open channels. The results of a proposed model indicate a good matching with both Preissmann scheme and HEC-RAS model for a river reach of 29 km at both sites (15 km from upstream and at downstream end) for discharge hydrographs. It also has an agreeable comparison with the Preissemann scheme for the flow depth (stage) hydrographs. The proposed model has also been applying to forecast daily discharges at 400 km downstream from Sukkur barrage, which demonstrates accurate model predictions with observed daily discharges. Hence, this model may be utilized for predicting and issuing flood warnings about flood hazardous in advance.

Keywords: finite element method, Preissmann scheme, HEC-RAS, flood forecasting, Indus river

Procedia PDF Downloads 430
619 The Impact of Land Cover Change on Stream Discharges and Water Resources in Luvuvhu River Catchment, Vhembe District, Limpopo Province, South Africa

Authors: P. M. Kundu, L. R. Singo, J. O. Odiyo

Abstract:

Luvuvhu River catchment in South Africa experiences floods resulting from heavy rainfall of intensities exceeding 15 mm per hour associated with the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). The generation of runoff is triggered by the rainfall intensity and soil moisture status. In this study, remote sensing and GIS techniques were used to analyze the hydrologic response to land cover changes. Runoff was calculated as a product of the net precipitation and a curve number coefficient. It was then routed using the Muskingum-Cunge method using a diffusive wave transfer model that enabled the calculation of response functions between start and end point. Flood frequency analysis was determined using theoretical probability distributions. Spatial data on land cover was obtained from multi-temporal Landsat images while data on rainfall, soil type, runoff and stream discharges was obtained by direct measurements in the field and from the Department of Water. A digital elevation model was generated from contour maps available at http://www.ngi.gov.za. The results showed that land cover changes had impacted negatively to the hydrology of the catchment. Peak discharges in the whole catchment were noted to have increased by at least 17% over the period while flood volumes were noted to have increased by at least 11% over the same period. The flood time to peak indicated a decreasing trend, in the range of 0.5 to 1 hour within the years. The synergism between remotely sensed digital data and GIS for land surface analysis and modeling was realized, and it was therefore concluded that hydrologic modeling has potential for determining the influence of changes in land cover on the hydrologic response of the catchment.

Keywords: catchment, digital elevation model, hydrological model, routing, runoff

Procedia PDF Downloads 487
618 Optical Parametric Oscillators Lidar Sounding of Trace Atmospheric Gases in the 3-4 µm Spectral Range

Authors: Olga V. Kharchenko

Abstract:

Applicability of a KTA crystal-based laser system with optical parametric oscillators (OPO) generation to lidar sounding of the atmosphere in the spectral range 3–4 µm is studied in this work. A technique based on differential absorption lidar (DIAL) method and differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) is developed for lidar sounding of trace atmospheric gases (TAG). The DIAL-DOAS technique is tested to estimate its efficiency for lidar sounding of atmospheric trace gases.

Keywords: atmosphere, lidar sounding, DIAL, DOAS, trace gases, nonlinear crystal

Procedia PDF Downloads 297