Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 125

Search results for: Tesla coil

125 High-Quality Flavor of Black Belly Pork under Lightning Corona Discharge Using Tesla Coil for High Voltage Education

Authors: Kyung-Hoon Jang, Jae-Hyo Park, Kwang-Yeop Jang, Dongjin Kim

Abstract:

The Tesla coil is an electrical resonant transformer circuit designed by inventor Nikola Tesla in 1891. It is used to produce high voltage, low current and high frequency alternating current electricity. Tesla experimented with a number of different configurations consisting of two or sometimes three coupled resonant electric circuits. This paper focuses on development and high voltage education to apply a Tesla coil to cuisine for high quality flavor and taste conditioning as well as high voltage education under 50 kV corona discharge. The result revealed that the velocity of roasted black belly pork by Tesla coil is faster than that of conventional methods such as hot grill and steel plate etc. depending on applied voltage level and applied voltage time. Besides, carbohydrate and crude protein increased, whereas natrium and saccharides significantly decreased after lightning surge by Tesla coil. This idea will be useful in high voltage education and high voltage application.

Keywords: corona discharge, Tesla coil, high voltage application, high voltage education

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
124 Improved Mutual Inductance of Rogowski Coil Using Hexagonal Core

Authors: S. Al-Sowayan

Abstract:

Rogowski coils are increasingly used for measurement of AC and transient electric currents. Mostly used Rogowski coils now are with circular or rectangular cores. In order to increase the sensitivity of the measurement of Rogowski coil and perform smooth wire winding, this paper studies the effect of increasing the mutual inductance in order to increase the coil sensitivity by presenting the calculation and simulation of a Rogowski coil with equilateral hexagonal shaped core and comparing the resulted mutual inductance with commonly used core shapes.

Keywords: Rogowski coil, mutual inductance, magnetic flux density, communication engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 294
123 Numerical and Experimental Approach to Evaluate Forming Coil of Electromagnetic Forming Process

Authors: H. G. Noh, H. G. Park, B. S. Kang, J. Kim

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Electromagnetic forming process (EMF) is one of high-velocity forming processes using Lorentz force. Advantages of EMF are summarized as improvement of formability, reduction in wrinkling, non-contact forming. In this study, numerical simulations were conducted to determine the practical parameters for EMF process. A 2-D axis-symmetric electromagnetic model was considered based on the spiral type forming coil. In the numerical simulation, RLC circuit coupled with spiral coil was made to consider the design parameters such as system input current and electromagnetic force. In order to deform the sheet in the patter shape die, two types of spiral shape coil were considered to deform the pattern shape sheet. One is a spiral coil that has 6turns with dead zone at centre point. Another is a normal spiral coil without dead zone that has 8 turns. In the electric analysis, input current and magnetic force were compared and then plastic deformation was treated in the mechanical analysis for two coil cases. Deformation behaviour of dead zone coil case has good agreement with pattern shape die. As a result, deformation behaviour could be controlled by giving dead zone at centre of the coil in spiral shape coil case.

Keywords: electromagnetic forming, spiral coil, Lorentz force, manufacturing

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
122 Comparison of Spiral Circular Coil and Helical Coil Structures for Wireless Power Transfer System

Authors: Zhang Kehan, Du Luona

Abstract:

Wireless power transfer (WPT) systems have been widely investigated for advantages of convenience and safety compared to traditional plug-in charging systems. The research contents include impedance matching, circuit topology, transfer distance et al. for improving the efficiency of WPT system, which is a decisive factor in the practical application. What is more, coil structures such as spiral circular coil and helical coil with variable distance between two turns also have indispensable effects on the efficiency of WPT systems. This paper compares the efficiency of WPT systems utilizing spiral or helical coil with variable distance between two turns, and experimental results show that efficiency of spiral circular coil with an optimum distance between two turns is the highest. According to efficiency formula of resonant WPT system with series-series topology, we introduce M²/R₋₁ to measure the efficiency of spiral circular coil and helical coil WPT system. If the distance between two turns s is too close, proximity effect theory shows that the induced current in the conductor, caused by a variable flux created by the current flows in the skin of vicinity conductor, is the opposite direction of source current and has assignable impart on coil resistance. Thus in two coil structures, s affects coil resistance. At the same time, when the distance between primary and secondary coils is not variable, s can also make the influence on M to some degrees. The aforementioned study proves that s plays an indispensable role in changing M²/R₋₁ and then can be adjusted to find the optimum value with which WPT system achieves the highest efficiency. In actual application situations of WPT systems especially in underwater vehicles, miniaturization is one vital issue in designing WPT system structures. Limited by system size, the largest external radius of spiral circular coil is 100 mm, and the largest height of helical coil is 40 mm. In other words, the turn of coil N changes with s. In spiral circular and helical structures, the distance between each two turns in secondary coil is set as a constant value 1 mm to guarantee that the R2 is not variable. Based on the analysis above, we set up spiral circular coil and helical coil model using COMSOL to analyze the value of M²/R₋₁ when the distance between each two turns in primary coil sp varies from 0 mm to 10 mm. In the two structure models, the distance between primary and secondary coils is 50 mm and wire diameter is chosen as 1.5 mm. The turn of coil in secondary coil are 27 in helical coil model and 20 in spiral circular coil model. The best value of s in helical coil structure and spiral circular coil structure are 1 mm and 2 mm respectively, in which the value of M²/R₋₁ is the largest. It is obviously to select spiral circular coil as the first choice to design the WPT system for that the value of M²/R₋₁ in spiral circular coil is larger than that in helical coil under the same condition.

Keywords: distance between two turns, helical coil, spiral circular coil, wireless power transfer

Procedia PDF Downloads 171
121 QI Wireless Charging a Scope of Magnetic Inductive Coupling

Authors: Sreenesh Shashidharan, Umesh Gaikwad

Abstract:

QI or 'Chee' which is an interface standard for inductive electrical power transfer over distances of up to 4 cm (1.6 inches). The Qi system comprises a power transmission pad and a compatible receiver in a portable device which is placed on top of the power transmission pad, which charges using the principle of electromagnetic induction. An alternating current is passed through the transmitter coil, generating a magnetic field. This, in turn, induces a voltage in the receiver coil; this can be used to power a mobile device or charge a battery. The efficiency of the power transfer depends on the coupling (k) between the inductors and their quality (Q) The coupling is determined by the distance between the inductors (z) and the relative size (D2 /D). The coupling is further determined by the shape of the coils and the angle between them. If the receiver coil is at a certain distance to the transmitter coil, only a fraction of the magnetic flux, which is generated by the transmitter coil, penetrates the receiver coil and contributes to the power transmission. The more flux reaches the receiver, the better the coils are coupled.

Keywords: inductive electric power, electromagnetic induction, magnetic flux, coupling

Procedia PDF Downloads 630
120 Design, Simulation and Fabrication of Electro-Magnetic Pulse Welding Coil and Initial Experimentation

Authors: Bharatkumar Doshi

Abstract:

Electro-Magnetic Pulse Welding (EMPW) is a solid state welding process carried out at almost room temperature, in which joining is enabled by high impact velocity deformation. In this process, high voltage capacitor’s stored energy is discharged in an EM coil resulting in a damped, sinusoidal current with an amplitude of several hundred kiloamperes. Due to these transient magnetic fields of few tens of Tesla near the coil is generated. As the conductive (tube) part is positioned in this area, an opposing eddy current is induced in this part. Consequently, high Lorentz forces act on the part, leading to acceleration away from the coil. In case of a tube, it gets compressed under forming velocities of more than 300 meters per second. After passing the joining gap it collides with the second metallic joining rod, leading to the formation of a jet under appropriate collision conditions. Due to the prevailing high pressure, metallurgical bonding takes place. A characteristic feature is the wavy interface resulting from the heavy plastic deformations. In the process, the formation of intermetallic compounds which might deteriorate the weld strength can be avoided, even for metals with dissimilar thermal properties. In order to optimize the process parameters like current, voltage, inductance, coil dimensions, workpiece dimensions, air gap, impact velocity, effective plastic strain, shear stress acting in the welding zone/impact zone etc. are very critical and important to establish. These process parameters could be determined by simulation using Finite Element Methods (FEM) in which electromagnetic –structural couple field analysis is performed. The feasibility of welding could thus be investigated by varying the parameters in the simulation using COMSOL. Simulation results shall be applied in performing the preliminary experiments of welding the different alloy steel tubes and/or alloy steel to other materials. The single turn coil (S.S.304) with field shaper (copper) has been designed and manufactured. The preliminary experiments are performed using existing EMPW facility available Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar, India. The experiments are performed at 22kV charged into 64µF capacitor bank and the energy is discharged into single turn EM coil. Welding of axi-symetric components such as aluminum tube and rod has been proven experimentally using EMPW techniques. In this paper EM coil design, manufacturing, Electromagnetic-structural FEM simulation of Magnetic Pulse Welding and preliminary experiment results is reported.

Keywords: COMSOL, EMPW, FEM, Lorentz force

Procedia PDF Downloads 94
119 Strip Size Optimization for Spiral Type Actuator Coil Used in Electromagnetic Flat Sheet Forming Experiment

Authors: M. A. Aleem, M. S. Awan

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Flat spiral coil for electromagnetic forming system has been modelled in FEMM 4.2 software. Copper strip was chosen as the material for designing the actuator coil. Relationship between height to width ratio (S-factor) of the copper strip and coil’s performance has been studied. Magnetic field intensities, eddy currents, and Lorentz force were calculated for the coils that were designed using six different 'S-factor' values (0.65, 0.75, 1.05, 1.25, 1.54 and 1.75), keeping the cross-sectional area of strip the same. Results obtained through simulation suggest that actuator coil with S-factor ~ 1 shows optimum forming performance as it exerts maximum Lorentz force (84 kN) on work piece. The same coils were fabricated and used for electromagnetic sheet forming experiments. Aluminum 6061 sheets of thickness 1.5 mm have been formed using different voltage levels of capacitor bank. Smooth forming profiles were obtained with dome heights 28, 35 and 40 mm in work piece at 800, 1150 and 1250 V respectively.

Keywords: FEM modelling, electromagnetic forming, spiral coil, Lorentz force

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
118 Cooling Profile Analysis of Hot Strip Coil Using Finite Volume Method

Authors: Subhamita Chakraborty, Shubhabrata Datta, Sujay Kumar Mukherjea, Partha Protim Chattopadhyay

Abstract:

Manufacturing of multiphase high strength steel in hot strip mill have drawn significant attention due to the possibility of forming low temperature transformation product of austenite under continuous cooling condition. In such endeavor, reliable prediction of temperature profile of hot strip coil is essential in order to accesses the evolution of microstructure at different location of hot strip coil, on the basis of corresponding Continuous Cooling Transformation (CCT) diagram. Temperature distribution profile of the hot strip coil has been determined by using finite volume method (FVM) vis-à-vis finite difference method (FDM). It has been demonstrated that FVM offer greater computational reliability in estimation of contact pressure distribution and hence the temperature distribution for curved and irregular profiles, owing to the flexibility in selection of grid geometry and discrete point position, Moreover, use of finite volume concept allows enforcing the conservation of mass, momentum and energy, leading to enhanced accuracy of prediction.

Keywords: simulation, modeling, thermal analysis, coil cooling, contact pressure, finite volume method

Procedia PDF Downloads 394
117 High Voltage Magnetic Pulse Generation Using Capacitor Discharge Technique

Authors: Mohamed Adel Abdallah

Abstract:

A high voltage magnetic pulse is designed by applying an electrical pulse to the coil. Capacitor banks are developed to generate a pulse current. Switching circuit consisting of DPDT switches, thyristor, and triggering circuit is built and tested. The coil current is measured using a Hall-effect current sensor. The magnetic pulse created is measured and tabulated in the graph. Simulation using FEMM is done to compare the results obtained between experiment and simulation. This technology can be applied to area such as medical equipment, measuring instrument, and military equipment.

Keywords: high voltage, magnetic pulse, capacitor discharge, coil

Procedia PDF Downloads 580
116 Enhancement Effect of Electromagnetic Field on Separation of Edible Oil from Oil-Water Emulsion

Authors: Olfat A. Fadali, Mohamed S. Mahmoud, Omnia H. Abdelraheem, Shimaa G. Mohammed

Abstract:

The effect of electromagnetic field (EMF) on the removal of edible oil from oil-in-water emulsion by means of electrocoagulation was investigated in rectangular batch electrochemical cell with DC current. Iron (Fe) plate anodes and stainless steel cathodes were employed as electrodes. The effect of different magnetic field intensities (1.9, 3.9 and 5.2 tesla), three different positions of EMF (below, perpendicular and parallel to the electrocoagulation cell), as well as operating time; had been investigated. The application of electromagnetic field (5.2 tesla) raises percentage of oil removal from 72.4% for traditional electrocoagulation to 90.8% after 20 min.

Keywords: electrocoagulation, electromagnetic field, Oil-water emulsion, edible oil

Procedia PDF Downloads 459
115 Harvesting Energy from Lightning Strikes

Authors: Vaishakh Medikeri

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Lightning, the marvelous, spectacular and the awesome truth of nature is one of the greatest energy sources left unharnessed since ages. A single lightning bolt of lightning contains energy of about 15 billion joules. This huge amount of energy cannot be harnessed completely but partially. This paper proposes to harness the energy from lightning strikes. Throughout the globe the frequency of lightning is 40-50 flashes per second, totally 1.4 billion flashes per year; all of these flashes carrying an average energy of about 15 billion joules each. When a lightning bolt strikes the ground, tremendous amounts of energy is transferred to earth which propagates in the form of concentric circular energy waves. These waves have a frequency of about 7.83Hz. Harvesting the lightning bolt directly seems impossible, but harvesting the energy waves produced by the lightning is pretty easier. This can be done using a tricoil energy harnesser which is a new device which I have invented. We know that lightning bolt seeks the path which has minimum resistance down to the earth. For this we can make a lightning rod about 100 meters high. Now the lightning rod is attached to the tricoil energy harnesser. The tricoil energy harnesser contains three coils whose centers are collinear and all the coils are parallel to the ground. The first coil has one of its ends connected to the lightning rod and the other end grounded. There is a secondary coil wound on the first coil with one of its end grounded and the other end pointing to the ground and left unconnected and placed a little bit above the ground so that this end of the coil produces more intense currents, hence producing intense energy waves. The first coil produces very high magnetic fields and induces them in the second and third coils. Along with the magnetic fields induced by the first coil, the energy waves which are currents also flow through the second and the third coils. The second and the third coils are connected to a generator which in turn is connected to a capacitor which stores the electrical energy. The first coil is placed in the middle of the second and the third coil. The stored energy can be used for transmission of electricity. This new technique of harnessing the lightning strikes would be most efficient in places with more probability of the lightning strikes. Since we are using a lightning rod sufficiently long, the probability of cloud to ground strikes is increased. If the proposed apparatus is implemented, it would be a great source of pure and clean energy.

Keywords: generator, lightning rod, tricoil energy harnesser, harvesting energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 291
114 Design and Implementation of a Fan Coil Unit Controller Based on the Duty Ratio Fuzzy Method

Authors: Liang Zhao, Jili Zhang, Kai Li

Abstract:

A microcontroller-based fan coil unit (FCU) fuzzy controller is designed and implemented in this paper. The controller employs the concept of duty ratio on the electric valve control, which could make full use of the cooling and dehumidifying capacity of the FCU when the valve is off. The traditional control method and its limitations are analyzed. The hardware and software design processes are introduced in detail. The experimental results show that the proposed method is more energy efficient compared to the traditional controlling strategy. Furthermore, a more comfortable room condition could be achieved by the proposed method. The proposed low-cost FCU fuzzy controller deserves to be widely used in engineering applications.

Keywords: fan coil unit, duty ratio, fuzzy controller, experiment

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
113 Uniqueness and Repeatability Analysis for Slim Tube Determined Minimum Miscibility Pressure

Authors: Waqar Ahmad Butt, Gholamreza Vakili Nezhaad, Ali Soud Al Bemani, Yahya Al Wahaibi

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Miscible gas injection processes as secondary recovery methods can be applied to a huge number of mature reservoirs to improve the trapped oil displacement. Successful miscible gas injection processes require an accurate estimation of the minimum miscibility pressure (MMP) to make injection process feasible, economical, and effective. There are several methods of MMP determination like slim tube approach, vanishing interfacial tension and rising bubble apparatus but slim tube is the deployed experimental technique in this study. Slim tube method is assumed to be non-standardized for MMP determination with respect to both operating procedure and design. Therefore, 25 slim tube runs were being conducted with three different coil lengths (12, 18 and 24 m) of constant diameter using three different injection rates (0.08, 0.1 and 0.15 cc/min) to evaluate uniqueness and repeatability of determined MMP. A trend of decrease in MMP with increase in coil length was found. No unique trend was found between MMP and injection rate. Lowest MMP and highest recovery were observed with highest coil length and lowest injection rate. It shows that slim tube measured MMP does not depend solely on interacting fluids characteristics but also affected by used coil selection and injection rate choice. Therefore, both slim tube design and procedure need to be standardized. It is recommended to use lowest possible injection rate and estimated coil length depending upon the distance between injections and producing wells for accurate and reliable MMP determination.

Keywords: coil length, injection rate, minimum miscibility pressure, multiple contacts miscibility

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
112 A Variable Stiffness Approach to Vibration Control

Authors: S. A. Alotaibi, M. A. Al-Ajmi

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This work introduces a new concept for controlling the mechanical vibrations via variable stiffness coil spring. The concept relies on fitting a screw though the spring to change the number of active spring coils. A prototype has been built and tested with promising results toward an innovation in the field of vibration control.

Keywords: variable stiffness, coil spring, vibration control, computer science

Procedia PDF Downloads 320
111 Performance Assessment in a Voice Coil Motor for Maximizing the Energy Harvesting with Gait Motions

Authors: Hector A. Tinoco, Cesar Garcia-Diaz, Olga L. Ocampo-Lopez

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In this study, an experimental approach is established to assess the performance of different beams coupled to a Voice Coil Motor (VCM) with the aim to maximize mechanically the energy harvesting in the inductive transducer that is included on it. The VCM is extracted from a recycled hard disk drive (HDD) and it is adapted for carrying out experimental tests of energy harvesting. Two individuals were selected for walking with the VCM-beam device as well as to evaluate the performance varying two parameters in the beam; length of the beams and a mass addition. Results show that the energy harvesting is maximized with specific beams; however, the harvesting efficiency is improved when a mass is added to the end of the beams.

Keywords: hard disk drive, energy harvesting, voice coil motor, energy harvester, gait motions

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
110 Comparison of Transforming Growth Factor-β1 Levels in the Human Gingival Sulcus during Canine Retraction Using Elastic Chain and Closed Coil Spring

Authors: Sri Suparwitri

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When an orthodontic force is applied to a tooth, an inflammatory response is initiated then lead to bone remodeling process, and the process accommodates tooth movement. One of cytokine that plays a prominent role in bone remodeling process was transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1). The purpose of this study was to identify and compare changes of TGF-β1 in human gingival crevicular fluid during canine retraction using elastic chain and closed coil spring. Ten patients (mean age 20.7 ± 2.9 years) participated. The patients were entering the space closure phase of fixed orthodontic treatment. An upper canine of each patient was retracted using elastic chain, and the contralateral canine was retracted using closed coil spring. Gingival crevicular fluid samples were collected from the canine teeth before and 7 days after the force was applied. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The concentrations of TGF-β1 at 7 days were significantly higher compared to before canine retraction in both groups. In the evaluation of between-group difference, before retraction, the difference was insignificant, whereas at 7 days significantly higher values were determined in the closed coil spring group compared to elastic chain group. The result suggests that TGF-β1 is associated with the bone remodeling that occurs during canine distalization movement. Closed coil spring gave higher TGF-β1 concentrations thus more bone remodeling occurred and may be considered the treatment of choice.

Keywords: closed coil spring, elastic chain, gingival crevicular fluid, TGF-β1

Procedia PDF Downloads 116
109 Electric Characteristics of Coils and Antennas with Sewing Techniques for Wireless Power Transfer

Authors: Hikari Ryu, Yuki Fukuda, Kento Oishi, Chiharu Igarashi, Shogo Kiryu

Abstract:

Recently, wireless power transfer has been developed in various fields. Three coupling techniques in the power deliveries have been used. Magnetic coupling is popular for feeding power at a relatively short distance and at a lower frequency. Electric field coupling is suitable when wide electrodes can be utilized. Electro-magnetic wave coupling at a high frequency is used for long-distance power transfer. The wireless power transfer has attracted attention in e-textile fields. Rigid batteries are required for many body-worn electric systems at the present time. The technology enables such butteries to be removed from the systems. Flexible coils have been studied for such applications. Coils with a high Q factor are required in the magnetic-coupling power transfer. Antennas with low return loss are needed for the electro-magnetic coupling. Litz wire is so flexible to fabricate coils and antennas sewn on a fabric and has low resistivity. In this study, the electric characteristics of some coils and antennas fabricated with the litz wire by using two sewing techniques are investigated. As examples, a coil and an antenna are described. Both were fabricated with 330/0.04 mm litz wire. The coil was a planar coil with a square shape. The outer side was 150 mm, the number of turns was 15, and the pitch interval between each turn was 5 mm. The litz wire of the coil was overstitched with a sewing machine. The coil was fabricated as an auxiliary coil for a magnetic coupled wireless power transfer. The Q factor was 200 at a frequency of 800 kHz. As an example of an antenna with a sewing technique, a fractal pattern antenna was stitched on a 500 mm x 500 mm fabric by using a needle punch method. The pattern was 2nd-oder Vicsec fractal. The return loss of the antenna was -28 dB at a frequency of 144 MHz.

Keywords: e-textile, flexible coils and antennas, litz wire, wireless power transfer

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108 Transfer of Electrical Energy by Magnetic Induction

Authors: Carlos Oliveira Santiago Filho, Ciro Egoavil, Eduardo Oliveira, Jéferson Galdino, Moises Galileu, Tiago Oliveira Correa

Abstract:

Transfer of Electrical Energy through resonant inductive magnetic coupling is demonstrated experimentally in a system containing coil primary for transmission and secondary reception. The topology used in the prototype of the Class-E amplifier, has been identified as optimal for power transfer applications. Characteristic of the inductor and the load are defined by the requirements of the resonant inductive system. The frequency limitation the of circuit restricts unloaded “Q-Factor”, quality factor of the coils and thus the link efficiency. With a suitable circuit, copper coil unloaded Q-Factors of over 1,000 can be achieved in the low Mhz region, enabling a cost-effective high Q coil assembly. The circuit is capable system capable of transmitting energy with direct current to load efficiency above 60% at 2 Mhz.

Keywords: magnetic induction, transfer of electrical energy, magnetic coupling, Q-Factor

Procedia PDF Downloads 439
107 Assessment of Power Formation in Gas Turbine Power Plants Using Different Inlet Air Cooling Systems

Authors: Nikhil V. Nayak

Abstract:

In this paper, the influence of air cooling intake on the gas turbine performance is presented. A comparison among different cooling systems, i.e., evaporative and cooling coil, is performed. A computer simulation model for the employed systems is developed in order to evaluate the performance of the studied gas turbine unit, at Marka Power Station, Amman, Bangalore. The performance characteristics are examined for a set of actual operational parameters including ambient temperature, relative humidity, turbine inlet temperature, pressure ratio, etc. The obtained results showed that the evaporative cooling system is capable of boosting the power and enhancing the efficiency of the studied gas turbine unit in a way much cheaper than cooling coil system due to its high power consumption required to run the vapor-compression refrigeration unit. Nevertheless, it provides full control on the temperature inlet conditions regardless of the relative humidity ratio.

Keywords: power augmentation, temperature control, evaporative cooling, cooling coil, gas turbine

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
106 Challenges for a WPT 4 Waiting Lane Concept - Laboratory and Practical Experience

Authors: Julia Langen

Abstract:

This article describes the challenges of a wireless charging system for a cab waiting lane in a public space and presents a concept for solving them. In this concept, multiple cabs can be charged simultaneously and during stopping and rolling. Particular technical challenges are a coil topology that meets the EMF requirements and an intelligent control concept that allows the individual coil segments to be switched on and off. The charging concept explained here is currently being implemented as a pilot project, so that initial results on the operation can be presented.

Keywords: charge lane, inductive charging solution, smart city, wireless power transfer

Procedia PDF Downloads 82
105 Cost Effective Intraoperative Mri for Cranial and Spinal Cases Using Pre-Existing Three Side Open Mri-Adjacent to Operation Theater = Since-2005

Authors: V. K. Tewari, M. Hussain, H. K. D.Gupta

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Aims/Background: The existing Intraoperative-MRI(IMRI) of developed countries is too costly to be utilized in any developing country. We have used the preexisting 3-side open 0.2-tesla MRI for IMRI in India so that the maximum benefit of the goal of IMRI is attained with cost effective state of the art surgeries. Material/Methods: We have operated 36-cases since 13thNov2005 via IMRI to till date. The table of MRI is used as an operating table which can be taken to the P3 level and as and when we require MRI to be done then the table can slide to P1 level so that the intraoperative monitoring can be done. The oxygen/nitrous tubes were taken out from vent made in the wall of the MRI room to outside. The small handy Boyel’s trolley was taken inside the MRI room with a small monitor. Anesthesia is been given in the MRI room itself. Usual skin markings were given with the help of scout MRI fields so the preciseness is increased. Craniotomy flap raised or the laminectomy and the dura opened in the similar fashion by same instruments as for the non IMRI case. Now corticectomy is planned after the T1 contrast image to localize and minimize the cortical resection. Staged and multiple P3 to P1 position and vice versa is planned respectively so that the resection is optimized to around 0.5 mm for radiotherapy. Immediate preclosure hematoma and edemas can be differentiated and cared for it. Results: Same MRI images as compared to highly expensive MRI of western world are achieved. Conclusion: 0.2 tesla Intraoperative MRI can be used for operative work for cranial and spinal cases easily with highly cost effectiveness.

Keywords: intraoperative MRI, 0.2 tesla intraoperative MRI, cost effective intraoperative MRI, medical and health sciences

Procedia PDF Downloads 388
104 A New Converter Topology for Wind Energy Conversion System

Authors: Mahmoud Khamaira, Ahmed Abu-Siada, Yasser Alharbi

Abstract:

Doubly Fed Induction Generators (DFIGs) are currently extensively used in variable speed wind power plants due to their superior advantages that include reduced converter rating, low cost, reduced losses, easy implementation of power factor correction schemes, variable speed operation and four quadrants active and reactive power control capabilities. On the other hand, DFIG sensitivity to grid disturbances, especially for voltage sags represents the main disadvantage of the equipment. In this paper, a coil is proposed to be integrated within the DFIG converters to improve the overall performance of a DFIG-based wind energy conversion system (WECS). The charging and discharging of the coil are controlled by controlling the duty cycle of the switches of the dc-dc chopper. Simulation results reveal the effectiveness of the proposed topology in improving the overall performance of the WECS system under study.

Keywords: doubly fed induction generator, coil, wind energy conversion system, converter topology

Procedia PDF Downloads 580
103 Design and Optimization of an Electromagnetic Vibration Energy Converter

Authors: Slim Naifar, Sonia Bradai, Christian Viehweger, Olfa Kanoun

Abstract:

Vibration provides an interesting source of energy since it is available in many indoor and outdoor applications. Nevertheless, in order to have an efficient design of the harvesting system, vibration converters have to satisfy some criterion in terms of robustness, compactness and energy outcome. In this work, an electromagnetic converter based on mechanical spring principle is proposed. The designed harvester is formed by a coil oscillating around ten ring magnets using a mechanical spring. The proposed design overcomes one of the main limitation of the moving coil by avoiding the contact between the coil wires with the mechanical spring which leads to a better robustness for the converter. In addition, the whole system can be implemented in a cavity of a screw. Different parameters in the harvester were investigated by finite element method including the magnet size, the coil winding number and diameter and the excitation frequency and amplitude. A prototype was realized and tested. Experiments were performed for 0.5 g to 1 g acceleration. The used experimental setup consists of an electrodynamic shaker as an external artificial vibration source controlled by a laser sensor to measure the applied displacement and frequency excitation. Together with the laser sensor, a controller unit, and an amplifier, the shaker is operated in a closed loop which allows controlling the vibration amplitude. The resonance frequency of the proposed designs is in the range of 24 Hz. Results indicate that the harvester can generate 612 mV and 1150 mV maximum open circuit peak to peak voltage at resonance for 0.5 g and 1 g acceleration respectively which correspond to 4.75 mW and 1.34 mW output power. Tuning the frequency to other values is also possible due to the possibility to add mass to the moving part of the or by changing the mechanical spring stiffness.

Keywords: energy harvesting, electromagnetic principle, vibration converter, moving coil

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
102 Defects Classification of Stator Coil Generators by Phase Resolve Partial Discharge

Authors: Chun-Yao Lee, Nando Purba, Benny Iskandar

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This paper proposed a phase resolve partial discharge (PRPD) shape method to classify types of defect stator coil generator by using off-line PD measurement instrument. The recorded PRPD, by using the instruments MPD600, can illustrate the PRPD patterns of partial discharge of unit’s defects. In the paper, two of large units, No.2 and No.3, in Inalum hydropower plant, North Sumatera, Indonesia is adopted in the experimental measurement. The proposed PRPD shape method is to mark auxiliary lines on the PRPD patterns. The shapes of PRPD from two units are marked with the proposed method. Then, four types of defects in IEC 60034-27 standard is adopted to classify the defect types of the two units, which types are microvoids (S1), delamination tape layer (S2), slot defect (S3) and internal delamination (S4). Finally, the two units are actually inspected to validate the availability of the proposed PRPD shape method.

Keywords: partial discharge (PD), stator coil, defect, phase resolve pd (PRPD)

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
101 Analysis and Design of Inductive Power Transfer Systems for Automotive Battery Charging Applications

Authors: Wahab Ali Shah, Junjia He

Abstract:

Transferring electrical power without any wiring has been a dream since late 19th century. There were some advances in this area as to know more about microwave systems. However, this subject has recently become very attractive due to their practiScal systems. There are low power applications such as charging the batteries of contactless tooth brushes or implanted devices, and higher power applications such as charging the batteries of electrical automobiles or buses. In the first group of applications operating frequencies are in microwave range while the frequency is lower in high power applications. In the latter, the concept is also called inductive power transfer. The aim of the paper is to have an overview of the inductive power transfer for electrical vehicles with a special concentration on coil design and power converter simulation for static charging. Coil design is very important for an efficient and safe power transfer. Coil design is one of the most critical tasks. Power converters are used in both side of the system. The converter on the primary side is used to generate a high frequency voltage to excite the primary coil. The purpose of the converter in the secondary is to rectify the voltage transferred from the primary to charge the battery. In this paper, an inductive power transfer system is studied. Inductive power transfer is a promising technology with several possible applications. Operation principles of these systems are explained, and components of the system are described. Finally, a single phase 2 kW system was simulated and results were presented. The work presented in this paper is just an introduction to the concept. A reformed compensation network based on traditional inductor-capacitor-inductor (LCL) topology is proposed to realize robust reaction to large coupling variation that is common in dynamic wireless charging application. In the future, this type compensation should be studied. Also, comparison of different compensation topologies should be done for the same power level.

Keywords: coil design, contactless charging, electrical automobiles, inductive power transfer, operating frequency

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
100 A Theoretical Approach of Tesla Pump

Authors: Cristian Sirbu-Dragomir, Stefan-Mihai Sofian, Adrian Predescu

Abstract:

This paper aims to study Tesla pumps for circulating biofluids. It is desired to make a small pump for the circulation of biofluids. This type of pump will be studied because it has the following characteristics: It doesn’t have blades which results in very small frictions; Reduced friction forces; Low production cost; Increased adaptability to different types of fluids; Low cavitation (towards 0); Low shocks due to lack of blades; Rare maintenance due to low cavity; Very small turbulences in the fluid; It has a low number of changes in the direction of the fluid (compared to rotors with blades); Increased efficiency at low powers.; Fast acceleration; The need for a low torque; Lack of shocks in blades at sudden starts and stops. All these elements are necessary to be able to make a small pump that could be inserted into the thoracic cavity. The pump will be designed to combat myocardial infarction. Because the pump must be inserted in the thoracic cavity, elements such as Low friction forces, shocks as low as possible, low cavitation and as little maintenance as possible are very important. The operation should be performed once, without having to change the rotor after a certain time. Given the very small size of the pump, the blades of a classic rotor would be very thin and sudden starts and stops could cause considerable damage or require a very expensive material. At the same time, being a medical procedure, the low cost is important in order to be easily accessible to the population. The lack of turbulence or vortices caused by a classic rotor is again a key element because when it comes to blood circulation, the flow must be laminar and not turbulent. The turbulent flow can even cause a heart attack. Due to these aspects, Tesla's model could be ideal for this work. Usually, the pump is considered to reach an efficiency of 40% being used for very high powers. However, the author of this type of pump claimed that the maximum efficiency that the pump can achieve is 98%. The key element that could help to achieve this efficiency or one as close as possible is the fact that the pump will be used for low volumes and pressures. The key elements to obtain the best efficiency for this model are the number of rotors placed in parallel and the distance between them. The distance between them must be small, which helps to obtain a pump as small as possible. The principle of operation of such a rotor is to place in several parallel discs cut inside. Thus the space between the discs creates the vacuum effect by pulling the liquid through the holes in the rotor and throwing it outwards. Also, a very important element is the viscosity of the liquid. It dictates the distance between the disks to achieve a lossless power flow.

Keywords: lubrication, temperature, tesla-pump, viscosity

Procedia PDF Downloads 105
99 Experimental Study on the Heat Transfer Characteristics of the 200W Class Woofer Speaker

Authors: Hyung-Jin Kim, Dae-Wan Kim, Moo-Yeon Lee

Abstract:

The objective of this study is to experimentally investigate the heat transfer characteristics of 200 W class woofer speaker units with the input voice signals. The temperature and heat transfer characteristics of the 200 W class woofer speaker unit were experimentally tested with the several input voice signals such as 1500 Hz, 2500 Hz, and 5000 Hz respectively. From the experiments, it can be observed that the temperature of the woofer speaker unit including the voice-coil part increases with a decrease in input voice signals. Also, the temperature difference in measured points of the voice coil is increased with decrease of the input voice signals. In addition, the heat transfer characteristics of the woofer speaker in case of the input voice signal of 1500 Hz is 40% higher than that of the woofer speaker in case of the input voice signal of 5000 Hz at the measuring time of 200 seconds. It can be concluded from the experiments that initially the temperature of the voice signal increases rapidly with time, after a certain period of time it increases exponentially. Also during this time dependent temperature change, it can be observed that high voice signal is stable than low voice signal.

Keywords: heat transfer, temperature, voice coil, woofer speaker

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
98 Significance of Square Non-Spiral Microcoils for Biomedical Applications

Authors: Himanshu Chandrakar, Krishnapriya S., Rama Komaragiri, Suja K. J.

Abstract:

Micro coils are significant components for micro magnetic sensors and actuators especially in biomedical devices. Non-spiral planar microcoils of square, hexagonal and octagonal shapes are introduced for the first time in this paper. Comparison between different planar spiral and non-spiral coils are also discussed. The fabrication advantages and low power dissipation of non-spiral structures make them a strong alternative for conventional spiral planar coils. Series resistance of non-spiral coil is lesser than that of spiral coils though magnetic field is slightly lesser for non-spiral coils. Comparison of different planar microcoils shows that the proposed square non-spiral coil gives better performance than other structures.

Keywords: non-spiral planar microcoil, power dissipation, series resistance, spiral

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
97 Influence of 50 Hz, 1m Tesla Electromagnetic Fields on Serum Male Sex Hormones of Male Rats

Authors: Randa M. Mostafa, Y. Moustafa

Abstract:

During our daily life, we are continuously exposed to the extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) generated by electric appliances. The possible relation between exposure to (ELF-MFs) and adverse health effects has attracted and passed through long debate sessions. Extremely low frequency is a term used to describe radiation frequencies below 300 Hertz (Hz).It is very important for public health because of the widespread use of electrical power at 50-60 Hz in most countries. This study set out to investigate the impact of chronic exposure of male rats to 50- Hz, 1 mTesla (ELF-EMF) of over periods of 1, 2, and 4 weeks on concentration of serum FSH, LH, and testosterone hormones. 60 male albino rats were divided into 6 groups and were continuously exposed to 50-Hz, 1 m Tesla (ELF-EMF) generated by magnetic field chamber for periods of 1, 2, and 4 weeks. For each experimental point, sham treated group was used as a control. Assay of serum testosterone LH, and FSHwere performed. Serum testosterone showed no significant changes. FSH showed significant increase than sham exposed group after 1 week of field exposure. LH showed significant increase than sham exposed group only after 4 weeks of field exposure. A future detailed molecular studies must be carried out to figure out and may be able to explain the possible interactions between ELF-EMF and hypothalamic-pituitary gonadal axis.

Keywords: extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields, testosterone, follicular stimulating hormone, LH

Procedia PDF Downloads 388
96 Automatic LV Segmentation with K-means Clustering and Graph Searching on Cardiac MRI

Authors: Hae-Yeoun Lee

Abstract:

Quantification of cardiac function is performed by calculating blood volume and ejection fraction in routine clinical practice. However, these works have been performed by manual contouring,which requires computational costs and varies on the observer. In this paper, an automatic left ventricle segmentation algorithm on cardiac magnetic resonance images (MRI) is presented. Using knowledge on cardiac MRI, a K-mean clustering technique is applied to segment blood region on a coil-sensitivity corrected image. Then, a graph searching technique is used to correct segmentation errors from coil distortion and noises. Finally, blood volume and ejection fraction are calculated. Using cardiac MRI from 15 subjects, the presented algorithm is tested and compared with manual contouring by experts to show outstanding performance.

Keywords: cardiac MRI, graph searching, left ventricle segmentation, K-means clustering

Procedia PDF Downloads 336