Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 39

Search results for: A. I. Ivanov

39 Effect of Compost Application on Uptake and Allocation of Heavy Metals and Plant Nutrients and Quality of Oriental Tobacco Krumovgrad 90

Authors: Violina R. Angelova, Venelina T. Popova, Radka V. Ivanova, Givko T. Ivanov, Krasimir I. Ivanov

Abstract:

A comparative research on the impact of compost on uptake and allocation of nutrients and heavy metals and quality of Oriental tobacco Krumovgrad 90 has been carried out. The experiment was performed on an agricultural field contaminated by the lead zinc smelter near the town of Kardzali, Bulgaria, after closing the lead production. The compost treatments had significant effects on the uptake and allocation of plant nutrients and heavy metals. The incorporation of compost leads to decrease in the amount of heavy metals present in the tobacco leaves, with Cd, Pb and Zn having values of 36%, 12% and 6%, respectively. Application of the compost leads to increased content of potassium, calcium and magnesium in the leaves of tobacco, and therefore, may favorably affect the burning properties of tobacco. The incorporation of compost in the soil has a negative impact on the quality and typicality of the oriental tobacco variety of Krumovgrad 90. The incorporation of compost leads to an increase in the size of the tobacco plant leaves, the leaves become darker in colour, less fleshy and undergo a change in form, becoming (much) broader in the second, third and fourth stalk position. This is accompanied by a decrease in the quality of the tobacco. The incorporation of compost also results in an increase in the mineral substances (pure ash), total nicotine and nitrogen, and a reduction in the amount of reducing sugars, which causes the quality of the tobacco leaves to deteriorate (particularly in the third and fourth harvests).

Keywords: chemical composition, compost, heavy metals, oriental tobacco, quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
38 Features of Testing of the Neuronetwork Converter Biometrics-Code with Correlation Communications between Bits of the Output Code

Authors: B. S. Akhmetov, A. I. Ivanov, T. S. Kartbayev, A. Y. Malygin, K. Mukapil, S. D. Tolybayev

Abstract:

The article examines the testing of the neural network converter of biometrics code. Determined the main reasons that prevented the use adopted in the works of foreign researchers classical a Binomial Law when describing distribution of measures of Hamming "Alien" codes-responses.

Keywords: biometrics, testing, neural network, converter of biometrics-code, Hamming's measure

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37 Description of the Non-Iterative Learning Algorithm of Artificial Neuron

Authors: B. S. Akhmetov, S. T. Akhmetova, A. I. Ivanov, T. S. Kartbayev, A. Y. Malygin

Abstract:

The problem of training of a network of artificial neurons in biometric appendices is that this process has to be completely automatic, i.e. the person operator should not participate in it. Therefore, this article discusses the issues of training the network of artificial neurons and the description of the non-iterative learning algorithm of artificial neuron.

Keywords: artificial neuron, biometrics, biometrical applications, learning of neuron, non-iterative algorithm

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36 Testing Immunochemical Method for the Bacteriological Diagnosis of Bovine Tuberculosis

Authors: Assiya Madenovna Borsynbayeva, Kairat Altynbekovich Turgenbayev, Nikolay Petrovich Ivanov

Abstract:

In this article presents the results of rapid diagnostics of tuberculosis in comparison with classical bacteriological method. The proposed method of rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis than bacteriological method allows shortening the time of diagnosis to 7 days, to visualize the growth of mycobacteria in the semi-liquid medium and differentiate the type of mycobacterium. Fast definition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and its derivatives in the culture medium is a new and promising direction in the diagnosis of tuberculosis.

Keywords: animal diagnosis of tuberculosis, bacteriological diagnostics, antigen, specific antibodies, immunological reaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
35 Methods for Preparation of Soil Samples for Determination of Trace Elements

Authors: S. Krustev, V. Angelova, K. Ivanov, P. Zaprjanova

Abstract:

It is generally accepted that only about ten microelements are vitally important to all plants, and approximately ten more elements are proved to be significant for the development of some species. The main methods for their determination in soils are the atomic spectral techniques - AAS and ICP-OAS. Critical stage to obtain correct results for content of heavy metals and nutrients in the soil is the process of mineralization. A comparative study of the most widely spread methods for soil sample preparation for determination of some trace elements was carried out. Three most commonly used methods for sample preparation were used as follows: ISO11466, EPA Method 3051 and BDS ISO 14869-1. Their capabilities were assessed and their bounds of applicability in determining the levels of the most important microelements in agriculture were defined.

Keywords: analysis, copper, methods, zinc

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34 Some Observations on the Preparation of Zinc Hydroxide Nitrate Nanoparticles

Authors: Krasimir Ivanov, Elitsa Kolentsova, Nguyen Nguyen, Alexander Peltekov, Violina Angelova

Abstract:

The nanosized zinc hydroxide nitrate has been recently estimated as perspective foliar fertilizer, which has improved zinc solubility, but low phytotoxicity, in comparison with ZnO and other Zn containing compounds. The main problem is obtaining of stable particles with dimensions less than 100 nm. This work studies the effect of preparation conditions on the chemical compositions and particle size of the zinc hydroxide nitrates, prepared by precipitation. Zn(NO3)2.6H2O and NaOH with concentrations, ranged from 0.2 to 3.2M and the initial OH/Zn ratio from 0.5 to 1.6 were used at temperatures from 20 to 60 °C. All samples were characterized in detail by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, differential thermal analysis and ICP. Stability and distribution of the zinc hydroxide nitrate particles were estimated too.

Keywords: zinc hydroxide nitrate, nanoparticles, preparation, foliar fertilizer

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33 Application of Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-Ray Evaluation of the Main Digestion Methods for Determination of Macroelements in Plant Tissue

Authors: Krasimir I. Ivanov, Penka S. Zapryanova, Stefan V. Krustev, Violina R. Angelova

Abstract:

Three commonly used digestion methods (dry ashing, acid digestion, and microwave digestion) in different variants were compared for digestion of tobacco leaves. Three main macroelements (K, Ca and Mg) were analysed using AAS Spectrometer Spectra АА 220, Varian, Australia. The accuracy and precision of the measurements were evaluated by using Polish reference material CTR-VTL-2 (Virginia tobacco leaves). To elucidate the problems with elemental recovery X-Ray and SEM–EDS analysis of all residues after digestion were performed. The X-ray investigation showed a formation of KClO4 when HClO4 was used as a part of the acids mixture. The use of HF at Ca and Mg determination led to the formation of CaF2 and MgF2. The results were confirmed by energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis. SPSS program for Windows was used for statistical data processing.

Keywords: digestion methods, plant tissue, determination of macroelements, K, Ca, Mg

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32 Current Perspectives of Bemitil Use in Sport

Authors: S. Ivanova, K. Ivanov

Abstract:

Bemitil (2-ethylthiobenzimidazole hydrobromide) is a synthetic adaptogen and actoprotector, with wide-ranging pharmacological activities such as nootropic, antihypoxic, antioxidant, immunostimulant. The intake of Bemitil increases mental and physical performance and could be applied under either normal or extreme conditions. Until 2017 Bemitil was not considered as doping and was used by professional athletes more than 30 years because of its high efficiency and safety. The drug was included in WADA monitoring programme for 2018, and most likely it would be included in WADA Prohibited List for 2019. Usually, a substance/method is included in WADA Prohibited List if it meets any two of the following three criteria: the potential to enhance or enhances sports performance/ potential health risk to the athlete/ violates the spirit of sport. Bemitil has high performance-enhancing potential, but it is also safe- it is controversial whether it should be considered as doping.

Keywords: doping, bemitil, sport, actoprotector

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31 Potential of Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) for Phytoremediation of Soils Contaminated with Heavy Metals

Authors: Violina R. Angelova, Vanja I. Akova, Stefan V. Krustev, Krasimir I. Ivanov

Abstract:

A field study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of safflower plant for phytoremediation of contaminated soils. The experiment was performed on an agricultural fields contaminated by the Non-Ferrous-Metal Works near Plovdiv, Bulgaria. The concentrations of Pb, Zn and Cd in safflower (roots, stems, leaves and seeds), safflower oil and meal were determined. A correlation was found between the quantity of the mobile forms and the uptake of Pb, Zn and Cd by the safflower seeds. Safflower is a plant which is tolerant to heavy metals and can be grown on contaminated soils, and which can be referred to the hyperaccumulators of cadmium and the accumulators of lead and zinc, and can be successfully used in the phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soils. The processing of seeds to oil and using the obtained oil for nutritional purposes will greatly reduce the cost of phytoremediation. The possibility of further industrial processing will make safflower economically interesting crops for farmers of phytoremediation technology.

Keywords: heavy metals, phytoremediation, polluted soils, safflower

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30 Carriage of 675 4G/5G Polymorphism in PAI-1 Gene and Its Association with Early Pregnancy Losses in Patients with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

Authors: R. Komsa-Penkova, G. Golemanov, G. Georgieva, K. Popovski, N. Slavov, P. Ivanov, K. Kovacheva, S. Rathee, E. Konova, A. Blajev

Abstract:

Leptin and PAI-1 are important cytokines and may play a role in the regulation of PCOS development. PCOS is frequently associated with obesity, high BMI index and consequently with increased risk of metabolic disorders. The aim of the present study was to evaluate PAI-1 levels, genetic influence of the carriage of 675 4G/5G polymorphism in PAI-1 gene and leptin as a marker of obesity in the development of PCOS. Methods: Genotyping in 84 patients with PCOS and PCO and 100 healthy control subjects to detect single nucleotide deletion 675 G in the promoter of PAI-1 gene. The present study provides evidence that SNP 4G in the PAI-1 gene is associated with early pregnancy losses in patients with polycystosis. Further to this, there is a correlation between leptin levels, PAI-1 levels and BMI in the patients with PCOS, which confirms the role of obesity as a risk factor for PCOS.

Keywords: carriage of 675 4G/5G polymorphism, PCOS, early pregnancy losses, PAI-1 gene

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29 Diversity of Microbial Ground Improvements

Authors: V. Ivanov, J. Chu, V. Stabnikov

Abstract:

Low cost, sustainable, and environmentally friendly microbial cements, grouts, polysaccharides and bioplastics are useful in construction and geotechnical engineering. Construction-related biotechnologies are based on activity of different microorganisms: urease-producing, acidogenic, halophilic, alkaliphilic, denitrifying, iron- and sulphate-reducing bacteria, cyanobacteria, algae, microscopic fungi. The bio-related materials and processes can be used for the bioaggregation, soil biogrouting and bioclogging, biocementation, biodesaturation of water-satured soil, bioencapsulation of soft clay, biocoating, and biorepair of the concrete surface. Altogether with the most popular calcium- and urea based biocementation, there are possible and often are more effective such methods of ground improvement as calcium- and magnesium based biocementation, calcium phosphate strengthening of soil, calcium bicarbonate biocementation, and iron- or polysaccharide based bioclogging. The construction-related microbial biotechnologies have a lot of advantages over conventional construction materials and processes.

Keywords: ground improvement, biocementation, biogrouting, microorganisms

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28 Modern Spectrum Sensing Techniques for Cognitive Radio Networks: Practical Implementation and Performance Evaluation

Authors: Antoni Ivanov, Nikolay Dandanov, Nicole Christoff, Vladimir Poulkov

Abstract:

Spectrum underutilization has made cognitive radio a promising technology both for current and future telecommunications. This is due to the ability to exploit the unused spectrum in the bands dedicated to other wireless communication systems, and thus, increase their occupancy. The essential function, which allows the cognitive radio device to perceive the occupancy of the spectrum, is spectrum sensing. In this paper, the performance of modern adaptations of the four most widely used spectrum sensing techniques namely, energy detection (ED), cyclostationary feature detection (CSFD), matched filter (MF) and eigenvalues-based detection (EBD) is compared. The implementation has been accomplished through the PlutoSDR hardware platform and the GNU Radio software package in very low Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) conditions. The optimal detection performance of the examined methods in a realistic implementation-oriented model is found for the common relevant parameters (number of observed samples, sensing time and required probability of false alarm).

Keywords: cognitive radio, dynamic spectrum access, GNU Radio, spectrum sensing

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27 Impact of Foliar Application of Zinc on Micro and Macro Elements Distribution in Phyllanthus amarus

Authors: Nguyen Cao Nguyen, Krasimir I. Ivanov, Penka S. Zapryanova

Abstract:

The present study was carried out to investigate the interaction of foliar applied zinc with other elements in Phyllanthus amarus plants. The plant samples for our experiment were collected from Lam Dong province, Vietnam. Seven suspension solutions of nanosized zinc hydroxide nitrate (Zn5(OH)8(NO3)2·2H2O) with different Zn concentration were used. Fertilization and irrigation were the same for all variants. The Zn content and the content of selected micro (Cu, Fe, Mn) and macro (Ca, Mg, P and K) nutrients in plant roots, and stems and leaves were determined. It was concluded that the zinc content of plant roots varies narrowly, with no significant impact of ZnHN fertilization. The same trend can be seen in the content of Cu, Mn, and macronutrients. The zinc content of plant stems and leaves varies within wide limits, with the significant impact of ZnHN fertilization. The trends in the content of Cu, Mn, and macronutrients are kept the same as in the root, whereas the iron trends to increase its content at increasing the zinc content.

Keywords: Phyllanthus amarus, Zinc, Micro and macro elements, foliar fertilizer

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26 Effect of the Nature of the Precursor on the Performance of Cu-Mn Catalysts for CO and VOCs Oxidation

Authors: Elitsa Kolentsova, Dimitar Dimitrov, Krasimir Ivanov

Abstract:

The catalytic oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde is an important industrial process in which the waste gas in addition to CO contains methanol and dimethyl ether (DME). Evaluation of the possibility of removing the harmful components from the exhaust gasses needs a more complex investigation. Our previous work indicates that supported Cu-Mn oxide catalysts are promising for effective deep oxidation of these compounds. This work relates to the catalyst, comprising copper-manganese spinel, coated on carrier γ-Al₂O₃. The effect of preparation conditions on the active component composition and activity behavior of the catalysts is discussed. Different organometallic compounds on the base of four natural amino acids (Glycine, Alanine, Valine, Leucine) as precursors were used for the preparation of catalysts with Cu/Mn molar ratio 1:5. X-Ray and TEM analysis were performed on the catalyst’s bulk, and surface composition and the specific surface area was determined by BET method. The results obtained show that the activity of the catalysts increase up to 40% although there are some specific features, depending on the nature of the amino acid and the oxidized compound.

Keywords: Cu-Mn/γ-Al₂O₃, CO and VOCs oxidation, heterogeneous catalysis, amino acids

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25 The Effect of Soil Contamination on Chemical Composition and Quality of Aronia (Aronia melanocarpa) Fruits

Authors: Violina R. Angelova, Sava G. Tabakov, Aleksander B. Peltekov, Krasimir I. Ivanov

Abstract:

A field study was conducted to evaluate the chemical composition and quality of the Aronia fruits, as well as the possibilities of Aronia cultivation on soils contaminated with heavy metals. The experiment was performed on an agricultural field contaminated by the Non-Ferrous-Metal Works (NFMW) near Plovdiv, Bulgaria. The study included four varieties of Aronia; Aron variety, Hugin variety, Viking variety and Nero variety. The Aronia was cultivated according to the conventional technology on areas at a different distance from the source of pollution NFMW- Plovdiv (1 km, 3.5 km, and 15 km). The concentrations of macroelements, microelements, and heavy metals in Aronia fruits were determined. The dry matter content, ash, sugars, proteins, and fats were also determined. Aronia is a crop that is tolerant to heavy metals and can successfully be grown on soils contaminated with heavy metals. The increased content of heavy metals in the soil leads to less absorption of the nutrients (Ca, Mg and P) in the fruit of the Aronia. Soil pollution with heavy metals does not affect the quality of the Aronia fruit varieties.

Keywords: aronia, chemical composition, fruits, quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 128
24 Content of Trace Elements in Agricultural Soils from Central and Eastern Europe

Authors: S. Krustev, V. Angelova, K. Ivanov, P. Zaprjanova

Abstract:

Approximately a dozen trace elements are vital for the development of all plants and some other elements are significant for some species. Heavy metals do not belong to this group of elements that are essential to plants, but some of them such as copper and zinc, have a dual effect on their growth. Concentration levels of these elements in the different regions of the world vary considerably. Their high concentrations in some parts of Central and Eastern Europe cause concern for human health and degrade the quality of agricultural produce from these areas. This study aims to compare the prevalence and levels of the major trace elements in some rural areas of Central and Eastern Europe. Soil samples from different regions of the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Austria, Hungary, Serbia, Romania, Bulgaria and Greece far from large industrial centers have been studied. The main methods for their determination are the atomic spectral techniques – atomic absorption and plasma atomic emission. As a result of this study, data on microelements levels in soils of 17 points from the main grain-producing regions of Central and Eastern Europe are presented and systematized. The content of trace elements was in the range of 5.0-84.1 mg.kg⁻¹ for Cu, 0.3-1.4 mg.kg⁻¹ for Cd, 26.1-225.5 mg.kg⁻¹ for Zn, 235.5-788.6 mg.kg⁻¹ for Mn and 4.1-25.8 mg.kg⁻¹ for Pb.

Keywords: trace elements, heavy metals, agricultural soils, Central and Eastern Europe

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23 The Use of Actoprotectors by Professional Athletes

Authors: Kalin Ivanov, Stanislava Ivanova

Abstract:

Actoprotectors are substances with hight performance enchasing potential and hight antioxidant activity. Most of these drugs have been developed in USSR for military medicine purposes. Based on their chemical composition actoprotectors could be classified into three categories: benzimidazole derivatives (ethomersol, bemitil); adamantane derivatives (bromantane), other chemical classes. First data for intake of actoprotectors from professional athletes is from 1980. The daily intake of actoprotectors demonstrate many benefits for athletes like: positive effect on the efficiency of physical work, antihypoxic effects, antioxidant effects, nootropic effects, rapid recovery. Since 1997, bromantane is considered as doping. This is a result of Summer Olympic Games in Athlanta (1996) when several Russian athletes tested positive for bramantane. Even the drug is safe for athletes health its use is considered as violation of anti- doping rules. More than 37 years bemetil has been used by professional athletes with no risk but currently it is included in WADA monitoring programme for 2018. Current perspectives are that most used actoprotectors would be considered as doping. Many clinical studies have confirmed that intake of bemitil and bromantan demonstrate positive influence on the physical work capacity but data for other actoprotectors like chlodantane, ademol, ethomersol is limited.

Keywords: actoprotector, sport, doping, bemitil

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22 Development of β-Ti Alloy Powders for Additive Manufacturing for Application in Patient-Specific Orthopedic Implants

Authors: Eugene Ivanov, Eduardo del-Rio, Igor Kapchenko, Maija Nystrӧm, Juha Kotila

Abstract:

Series of low modulus beta Ti alloy billets and powders can be produced in commercial quantities using a combination of electron beam melting (EBM) and EIGA atomization processes. In the present study, TNZT alloy powder was produced and processed in the EOSINT M290 laser sintering system to produce parts for mechanical testing. Post heat treatments such as diffusion annealing to reduce internal stresses or hot isostatic pressing to remove closed pores were not applied. The density can visually be estimated to be > 99,9 %. According to EDS study Nb, Zr, and Ta are distributed homogeneously throughout the printed sample. There are no indications for any segregation or chemical inhomogeneity, i.e. variation of the element distribution. These points to the fact that under the applied experimental conditions the melt generated by the laser rapidly cools down in the SLM (Selective Laser Melting) process. The selective laser sintering yielded dense structures with relatively good surface quality. The mechanical properties, especially the elongation (24%) along with tensile strength ( > 500MPa) and modulus of elasticity (~60GPa), were found to be promising compared to titanium alloys in general.

Keywords: beta titanium alloys, additive manufacturing, powder, implants

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
21 Potential of Salvia sclarea L. for Phytoremediation of Soils Contaminated with Heavy Metals

Authors: Violina R. Angelova, Radka V. Ivanova, Givko M. Todorov, Krasimir I. Ivanov

Abstract:

A field study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of Salvia sclarea L. for phytoremediation of contaminated soils. The experiment was performed on an agricultural fields contaminated by the Non-Ferrous-Metal Works near Plovdiv, Bulgaria. The content of heavy metals in different parts of Salvia sclarea L. (roots, stems, leaves and inflorescences) was determined by ICP. The essential oil of the Salvia sclarea L. was obtained by steam distillation in laboratory conditions and was analyzed for heavy metals and its chemical composition was determined. Salvia sclarea L. is a plant which is tolerant to heavy metals and can be grown on contaminated soils. Based on the obtained results and using the most common criteria, Salvia sclarea L. can be classified as Pb hyperaccumulator and Cd and Zn accumulators, therefore, this plant has suitable potential for the phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soils. Favorable is also the fact that heavy metals do not influence the development of the Salvia sclarea L., as well as on the quality and quantity of the essential oil. For clary sage oil obtained from the processing of clary sage grown on highly contaminated soils, its key odour-determining ingredients meet the quality requirements of the European Pharmacopoeia and BS ISO 7609 regarding Bulgarian clary sage oil and/or have values that are close to the limits of these standards. The possibility of further industrial processing will make Salvia sclarea L. an economically interesting crop for farmers of phytoextraction technology.

Keywords: clary sage, heavy metals, phytoremediation, polluted soils

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20 Research and Innovation Centre

Authors: Krasimir Ivanov, Tonyo Tonev, Nguyen Nguyen, Alexander Peltekov, Anyo Mitkov

Abstract:

Maize is among the most economically important crops and at the same time one of the most sensitive to soil deficiency in zinc. In this paper, the impact of the foliar zinc application in the form of zinc hydroxy nitrate suspension on the micro and macro elements partitioning in maize leaves and grain was studied during spring maize season, 2017. The impact of the foliar zinc fertilization on the grain yield and quality was estimated too. The experiment was performed by the randomized block design with 8 variants in 3 replications. Seven suspension solutions whit different Zn concentration were used, including ZnO suspension and zinc hydroxyl nitrate alone or nixed with other nutrients. Fertilization and irrigation were the same for all variants. The Zn content and the content of selected micro (Cu, Fe) and macro (Ca, Mg, P and K) elements in maize leaves were determined two weeks after the first spraying (5-6 sheets), two weeks after the second spraying (9-10 sheets) and after harvesting. It was concluded that the synthesized zinc hydroxy nitrate demonstrates potential as the long-term foliar fertilizer. A significant (p < 0.05) effect of zinc accumulation in maize leaves by foliar zinc application during the first growth stage was found, followed by its reutilization to other plants organs during the second growth stage. Significant export of Cu, P, and K from lower and middle leaves was observed. The content of Ca and Mg remains constant in the whole longevity period, while the content of Fe decreases sharply.

Keywords: foliar fertilization, zinc hydroxy nitrate, maize, zinc

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19 Alumina Supported Cu-Mn-La Catalysts for CO and VOCs Oxidation

Authors: Elitsa N. Kolentsova, Dimitar Y. Dimitrov, Petya Cv. Petrova, Georgi V. Avdeev, Diana D. Nihtianova, Krasimir I. Ivanov, Tatyana T. Tabakova

Abstract:

Recently, copper and manganese-containing systems are recognized as active and selective catalysts in many oxidation reactions. The main idea of this study is to obtain more information about γ-Al2O3 supported Cu-La catalysts and to evaluate their activity to simultaneous oxidation of CO, CH3OH and dimethyl ether (DME). The catalysts were synthesized by impregnation of support with a mixed aqueous solution of nitrates of copper, manganese and lanthanum under different conditions. XRD, HRTEM/EDS, TPR and thermal analysis were performed to investigate catalysts’ bulk and surface properties. The texture characteristics were determined by Quantachrome Instruments NOVA 1200e specific surface area and pore analyzer. The catalytic measurements of single compounds oxidation were carried out on continuous flow equipment with a four-channel isothermal stainless steel reactor in a wide temperature range. On the basis of XRD analysis and HRTEM/EDS, it was concluded that the active component of the mixed Cu-Mn-La/γ–alumina catalysts strongly depends on the Cu/Mn molar ratio and consisted of at least four compounds – CuO, La2O3, MnO2 and Cu1.5Mn1.5O4. A homogeneous distribution of the active component on the carrier surface was found. The chemical composition strongly influenced catalytic properties. This influence was quite variable with regards to the different processes.

Keywords: Cu-Mn-La oxide catalysts, carbon oxide, VOCs, deep oxidation

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18 Supported Gold Nanocatalysts for CO Oxidation in Mainstream Cigarette Smoke

Authors: Krasimir Ivanov, Dimitar Dimitrov, Tatyana Tabakova, Stefka Kirkova, Anna Stoilova, Violina Angelova

Abstract:

It has been suggested that nicotine, CO and tar in mainstream smoke are the most important substances and have been judged as the most harmful compounds, responsible for the health hazards of smoking. As nicotine is extremely important for smoking qualities of cigarettes and the tar yield in the tobacco smoke is significantly reduced due to the use of filters with various content and design, the main efforts of cigarettes researchers and manufacturers are related to the search of opportunities for CO content reduction. Highly active ceria supported gold catalyst was prepared by the deposition-precipitation method, and the possibilities for CO oxidation in the synthetic gaseous mixture were evaluated using continuous flow equipment with fixed bed glass reactor at atmospheric pressure. The efficiently of the catalyst in CO oxidation in the real cigarette smoke was examined by a single port, puf-by-puff smoking machine. Quality assessment of smoking using cigarette holder containing catalyst was carried out. It was established that the catalytic activity toward CO oxidation in cigarette smoke rapidly decreases from 70% for the first cigarette to nearly zero for the twentieth cigarette. The present study shows that there are two critical factors which do not permit the successful use of catalysts to reduce the CO content in the mainstream cigarette smoke: (i) significant influence of the processes of adsorption and oxidation on the main characteristics of tobacco products and (ii) rapid deactivation of the catalyst due to the covering of the catalyst’s grains with condensate.

Keywords: cigarette smoke, CO oxidation, gold catalyst, mainstream

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17 Alumina Supported Cu-Mn-Cr Catalysts for CO and VOCs oxidation

Authors: Krasimir Ivanov, Elitsa Kolentsova, Dimitar Dimitrov, Petya Petrova, Tatyana Tabakova

Abstract:

This work studies the effect of chemical composition on the activity and selectivity of γ–alumina supported CuO/ MnO2/Cr2O3 catalysts toward deep oxidation of CO, dimethyl ether (DME) and methanol. The catalysts were prepared by impregnation of the support with an aqueous solution of copper nitrate, manganese nitrate and CrO3 under different conditions. Thermal, XRD and TPR analysis were performed. The catalytic measurements of single compounds oxidation were carried out on continuous flow equipment with a four-channel isothermal stainless steel reactor. Flow-line equipment with an adiabatic reactor for simultaneous oxidation of all compounds under the conditions that mimic closely the industrial ones was used. The reactant and product gases were analyzed by means of on-line gas chromatographs. On the basis of XRD analysis it can be concluded that the active component of the mixed Cu-Mn-Cr/γ–alumina catalysts consists of at least six compounds – CuO, Cr2O3, MnO2, Cu1.5Mn1.5O4, Cu1.5Cr1.5O4 and CuCr2O4, depending on the Cu/Mn/Cr molar ratio. Chemical composition strongly influences catalytic properties, this influence being quite variable with regards to the different processes. The rate of CO oxidation rapidly decrease with increasing of chromium content in the active component while for the DME was observed the reverse trend. It was concluded that the best compromise are the catalysts with Cu/(Mn + Cr) molar ratio 1:5 and Mn/Cr molar ratio from 1:3 to 1:4.

Keywords: Cu-Mn-Cr oxide catalysts, volatile organic compounds, deep oxidation, dimethyl ether (DME)

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16 Alumina Supported Copper-Manganese Catalysts for Combustion of Exhaust Gases: Effect of Preparation Method

Authors: Krasimir Ivanov, Elitsa Kolentsova, Dimitar Dimitrov

Abstract:

The development of active and stable catalysts without noble metals for low temperature oxidation of exhaust gases remains a significant challenge. The purpose of this study is to determine the influence of the preparation method on the catalytic activity of the supported copper-manganese mixed oxides in terms of VOCs oxidation. The catalysts were prepared by impregnation of γ-Al2O3 with copper and manganese nitrates and acetates and the possibilities for CO, CH3OH and dimethyl ether (DME) oxidation were evaluated using continuous flow equipment with a four-channel isothermal stainless steel reactor. Effect of the support, Cu/Mn mole ratio, heat treatment of the precursor and active component loading were investigated. Highly active alumina supported Cu-Mn catalysts for CO and VOCs oxidation were synthesized. The effect of preparation conditions on the activity behavior of the catalysts was discussed. The synergetic interaction between copper and manganese species increases the activity for complete oxidation over mixed catalysts. Type of support, calcination temperature and active component loading along with catalyst composition are important factors, determining catalytic activity. Cu/Mn molar ratio of 1:5, heat treatment at 450oC and 20 % active component loading are the best compromise for production of active catalyst for simultaneous combustion of CO, CH3OH and DME.

Keywords: copper-manganese catalysts, CO, VOCs oxidation, exhaust gases

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15 Preparation and Characterization of Mixed Cu-Ag-Pd Oxide Supported Catalysts for Complete Catalytic Oxidation of Methane

Authors: Ts. Lazarova, V. Tumbalev, S. Atanacova-Vladimirova, G. Ivanov, A. Naydenov, D. Kovacheva

Abstract:

Methane is a major Greenhouse Gas (GHG) that accounts for 14% of the world’s total amount of GHG emissions, originating mainly from agriculture, Coal mines, land fields, wastewater and oil and gas facilities. Nowadays the problem caused by the methane emissions has been a subject of an increased concern. One of the methods for neutralization of the methane emissions is it's complete catalytic oxidation. The efforts of the researchers are focused on the development of new types of catalysts and optimizing the existing catalytic systems in order to prevent the sintering of the palladium, providing at the same time a sufficient activity at temperatures below 500oC. The aim of the present work is to prepare mixed Cu-Ag-Pd oxide catalysts supported on alumina and to test them for methane complete catalytic oxidation. Cu-Ag-Pd/Al2O3 were prepared on a γ-Al2O3 (BET surface area = 220 m2/g) by the incipient wetness method using the corresponding metal nitrates (Cu:Ag = 90:10, Cu:Pd =97:3, Cu:Ag:Pd= 87:10:3) as precursors. A second set of samples were prepared with addition of urea to the metal nitrate solutions with the above mentioned ratios assuming increased dispersivity of the catalysts. The catalyst samples were dried at 100°C for 3 hours and calcined at 550°C for 30 minutes. Catalysts samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), low temperature adsorption of nitrogen (BET) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The catalytic activity tests were carried out in a continuous flow type of reactor at atmospheric pressure. The effect of catalyst aging at 500 oC for 120 h on the methane combustion activity was also investigated. The results clearly indicate the synergetic effect of Ag and Pd on the catalytic activity.

Keywords: catalysts, XRD, BET, SEM, catalytic oxidation

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14 A Novel Environmentally Benign Positive Electrode Material with Improved Energy Density for Lithium Ion Batteries

Authors: Wassima El Mofid, Svetlozar Ivanov, Andreas Bund

Abstract:

The increasing requirements for high power and energy lithium ion batteries have led to the development of several classes of positive electrode materials. Among those one promising material is LiNixMnyCo1−x−yO2 due to its high reversible capacity and remarkable cycling performance. Further structural stabilization and improved electrochemical performance of this class of cathode materials can be achieved by cationic substitution to a transition metal such as Al, Mg, Cr, etc. The current study discusses a novel NMC type material obtained by simultaneous cationic substitution of the cobalt which is a toxic element, with aluminum and iron. A compound with the composition LiNi0.6Mn0.2Co0.15Al0.025Fe0.025O2 (NMCAF) was synthesized by the self-combustion method using sucrose as fuel. The material has a layered α-NaFeO2 type structure with a good hexagonal ordering. Rietveld refinement analysis of the XRD patterns revealed a very low cationic mixing compared to the non-substituted material LiNi0.6Mn0,2Co0.2O2 suggesting a structural stabilization. Galvanostatic cycling measurements indicate improved electrochemical performance after the metal substitution. An initial discharge capacity of about 190 mAh.g−1 at slow rate (C/20), and a good cycling stability even at moderately faster rates (C/5 and C) have been observed. The long term cycling displayed a capacity retention of about 90% after 10 cycles.

Keywords: cationic substitution, lithium ion batteries, positive electrode material, self-combustion synthesis method

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13 Potential of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) for Phytoremediation of Soils Contaminated with Heavy Metals

Authors: Violina R. Angelova, Mariana N. Perifanova-Nemska, Galina P. Uzunova, Krasimir I. Ivanov, Huu Q. Lee

Abstract:

A field study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of the sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) for phytoremediation of contaminated soils. The experiment was performed on an agricultural field contaminated by the Non-Ferrous-Metal Works near Plovdiv, Bulgaria. Field experiments with a randomized, complete block design with five treatments (control, compost amendments added at 20 and 40 t/daa, and vemicompost amendments added at 20 and 40 t/daa) were carried out. The accumulation of heavy metals in the sunflower plant and the quality of the sunflower oil (heavy metals and fatty acid composition) were determined. The tested organic amendments significantly influenced the uptake of Pb, Zn and Cd by the sunflower plant. The incorporation of 40 t/decare of compost and 20 t/decare of vermicompost to the soil led to an increase in the ability of the sunflower to take up and accumulate Cd, Pb and Zn. Sunflower can be subjected to the accumulators of Pb, Zn and Cd and can be successfully used for phytoremediation of contaminated soils with heavy metals. The 40 t/daa compost treatment led to a decrease in heavy metal content in sunflower oil to below the regulated limits. Oil content and fatty acids composition were affected by compost and vermicompost amendment treatments. Adding compost and vermicompost increased the oil content in the seeds. Adding organic amendments increased the content of stearic, palmitoleic and oleic acids, and reduced the content of palmitic and gadoleic acids in sunflower oil. The possibility of further industrial processing of seeds to oil and use of the obtained oil will make sunflowers economically interesting crops for farmers of phytoremediation technology.

Keywords: heavy metals, phytoremediation, polluted soils, sunflower

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12 Image Ranking to Assist Object Labeling for Training Detection Models

Authors: Tonislav Ivanov, Oleksii Nedashkivskyi, Denis Babeshko, Vadim Pinskiy, Matthew Putman

Abstract:

Training a machine learning model for object detection that generalizes well is known to benefit from a training dataset with diverse examples. However, training datasets usually contain many repeats of common examples of a class and lack rarely seen examples. This is due to the process commonly used during human annotation where a person would proceed sequentially through a list of images labeling a sufficiently high total number of examples. Instead, the method presented involves an active process where, after the initial labeling of several images is completed, the next subset of images for labeling is selected by an algorithm. This process of algorithmic image selection and manual labeling continues in an iterative fashion. The algorithm used for the image selection is a deep learning algorithm, based on the U-shaped architecture, which quantifies the presence of unseen data in each image in order to find images that contain the most novel examples. Moreover, the location of the unseen data in each image is highlighted, aiding the labeler in spotting these examples. Experiments performed using semiconductor wafer data show that labeling a subset of the data, curated by this algorithm, resulted in a model with a better performance than a model produced from sequentially labeling the same amount of data. Also, similar performance is achieved compared to a model trained on exhaustive labeling of the whole dataset. Overall, the proposed approach results in a dataset that has a diverse set of examples per class as well as more balanced classes, which proves beneficial when training a deep learning model.

Keywords: computer vision, deep learning, object detection, semiconductor

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11 Ferrites of the MeFe2O4 System (Me – Zn, Cu, Cd) and Their Two Faces

Authors: B. S. Boyanov, A. B. Peltekov, K. I. Ivanov

Abstract:

The ferrites of Zn, Cd, Cu, and mixed ferrites with NiO, MnO, MgO, CoO, ZnO, BaO combine the properties of dielectrics, semiconductors, ferro-magnets, catalysts, etc. The ferrites are used in an impressive range of applications due to their remarkable properties. A specific disadvantage of ferrites is that they are undesirably obtained in a lot of processes connected with metal production. They are very stable and poorly soluble compounds. The obtained ZnFe2O4 in zinc production connecting about 15% of the total zinc remains practically insoluble in dilute solutions of sulfuric acid. This decreases the degree of recovery of zinc and necessitates to further process the zinc-containing cake. In this context, the ferrites; ZnFe2O4, CdFe2O4, and CuFe2O4 are synthesized in laboratory conditions using ceramic technology. Their homogeneity and structure are proven by X-Ray diffraction analysis and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The synthesized ferrites are subjected to strong acid and high temperature leaching with solutions of H2SO4, HCl, and HNO3 (7, 10 and 15 %). The results indicate that the highest degree of leaching of Zn, Cd, and Cu from the ferrites is achieved by use of HCl. The resulting values for the degree of leaching of metals using H2SO4 are lower, but still remain significantly higher for all of the experimental conditions compared to the values obtained using HNO3. Five zinc sulfide concentrates are characterized for iron content by chemical analysis, Web-based Information System, and iron phases by Mössbauer spectroscopy. The charging was optimized using the criterion of minimal amount of zinc ferrite produced when roasting the concentrates in a fluidized bed. The results obtained are interpreted in terms of the hydrometallurgical zinc production and maximum recovery of zinc, copper and cadmium from initial zinc sulfide concentrates after their roasting.

Keywords: hydrometallurgy, inorganic acids, solubility, zinc ferrite

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10 Alumina Supported Copper-manganese Catalysts for Combustion of Exhaust Gases: Catalysts Characterization

Authors: Krasimir I. Ivanov, Elitsa N. Kolentsova, Dimitar Y. Dimitrov, Georgi V. Avdeev, Tatyana T. Tabakova

Abstract:

In recent research copper and manganese systems were found to be the most active in CO and organic compounds oxidation among the base catalysts. The mixed copper manganese oxide has been widely studied in oxidation reactions because of their higher activity at low temperatures in comparison with single oxide catalysts. The results showed that the formation of spinel CuxMn3−xO4 in the oxidized catalyst is responsible for the activity even at room temperature. That is why most of the investigations are focused on the hopcalite catalyst (CuMn2O4) as the best copper-manganese catalyst. Now it’s known that this is true only for CO oxidation, but not for mixture of CO and VOCs. The purpose of this study is to investigate the alumina supported copper-manganese catalysts with different Cu/Mn molar ratio in terms of oxidation of CO, methanol and dimethyl ether. The catalysts were prepared by impregnation of γ-Al2O3 with copper and manganese nitrates and the catalytic activity measurements were carried out in continuous flow equipment with a four-channel isothermal stainless steel reactor. Gas mixtures on the input and output of the reactor were analyzed with a gas chromatograph, equipped with FID and TCD detectors. The texture characteristics were determined by low-temperature (- 196 oС) nitrogen adsorption in a Quantachrome Instruments NOVA 1200e (USA) specific surface area&pore analyzer. Thermal, XRD and TPR analyses were performed. It was established that the active component of the mixed Cu-Mn/γ–alumina catalysts strongly depends on the Cu/Mn molar ratio. Highly active alumina supported Cu-Mn catalysts for CO, methanol and DME oxidation were synthesized. While the hopcalite is the best catalyst for CO oxidation, the best compromise for simultaneous oxidation of all components is the catalyst with Cu/Mn molar ratio 1:5.

Keywords: supported copper-manganese catalysts, CO, VOCs oxidation, combustion of exhaust gases

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