Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

Search results for: Aulina R. Rahmi

11 The Effect of Tooth Brushing with Whitening and Non-Whitening Tooth Paste on Surface Roughness of Coated and Uncoated Glass Ionomer Cement

Authors: Hidayati, Eni Rahmi, Deli Mona, Cytha Nilam Chairani, Aulina Refri Rahmi


Background: Restoration materials could undergo changes in their clinical properties such as changes in roughness of the restoration's surface. An increase of surface roughness accelerates bacterial colonization and plaque maturation. It can be prevented by mechanically clean the tooth surface by brushing the teeth using toothpaste. Toothpaste may contain abrasives materials that usually found in whitening toothpaste. Those abrasive materials could increase the roughness of the restoration`s surface. Glass ionomer cement (GIC) is one of the restorative material widely used to this day. GC America has made an innovation called EQUIA to improve their wear resistance by coating the surface of GIC using G-Coat Plus. Objective: To determine the effect of teeth was brushing with whitening and non-whitening toothpaste to the surface roughness of coated and uncoated restoration (GIC). Methods: This research was a laboratory experimental with pretest-posttest group design. There were 28 samples which were divided into 2 groups. The first group was brushed with whitening toothpaste and the second group was brushed with non-whitening toothpaste. Each group was divided into group which coated by G-Coat Plus and group which left uncoated. The value of surface roughness was measured by using Roughness Tester. The data was analyzed by using independent t-test to determine differences between the surface roughness of coated samples and uncoated samples brushed with whitening and non-whitening toothpaste. Result: It was found that average roughness differences before and after being brushed by whitening toothpaste were smaller in coated samples than in uncoated samples (0.07 ± 0.09 < 0.12 ± 0.02). Similar results were also found in samples brushed by non-whitening toothpaste (0.02 ± 0.01 0.03 ± 0.01). The differences of average roughness in samples brushed with non-whitening toothpaste were smaller than samples brushed with whitening toothpaste. Conclusion: The data showed there were statistically significant differences between the surface roughness of coated samples and uncoated samples brushed with non-whitening toothpaste (p < 0.05) but the was no statistically significant to samples brushed with whitening toothpaste (p > 0.05).

Keywords: Coating, surface roughness, toothpaste, EQUIA

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10 The Differences on the Surface Roughness of Glass Ionomer Cement as the Results of Brushing with Whitening and Conventional Toothpaste

Authors: Aulina R. Rahmi, Farid Yuristiawan, Annisa Ibifadillah, Ummu H. Amri, Hidayati Gunawan


Glass ionomer cement is one of the filling material that often used on the field of dentistry because it is relatively less expensive and mostly available. Restoration materials could undergo changes in their clinical properties such as changes in roughness of the restoration`s surface. An increase of surface roughness accelerates bacterial colonization and plaque maturation. In the oral cavity, GIC was exposed to various substances, such as toothpaste, an oral care product used during toothbrushing. One of the popular toothpaste is whitening toothpaste. Abrasive and chemical agents such as hydrogen peroxide in whitening toothpaste could increase the surface roughness of restorative materials. Objective: To determine the differences on the surface roughness of glass ionomer cement that was brushed with whitening and conventional toothpaste. Method: This study was done using experimental laboratory method with pre and post test design. There were 36 samples which were divided into 2 groups. The first group was brushed with whitening toothpaste and the second group was brushed with conventional toothpaste, each for 2 minutes. Surface roughness value of the specimens was measured by using Roughness Tester test. Result: The data was analyzed by using independent t-test and the result of this study showed there was a significant difference between the surface of glass ionomer cement which was brushed with whitening and conventional toothpaste (p=0,000). Conclusion: Glass ionomer cement that was brushed with whitening toothpaste produced more roughness than conventional toothpaste.

Keywords: surface roughness, toothpaste, glass ionomer cement, roughness tester

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9 Comparison of Surface Hardness of Filling Material Glass Ionomer Cement Which Soaked in Alcohol Containing Mouthwash and Alcohol-Free Mouthwash

Authors: Gunawan, Aulina R. Rahmi, Farid Yuristiawan, Detty Iryani


Glass ionomer cement is one of the filling material that often used in the field of dentistry because it is relatively less expensive and mostly available. Surface hardness is one of the most important properties of restoration material; it is the ability of material to stand against indentation, which is directly connected to the material compressive strength and its ability to withstand abrasion. The higher surface hardness of a material means it is better to withstand abrasion. The existence of glass ionomer cement in the mouth makes it susceptible to any substance that comes into mouth, one of them is mouthwash which is a solution that used for many purposes such as antiseptic, astringent, to prevent caries, and bad breath. The presence of alcohol in mouthwash could affect the properties of glass ionomer cement, surface hardness. Objective: To determine the comparison of surface hardness of glass ionomer cement which soaked in alcohol containing mouthwash and alcohol-free mouthwash. Methods: This research is a laboratory experimental type study. There were 30 samples made from GC FUJI IX GP EXTRA and then soaked in artificial saliva for the first 24 hours inside incubator which temperature and humidity were controlled. Samples then divided into three groups. The first group will be soaked in alcohol-containing mouthwash; second group will be soaked alcohol-free mouthwash and control group will be soaked in artificial saliva for 6 hours inside incubator. Listerine is the mouthwash that was used on this research and surface hardness was examined using Vickers Hardness Tester. The result of this research shows mean value for surface hardness of the first group is 16.36 VHN, 24.04 VHN for second group, and 43.60 VHN for control group. The result one way ANOVA with post hoc Bonferroni comparing test show significant results p = 0.00. Conclusions: The data showed there were statistically significant differences of surface hardness between each group, which surface hardness of the first group is lower than the second group, and both surface hardness of the first (alcohol mouthwash) and second group (alcohol-free mouthwash) are lowered than control group (p = 0.00).

Keywords: surface hardness, glass ionomer cement, mouthwash, Vickers hardness tester

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8 Phylogenetic Study of L1 Protein Human Papillomavirus Type 16 From Cervical Cancer Patients in Bandung

Authors: Fitri Rahmi Fadhilah, Edhyana Sahiratmadja, Ani Melani Maskoen, Ratu Safitri, Supartini Syarif, Herman Susanto


Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women after breast cancer. In Indonesia, the incidence of cervical cancer cases is estimated at 25-40 per 100,000 women per year. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a major cause of cervical cancer, and HPV-16 is the most common genotype that infects the cervical tissue. The major late protein L1 may be associated with infectivity and pathogenicity and its variation can be used to classify HPV isolates. The aim of this study was to determine the phylogenetic tree of HPV 16 L1 gene from cervical cancer patient isolates in Bandung. After confirming HPV-16 by Linear Array Genotyping Test, L1 gene was amplified using specific primers and subject for sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that HPV 16 from Bandung was in the subgroup of Asia and East Asia, showing the close host-agent relationship among the Asian type.

Keywords: Cervical Cancer, phylogenetic, L1 HPV 16, bandung

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7 Predicting Medical Check-Up Patient Re-Coming Using Sequential Pattern Mining and Association Rules

Authors: Rajesri Govindaraju, Rizka Aisha Rahmi Hariadi, Chao Ou-Yang, Han-Cheng Wang


As the increasing of medical check-up popularity, there are a huge number of medical check-up data stored in database and have not been useful. These data actually can be very useful for future strategic planning if we mine it correctly. In other side, a lot of patients come with unpredictable coming and also limited available facilities make medical check-up service offered by hospital not maximal. To solve that problem, this study used those medical check-up data to predict patient re-coming. Sequential pattern mining (SPM) and association rules method were chosen because these methods are suitable for predicting patient re-coming using sequential data. First, based on patient personal information the data was grouped into … groups then discriminant analysis was done to check significant of the grouping. Second, for each group some frequent patterns were generated using SPM method. Third, based on frequent patterns of each group, pairs of variable can be extracted using association rules to get general pattern of re-coming patient. Last, discussion and conclusion was done to give some implications of the results.

Keywords: Data Mining, Association Rules, Sequential Pattern Mining, discriminant analysis, patient re-coming, medical check-up, health examination

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6 Neotectonic Features of the Fethiye-Burdur Fault Zone between Kozluca and Burdur, SW Anatolia, Turkey

Authors: Rahmi Aksoy, Berkant Coşkuner


The aim of this study is to present some preliminary stratigraphic and structural evidence for the Fethiye-Burdur fault zone between Kozluca and Burdur. The Fethiye-Burdur fault zone, the easternmost extension of the west Anatolian extensional province, extends from the Gulf of Fethiye northeastward through Burdur, a distance of about 300 km. The research area is located in the Burdur segment of the fault zone. Here, the fault zone includes several parallel to subparallel fault branching and en-echelon faults that lie within a linear belt, as much as 20 km in width. The direction of movement in the fault zone has been oblique-slip in the left lateral sense. The basement of the study area consists of the Triassic-Eocene Lycian Nappes, the Eocene-Oligocene molasse sediments and the lower Miocene marine rocks. The Burdur basin contains two basin infills. The ancient and deformed basin fill is composed of lacustrine sediments of the upper Miocene-lower Pliocene age. The younger and undeformed basin fill comprises Plio-Quaternary alluvial fan and recent basin-floor deposits and unconformably overlies the ancient basin infill. The Burdur basin is bounded by the NE-SW trending, left lateral oblique-slip normal faults, the Karakent fault on the northwest and the Burdur fault on the southeast. These faults played a key role in the development of the Burdur basin as a pull-apart basin.

Keywords: Burdur basin, Fethiye-Burdur fault zone, left lateral oblique-slip fault, Western Anatolia

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5 Engaging Citizen, Sustaining Service Delivery of Rural Water Supply in Indonesia

Authors: Rahmi Yetri Kasri, Paulus Wirutomo


Citizen engagement approach has become increasingly important in the rural water sector. However, the question remains as to what exactly is meant by citizen engagement and how this approach can lead to sustainable service delivery. To understand citizen engagement, this paper argues that we need to understand basic elements of social life that consist of social structure, process, and culture within the realm of community’s living environment. Extracting from empirical data from Pamsimas villages in rural West Java, Indonesia, this paper will identify basic elements of social life and environment that influence and form the engagement of citizen and government in delivering and sustaining rural water supply services in Indonesia. Pamsimas or the Water Supply and Sanitation for Low Income Communities project is the biggest rural water program in Indonesia, implemented since 1993 in more than 27,000 villages. The sustainability of this sector is explored through a rural water supply service delivery life-cycle, starts with capital investment, operational and maintenance, asset expansion or renewal, strategic planning for future services and matching cost with financing. Using mixed-method data collection in case study research, this paper argues that increased citizen engagement contributes to a more sustainable rural water service delivery.

Keywords: Sustainability, Citizen Engagement, Indonesia, rural water supply

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4 Neotectonic Characteristics of the Western Part of Konya, Central Anatolia, Turkey

Authors: Rahmi Aksoy


The western part of Konya consists of an area of block faulted basin and ranges. Present day topography is characterized by alternating elongate mountains and depressions trending east-west. A number of depressions occur in the region. One of the large depressions is the E-W trending Kızılören-Küçükmuhsine (KK basin) basin bounded on both sides by normal faults and located on the west of the Konya city. The basin is about 5-12 km wide and 40 km long. Ranges north and south of the basin are composed of undifferentiated low grade metamorphic rocks of Silurian-Cretaceous age and smaller bodies of ophiolites of probable Cretaceous age. The basin fill consists of the upper Miocene-lower Pliocene fluvial, lacustrine, alluvial sediments and volcanic rocks. The younger and undeformed Plio-Quaternary basin fill unconformably overlies the older basin fill and is composed predominantly of conglomerate, mudstone, silt, clay and recent basin floor deposits. The paleostress data on the striated fault planes in the basin indicates NW-SE extension and associated with an NE-SW compression. The eastern end of the KK basin is cut and terraced by the active Konya fault zone. The Konya fault zone is NE trending, east dipping normal fault forming the western boundary of the Konya depression. The Konya depression consists mainly of Plio-Quaternary alluvial complex and recent basin floor sediments. The structural data gathered from the Konya fault zone support normal faulting with a small amount of dextral strike-slip tensional tectonic regime that shaped under the WNW-ESE extensional stress regime.

Keywords: Neotectonics, central anatolia, fault kinematics, Kızılören-Küçükmuhsine basin, Konya fault zone

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3 The Bone Remodeling of Mandible in Bruxers

Authors: Eni Rahmi, Rasmi Rikmasari, Taufik Soemarsongko


Background: One of the bad habits that requires a treatment and viewed as a risk factor of the temporomandibular disorder is bruxism. Bruxism defined as an awake and/or asleep parafunctional activities include grinding, gnashing, bracing or clenching of the teeth. In particular circumstances such as an increased frequency of episode, duration and the intensity of masseter contractions, caused phenomenon with pathological consequences, i.e., mandibular remodeling. The remodeling in mandibular angle was associated with the masseter and pterygoid medial muscles attachment which in its insertion area. The aim of this study was to compare the mandibular remodeling between bruxers and non-bruxers with ramus height, gonial angle and bigonial width as parameters, and to identify correlation among those parameters in bruxers, using panoramic radiographic. Methods: This study was conducted on 35 bruxers (10 phasic bruxism patients, 6 tonic bruxism patients, and 19 mixed bruxism patients) and 20 non-bruxers as control group. The data were obtained by using questionary, clinical examination, and radiographic measurement. Panoramic radiograph measurement was done using soft CBCT EPX Impla (E-Woo Korea). The data was analyzed by using Paired T-Test to see differences between parameters in both group and Pearson Correlation Test to evaluate correlation among parameters. Result: There was significant differences between bruxers and non-bruxers in ramus heights (p=0,04), bigonial widths (p=0,001), and gonial angles(p=0,015). The bruxers showed increased ramus heights and bigonial widths, in other hand, the gonial angles decreased. This study also found that there was highly correlation among ramus height, gonial angles, and bigonial widths. Conclusion: the bone remodeling occurred on inferior and posterior border of mandibular angle in bruxism patient, indicated by the form and size differences between bruxers (phasic bruxism, tonic bruxism, and mixed bruxism) with non-bruxers, which shown by panoramic radiograph.

Keywords: bruxism, ramus height, gonial angle, bigonial width

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2 Creating Legitimate Expectations in International Energy Investments: Role of the Stability Provisions

Authors: Rahmi Kopar


Legitimate expectations principle is considered one of the most dominant elements of the Fair and Equitable Treatment Standard which is today’s most relied upon treaty standard. Since its utilization by arbitral tribunals is relatively new, the contours of the legitimate expectations concept under investment treaty law have not been precisely defined yet. There are various fragmented views arising both from arbitral tribunals and scholarly writings with respect to its limits and use even though the principle is ‘firmly rooted in arbitral practice.’ International energy investments, due to their characteristics, are more prone to certain types of risks, especially the political risks. Thus, there are several mechanisms to protect an energy investment against those risks. Stabilisation is one of these investment protection methods. Stability provisions can be found under domestic legislations, as a contractual clause, or as a separate legal stability agreement. This paper will start by examining the roots of the contentious concept of legitimate expectations with reference to its application in domestic legal systems from where the doctrine under investment treaty law context was transplanted. Then the paper will turn to the investment treaty law and analyse the main contours of the doctrine as understood and applied by arbitral tribunals. 'What gives rise to the investor’s legitimate expectations?' question is answered mainly by three categories of sources: the general legal framework prevalent in a host state, the representations made by the officials or organs of a host state, and the contractual commitments. However, there is no unanimity among the arbitral tribunals and the scholars with respect to the form these sources should take. At this point, the study will discuss the sources of a stability provision and the effect of these stability provisions found in various legal sources in creating a legitimate expectation for the investor. The main questions to be discussed in this paper are as follows: a) Do the stability provisions found under different legal sources create a legitimate expectation on the investor side? b) If yes, what levels of legitimate expectations do they create? These questions will be answered mainly by reference to investment treaty jurisprudence.

Keywords: Stabilization, fair and equitable treatment standard, international energy investments, investment protection, legitimate expectations

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1 Determination of Potential Agricultural Lands Using Landsat 8 OLI Images and GIS: Case Study of Gokceada (Imroz) Turkey

Authors: Levent Genc, Rahmi Kafadar


In present study, it was aimed to determine potential agricultural lands (PALs) in Gokceada (Imroz) Island of Canakkale province, Turkey. Seven-band Landsat 8 OLI images acquired on July 12 and August 13, 2013, and their 14-band combination image were used to identify current Land Use Land Cover (LULC) status. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to three Landsat datasets in order to reduce the correlation between the bands. A total of six Original and PCA images were classified using supervised classification method to obtain the LULC maps including 6 main classes (“Forest”, “Agriculture”, “Water Surface”, “Residential Area-Bare Soil”, “Reforestation” and “Other”). Accuracy assessment was performed by checking the accuracy of 120 randomized points for each LULC maps. The best overall accuracy and Kappa statistic values (90.83%, 0.8791% respectively) were found for PCA images which were generated from 14-bands combined images called 3-B/JA. Digital Elevation Model (DEM) with 15 m spatial resolution (ASTER) was used to consider topographical characteristics. Soil properties were obtained by digitizing 1:25000 scaled soil maps of rural services directorate general. Potential Agricultural Lands (PALs) were determined using Geographic information Systems (GIS). Procedure was applied considering that “Other” class of LULC map may be used for agricultural purposes in the future properties. Overlaying analysis was conducted using Slope (S), Land Use Capability Class (LUCC), Other Soil Properties (OSP) and Land Use Capability Sub-Class (SUBC) properties. A total of 901.62 ha areas within “Other” class (15798.2 ha) of LULC map were determined as PALs. These lands were ranked as “Very Suitable”, “Suitable”, “Moderate Suitable” and “Low Suitable”. It was determined that the 8.03 ha were classified as “Very Suitable” while 18.59 ha as suitable and 11.44 ha as “Moderate Suitable” for PALs. In addition, 756.56 ha were found to be “Low Suitable”. The results obtained from this preliminary study can serve as basis for further studies.

Keywords: Digital Elevation Model (DEM), geographic information systems (GIS), land use land cover (LULC), gokceada (Imroz), lANDSAT 8 OLI-TIRS

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