Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 23240

Search results for: mathematical analysis

23240 Constructivism Learning Management in Mathematics Analysis Courses

Authors: Komon Paisal


The purposes of this research were (1) to create a learning activity for constructivism, (2) study the Mathematical Analysis courses learning achievement, and (3) study students’ attitude toward the learning activity for constructivism. The samples in this study were divided into 2 parts including 3 Mathematical Analysis courses instructors of Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University who provided basic information and attended the seminar and 17 Mathematical Analysis courses students who were studying in the academic and engaging in the learning activity for constructivism. The research instruments were lesson plans constructivism, subjective Mathematical Analysis courses achievement test with reliability index of 0.8119, and an attitude test concerning the students’ attitude toward the Mathematical Analysis courses learning activity for constructivism. The result of the research show that the efficiency of the Mathematical Analysis courses learning activity for constructivism is 73.05/72.16, which is more than expected criteria of 70/70. The research additionally find that the average score of learning achievement of students who engaged in the learning activities for constructivism are equal to 70% and the students’ attitude toward the learning activity for constructivism are at the medium level.

Keywords: constructivism, learning management, mathematics analysis courses, learning activity

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23239 A Correlation Analysis of an Effective Music Education with Students’ Mathematical Performance

Authors: Yoon Suh Song


Though music education can broaden one’s capacity for mathematical performance, many countries lag behind in music education. Little empirical evidence is found to identify the connection between math and music. Therefore, this research was set out to explore what music-related variables are associated with mathematical performance. The result of our analysis is as follows: A Pearson's Correlation analysis revealed that PISA math score is strongly correlated with students' Intelligence Quotient (IQ). This lays the foundation for further research as to what factors in students’ IQ lead to a better performance in math.

Keywords: music education, mathematical performance, education, IQ

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23238 Sfard’s Commognitive Framework as a Method of Discourse Analysis in Mathematics

Authors: Dong-Joong Kim, Sangho Choi, Woong Lim


This paper discusses Sfard’s commognitive approach and provides an empirical study as an example to illustrate the theory as method. Traditionally, research in mathematics education focused on the acquisition of mathematical knowledge and the didactic process of knowledge transfer. Through attending to a distinctive form of language in mathematics, as well as mathematics as a discursive subject, alternative views of making meaning in mathematics have emerged; these views are therefore “critical,” as in critical discourse analysis. The commognitive discourse analysis method has the potential to bring more clarity to our understanding of students’ mathematical thinking and the process through which students are socialized into school mathematics.

Keywords: commognitive framework, discourse analysis, mathematical discourse, mathematics education

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23237 Using Indigenous Games to Demystify Probability Theorem in Ghanaian Classrooms: Mathematical Analysis of Ampe

Authors: Peter Akayuure, Michael Johnson Nabie


Similar to many colonized nations in the world, one indelible mark left by colonial masters after Ghana’s independence in 1957 has been the fact that many contexts used to teach statistics and probability concepts are often alien and do not resonate with the social domain of our indigenous Ghanaian child. This has seriously limited the understanding, discoveries, and applications of mathematics for national developments. With the recent curriculum demands of making the Ghanaian child mathematically literate, this qualitative study involved video recordings and mathematical analysis of play sessions of an indigenous girl game called Ampe with the aim to demystify the concepts in probability theorem, which is applied in mathematics related fields of study. The mathematical analysis shows that the game of Ampe, which is widely played by school girls in Ghana, is suitable for learning concepts of the probability theorems. It was also revealed that as a girl game, the use of Ampe provides good lessons to educators, textbook writers, and teachers to rethink about the selection of mathematics tasks and learning contexts that are sensitive to gender. As we undertake to transform teacher education and student learning, the use of indigenous games should be critically revisited.

Keywords: Ampe, mathematical analysis, probability theorem, Ghanaian girl game

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23236 Analysis of Multilayer Neural Network Modeling and Long Short-Term Memory

Authors: Danilo López, Nelson Vera, Luis Pedraza


This paper analyzes fundamental ideas and concepts related to neural networks, which provide the reader a theoretical explanation of Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) networks operation classified as Deep Learning Systems, and to explicitly present the mathematical development of Backward Pass equations of the LSTM network model. This mathematical modeling associated with software development will provide the necessary tools to develop an intelligent system capable of predicting the behavior of licensed users in wireless cognitive radio networks.

Keywords: neural networks, multilayer perceptron, long short-term memory, recurrent neuronal network, mathematical analysis

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23235 Rim Size Optimization Using Mathematical Modelling

Authors: M. Tan, N. N. Wan, N. Ramli, N. H. Hassan


Car drivers would always like to have custom wheel on their car for two reasons; to improve their car's aesthetic beauty and to improve their car handling. As the size of the rims or wheels played an important role in influencing the way of car handles around turns, this paper aims to present the optimality of rim size that drivers should have known while changing their rim. There are three factors that drivers should have considered while changing their rim: rim size, its weight and material of which they are made. Using mathematical analysis, this paper will focus on only one factor, which is rim size. Factors that are considered in calculating the optimum rim size are the vehicle rim radius, tire height and weight, and aspect ratio. This paper has found that there are limitations in percentage change in rim size from the original tire size. Failure to have the right offset size may cause problems in maneuvering the vehicle.

Keywords: mathematical analysis, optimum wheel size, percentage change, custom wheel

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23234 On the Analysis of Pseudorandom Partial Quotient Sequences Generated from Continued Fractions

Authors: T. Padma, Jayashree S. Pillai


Random entities are an essential component in any cryptographic application. The suitability of a number theory based novel pseudorandom sequence called Pseudorandom Partial Quotient Sequence (PPQS) generated from the continued fraction expansion of irrational numbers, in cryptographic applications, is analyzed in this paper. An approach to build the algorithm around a hard mathematical problem has been considered. The PQ sequence is tested for randomness and its suitability as a cryptographic key by performing randomness analysis, key sensitivity and key space analysis, precision analysis and evaluating the correlation properties is established.

Keywords: pseudorandom sequences, key sensitivity, correlation, security analysis, randomness analysis, sensitivity analysis

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23233 Applicability of Linearized Model of Synchronous Generator for Power System Stability Analysis

Authors: J. Ritonja, B. Grcar


For the synchronous generator simulation and analysis and for the power system stabilizer design and synthesis a mathematical model of synchronous generator is needed. The model has to accurately describe dynamics of oscillations, while at the same time has to be transparent enough for an analysis and sufficiently simplified for design of control system. To study the oscillations of the synchronous generator against to the rest of the power system, the model of the synchronous machine connected to an infinite bus through a transmission line having resistance and inductance is needed. In this paper, the linearized reduced order dynamic model of the synchronous generator connected to the infinite bus is presented and analysed in details. This model accurately describes dynamics of the synchronous generator only in a small vicinity of an equilibrium state. With the digression from the selected equilibrium point the accuracy of this model is decreasing considerably. In this paper, the equations’ descriptions and the parameters’ determinations for the linearized reduced order mathematical model of the synchronous generator are explained and summarized and represent the useful origin for works in the areas of synchronous generators’ dynamic behaviour analysis and synchronous generator’s control systems design and synthesis. The main contribution of this paper represents the detailed analysis of the accuracy of the linearized reduced order dynamic model in the entire synchronous generator’s operating range. Borders of the areas where the linearized reduced order mathematical model represents accurate description of the synchronous generator’s dynamics are determined with the systemic numerical analysis. The thorough eigenvalue analysis of the linearized models in the entire operating range is performed. In the paper, the parameters of the linearized reduced order dynamic model of the laboratory salient poles synchronous generator were determined and used for the analysis. The theoretical conclusions were confirmed with the agreement of experimental and simulation results.

Keywords: eigenvalue analysis, mathematical model, power system stability, synchronous generator

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23232 A Mathematical Optimization Model for Locating and Fortifying Capacitated Warehouses under Risk of Failure

Authors: Tareq Oshan


Facility location and size decisions are important to any company because they affect profitability and success. However, warehouses are exposed to various risks of failure that affect their activity. This paper presents a mixed-integer non-linear mathematical model that can be used to determine optimal warehouse locations and sizes, which warehouses to fortify, and which branches should be assigned to specific warehouses when there is a risk of warehouse failure. Every branch is assigned to a fortified primary warehouse or a nonfortified primary warehouse and a fortified backup warehouse. The standard method and an introduced method, based on the average probabilities, for linearizing this mathematical model were used. A Canadian case study was used to demonstrate the developed mathematical model, followed by some sensitivity analysis.

Keywords: supply chain network design, fortified warehouse, mixed-integer mathematical model, warehouse failure risk

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23231 Comparative Study of Computer Assisted Instruction and Conventional Method in Attaining and Retaining Mathematical Concepts

Authors: Nirupma Bhatti


This empirical study was aimed to compare the effectiveness of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) and Conventional Method (CM) in attaining and retaining mathematical concepts. Instructional and measuring tools were developed for five units of Matrix Algebra, two of Calculus and five of Numerical Analysis. Reliability and validity of these tools were also examined in pilot study. Ninety undergraduates participated in this study. Pre-test – post-test equivalent – groups research design was used. SPSS v.16 was used for data analysis. Findings supported CAI as better mode of instruction for attainment and retention of basic mathematical concepts. Administrators should motivate faculty members to develop Computer Assisted Instructional Material (CAIM) in mathematics for higher education.

Keywords: attainment, CAI, CAIM, conventional method, retention

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23230 Model of Optimal Centroids Approach for Multivariate Data Classification

Authors: Pham Van Nha, Le Cam Binh


Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is a population-based stochastic optimization algorithm. PSO was inspired by the natural behavior of birds and fish in migration and foraging for food. PSO is considered as a multidisciplinary optimization model that can be applied in various optimization problems. PSO’s ideas are simple and easy to understand but PSO is only applied in simple model problems. We think that in order to expand the applicability of PSO in complex problems, PSO should be described more explicitly in the form of a mathematical model. In this paper, we represent PSO in a mathematical model and apply in the multivariate data classification. First, PSOs general mathematical model (MPSO) is analyzed as a universal optimization model. Then, Model of Optimal Centroids (MOC) is proposed for the multivariate data classification. Experiments were conducted on some benchmark data sets to prove the effectiveness of MOC compared with several proposed schemes.

Keywords: analysis of optimization, artificial intelligence based optimization, optimization for learning and data analysis, global optimization

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23229 Advances on the Understanding of Sequence Convergence Seen from the Perspective of Mathematical Working Spaces

Authors: Paula Verdugo-Hernandez, Patricio Cumsille


We analyze a first-class on the convergence of real number sequences, named hereafter sequences, to foster exploration and discovery of concepts through graphical representations before engaging students in proving. The main goal was to differentiate between sequences and continuous functions-of-a-real-variable and better understand concepts at an initial stage. We applied the analytic frame of mathematical working spaces, which we expect to contribute to extending to sequences since, as far as we know, it has only developed for other objects, and which is relevant to analyze how mathematical work is built systematically by connecting the epistemological and cognitive perspectives, and involving the semiotic, instrumental, and discursive dimensions.

Keywords: convergence, graphical representations, mathematical working spaces, paradigms of real analysis, real number sequences

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23228 Investigating Students' Understanding about Mathematical Concept through Concept Map

Authors: Rizky Oktaviana


The main purpose of studying lies in improving students’ understanding. Teachers usually use written test to measure students’ understanding about learning material especially mathematical learning material. This common method actually has a lack point, such that in mathematics content, written test only show procedural steps to solve mathematical problems. Therefore, teachers unable to see whether students actually understand about mathematical concepts and the relation between concepts or not. One of the best tools to observe students’ understanding about the mathematical concepts is concept map. The goal of this research is to describe junior high school students understanding about mathematical concepts through Concept Maps based on the difference of mathematical ability. There were three steps in this research; the first step was choosing the research subjects by giving mathematical ability test to students. The subjects of this research are three students with difference mathematical ability, high, intermediate and low mathematical ability. The second step was giving concept mapping training to the chosen subjects. The last step was giving concept mapping task about the function to the subjects. Nodes which are the representation of concepts of function were provided in concept mapping task. The subjects had to use the nodes in concept mapping. Based on data analysis, the result of this research shows that subject with high mathematical ability has formal understanding, due to that subject could see the connection between concepts of function and arranged the concepts become concept map with valid hierarchy. Subject with intermediate mathematical ability has relational understanding, because subject could arranged all the given concepts and gave appropriate label between concepts though it did not represent the connection specifically yet. Whereas subject with low mathematical ability has poor understanding about function, it can be seen from the concept map which is only used few of the given concepts because subject could not see the connection between concepts. All subjects have instrumental understanding for the relation between linear function concept, quadratic function concept and domain, co domain, range.

Keywords: concept map, concept mapping, mathematical concepts, understanding

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23227 Hidden Oscillations in the Mathematical Model of the Optical Binary Phase Shift Keying (BPSK) Costas Loop

Authors: N. V. Kuznetsov, O. A. Kuznetsova, G. A. Leonov, M. V. Yuldashev, R. V. Yuldashev


Nonlinear analysis of the phase locked loop (PLL)-based circuits is a challenging task. Thus, the simulation is widely used for their study. In this work, we consider a mathematical model of the optical Costas loop and demonstrate the limitations of simulation approach related to the existence of so-called hidden oscillations in the phase space of the model.

Keywords: optical Costas loop, mathematical model, simulation, hidden oscillation

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23226 Mathematical Anxiety and Misconceptions in Algebra of Grade Vii Students in General Emilio Aguinaldo National High School

Authors: Nessa-Amie T. Peñaflor, Antonio Cinto


This is a descriptive research on the level of math anxiety and mathematics misconceptions in algebra. This research is composed of four parts: (1) analysis of the level of anxiety of the respondents; (2) analysis of the common mathematical misconceptions in algebra; (3) relationship of socio-demographic profile in math anxiety and mathematical misconceptions and (4) analysis of the relationship of math anxiety and misconceptions in algebra. Through the demographic profile questionnaire it was found out that most of the respondents were female. Majority had ages that ranged from 13-15. Most of them had parents who finished secondary education. The biggest portion of Grade Seven students where from families with annual family income ranging from PhP 100, 000 to PhP 299, 999. Most of them came from public school. Mathematics Anxiety Scale for Secondary and Senior Secondary School Students (MAS) and set of 10 open-ended algebraic expressions and polynomials were also administered to determine the anxiety level and the common misconceptions in algebra. Data analysis revealed that respondents had high anxiety in mathematics. Likewise, the common mathematical misconceptions of the Grade Seven students were: combining unlike terms; multiplying the base and exponents; regarding the variable x as 0; squaring the first and second terms only in product of two binomials; wrong meaning attached to brackets; writing the terms next to each other but not simplifying in using the FOIL Method; writing the literal coefficient even if the numerical coefficient is 0; and dividing the denominator by the numerator when the numerical coefficient in the numerator is smaller than the numerical coefficient of the denominator. Results of the study show that the socio-demographic characteristics were not related to mathematics anxiety and misconceptions. Furthermore, students from higher section had high anxiety than those students on the lower section. Thus, belonging to higher or lower section may affect the mathematical misconceptions of the respondents.

Keywords: algebra, grade 7 math, math anxiety, math misconceptions

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23225 Engineering Academics’ Strategies of Modelling Mathematical Concepts into Their Teaching of an Antenna Design

Authors: Vojo George Fasinu, Nadaraj Govender, Predeep Kumar


An Antenna, which remains the hub of technological development in Africa had been found to be a course that is been taught and designed in an abstract manner in some universities. One of the reasons attached to this is that the appropriate approach of teaching antenna design is not yet understood by many engineering academics in some universities in South Africa. Also, another problem reported is the main difficulty encountered when interpreting and applying some of the mathematical concepts learned into their practical antenna design course. As a result of this, some engineering experts classified antenna as a mysterious technology that could not be described by anybody using mathematical concepts. In view of this, this paper takes it as its point of departure in explaining what an antenna is all about with a strong emphasis on its mathematical modelling. It also argues that the place of modelling mathematical concepts into the teaching of engineering design cannot be overemphasized. Therefore, it explains the mathematical concepts adopted during the teaching of an antenna design course, the Strategies of modelling those mathematics concepts, the behavior of antennas, and their mathematics usage were equally discussed. More so, the paper also sheds more light on mathematical modelling in South Africa context, and also comparative analysis of mathematics concepts taught in mathematics class and mathematics concepts taught in engineering courses. This paper focuses on engineering academics teaching selected topics in electronic engineering (Antenna design), with special attention on the mathematical concepts they teach and how they teach them when teaching the course. A qualitative approach was adopted as a means of collecting data in order to report the naturalistic views of the engineering academics teaching Antenna design. The findings of the study confirmed that some mathematical concepts are being modeled into the teaching of an antenna design with the adoption of some teaching approaches. Furthermore, the paper reports a didactical-realistic mathematical model as a conceptual framework used by the researchers in describing how academics teach mathematical concepts during their teaching of antenna design. Finally, the paper concludes with the importance of mathematical modelling to the engineering academics and recommendations for further researchers.

Keywords: modelling, mathematical concepts, engineering, didactical, realistic model

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23224 Study and Analysis of a Susceptible Infective Susceptible Mathematical Model with Density Dependent Migration

Authors: Jitendra Singh, Vivek Kumar


In this paper, a susceptible infective susceptible mathematical model is proposed and analyzed where the migration of human population is given by migration function. It is assumed that the disease is transmitted by direct contact of susceptible and infective populations with constant contact rate. The equilibria and their stability are studied by using the stability theory of ordinary differential equations and computer simulation. The model analysis shows that the spread of infectious disease increases when human population immigration increases in the habitat but it decreases if emigration increases.

Keywords: SIS (Susceptible Infective Susceptible) model, migration function, susceptible, stability

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23223 Why and When to Teach Definitions: Necessary and Unnecessary Discontinuities Resulting from the Definition of Mathematical Concepts

Authors: Josephine Shamash, Stuart Smith


We examine reasons for introducing definitions in teaching mathematics in a number of different cases. We try to determine if, where, and when to provide a definition, and which definition to choose. We characterize different types of definitions and the different purposes we may have for formulating them, and detail examples of each type. Giving a definition at a certain stage can sometimes be detrimental to the development of the concept image. In such a case, it is advisable to delay the precise definition to a later stage. We describe two models, the 'successive approximation model', and the 'model of the extending definition' that fit such situations. Detailed examples that fit the different models are given based on material taken from a number of textbooks, and analysis of the way the concept is introduced, and where and how its definition is given. Our conclusions, based on this analysis, is that some of the definitions given may cause discontinuities in the learning sequence and constitute obstacles and unnecessary cognitive conflicts in the formation of the concept definition. However, in other cases, the discontinuity in passing from definition to definition actually serves a didactic purpose, is unavoidable for the mathematical evolution of the concept image, and is essential for students to deepen their understanding.

Keywords: concept image, mathematical definitions, mathematics education, mathematics teaching

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23222 Classifying and Analysis 8-Bit to 8-Bit S-Boxes Characteristic Using S-Box Evaluation Characteristic

Authors: Muhammad Luqman, Yusuf Kurniawan


S-Boxes is one of the linear parts of the cryptographic algorithm. The existence of S-Box in the cryptographic algorithm is needed to maintain non-linearity of the algorithm. Nowadays, modern cryptographic algorithms use an S-Box as a part of algorithm process. Despite the fact that several cryptographic algorithms today reuse theoretically secure and carefully constructed S-Boxes, there is an evaluation characteristic that can measure security properties of S-Boxes and hence the corresponding primitives. Analysis of an S-Box usually is done using manual mathematics calculation. Several S-Boxes are presented as a Truth Table without any mathematical background algorithm. Then, it’s rather difficult to determine the strength of Truth Table S-Box without a mathematical algorithm. A comprehensive analysis should be applied to the Truth Table S-Box to determine the characteristic. Several important characteristics should be owned by the S-Boxes, they are Nonlinearity, Balancedness, Algebraic degree, LAT, DAT, differential delta uniformity, correlation immunity and global avalanche criterion. Then, a comprehensive tool will be present to automatically calculate the characteristics of S-Boxes and determine the strength of S-Box. Comprehensive analysis is done on a deterministic process to produce a sequence of S-Boxes characteristic and give advice for a better S-Box construction.

Keywords: cryptographic properties, Truth Table S-Boxes, S-Boxes characteristic, deterministic process

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23221 Mathematical Competence as It Is Defined through Learners' Errors in Arithmetic and Algebra

Authors: Michael Lousis


Mathematical competence is the great aim of every mathematical teaching and learning endeavour. This can be defined as an idealised conceptualisation of the quality of cognition and the ability of implementation in practice of the mathematical subject matter, which is included in the curriculum, and is displayed only through performance of doing mathematics. The present study gives a clear definition of mathematical competence in the domains of Arithmetic and Algebra that stems from the explanation of the learners’ errors in these domains. The learners, whose errors are explained, were Greek and English participants of a large, international, longitudinal, comparative research program entitled the Kassel Project. The participants’ errors emerged as results of their work in dealing with mathematical questions and problems of the tests, which were presented to them. The construction of the tests was such as only the outcomes of the participants’ work was to be encompassed and not their course of thinking, which resulted in these outcomes. The intention was that the tests had to provide undeviating comparable results and simultaneously avoid any probable bias. Any bias could stem from obtaining results by involving so many markers from different countries and cultures, with so many different belief systems concerning the assessment of learners’ course of thinking. In this way the validity of the research was protected. This fact forced the implementation of specific research methods and theoretical prospects to take place in order the participants’ erroneous way of thinking to be disclosed. These were Methodological Pragmatism, Symbolic Interactionism, Philosophy of Mind and the ideas of Computationalism, which were used for deciding and establishing the grounds of the adequacy and legitimacy of the obtained kinds of knowledge through the explanations given by the error analysis. The employment of this methodology and of these theoretical prospects resulted in the definition of the learners’ mathematical competence, which is the thesis of the present study. Thus, learners’ mathematical competence is depending upon three key elements that should be developed in their minds: appropriate representations, appropriate meaning, and appropriate developed schemata. This definition then determined the development of appropriate teaching practices and interventions conducive to the achievement and finally the entailment of mathematical competence.

Keywords: representations, meaning, appropriate developed schemata, computationalism, error analysis, explanations for the probable causes of the errors, Kassel Project, mathematical competence

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23220 Mathematical Analysis of Variation in Inlet Shock Wave Angle on Specific Impulse of Scramjet Engine

Authors: Shrikant Ghadage


Study of shock waves generated in the Scramjet engine is typically restricted to pressure, temperature, density, entropy and Mach number variation across the shock wave. The present work discusses the impact of inlet shock wave angles on the specific impulse of the Scramjet engine. A mathematical analysis has done for the isentropic hypersonic flow of air flowing through a Scramjet with hydrogen fuel at an altitude of 30 km. Analysis has been done in order to get optimum shock wave angle to achieve maximum impulse. Since external drag has excluded from the analysis, the losses due to friction are not considered for the present analysis. When Mach number of the airflow at the entry of the nozzle reaches unity, then that flow is choked. This condition puts limitations on increasing the inlet shock wave angle. As inlet shock wave angle increases, speed of the flow entering into the nozzle decreases, which results in an increase in the specific impulse of the engine. When the speed of the flow at the entry of the nozzle reduces below sonic speed, then there is no further increase in the specific impulse of the engine. Here the Conclusion is the thrust and specific impulse of a scramjet engine, which increases gradually with an increase in inlet shock wave angle up to the condition when airflow speed reaches sonic velocity at the exit of the combustor. In addition to that, variation in drag force at the inlet of the scramjet and variation in hypersonic flow conditions at every stage of the scramjet also studied in order to understand variation on flow characteristics with respect to flow deflection angle. Essentially, it helps in designing inlet profile for the Scramjet engine to achieve optimum specific impulse.

Keywords: hypersonic flow, scramjet, shock waves, specific impulse, mathematical analysis

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23219 Physical Activity and Academic Achievement: How Physical Activity Should Be Implemented to Enhance Mathematical Achievement and Mathematical Self-Concept

Authors: Laura C. Dapp, Claudia M. Roebers


Being physically active has many benefits for children and adolescents. It is crucial for various aspects of physical and mental health, the development of a healthy self-concept, and also positively influences academic performance and school achievement. In addressing the still incomplete understanding of the link between physical activity (PA) and academic achievement, the current study scrutinized the open issue of how PA has to be implemented to positively affect mathematical outcomes in N = 138 fourth graders. Therefore, the current study distinguished between structured PA (formal, organized, adult-led exercise and deliberate sports practice) and unstructured PA (non-formal, playful, peer-led physically active play and sports activities). Results indicated that especially structured PA has the potential to contribute to mathematical outcomes. Although children spent almost twice as much time engaging in unstructured PA as compared to structured PA, only structured PA was significantly related to mathematical achievement as well as to mathematical self-concept. Furthermore, the pending issue concerning the quantity of PA needed to enhance children’s mathematical achievement was addressed. As to that, results indicated that the amount of time spent in structured PA constitutes a critical factor in accounting for mathematical outcomes, since children engaging in PA for two hours or more a week were shown to be both the ones with the highest mathematical self-concept as well as those attaining the highest mathematical achievement scores. Finally, the present study investigated the indirect effect of PA on mathematical achievement by controlling for the mathematical self-concept as a mediating variable. The results of a maximum likelihood mediation analysis with a 2’000 resampling bootstrapping procedure for the 95% confidence intervals revealed a full mediation, indicating that PA improves mathematical self-concept, which, in turn, positively affects mathematical achievement. Thus, engaging in high amounts of structured PA constitutes an advantageous leisure activity for children and adolescents, not only to enhance their physical health but also to foster their self-concept in a way that is favorable and encouraging for promoting their academic achievement. Note: The content of this abstract is partially based on a paper published elswhere by the authors.

Keywords: Academic Achievement, Mathematical Performance, Physical Activity, Self-Concept

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23218 Complementary Mathematical Model for Underwater Vehicles under Load Variation Test Conditions

Authors: Erim Koyun


This paper aim to construct a mathematical model for Underwater vehicles under load variation test conditions. Propeller effects on underwater vehicle are investigated. Body with counter rotating propeller model is analyzed by CFD methods, thus forces and moment are obtained. Propeller effects of vehicle’s hydrodynamic performance under load variation conditions will be investigated. Additionally, pressure contour is examined for differences between different load conditions. Axial force equation is established using hydrodynamic coefficients, which contains resistance, thrust, and additional coefficients occurs due to load variations. Additional coefficients helps to express completely axial force on underwater vehicle. When the vehicle accelerates, additional force occurs besides thrust force increment. This is propeller effect on the body. Hence, mathematical model cover this effect. For CFD analysis, the incompressible, three-dimensional, and unsteady Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations will be used Numerical results is verified with experimental results for verification. The overall goal of this study is to present complementary mathematical model for body with counter rotating propeller.

Keywords: counter rotating propeller, CFD, hydrodynamic mathematic model, hydrodynamics analysis, thrust deduction

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23217 The Eye Tracking Technique and the Study of Some Abstract Mathematical Concepts at the University

Authors: Tamara Díaz-Chang, Elizabeth-H Arredondo


This article presents the results of mixed approach research, where the ocular movements of students are examined while they solve questionnaires related to some abstract mathematical concepts. The objective of this research is to determine possible correlations between the parameters of ocular activity and the level of difficulty of the tasks. The difficulty level categories were established based on two types of criteria: a subjective one, through an evaluation, carried out by the subjects, and a behavioral one, related to obtaining the correct solution. Correlations of these criteria with ocular activity parameters, which were considered indicators of mental effort, were identified. The analysis of the data obtained allowed us to observe discrepancies in the categorization of difficulty levels based on subjective and behavioral criteria. There was a negative correlation of the eye movement parameters with the students' opinions on the level of difficulty of the questions, while a strong positive and significant correlation was noted between most of the parameters of ocular activity and the level of difficulty, determined by the percentage of correct answers. The results obtained by the analysis of the data suggest that eye movement parameters can be taken as indicators of the difficulty level of the tasks related to the study of some abstract mathematical concepts at the university.

Keywords: abstract mathematical concepts, cognitive neuroscience, eye-tracking, university education

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23216 Induction Motor Analysis Using LabVIEW

Authors: E. Ramprasath, P. Manojkumar, P. Veena


Proposed paper dealt with the modelling and analysis of induction motor based on the mathematical expression using the graphical programming environment of Laboratory Virtual Instrument Engineering Workbench (LabVIEW). Induction motor modelling with the mathematical expression enables the motor to be simulated with the various required parameters. Owing to the invention of variable speed drives study about the induction motor characteristics became complex.In this simulation motor internal parameter such as stator resistance and reactance, rotor resistance and reactance, phase voltage, frequency and losses will be given as input. By varying the speed of motor corresponding parameters can be obtained they are input power, output power, efficiency, torque induced, slip and current.

Keywords: induction motor, LabVIEW software, modelling and analysi, electrical and mechanical characteristics of motor

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23215 All-or-None Principle and Weakness of Hodgkin-Huxley Mathematical Model

Authors: S. A. Sadegh Zadeh, C. Kambhampati


Mathematical and computational modellings are the necessary tools for reviewing, analysing, and predicting processes and events in the wide spectrum range of scientific fields. Therefore, in a field as rapidly developing as neuroscience, the combination of these two modellings can have a significant role in helping to guide the direction the field takes. The paper combined mathematical and computational modelling to prove a weakness in a very precious model in neuroscience. This paper is intended to analyse all-or-none principle in Hodgkin-Huxley mathematical model. By implementation the computational model of Hodgkin-Huxley model and applying the concept of all-or-none principle, an investigation on this mathematical model has been performed. The results clearly showed that the mathematical model of Hodgkin-Huxley does not observe this fundamental law in neurophysiology to generating action potentials. This study shows that further mathematical studies on the Hodgkin-Huxley model are needed in order to create a model without this weakness.

Keywords: all-or-none, computational modelling, mathematical model, transmembrane voltage, action potential

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23214 Intelligent Computing with Bayesian Regularization Artificial Neural Networks for a Nonlinear System of COVID-19 Epidemic Model for Future Generation Disease Control

Authors: Tahir Nawaz Cheema, Dumitru Baleanu, Ali Raza


In this research work, we design intelligent computing through Bayesian Regularization artificial neural networks (BRANNs) introduced to solve the mathematical modeling of infectious diseases (Covid-19). The dynamical transmission is due to the interaction of people and its mathematical representation based on the system's nonlinear differential equations. The generation of the dataset of the Covid-19 model is exploited by the power of the explicit Runge Kutta method for different countries of the world like India, Pakistan, Italy, and many more. The generated dataset is approximately used for training, testing, and validation processes for every frequent update in Bayesian Regularization backpropagation for numerical behavior of the dynamics of the Covid-19 model. The performance and effectiveness of designed methodology BRANNs are checked through mean squared error, error histograms, numerical solutions, absolute error, and regression analysis.

Keywords: mathematical models, beysian regularization, bayesian-regularization backpropagation networks, regression analysis, numerical computing

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23213 Modelling the Photovoltaic Pump Output Using Empirical Data from Local Conditions in the Vhembe District

Authors: C. Matasane, C. Dwarika, R. Naidoo


The mathematical analysis on radiation obtained and the development of the solar photovoltaic (PV) array groundwater pumping is needed in the rural areas of Thohoyandou, Limpopo Province for sizing and power performance subject to the climate conditions within the area. A simple methodology approach is developed for the directed coupled solar, controller and submersible ground water pump system. The system consists of a PV array, pump controller and submerged pump, battery backup and charger controller. For this reason, the theoretical solar radiation obtained for optimal predictions and system performance in order to achieve different design and operating parameters. Here the examination of the PV schematic module in a Direct Current (DC) application is used for obtainable maximum solar power energy for water pumping. In this paper, a simple efficient photovoltaic water pumping system is presented with its theoretical studies and mathematical modeling of photovoltaics (PV) system.

Keywords: renewable energy sources, solar groundwater pumping, theoretical and mathematical analysis of photovoltaic (PV) system, theoretical solar radiation

Procedia PDF Downloads 308
23212 Variants of Mathematical Induction as Strong Proof Techniques in Theory of Computing

Authors: Ahmed Tarek, Ahmed Alveed


In the theory of computing, there are a wide variety of direct and indirect proof techniques. However, mathematical induction (MI) stands out to be one of the most powerful proof techniques for proving hypotheses, theorems, and new results. There are variations of mathematical induction-based proof techniques, which are broadly classified into three categories, such as structural induction (SI), weak induction (WI), and strong induction (SI). In this expository paper, several different variants of the mathematical induction techniques are explored, and the specific scenarios are discussed where a specific induction technique stands out to be more advantageous as compared to other induction strategies. Also, the essential difference among the variants of mathematical induction are explored. The points of separation among mathematical induction, recursion, and logical deduction are precisely analyzed, and the relationship among variations of recurrence relations, and mathematical induction are being explored. In this context, the application of recurrence relations, and mathematical inductions are considered together in a single framework for codewords over a given alphabet.

Keywords: alphabet, codeword, deduction, mathematical, induction, recurrence relation, strong induction, structural induction, weak induction

Procedia PDF Downloads 78
23211 A Mathematical Framework for Expanding a Railway’s Theoretical Capacity

Authors: Robert L. Burdett, Bayan Bevrani


Analytical techniques for measuring and planning railway capacity expansion activities have been considered in this article. A preliminary mathematical framework involving track duplication and section sub divisions is proposed for this task. In railways, these features have a great effect on network performance and for this reason they have been considered. Additional motivations have also arisen from the limitations of prior models that have not included them.

Keywords: capacity analysis, capacity expansion, railways, track sub division, track duplication

Procedia PDF Downloads 278