Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 99

Search results for: underwater

99 Robust Stabilization of Rotational Motion of Underwater Robots against Parameter Uncertainties

Authors: Riku Hayashida, Tomoaki Hashimoto


This paper provides a robust stabilization method for rotational motion of underwater robots against parameter uncertainties. Underwater robots are expected to be used for various work assignments. The large variety of applications of underwater robots motivates researchers to develop control systems and technologies for underwater robots. Several control methods have been proposed so far for the stabilization of nominal system model of underwater robots with no parameter uncertainty. Parameter uncertainties are considered to be obstacles in implementation of the such nominal control methods for underwater robots. The objective of this study is to establish a robust stabilization method for rotational motion of underwater robots against parameter uncertainties. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by numerical simulations.

Keywords: robust control, stabilization method, underwater robot, parameter uncertainty

Procedia PDF Downloads 43
98 Modeling and Simulation of Underwater Flexible Manipulator as Raleigh Beam Using Bond Graph

Authors: Sumit Kumar, Sunil Kumar, Chandan Deep Singh


This paper presents modeling and simulation of flexible robot in an underwater environment. The underwater environment completely contrasts with ground or space environment. The robot in an underwater situation is subjected to various dynamic forces like buoyancy forces, hydrostatic and hydrodynamic forces. The underwater robot is modeled as Rayleigh beam. The developed model further allows estimating the deflection of tip in two directions. The complete dynamics of the underwater robot is analyzed, which is the main focus of this investigation. The control of robot trajectory is not discussed in this paper. Simulation is performed using Symbol Shakti software.

Keywords: bond graph modeling, dynamics. modeling, rayleigh beam, underwater robot

Procedia PDF Downloads 370
97 A Secure Routing Algorithm for ‎Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Seyed Mahdi Jameii


Underwater wireless sensor networks have been attracting the interest of many ‎researchers lately, and the past three decades have beheld the rapid progress of ‎underwater acoustic communication. One of the major problems in underwater wireless ‎sensor networks is how to transfer data from the moving node to the base stations and ‎choose the optimized route for data transmission. Secure routing in underwater ‎wireless sensor network (UWCNs) is necessary for packet delivery. Some routing ‎protocols are proposed for underwater wireless sensor networks. However, a few ‎researches have been done on secure routing in underwater sensor networks. In this ‎article, a secure routing protocol is provided to resist against wormhole and sybil ‎attacks. The results indicated acceptable performance in terms of increasing the packet ‎delivery ratio with regards to the attacks, increasing network lifetime by creating ‎balance in the network energy consumption, high detection rates against the attacks, ‎and low-end to end delay.‎

Keywords: attacks, routing, security, underwater wireless sensor networks

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
96 Uncovering Underwater Communication for Multi-Robot Applications via CORSICA

Authors: Niels Grataloup, Micael S. Couceiro, Manousos Valyrakis, Javier Escudero, Patricia A. Vargas


This paper benchmarks the possible underwater communication technologies that can be integrated into a swarm of underwater robots by proposing an underwater robot simulator named CORSICA (Cross platfORm wireleSs communICation simulator). Underwater exploration relies increasingly on the use of mobile robots, called Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs). These robots are able to reach goals in harsh underwater environments without resorting to human divers. The introduction of swarm robotics in these scenarios would facilitate the accomplishment of complex tasks with lower costs. However, swarm robotics requires implementation of communication systems to be operational and have a non-deterministic behaviour. Inter-robot communication is one of the key challenges in swarm robotics, especially in underwater scenarios, as communication must cope with severe restrictions and perturbations. This paper starts by presenting a list of the underwater propagation models of acoustic and electromagnetic waves, it also reviews existing transmitters embedded in current robots and simulators. It then proposes CORSICA, which allows validating the choices in terms of protocol and communication strategies, whether they are robot-robot or human-robot interactions. This paper finishes with a presentation of possible integration according to the literature review, and the potential to get CORSICA at an industrial level.

Keywords: underwater simulator, robot-robot underwater communication, swarm robotics, transceiver and communication models

Procedia PDF Downloads 201
95 A Comparison of Double Sided Friction Stir Welding in Air and Underwater for 6mm S275 Steel Plate

Authors: Philip Baillie, Stuart W. Campbell, Alexander M. Galloway, Stephen R. Cater, Norman A. McPherson


This study compared the mechanical and microstructural properties produced during friction stir welding(FSW) of S275 structural steel in air and underwater. Post weld tests assessed the tensile strength, micro-hardness, distortion, Charpy impact toughness and fatigue performance in each case. The study showed that there was no significant difference in the strength, hardness or fatigue life of the air and underwater specimens. However, Charpy impact toughness was shown to decrease for the underwater specimens and was attributed to a lower degree of recrystallization caused by the higher rate of heat loss experienced when welding underwater. Reduced angular and longitudinal distortion was observed in the underwater welded plate compared to the plate welded in air.

Keywords: Charpy impact toughness, distortion, fatigue, friction stir welding(FSW), micro-hardness, underwater

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
94 4D Modelling of Low Visibility Underwater Archaeological Excavations Using Multi-Source Photogrammetry in the Bulgarian Black Sea

Authors: Rodrigo Pacheco-Ruiz, Jonathan Adams, Felix Pedrotti


This paper introduces the applicability of underwater photogrammetric survey within challenging conditions as the main tool to enhance and enrich the process of documenting archaeological excavation through the creation of 4D models. Photogrammetry was being attempted on underwater archaeological sites at least as early as the 1970s’ and today the production of traditional 3D models is becoming a common practice within the discipline. Photogrammetry underwater is more often implemented to record exposed underwater archaeological remains and less so as a dynamic interpretative tool.  Therefore, it tends to be applied in bright environments and when underwater visibility is > 1m, reducing its implementation on most submerged archaeological sites in more turbid conditions. Recent years have seen significant development of better digital photographic sensors and the improvement of optical technology, ideal for darker environments. Such developments, in tandem with powerful processing computing systems, have allowed underwater photogrammetry to be used by this research as a standard recording and interpretative tool. Using multi-source photogrammetry (5, GoPro5 Hero Black cameras) this paper presents the accumulation of daily (4D) underwater surveys carried out in the Early Bronze Age (3,300 BC) to Late Ottoman (17th Century AD) archaeological site of Ropotamo in the Bulgarian Black Sea under challenging conditions (< 0.5m visibility). It proves that underwater photogrammetry can and should be used as one of the main recording methods even in low light and poor underwater conditions as a way to better understand the complexity of the underwater archaeological record.

Keywords: 4D modelling, Black Sea Maritime Archaeology Project, multi-source photogrammetry, low visibility underwater survey

Procedia PDF Downloads 128
93 A Study for Turkish Underwater Sports Federation Athletes: Evaluation of the Street Foods Consumption

Authors: Su Tezel


The paper deals with licensed athletes affiliated with the Turkish Underwater Sports Federation to assess the consumption status of street food. The aim of the paper is the frequency of training during competition preparatory training or season periods, the athletes' economic situation, social life, work-life or education situations are the directs them to street food? Also to evaluate the importance that athletes attach to their nutritional status. Data were collected with survey method. 141 underwater sports athletes participated in the survey. Empirical findings on 141 respondents are related to athletes' demographic information, which underwater sports branch they doing (underwater hockey, underwater rugby and free diving), with whom they live, training hours and frequency, street food consumption frequency and preferences, which type drinks they prefer drink with or without street foods and other similar things. Most of the athletes were male (64.5%), female (35.5%) and the most athletes from the sports branches included in the survey belong to underwater hockey (95.7%). 93.7% of athletes have a training time between 08:00 pm to 00:00 am and the frequency of consuming street food after training is 88%. As a remarkable result, 48% of the reasons for consuming street food easy access to street foods after training. Statistical analyzes were made with the data obtained and the status of street food consumption of athletes, whether they were suitable for professional athlete nutrition and their attitudes were evaluated.

Keywords: nutrition, street foods, underwater hockey, underwater sport

Procedia PDF Downloads 39
92 Effects of X and + Tail-Body Configurations on Hydrodynamic Performance and Stability of An Underwater Vehicle

Authors: Kadri Koçer, Sezer Kefeli


This paper proposes a comparison of hydrodynamic performance and stability characteristic for an underwater vehicle which has two type of tail design, namely X and +tail-body configurations. The effects of these configurations on the underwater vehicle’s hydrodynamic performance and maneuvering characteristic will be investigated comprehensively. Hydrodynamic damping coefficients for modeling the motion of the underwater vehicles will be predicted. Additionally, forces and moments due to control surfaces will be compared using computational fluid dynamics methods. In the aviation, the X tail-body configuration is widely used for high maneuverability requirements. However, in the underwater, the + tail-body configuration is more commonly used than the X tail-body configuration for its stability characteristics. Thus it is important to see the effect and differences of the tail designs in the underwater world. For CFD analysis, the incompressible, three-dimensional, and steady Navier-Stokes equations will be used to simulate the flows. Also, k-ε Realizable turbulence model with enhanced wall treatment will be taken. Numerical results is verified with experimental results for verification. The overall goal of this study is to present the advantages and disadvantages of hydrodynamic performance and stability characteristic for X and + tail-body configurations of the underwater vehicle.

Keywords: maneuverability, stability, CFD, tail configuration, hydrodynamic design

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91 Guidance and Control of a Torpedo Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

Authors: Soheil Arash Moghadam, Abdol R. Kashani Nia, Ali Akrami Zade


Considering numerous applications of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles in various industries, there has been plenty of researches and studies on the motion control of such vehicles. One of the useful aspects for studying is the guidance of these vehicles. In this paper, while presenting motion equations with six degrees of freedom for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles, Proportional Navigation Guidance Law and the first order sliding mode control for TAIPAN AUV was used to address its guidance for the purpose of collision with a moving target.

Keywords: Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV), degree of freedom (DOF), hydrodynamic, line of sight(LOS), proportional navigation guidance(PNG), sliding mode control(SMC)

Procedia PDF Downloads 354
90 Estimation and Restoration of Ill-Posed Parameters for Underwater Motion Blurred Images

Authors: M. Vimal Raj, S. Sakthivel Murugan


Underwater images degrade their quality due to atmospheric conditions. One of the major problems in an underwater image is motion blur caused by the imaging device or the movement of the object. In order to rectify that in post-imaging, parameters of the blurred image are to be estimated. So, the point spread function is estimated by the properties, using the spectrum of the image. To improve the estimation accuracy of the parameters, Optimized Polynomial Lagrange Interpolation (OPLI) method is implemented after the angle and length measurement of motion-blurred images. Initially, the data were collected from real-time environments in Chennai and processed. The proposed OPLI method shows better accuracy than the existing classical Cepstral, Hough, and Radon transform estimation methods for underwater images.

Keywords: image restoration, motion blur, parameter estimation, radon transform, underwater

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89 Image Distortion Correction Method of 2-MHz Side Scan Sonar for Underwater Structure Inspection

Authors: Youngseok Kim, Chul Park, Jonghwa Yi, Sangsik Choi


The 2-MHz Side Scan SONAR (SSS) attached to the boat for inspection of underwater structures is affected by shaking. It is difficult to determine the exact scale of damage of structure. In this study, a motion sensor is attached to the inside of the 2-MHz SSS to get roll, pitch, and yaw direction data, and developed the image stabilization tool to correct the sonar image. We checked that reliable data can be obtained with an average error rate of 1.99% between the measured value and the actual distance through experiment. It is possible to get the accurate sonar data to inspect damage in underwater structure.

Keywords: image stabilization, motion sensor, safety inspection, sonar image, underwater structure

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
88 A Regression Analysis Study of the Applicability of Side Scan Sonar based Safety Inspection of Underwater Structures

Authors: Chul Park, Youngseok Kim, Sangsik Choi


This study developed an electric jig for underwater structure inspection in order to solve the problem of the application of side scan sonar to underwater inspection, and analyzed correlations of empirical data in order to enhance sonar data resolution. For the application of tow-typed sonar to underwater structure inspection, an electric jig was developed. In fact, it was difficult to inspect a cross-section at the time of inspection with tow-typed equipment. With the development of the electric jig for underwater structure inspection, it was possible to shorten an inspection time over 20%, compared to conventional tow-typed side scan sonar, and to inspect a proper cross-section through accurate angle control. The indoor test conducted to enhance sonar data resolution proved that a water depth, the distance from an underwater structure, and a filming angle influenced a resolution and data quality. Based on the data accumulated through field experience, multiple regression analysis was conducted on correlations between three variables. As a result, the relational equation of sonar operation according to a water depth was drawn.

Keywords: underwater structure, SONAR, safety inspection, resolution

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87 Heat Transfer Studies for LNG Vaporization During Underwater LNG Releases

Authors: S. Naveen, V. Sivasubramanian


A modeling theory is proposed to consider the vaporization of LNG during its contact with water following its release from an underwater source. The spillage of LNG underwater can lead to a decrease in the surface temperature of water and subsequent freezing. This can in turn affect the heat flux distribution from the released LNG onto the water surrounding it. The available models predict the rate of vaporization considering the surface of contact as a solid wall, and considering the entire phenomena as a solid-liquid operation. This assumption greatly under-predicted the overall heat transfer on LNG water interface. The vaporization flux would first decrease during the film boiling, followed by an increase during the transition boiling and a steady decrease during the nucleate boiling. A superheat theory is introduced to enhance the accuracy in the prediction of the heat transfer between LNG and water. The work suggests that considering the superheat theory can greatly enhance the prediction of LNG vaporization on underwater releases and also help improve the study of overall thermodynamics.

Keywords: evaporation rate, heat transfer, LNG vaporization, underwater LNG release

Procedia PDF Downloads 313
86 Proposing a Boundary Coverage Algorithm ‎for Underwater Sensor Network

Authors: Seyed Mohsen Jameii


Wireless underwater sensor networks are a type of sensor networks that are located in underwater environments and linked together by acoustic waves. The application of these kinds of network includes monitoring of pollutants (chemical, biological, and nuclear), oil fields detection, prediction of the likelihood of a tsunami in coastal areas, the use of wireless sensor nodes to monitor the passing submarines, and determination of appropriate locations for anchoring ships. This paper proposes a boundary coverage algorithm for intrusion detection in underwater sensor networks. In the first phase of the proposed algorithm, optimal deployment of nodes is done in the water. In the second phase, after the employment of nodes at the proper depth, clustering is executed to reduce the exchanges of messages between the sensors. In the third phase, the algorithm of "divide and conquer" is used to save energy and increase network efficiency. The simulation results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed algorithm.

Keywords: boundary coverage, clustering, divide and ‎conquer, underwater sensor nodes

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85 Compressive Strength Evaluation of Underwater Concrete Structures Integrating the Combination of Rebound Hardness and Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Methods with Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: Seunghee Park, Junkyeong Kim, Eun-Seok Shin, Sang-Hun Han


In this study, two kinds of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques (rebound hardness and ultrasonic pulse velocity methods) are investigated for the effective maintenance of underwater concrete structures. A new methodology to estimate the underwater concrete strengths more effectively, named “artificial neural network (ANN) – based concrete strength estimation with the combination of rebound hardness and ultrasonic pulse velocity methods” is proposed and verified throughout a series of experimental works.

Keywords: underwater concrete, rebound hardness, Schmidt hammer, ultrasonic pulse velocity, ultrasonic sensor, artificial neural networks, ANN

Procedia PDF Downloads 417
84 Evaluation of Fusion Sonar and Stereo Camera System for 3D Reconstruction of Underwater Archaeological Object

Authors: Yadpiroon Onmek, Jean Triboulet, Sebastien Druon, Bruno Jouvencel


The objective of this paper is to develop the 3D underwater reconstruction of archaeology object, which is based on the fusion between a sonar system and stereo camera system. The underwater images are obtained from a calibrated camera system. The multiples image pairs are input, and we first solve the problem of image processing by applying the well-known filter, therefore to improve the quality of underwater images. The features of interest between image pairs are selected by well-known methods: a FAST detector and FLANN descriptor. Subsequently, the RANSAC method is applied to reject outlier points. The putative inliers are matched by triangulation to produce the local sparse point clouds in 3D space, using a pinhole camera model and Euclidean distance estimation. The SFM technique is used to carry out the global sparse point clouds. Finally, the ICP method is used to fusion the sonar information with the stereo model. The final 3D models have a précised by measurement comparing with the real object.

Keywords: 3D reconstruction, archaeology, fusion, stereo system, sonar system, underwater

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
83 Design and Implementation of Control System in Underwater Glider of Ganeshblue

Authors: Imam Taufiqurrahman, Anugrah Adiwilaga, Egi Hidayat, Bambang Riyanto Trilaksono


Autonomous Underwater Vehicle glider is one of the renewal of underwater vehicles. This vehicle is one of the autonomous underwater vehicles that are being developed in Indonesia. Glide ability is obtained by controlling the buoyancy and attitude of the vehicle using the movers within the vehicle. The glider motion mechanism is expected to provide energy resistance from autonomous underwater vehicles so as to increase the cruising range of rides while performing missions. The control system on the vehicle consists of three parts: controlling the attitude of the pitch, the buoyancy engine controller and the yaw controller. The buoyancy and pitch controls on the vehicle are sequentially referring to the finite state machine with pitch angle and depth of diving inputs to obtain a gliding cycle. While the yaw control is done through the rudder for the needs of the guide system. This research is focused on design and implementation of control system of Autonomous Underwater Vehicle glider based on PID anti-windup. The control system is implemented on an ARM TS-7250-V2 device along with a mathematical model of the vehicle in MATLAB using the hardware-in-the-loop simulation (HILS) method. The TS-7250-V2 is chosen because it complies industry standards, has high computing capability, minimal power consumption. The results show that the control system in HILS process can form glide cycle with depth and angle of operation as desired. In the implementation using half control and full control mode, from the experiment can be concluded in full control mode more precision when tracking the reference. While half control mode is considered more efficient in carrying out the mission.

Keywords: control system, PID, underwater glider, marine robotics

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
82 Effect of Underwater Antiquities as a Hidden Competitive Advantage of Hotels on Their Financial Performance: An Exploratory Study

Authors: Iman Shawky, Mohamed Elsayed


Every hotel works in the hospitality market tends to have its own merit and character in its products marketing in order to maintain both its brand's identity and image among guests. According to the growth of global competition in the hospitality industry; the concept of competitive advantage is becoming increasingly important in hotels' marketing world as it examines reasons for outweighing hotels in their dimensions of strategic and marketing plans. In fact, Egypt is the land of appeared and submerged secrets as a result of its ancient civilization ongoing explorations. Although underwater antiquities represent ambiguous treasures, they have auspicious future in it, particularly in Alexandria. The study aims at examining to what extent underwater antiquities represent a competitive advantage of four and five-star hotels in Alexandria. For achieving this aim, an exploratory study conducted by currying out the investigation and comparison of the closest and most popular landmarks mentioned on both hotels' official websites and on common used reservations' websites. In addition to that, two different questionnaire forms designed; one for both revenue and sales and marketing hotels' managers while the other for their guests. The results indicate that both official hotels' websites and the most common used reservations' websites totally ignore mentioning underwater antiquities as attractive landmarks surrounding Alexandria hotels. Furthermore, most managers expect that underwater antiquities can furnish distinguished competitive advantage to their hotels. Also, they can help exceeding guests' expectations during their accommodation as long as they included on both official hotels' and reservations' websites as the most surrounding famous landmarks. Moreover, most managers foresee that high awareness of underwater antiquities can enhance the guests' accommodation frequencies and improve the financial performance of their hotels.

Keywords: competitive advantage, financial performance, hotels' websites, underwater antiquities

Procedia PDF Downloads 49
81 Hydrodynamic Analysis on the Body of a Solar Autonomous Underwater Vehicle by Numerical Method

Authors: Mohammad Moonesun, Ehsan Asadi Asrami, Julia Bodnarchuk


In the case of Solar Autonomous Underwater Vehicle, which uses photovoltaic panels to provide its required power, due to limitation of energy, accurate estimation of resistance and energy has major sensitivity. In this work, hydrodynamic calculations by numerical method for a solar autonomous underwater vehicle equipped by two 50 W photovoltaic panels has been studied. To evaluate the required power and energy, hull hydrodynamic resistance in several velocities should be taken into account. To do this assessment, the ANSYS FLUENT 18 applied as Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tool that solves Reynolds Average Navier Stokes (RANS) equations around AUV hull, and K-ω SST is used as turbulence model. To validate of solution method and modeling approach, the model of Myring submarine that it’s experimental data was available, is simulated. There is good agreement between numerical and experimental results. Also, these results showed that the K-ω SST Turbulence model is an ideal method to simulate the AUV motion in low velocities.

Keywords: underwater vehicle, hydrodynamic resistance, numerical modelling, CFD, RANS

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80 Geometric Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis of Cylindrical Composite Sandwich Shells Subjected to Underwater Blast Load

Authors: Mustafa Taskin, Ozgur Demir, M. Mert Serveren


The precise study of the impact of underwater explosions on structures is of great importance in the design and engineering calculations of floating structures, especially those used for military purposes, as well as power generation facilities such as offshore platforms that can become a target in case of war. Considering that ship and submarine structures are mostly curved surfaces, it is extremely important and interesting to examine the destructive effects of underwater explosions on curvilinear surfaces. In this study, geometric nonlinear dynamic analysis of cylindrical composite sandwich shells subjected to instantaneous pressure load is performed. The instantaneous pressure load is defined as an underwater explosion and the effects of the liquid medium are taken into account. There are equations in the literature for pressure due to underwater explosions, but these equations have been obtained for flat plates. For this reason, the instantaneous pressure load equations are arranged to be suitable for curvilinear structures before proceeding with the analyses. Fluid-solid interaction is defined by using Taylor's Plate Theory. The lower and upper layers of the cylindrical composite sandwich shell are modeled as composite laminate and the middle layer consists of soft core. The geometric nonlinear dynamic equations of the shell are obtained by Hamilton's principle, taken into account the von Kàrmàn theory of large displacements. Then, time dependent geometric nonlinear equations of motion are solved with the help of generalized differential quadrature method (GDQM) and dynamic behavior of cylindrical composite sandwich shells exposed to underwater explosion is investigated. An algorithm that can work parametrically for the solution has been developed within the scope of the study.

Keywords: cylindrical composite sandwich shells, generalized differential quadrature method, geometric nonlinear dynamic analysis, underwater explosion

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79 Sliding Mode Control of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

Authors: Ahmad Forouzantabar, Mohammad Azadi, Alireza Alesaadi


This paper describes a sliding mode controller for autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). The dynamic of AUV model is highly nonlinear because of many factors, such as hydrodynamic drag, damping, and lift forces, Coriolis and centripetal forces, gravity and buoyancy forces, as well as forces from thruster. To address these difficulties, a nonlinear sliding mode controller is designed to approximate the nonlinear dynamics of AUV and improve trajectory tracking. Moreover, the proposed controller can profoundly attenuate the effects of uncertainties and external disturbances in the closed-loop system. Using the Lyapunov theory the boundedness of AUV tracking errors and the stability of the proposed control system are also guaranteed. Numerical simulation studies of an AUV are included to illustrate the effectiveness of the presented approach.

Keywords: lyapunov stability, autonomous underwater vehicle, sliding mode controller, electronics engineering

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78 Underwater Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) Exploration

Authors: M. S. Sukumar


Our objective is to develop a full-fledged system for exploring and studying nature of fossils and to extend this to underwater archaeology and mineral mapping. This includes aerial surveying, imaging techniques, artefact extraction and spectrum analysing techniques. These techniques help in regular monitoring of fossils and also the sensing system. The ROV was designed to complete several tasks which simulate collecting data and samples. Given the time constraints, the ROV was engineered for efficiency and speed in performing tasks. Its other major design consideration was modularity, allowing the team to distribute the building process, to easily test systems as they were completed and troubleshoot and replace systems as necessary. Our design itself had several challenges of on-board waterproofed sensor mounting, waterproofing of motors, ROV stability criteria, camera mounting and hydrophone sound acquisition.

Keywords: remotely operated vehicle (ROV) dragonair, underwater archaeology, full-fledged system, aerial imaging and detection

Procedia PDF Downloads 143
77 Complementary Mathematical Model for Underwater Vehicles under Load Variation Test Conditions

Authors: Erim koyun


This paper aim to construct a mathematical model for Underwater vehicles under load variation test conditions. Propeller effects on underwater vehicle are investigated. Body with counter rotating propeller model is analyzed by CFD methods, thus forces and moment are obtained. Propeller effects of vehicle’s hydrodynamic performance under load variation conditions will be investigated. Additionally, pressure contour is examined for differences between different load conditions. Axial force equation is established using hydrodynamic coefficients, which contains resistance, thrust, and additional coefficients occurs due to load variations. Additional coefficients helps to express completely axial force on underwater vehicle. When the vehicle accelerates, additional force occurs besides thrust force increment. This is propeller effect on the body. Hence, mathematical model cover this effect. For CFD analysis, the incompressible, three-dimensional, and unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations will be used Numerical results is verified with experimental results for verification. The overall goal of this study is to present complementary mathematical model for body with counter rotating propeller.

Keywords: counter rotating propeller, CFD, hydrodynamic mathematic model, hydrodynamics analysis, thrust deduction

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76 An Energy Holes Avoidance Routing Protocol for Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: A. Khan, H. Mahmood


In Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks (UWSNs), sensor nodes close to water surface (final destination) are often preferred for selection as forwarders. However, their frequent selection makes them depleted of their limited battery power. In consequence, these nodes die during early stage of network operation and create energy holes where forwarders are not available for packets forwarding. These holes severely affect network throughput. As a result, system performance significantly degrades. In this paper, a routing protocol is proposed to avoid energy holes during packets forwarding. The proposed protocol does not require the conventional position information (localization) of holes to avoid them. Localization is cumbersome; energy is inefficient and difficult to achieve in underwater environment where sensor nodes change their positions with water currents. Forwarders with the lowest water pressure level and the maximum number of neighbors are preferred to forward packets. These two parameters together minimize packet drop by following the paths where maximum forwarders are available. To avoid interference along the paths with the maximum forwarders, a packet holding time is defined for each forwarder. Simulation results reveal superior performance of the proposed scheme than the counterpart technique.

Keywords: energy holes, interference, routing, underwater

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75 An Energy Efficient Clustering Approach for Underwater ‎Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: Mohammad Reza Taherkhani‎


Wireless sensor networks that are used to monitor a special environment, are formed from a large number of sensor nodes. The role of these sensors is to sense special parameters from ambient and to make a connection. In these networks, the most important challenge is the management of energy usage. Clustering is one of the methods that are broadly used to face this challenge. In this paper, a distributed clustering protocol based on learning automata is proposed for underwater wireless sensor networks. The proposed algorithm that is called LA-Clustering forms clusters in the same energy level, based on the energy level of nodes and the connection radius regardless of size and the structure of sensor network. The proposed approach is simulated and is compared with some other protocols with considering some metrics such as network lifetime, number of alive nodes, and number of transmitted data. The simulation results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach.

Keywords: underwater sensor networks, clustering, learning automata, energy consumption

Procedia PDF Downloads 265
74 Identification and Control the Yaw Motion Dynamics of Open Frame Underwater Vehicle

Authors: Mirza Mohibulla Baig, Imil Hamda Imran, Tri Bagus Susilo, Sami El Ferik


The paper deals with system identification and control a nonlinear model of semi-autonomous underwater vehicle (UUV). The input-output data is first generated using the experimental values of the model parameters and then this data is used to compute the estimated parameter values. In this study, we use the semi-autonomous UUV LAURS model, which is developed by the Sensors and Actuators Laboratory in University of Sao Paolo. We applied three methods to identify the parameters: integral method, which is a classical least square method, recursive least square, and weighted recursive least square. In this paper, we also apply three different inputs (step input, sine wave input and random input) to each identification method. After the identification stage, we investigate the control performance of yaw motion of nonlinear semi-autonomous Unmanned Underwater Vehicle (UUV) using feedback linearization-based controller. In addition, we compare the performance of the control with an integral and a non-integral part along with state feedback. Finally, disturbance rejection and resilience of the controller is tested. The results demonstrate the ability of the system to recover from such fault.

Keywords: system identification, underwater vehicle, integral method, recursive least square, weighted recursive least square, feedback linearization, integral error

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73 A Learning Automata Based Clustering Approach for Underwater ‎Sensor Networks to Reduce Energy Consumption

Authors: Motahareh Fadaei


Wireless sensor networks that are used to monitor a special environment, are formed from a large number of sensor nodes. The role of these sensors is to sense special parameters from ambient and to make connection. In these networks, the most important challenge is the management of energy usage. Clustering is one of the methods that are broadly used to face this challenge. In this paper, a distributed clustering protocol based on learning automata is proposed for underwater wireless sensor networks. The proposed algorithm that is called LA-Clustering forms clusters in the same energy level, based on the energy level of nodes and the connection radius regardless of size and the structure of sensor network. The proposed approach is simulated and is compared with some other protocols with considering some metrics such as network lifetime, number of alive nodes, and number of transmitted data. The simulation results demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach.

Keywords: clustering, energy consumption‎, learning automata, underwater sensor networks

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
72 Enhancement of Underwater Haze Image with Edge Reveal Using Pixel Normalization

Authors: M. Dhana Lakshmi, S. Sakthivel Murugan


As light passes from source to observer in the water medium, it is scattered by the suspended particulate matter. This scattering effect will plague the captured images with non-uniform illumination, blurring details, halo artefacts, weak edges, etc. To overcome this, pixel normalization with an Amended Unsharp Mask (AUM) filter is proposed to enhance the degraded image. To validate the robustness of the proposed technique irrespective of atmospheric light, the considered datasets are collected on dual locations. For those images, the maxima and minima pixel intensity value is computed and normalized; then the AUM filter is applied to strengthen the blurred edges. Finally, the enhanced image is obtained with good illumination and contrast. Thus, the proposed technique removes the effect of scattering called de-hazing and restores the perceptual information with enhanced edge detail. Both qualitative and quantitative analyses are done on considering the standard non-reference metric called underwater image sharpness measure (UISM), and underwater image quality measure (UIQM) is used to measure color, sharpness, and contrast for both of the location images. It is observed that the proposed technique has shown overwhelming performance compared to other deep-based enhancement networks and traditional techniques in an adaptive manner.

Keywords: underwater drone imagery, pixel normalization, thresholding, masking, unsharp mask filter

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71 The Results of the Research and Documentation of Early Middle Ages Sites in the North-West Poland

Authors: Wojciech Kulesza


The north-western part of the Poland, specifically West Pomerania and Lubuskie provinces, from several years are the subject of research of the Department of Archaeology of Early Middle Ages of Institute of Archaeology of Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń. This area has a dense network of rivers and numerous lakes, where many of them are connected to the southern part of the Baltic Sea. During the many years of research in this area, archaeologists discovered the remains of the early Middle Ages settlement located on several islands and in most cases were encountered relics of early Middle Ages bridges linking those islands with the mainland. During the excavation, work was carried out both under water and on land for the accurate identification of islands and adjacent to them underwater areas. The result of this work is a graphic documentation, made in a three-dimensional technique, not only for the underwater trenches but also relics of bridges and objects discovered during exploration, which as the main theme will be presented in the full presentation.

Keywords: Poland, underwater archaeology, Nicolaus Copernicus University, early middle ages

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
70 Study on Beta-Ray Detection System in Water Using a MCNP Simulation

Authors: Ki Hyun Park, Hye Min Park, Jeong Ho Kim, Chan Jong Park, Koan Sik Joo


In the modern days, the use of radioactive substances is on the rise in the areas like chemical weaponry, industrial usage, and power plants. Although there are various technologies available to detect and monitor radioactive substances in the air, the technologies to detect underwater radioactive substances are scarce. In this study, computer simulation of the underwater detection system measuring beta-ray, a radioactive substance, has been done through MCNP. CaF₂, YAP(Ce) and YAG(Ce) have been used in the computer simulation to detect beta-ray as scintillator. Also, the source used in the computer simulation is Sr-90 and Y-90, both of them emitting only pure beta-ray. The distance between the source and the detector was shifted from 1mm to 10mm by 1 mm in the computer simulation. The result indicated that Sr-90 was impossible to measure below 1 mm since its emission energy is low while Y-90 was able to be measured up to 10mm underwater. In addition, the detector designed with CaF₂ had the highest efficiency among 3 scintillators used in the computer simulation. Since it was possible to verify the detectable range and the detection efficiency according to modeling through MCNP simulation, it is expected that such result will reduce the time and cost in building the actual beta-ray detector and evaluating its performances, thereby contributing the research and development.

Keywords: Beta-ray, CaF₂, detector, MCNP simulation, scintillator

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