Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 16545

Search results for: and high calcium fly ash

16545 Comparison of the Hydration Products of Commercial and Experimental Calcium Silicate Cement: The Preliminary Observational Study

Authors: Seok Woo Chang


Aim: The objective of this study was to compare and evaluate the hydration products of commercial and experimental calcium silicate cement. Materials and Methods: The commercial calcium silicate cement (ProRoot MTA, Dentsply) and experimental calcium silicate cement (n=10) were mixed with distilled water (water/powder ratio = 20 w/w) and stirred at room temperature for 10 hours. These mixtures were dispersed on wafer and dried for 12 hours at room temperature. Thereafter, the dried specimens were examined with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Electron Dispersive Spectrometry (EDS) was also carried out. Results: The commercial calcium silicate cement (ProRoot MTA) and experimental calcium silicate cement both showed precipitation of rod-like and globule-like crystals. Based on EDS analysis, these precipitates were supposed to be calcium hydroxide or calcium silicate hydrates. The degree of formation of these precipitates was higher in commercial MTA. Conclusions: Based on the results, both commercial and experimental calcium silicate cement had ability to produce calcium hydroxide or calcium silicate hydrate precipitates.

Keywords: calcium silicate cement, ProRoot MTA, precipitation, calcium hydroxide, calcium silicate hydrate

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16544 Sulfate Attack on Pastes Made with Different C3A and C4AF Contents and Stored at 5°C

Authors: Konstantinos Sotiriadis, Radosław Mróz


In the present work the internal sulfate attack on pastes made from pure clinker phases was studied. Two binders were produced: (a) a binder with 2% C3A and 18% C4AF content; (b) a binder with 10% C3A and C4AF content each. Gypsum was used as the sulfate bearing compound, while calcium carbonate added to differentiate the binders produced. The phases formed were identified by XRD analysis. The results showed that ettringite was the deterioration phase detected in the case of the low C3A content binder. Carbonation occurred in the specimen without calcium carbonate addition, while portlandite was observed in the one containing calcium carbonate. In the case of the high C3A content binder, traces of thaumasite were detected when calcium carbonate was not incorporated in the binder. A solid solution of thaumasite and ettringite was found when calcium carbonate was added. The amount of C3A had not fully reacted with sulfates, since its corresponding peaks were detected.

Keywords: tricalcium aluminate, calcium aluminate ferrite, sulfate attack, calcium carbonate, low temperature

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16543 Stochastic Modeling of Secretion Dynamics in Inner Hair Cells of the Auditory Pathway

Authors: Jessica A. Soto-Bear, Virginia González-Vélez, Norma Castañeda-Villa, Amparo Gil


Glutamate release of the cochlear inner hair cell (IHC) ribbon synapse is a fundamental step in transferring sound information in the auditory pathway. Otoferlin is the calcium sensor in the IHC and its activity has been related to many auditory disorders. In order to simulate secretion dynamics occurring in the IHC in a few milliseconds timescale and with high spatial resolution, we proposed an active-zone model solved with Monte Carlo algorithms. We included models for calcium buffered diffusion, calcium-binding schemes for vesicle fusion, and L-type voltage-gated calcium channels. Our results indicate that calcium influx and calcium binding is managing IHC secretion as a function of voltage depolarization, which in turn mean that IHC response depends on sound intensity.

Keywords: inner hair cells, Monte Carlo algorithm, Otoferlin, secretion

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16542 Dietary Vitamin D Intake and the Bladder Cancer Risk: A Pooled Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies

Authors: Iris W. A. Boot, Anke Wesselius, Maurice P. Zeegers


Diet may play an essential role in the aetiology of bladder cancer (BC). Vitamin D is involved in various biological functions which have the potential to prevent BC development. Besides, vitamin D also influences the uptake of calcium and phosphorus , thereby possibly indirectly influencing the risk of BC. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relation between vitamin D intake and BC risk. Individual dietary data were pooled from three cohort studies. Food item intake was converted to daily intakes of vitamin D, calcium and phosphorus. Pooled multivariate hazard ratios (HRs), with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained using Cox-regression models. Analyses were adjusted for gender, age and smoking status (Model 1), and additionally for the food groups fruit, vegetables and meat (Model 2). Dose–response relationships (Model 1) were examined using a nonparametric test for trend. In total, 2,871 cases and 522,364 non-cases were included in the analyses. The present study showed an overall increased BC risk for high dietary vitamin D intake (HR: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.03-1.26). A similar increase BC risk with high vitamin D intake was observed among women and for the non-muscle invasive BC subtype, (HR: 1.41, 95% CI: 1.15-1.72, HR: 1.13, 95% CI: 1.01-1.27, respectively). High calcium intake decreased the BC risk among women (HR: 0.81, 95% CI: 0.67-0.97). A combined inverse effect on BC risk was observed for low vitamin D intake and high calcium intake (HR: 0.67, 95% CI: 0.48-0.93), while a positive effect was observed for high vitamin D intake in combination with low, moderate and high phosphorus (HR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.09-1.59, HR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.01-1.36, HR: 1.16, 95% CI: 1.03-1.31, respectively). Combining all nutrients showed a decreased BC risk for low vitamin D intake, high calcium and moderate phosphor intake (HR: 0.37, 95% CI: 0.18-0.75), and an increased BC risk for moderate intake of all the nutrients (HR: 1.18, 95% CI: 1.02-1.38), for high vitamin D and low calcium and phosphor intake (HR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.01-1.62), and for moderate vitamin D and calcium and high phosphorus intake (HR: 1.27, 95% CI: 1.01-1.59). No significant dose-response analyses were observed. The findings of this study show an increased BC risk for high dietary vitamin D intake and a decreased risk for high calcium intake. Besides, the study highlights the importance of examining the effect of a nutrient in combination with complementary nutrients for risk assessment. Future research should focus on nutrients in a wider context and in nutritional patterns.

Keywords: bladder cancer, nutritional oncology, pooled cohort analysis, vitamin D

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16541 Can Bone Resorption Reduce with Nanocalcium Particles in Astronauts?

Authors: Ravi Teja Mandapaka, Prasanna Kumar Kukkamalla


Poor absorption of calcium, elevated levels in serum and loss of bone are major problems of astronauts during space travel. Supplementation of calcium could not reveal this problem. In normal condition only 33% of calcium is absorbed from dietary sources. In this paper effect of space environment on calcium metabolism was discussed. Many surprising study findings were found during literature survey. Clinical trials on ovariectomized mice showed that reduction of calcium particles to nano level make them more absorbable and bioavailable. Control of bone loss in astronauts in critical important In Fortification of milk with nana calcium particles showed reduces urinary pyridinoline, deoxypyridinoline levels. Dietary calcium and supplementation do not show much retention of calcium in zero gravity environment where absorption is limited. So, the fortification of foods with nano calcium particles seemed beneficial for astronauts during and after space travel in their speedy recovery.

Keywords: nano calcium, astronauts, fortification, supplementation

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16540 Numerical Model to Study Calcium and Inositol 1,4,5-Trisphosphate Dynamics in a Myocyte Cell

Authors: Nisha Singh, Neeru Adlakha


Calcium signalling is one of the most important intracellular signalling mechanisms. A lot of approaches and investigators have been made in the study of calcium signalling in various cells to understand its mechanisms over recent decades. However, most of existing investigators have mainly focussed on the study of calcium signalling in various cells without paying attention to the dependence of calcium signalling on other chemical ions like inositol-1; 4; 5 triphosphate ions, etc. Some models for the independent study of calcium signalling and inositol-1; 4; 5 triphosphate signalling in various cells are present but very little attention has been paid by the researchers to study the interdependence of these two signalling processes in a cell. In this paper, we propose a coupled mathematical model to understand the interdependence of inositol-1; 4; 5 triphosphate dynamics and calcium dynamics in a myocyte cell. Such studies will provide the deeper understanding of various factors involved in calcium signalling in myocytes, which may be of great use to biomedical scientists for various medical applications.

Keywords: calcium signalling, coupling, finite difference method, inositol 1, 4, 5-triphosphate

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16539 Microanalysis of a New Cementitious System Containing High Calcium Fly Ash and Waste Material by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)

Authors: Anmar Dulaimi, Hassan Al Nageim, Felicite Ruddock, Linda Seton


Fast-curing cold bituminous emulsion mixture (CBEM) including active filler from high calcium fly ash (HCFA) and waste material (LJMU-A2) has been developed in this study. This will overcome the difficulties related with the use of hot mix asphalt such as greenhouse gases emissions and problems in keeping the temperature when transporting long distance. The aim of this study is to employ petrographic examinations using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) for characterizing the hydrates microstructure, in a new binary blended cement filler (BBCF) system. The new BBCF has been used as a replacement to traditional mineral filler in cold bituminous emulsion mixtures (CBEMs), comprises supplementary cementitious materials containing high calcium fly ash (HCFA) and a waste material (LJMU-A2). SEM analysis demonstrated the formation of hydrates after varying curing ages within the BBCF. The accelerated activation of HCFA by LJMU-A2 within the BBCF was revealed and as a consequence early and later stiffness was developed in novel CBEM.

Keywords: cold bituminous emulsion mixtures, indirect tensile stiffness modulus, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and high calcium fly ash

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16538 Synthesis, Characterization and Gas Sensing Applications of Perovskite CaZrO3 Nanoparticles

Authors: B. M. Patil


Calcium Zirconate (CaZrO3) has high protonic conductivities at elevated temperature in water or hydrogen atmosphere. Undoped calcium zirconate acts as a p-type semiconductor in air. In this paper, we reported synthesis of CaZrO3 nanoparticles via modified molecular precursor method. The precursor calcium zirconium oxalate (CZO) was synthesized by exchange reaction between freshly generated aqueous solution of sodium zirconyl oxalate and calcium acetate at room temperature. The controlled pyrolysis of CZO in air at 700°C for one hour resulted in the formation nanocrystalline CaZrO3 powder. CaZrO3 obtained by the present method was characterized by Simultaneous thermogravimetry and differential thermogravimetry (TG-DTA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infra-red spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The pellets of synthesized CaZrO3 fabricated, sintered at 1000°C for 5 hr and tested as sensors for NO2 and NH3 gases.

Keywords: CaZrO3, CZO, NO2, NH3

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16537 Combinatory Nutrition Supplementation: A Case of Synergy for Increasing Calcium Bioavailability

Authors: Daniel C. S. Lim, Eric Y. M. Yeo, W. Y. Tan


This paper presents an overview of how calcium interacts with the various essential nutrients within an environment of cellular and hormonal interactions for the purpose of increasing bioavailability to the human body. One example of such interactions can be illustrated with calcium homeostasis. This paper gives an in-depth discussion on the possible interactive permutations with various nutrients and factors leading to the promotion of calcium bioavailability to the body. The review hopes to provide further insights into how calcium supplement formulations can be improved to better influence its bioavailability in the human body.

Keywords: bioavailability, environment of cellular and hormonal interactions, nutritional combinations, synergistic

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16536 Fire Resistance Capacity of Reinforced Concrete Member Strengthened by Fiber Reinforced Polymer

Authors: Soo-Yeon Seo, Jong-Wook Lim, Se-Ki Song


Currently, FRP (Fiber Reinforced Polymer) materials have been widely used for reinforcement of building structural members. However, since the FRP and the epoxy material for attaching it have very low resistance to heat, there is a problem in application where high temperature is an issue. In this paper, the resistance performance of FRP member made of carbon fiber at high temperature was investigated through experiment under temperature change. As a result, epoxy encapsulating FRP is damaged at not high temperatures, and the fibers are degraded. Therefore, when reinforcing a structure using FRP, a separate refractory heat treatment is necessary. The use of a 30 mm thick calcium silicate board as a fireproofing method can protect FRP up to 600ᵒC outside temperature.

Keywords: FRP (Fiber Reinforced Polymer), high temperature, experiment under temperature change, calcium silicate board

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16535 Two Dimensional Finite Element Model to Study Calcium Dynamics in Fibroblast Cell with Excess Buffer Approximation Involving ER Flux and SERCA Pump

Authors: Mansha Kotwani


The specific spatio-temporal calcium concentration patterns are required by the fibroblasts to maintain its structure and functions. Thus, calcium concentration is regulated in cell at different levels in various activities of the cell. The variations in cytosolic calcium concentration largely depend on the buffers present in cytosol and influx of calcium into cytosol from ER through IP3Rs or Raynodine receptors followed by reuptake of calcium into ER through sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum ATPs (SERCA) pump. In order to understand the mechanisms of wound repair, tissue remodeling and growth performed by fibroblasts, it is of crucial importance to understand the mechanisms of calcium concentration regulation in fibroblasts. In this paper, a model has been developed to study calcium distribution in NRK fibroblast in the presence of buffers and ER flux with SERCA pump. The model has been developed for two dimensional unsteady state case. Appropriate initial and boundary conditions have been framed along with physiology of the cell. Finite element technique has been employed to obtain the solution. The numerical results have been used to study the effect of buffers, ER flux and source amplitude on calcium distribution in fibroblast cell.

Keywords: buffers, IP3R, ER flux, SERCA pump, source amplitude

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16534 Effect pH on Chemical and Physical Properties of Iranian Fetta Cheese

Authors: M. Dezyani, R. Ezzati, H. Mirzaei


The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of pH on chemical, structural, and functional properties of Fetta cheese, and to relate changes in structure to changes in cheese unctionality. Fetta cheese was obtained from a cheese-production facility and stored at 4°C. Ten days after manufacture, the cheese was cut into blocks that were vacuum-packaged and stored for 4 d at 4°C. Cheese blocks were then high-pressure injected one, three, or five times with a 20% (wt/wt) glucono-δ-lactone solution. Successive injections were performed 24 h apart. Cheese blocks were then analyzed after 40 d of storage at 4°C. Acidulant injection decreased cheese pH from 5.3 in the uninjected cheese to 4.7 after five injections. Decreased pH increased the content of soluble calcium and slightly decreased the total calcium content of cheese. At the highest level, injection of acidulant promoted syneresis. Thus, after five injections, the moisture content of cheese decreased from 34 to 31%, which esulted in decreased cheese weight. Lowered cheese pH, 4.7 compared with 5.3, also resulted in contraction of the protein matrix. Acidulant injection decreased cheese hardness and cohesiveness, and the cheese became more crumbly.

Keywords: calcium, high-pressure injection, protein matrix, syneresis

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16533 Modification of Toothpaste Formula Using Pineapple Cobs and Eggshell Waste as a Way to Decrease Dental Caries

Authors: Achmad Buhori, Reza Imam Pratama, Tissa Wiraatmaja, Wanti Megawati


Data from many countries indicates that there is a marked increase of dental caries. The increases in caries appear to occur in lower socioeconomic groups. It is possible that the benefits of prevention of dental caries are not reaching these groups. However, there is a way to decrease dental caries by adding 5% of bromelain and calcium as an active agent in toothpaste. Bromelain can break glutamine-alanine bond and arginine-alanine bond which is a constituent of amino acid that causes dental plague which is one of the factors of dental caries. Calcium help rebuilds the teeth by strengthening and repairing enamel. Bromelain can be found from the extraction of pineapple (Ananas comosus) cobs (88.86-94.22 % of bromelain recovery during extraction based on the enzyme unit) and calcium can be taken from eggshell (95% of dry eggshell consist of calcium). The aim of this experiment is to make a toothpaste which contains bromelain and calcium as an effective, cheap, and healthy way to decrease dental caries around the world.

Keywords: bromelain, calcium, dental caries, dental plague, toothpaste

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16532 The Fundamental Research and Industrial Application on CO₂+O₂ in-situ Leaching Process in China

Authors: Lixin Zhao, Genmao Zhou


Traditional acid in-situ leaching (ISL) is not suitable for the sandstone uranium deposit with low permeability and high content of carbonate minerals, because of the blocking of calcium sulfate precipitates. Another factor influences the uranium acid in-situ leaching is that the pyrite in ore rocks will react with oxidation reagent and produce lots of sulfate ions which may speed up the precipitation process of calcium sulphate and consume lots of oxidation reagent. Due to the advantages such as less chemical reagent consumption and groundwater pollution, CO₂+O₂ in-situ leaching method has become one of the important research areas in uranium mining. China is the second country where CO₂+O₂ ISL has been adopted in industrial uranium production of the world. It is shown that the CO₂+O₂ ISL in China has been successfully developed. The reaction principle, technical process, well field design and drilling engineering, uranium-bearing solution processing, etc. have been fully studied. At current stage, several uranium mines use CO₂+O₂ ISL method to extract uranium from the ore-bearing aquifers. The industrial application and development potential of CO₂+O₂ ISL method in China are summarized. By using CO₂+O₂ neutral leaching technology, the problem of calcium carbonate and calcium sulfate precipitation have been solved during uranium mining. By reasonably regulating the amount of CO₂ and O₂, related ions and hydro-chemical conditions can be controlled within the limited extent for avoiding the occurrence of calcium sulfate and calcium carbonate precipitation. Based on this premise, the demand of CO₂+O₂ uranium leaching has been met to the maximum extent, which not only realizes the effective leaching of uranium, but also avoids the occurrence and precipitation of calcium carbonate and calcium sulfate, realizing the industrial development of the sandstone type uranium deposit.

Keywords: CO₂+O₂ ISL, industrial production, well field layout, uranium processing

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16531 Evaluation of Re-mineralization Ability of Nanohydroxyapatite and Coral Calcium with Different Concentrations on Initial Enamel Carious Lesions

Authors: Ali Abdelnabi, Nermeen Hamza


Coral calcium is a boasting natural product and dietary supplement which is considered a source of alkaline calcium carbonate, this study is a comparative study, comparing the remineralization effect of the new product of coral calcium with that of nano-hydroxyapatite. Methodology: a total of 35 extracted molars were collected, examined and sectioned to obtain 70 sound enamel discs, all discs were numbered and examined by scanning electron microscope coupled with Energy Dispersive Analysis of X-rays(EDAX) for mineral content, subjected to artificial caries, and mineral content was re-measured, discs were divided into seven groups according to the remineralizing agent used, where groups 1 to 3 used 10%, 20%, 30% nanohydroxyapatite gel respectively, groups 4 to 6 used 10%, 20%, 30% coral calcium gel and group 7 with no remineralizing agent (control group). All groups were re-examined by EDAX after remineralization; data were calculated and tabulated. Results: All groups showed a statistically significant drop in calcium level after artificial caries; all groups showed a statistically significant rise in calcium content after remineralization except for the control group; groups 1 and 5 showed the highest increase in calcium level after remineralization. Conclusion: coral calcium can be considered a comparative product to nano-hydroxyapatite regarding the remineralization of enamel initial carious lesions.

Keywords: artificial caries, coral calcium, nanohydroxyapatite, re-mineralization

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16530 Calcium Biochemical Indicators in a Group of Schoolchildren with Low Socioeconomic Status from Barranquilla, Colombia

Authors: Carmiña L. Vargas-Zapata, María A. Conde-Sarmiento, Maria Consuelo Maestre-Vargas


Calcium is an essential element for good growth and development of the organism, and its requirement is increased at school age. Low socio-economic populations of developing countries such as Colombia may have food deficiency of this mineral in schoolchildren that could be reflected in calcium biochemical indicators, bone alterations and anthropometric indicators. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate some calcium biochemical indicators in a group of schoolchildren of low socioeconomic level from Barranquilla city and to correlate with body mass index. 60 schoolchildren aged 7 to 15 years were selected from Jesus’s Heart Educational Institution in Barranquilla-Atlántico, apparently healthy, without suffering from infectious or gastrointestinal diseases, without habits of drinking alcohol or smoking another hallucinogenic substance and without taking supplementation with calcium in the last six months or another substance that compromises bone metabolism. The research was approved by the ethics committee at Universidad del Atlántico. The selected children were invited to donate a blood and urine sample in a fasting time of 12 hours, the serum was separated by centrifugation and frozen at ˗20 ℃ until analyzed and the same was done with the urine sample. On the day of the biological collections, the weight and height of the students were measured to determine the nutritional status by BMI using the WHO tables. Calcium concentrations in serum and urine (SCa, UCa), alkaline phosphatase activity total and of bone origin (SAPT, SBAP) and urinary creatinine (UCr) were determined by spectrophotometric methods using commercial kits. Osteocalcin and Cross-linked N-telopeptides of type I collagen (NTx-1) in serum were measured with an enzyme-linked inmunosorbent assay. For statistical analysis the Statgraphics software Centurium XVII was used. 63% (n = 38) and 37% (n = 22) of the participants were male and female, respectively. 78% (n = 47), 5% (n = 3) and 17% (n = 10) had a normal, malnutrition and high nutritional status, respectively. The averages of evaluated indicators levels were (mean ± SD): 9.50 ± 1.06 mg/dL for SCa; 181.3 ± 64.3 U/L for SAPT, 143.8 ± 73.9 U/L for SBAP; 9.0 ± 3.48 ng/mL for osteocalcin and 101.3 ± 12.8 ng/mL for NTx-1. UCa level was 12.8 ± 7.7 mg/dL that adjusted with creatinine ranged from 0.005 to 0.395 mg/mg. Considering serum calcium values, approximately 7% of school children were hypocalcemic, 16% hypercalcemic and 77% normocalcemic. The indicators evaluated did not correlate with the BMI. Low values ​​were observed in calcium urinary excretion and high in NTx-1, suggesting that mechanisms such as increase in renal retention of calcium and in bone remodeling may be contributing to calcium homeostasis.

Keywords: calcium, calcium biochemical, indicators, school children, low socioeconomic status

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16529 Catalytic Deoxygenation of Non-Edible Oil to Renewable Fuel by Using Calcium-Based Nanocatalyst

Authors: Hwei Voon Lee, N. Asikin-Mijana, Y. H. Taufiq-Yap, J. C. Juan, N. A. Rahman


Cracking–Deoxygenation process is one of the important reaction pathways for the production of bio-fuel with desirable n-C17 hydrocarbon chain via removal of oxygen compounds. Calcium-based catalyst has attracted much attention in deoxygenation process due to its relatively high capacity in removing oxygenated compounds in the form of CO₂ and CO under decarboxylation and decarbonylation reaction, respectively. In the present study, deoxygenation of triolein was investigated using Ca(OH)₂ nanocatalyst derived from low cost natural waste shells. The Ca(OH)₂ nanocatalyst was prepared via integration techniques between surfactant treatment (anionic and non-ionic) and wet sonochemical effect. Results showed that sonochemically assisted surfactant treatment has successfully enhanced the physicochemical properties of Ca(OH)₂ nanocatalyst in terms of nanoparticle sizes (∼50 nm), high surface area(∼130 m²g⁻¹), large porosity (∼18.6 nm) and strong basic strength. The presence of superior properties from surfactant treated Ca(OH)₂ nanocatalysts rendered high deoxygenation degree, which is capable of producing high alkane and alkene selectivity in chain length of n-C17(high value of C17/(n-C17+ n-C18)ratio = 0.88). Furthermore, both Ca(OH)₂–EG and Ca(OH)₂–CTAB nanocatalysts showed high reactivity with 47.37% and 44.50%, respectively in total liquid hydrocarbon content of triolein conversion with high H/C and low O/C ratio.

Keywords: clamshell, cracking, decarboxylation-decarbonylation, hydrocarbon

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16528 Enhancing Protein Incorporation in Calcium Phosphate Coating on Titanium by Rapid Biomimetic Co-Precipitation Technique

Authors: J. Suwanprateeb, F. Thammarakcharoen


Calcium phosphate coating (CaP) has been employed for protein delivery, but the typical direct protein adsorption on the coating led to low incorporation content and fast release of the protein from the coating. By using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model protein, rapid biomimetic co-precipitation between calcium phosphate and BSA was employed to control the distribution of BSA within calcium phosphate coating during biomimetic formation on titanium surface for only 6 h at 50 oC in an accelerated calcium phosphate solution. As a result, the amount of BSA incorporation and release duration could be increased by using a rapid biomimetic co-precipitation technique. Up to 43 fold increases in the BSA incorporation content and the increase from 6 h to more than 360 h in release duration compared to typical direct adsorption technique were observed depending on the initial BSA concentration used during co-precipitation (1, 10, and 100 microgram/ml). From X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies, the coating composition was not altered with the incorporation of BSA by this rapid biomimetic co-precipitation and mainly comprised octacalcium phosphate and hydroxyapatite. However, the microstructure of calcium phosphate crystals changed from straight, plate-like units to curved, plate-like units with increasing BSA content.

Keywords: biomimetic, Calcium Phosphate Coating, protein, titanium

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16527 The Impact of Foliar Application of the Calcium-Containing Compounds in Increasing Resistance to Blue Mold on Apples

Authors: Masoud Baghalian, Musa Arshad


In order to investigate the effect of foliar application of calcium chloride on the resistance of fruits such as Red and Golden Lebanese apple varieties to blue mold, a split plot experiment in time and space, based on accidental blocks, with three replications under foliar application were done (Control, one in a thousand, two in thousands) and the results of the variance analysis showed that there is a significant difference between the levels of foliar and variety at 5% level and between time, there is significant difference in interaction of variety × time and three way interaction of foliar×variety×time, at 1% level. The highest resistance to the blue mold disease in foliar application was observed at two in thousands calcium (calcium chloride) level.

Keywords: apple, blue mold, foliar calcium, resistance

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16526 Effects of Egg Yolk Peptide on the Retardation of Bone Growth Induced by Low-Calcium Diets

Authors: Kang-Hyun Leem, Myung-Gyou Kim, Hye Kyung Kim


Eggs have long been an important contributor to the nutritional quality of the human, and recognized as a very valuable source of proteins for human nutrition. Egg yolk is composed of various important chemical substances for human health. Growth means not only the increase of body weight but also the elongation of height and the enlargement of each organ's anatomical and morphological size. A calcium shortage causes the growth retardation on the body growth. In this study, we examined the therapeutic effects of egg yolk peptide (EYP) on the retardation of the longitudinal bone growth induced by low-calcium diet (0.05%) in adolescent rats. Low calcium diets were administrated for 15 days. During the last five days, calcium and/or vitamin D and/or EYP were administrated. The body weights, longitudinal bone growth rates, the heights of growth plates, and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 expressions were measured using histochemical analysis. Low calcium diets caused the significant reduction in body weight gains and the longitudinal bone growth. The heights of growth plates and the expressions of BMP-2 and IGF-1 showed the impairment of body growth as well. Calcium and/or vitamin D administration could not significantly increase the longitudinal bone growth. However, calcium, vitamin D, and EYP administration significantly increased the bone growth, the growth plate height, and BMP-2 and IGF-1 expressions. These results suggest that EYP enhances the longitudinal bone growth in the calcium and/or vitamin D deficiency and it could be a promising agent for the treatment of children suffering from malnutrition.

Keywords: egg yolk peptide, low-calcium diet, longitudinal bone growth, morphogenetic protein-2, insulin-like growth factor-1, vitamin D

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16525 Impact of Calcium Carbide Waste Dumpsites on Soil Chemical and Microbial Characteristics

Authors: C. E. Ihejirika, M. I. Nwachukwu, R. F. Njoku-Tony, O. C. Ihejirika, U. O. Enwereuzoh, E. O. Imo, D. C. Ashiegbu


Disposal of industrial solid wastes in the environment is a major environmental challenge. This study investigated the effects of calcium carbide waste dumpsites on soil quality. Soil samples were collected with hand auger from three different dumpsites at varying depths and made into composite samples. Samples were subjected to standard analytical procedures. pH varied from 10.38 to 8.28, nitrate from 5.6mg/kg to 9.3mg/kg, phosphate from 8.8mg/kg to 12.3mg/kg, calcium carbide reduced from 10% to to 3%. Calcium carbide was absent in control soil samples. Bacterial counts from dumpsites ranged from 1.8 x 105cfu/g - 2.5 x 105cfu/g while fungal ranged from 0.8 x 103cfu/g - 1.4 x 103cfu/g. Bacterial isolates included Pseudomonas spp, Flavobacterium spp, and Achromobacter spp, while fungal isolates include Penicillium notatum, Aspergillus niger, and Rhizopus stolonifer. No organism was isolated from the dumpsites at soil depth of 0-15 cm, while there were isolates from other soil depths. Toxicity might be due to alkaline condition of the dumpsite. Calcium carbide might be bactericidal and fungicidal leading to cellular physiology, growth retardation, death, general loss of biodiversity and reduction of ecosystem processes. Detoxification of calcium carbide waste before disposal on soil might be the best option in management.

Keywords: biodiversity, calcium-carbide, denitrification, toxicity

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16524 Altered L-Type Calcium Channel Activity in Atrioventricular Nodal Myocytes from Rats with Streptozotocin-Induced Type I Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Kathryn H. Yull, Lina T. Al Kury, Frank Christopher Howarth


Cardiovascular diseases are frequently reported in patients with Type-1 Diabetes mellitus (DM). In addition to changes in cardiac muscle inotropy, electrical abnormalities are also commonly observed in these patients. In the present study, using streptozotocin (STZ) rat model of Type-1 DM, we have characterized the changes in L-type calcium channel activity in single atrioventricular nodal (AVN) myocytes. Ionic currents were recorded from AVN myocytes isolated from the hearts of control rats and from those with STZ-induced diabetes. Patch-clamp recordings were used to assess changes in cellular electrical activity in individual myocytes. Type-1 DM significantly altered the cellular characteristics of L-type calcium current (ICaL). A reduction in peak ICaL density was observed, with no corresponding changes in the activation parameters of the current. ICaL also exhibited faster time-dependent inactivation in AVN myocytes from diabetic rats. A negative shift in the voltage dependence of inactivation was also evident. These findings demonstrate that experimentally–induced type-1 DM significantly alters AVN L-type calcium channel cellular electrophysiology. The changes in ion channel activity may underlie the abnormalities in the cardiac electrical function that contribute to the high mortality levels in patients with DM.

Keywords: cardiac, ion-channel, diabetes, atrioventricular node, calcium channel

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16523 Biogas Potential of Deinking Sludge from Wastepaper Recycling Industry: Influence of Dewatering Degree and High Calcium Carbonate Content

Authors: Moses Kolade Ogun, Ina Korner


To improve on the sustainable resource management in the wastepaper recycling industry, studies into the valorization of wastes generated by the industry are necessary. The industry produces different residues, among which is the deinking sludge (DS). The DS is generated from the deinking process and constitutes a major fraction of the residues generated by the European pulp and paper industry. The traditional treatment of DS by incineration is capital intensive due to energy requirement for dewatering and the need for complementary fuel source due to DS low calorific value. This could be replaced by a biotechnological approach. This study, therefore, investigated the biogas potential of different DS streams (different dewatering degrees) and the influence of the high calcium carbonate content of DS on its biogas potential. Dewatered DS (solid fraction) sample from filter press and the filtrate (liquid fraction) were collected from a partner wastepaper recycling company in Germany. The solid fraction and the liquid fraction were mixed in proportion to realize DS with different water content (55–91% fresh mass). Spiked samples of DS using deionized water, cellulose and calcium carbonate were prepared to simulate DS with varying calcium carbonate content (0– 40% dry matter). Seeding sludge was collected from an existing biogas plant treating sewage sludge in Germany. Biogas potential was studied using a 1-liter batch test system under the mesophilic condition and ran for 21 days. Specific biogas potential in the range 133- 230 NL/kg-organic dry matter was observed for DS samples investigated. It was found out that an increase in the liquid fraction leads to an increase in the specific biogas potential and a reduction in the absolute biogas potential (NL-biogas/ fresh mass). By comparing the absolute biogas potential curve and the specific biogas potential curve, an optimal dewatering degree corresponding to a water content of about 70% fresh mass was identified. This degree of dewatering is a compromise when factors such as biogas yield, reactor size, energy required for dewatering and operation cost are considered. No inhibitory influence was observed in the biogas potential of DS due to the reported high calcium carbonate content of DS. This study confirms that DS is a potential bioresource for biogas production. Further optimization such as nitrogen supplementation due to DS high C/N ratio can increase biogas yield.

Keywords: biogas, calcium carbonate, deinking sludge, dewatering, water content

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16522 Estimation of Serum Levels of Calcium and Inorganic Phosphorus in Breast Cancer Patients

Authors: Safa Safdar


Breast cancer is a type of cancer which is developed by the formation of a tumor on the breast. This tumor invades and causes different electrolyte imbalance. The present study was designed to measure the serum calcium and inorganic phosphorous levels and to check the frequency of hypercalcemia and hypophosphatemia in breast cancer patients. Serum calcium and phosphorous levels of fifty breast cancer women of 18-70 years of age group and fifty healthy women of same age group were measured by using semi-automated chemistry analyzer ( Humalyzer 3000, Human, Germany ). Significant variation in these levels was observed. The mean calcium value in BC patients was higher 9.398 mg/dl as compared to controls which were 8.694 mg/dl. Whereas the mean value of inorganic phosphorus level was lower 4.060 mg/dl in BC patients as compared to controls having 4.456 mg/dl. In this study, the frequency of hypercalcemia in Breast cancer patients was 10% i.e. only 10 out of 50 Breast cancer patients were suffering from hypercalcemia. Whereas the frequency of hypophosphatemia in this study was only 2 % i.e. only 1 out of 50 patients was suffering from hypophosphatemia. Thus it is concluded that there is a significant change in serum calcium and inorganic phosphorous levels in Breast cancer patients as the disease progresses. So, this study will be helpful for the clinicians to maintain serum calcium and phosphorous levels in Breast cancer patients and also preventing them from further complications.

Keywords: serum analysis, calcium, inorganic phosphorus, hpercalcemia hypophosphatemia

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16521 Targeting Calcium Dysregulation for Treatment of Dementia in Alzheimer's Disease

Authors: Huafeng Wei


Dementia in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) is the number one cause of dementia internationally, without effective treatments. Increasing evidence suggest that disruption of intracellular calcium homeostasis, primarily pathological elevation of cytosol and mitochondria but reduction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium concentrations, play critical upstream roles on multiple pathologies and associated neurodegeneration, impaired neurogenesis, synapse, and cognitive dysfunction in various AD preclinical studies. The last federal drug agency (FDA) approved drug for AD dementia treatment, memantine, exert its therapeutic effects by ameliorating N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor overactivation and subsequent calcium dysregulation. More research works are needed to develop other drugs targeting calcium dysregulation at multiple pharmacological acting sites for future effective AD dementia treatment. Particularly, calcium channel blockers for the treatment of hypertension and dantrolene for the treatment of muscle spasm and malignant hyperthermia can be repurposed for this purpose. In our own research work, intranasal administration of dantrolene significantly increased its brain concentrations and durations, rendering it a more effective therapeutic drug with less side effects for chronic AD dementia treatment. This review summarizesthe progress of various studies repurposing drugs targeting calcium dysregulation for future effective AD dementia treatment as potentially disease-modifying drugs.

Keywords: alzheimer, calcium, cognitive dysfunction, dementia, neurodegeneration, neurogenesis

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16520 Association of Calcium Intake Adequacy with Wealth Indices among Selected Female Adults Living in Depressed and Non-Depressed Area in Metro Manila, Philippines

Authors: Maria Viktoria Melgo


This study aimed to determine the possible association between calcium intake and wealth indices of selected female adults. Specifically, it aimed to: a) determine the calcium intake adequacy of the respondents. b) determine the relationship, if any, between calcium intake adequacy, area and wealth indices. The study used the survey design and employed convenience sampling in selecting participants. Two hundred females aged 20 – 64 years old were covered in the study from depressed and non-depressed areas. Data collected were calcium intake taken from two 24-hour food recall and Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and wealth indices using housing characteristics, household assets and access to utilities and infrastructure. Descriptive statistics and Chi-square test were used to determine the frequency distribution and association between the given variables, respectively, using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and OpenEpi software. The results showed that there were 86% of respondents in the depressed area with an inadequate calcium intake while there were 78% of respondents in the non-depressed area with an adequate calcium intake. No significant relationship was obtained in most wealth indices with calcium intake adequacy and area but appliance and ownership of main material of the house showed a significant relationship to calcium intake adequacy by area. The study recommends that the Local Government Unit (LGU) should provide seminars or nutrition education that will further enhance the knowledge of the people in the community. The study also recommends to conduct a similar study but with different, larger sample size, different location nonetheless if it is in urban or rural and include the anthropometry measurement of the respondents.

Keywords: association, calcium intake adequacy, metro Manila, Philippines, wealth indices

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16519 Study of Salinity Stress and Calcium Interaction on Morphological and Physiological Traits of Vicia villosa under Hydroponic Condition

Authors: Raheleh Khademian, Roghayeh Aminian


For the study of salinity stress on Vicia villosa and calcium effect for modulation of that, an experiment was conducted under hydroponic condition, and some important morphological and physiological characteristics were evaluated. This experiment was conducted as a factorial based on randomized complete design with three replications. The treatments include salinity stress in three levels (0, 50, and 100 mM NaCl) and calcium in two levels (content in Hoagland solution and double content). The results showed that all morphological and physiological traits include root and shoot length, root and shoot wet and dry weight, leaf area, leaf chlorophyll content, RWC, CMS, and biological yield was significantly different from the control and is affected by the salinity stress severely. But, calcium effect on them was not significant despite of decreasing salinity effect.

Keywords: Vicia villossa, salinity stress, calcium, hydroponic

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16518 Contrast-to-Noise Ratio Comparison of Different Calcification Types in Dual Energy Breast Imaging

Authors: Vaia N. Koukou, Niki D. Martini, George P. Fountos, Christos M. Michail, Athanasios Bakas, Ioannis S. Kandarakis, George C. Nikiforidis


Various substitute materials of calcifications are used in phantom measurements and simulation studies in mammography. These include calcium carbonate, calcium oxalate, hydroxyapatite and aluminum. The aim of this study is to compare the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) values of the different calcification types using the dual energy method. The constructed calcification phantom consisted of three different calcification types and thicknesses: hydroxyapatite, calcite and calcium oxalate of 100, 200, 300 thicknesses. The breast tissue equivalent materials were polyethylene and polymethyl methacrylate slabs simulating adipose tissue and glandular tissue, respectively. The total thickness was 4.2 cm with 50% fixed glandularity. The low- (LE) and high-energy (HE) images were obtained from a tungsten anode using 40 kV filtered with 0.1 mm cadmium and 70 kV filtered with 1 mm copper, respectively. A high resolution complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) active pixel sensor (APS) X-ray detector was used. The total mean glandular dose (MGD) and entrance surface dose (ESD) from the LE and HE images were constrained to typical levels (MGD=1.62 mGy and ESD=1.92 mGy). On average, the CNR of hydroxyapatite calcifications was 1.4 times that of calcite calcifications and 2.5 times that of calcium oxalate calcifications. The higher CNR values of hydroxyapatite are attributed to its attenuation properties compared to the other calcification materials, leading to higher contrast in the dual energy image. This work was supported by Grant Ε.040 from the Research Committee of the University of Patras (Programme K. Karatheodori).

Keywords: calcification materials, CNR, dual energy, X-rays

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16517 Preparation and Evaluation of Calcium Fluorosilicate (CaSiF₆) as a Fluorinating Agent

Authors: Natsumi Murakami, Jae-Ho Kim, Susumu Yonezawa


The calcium fluorosilicate (CaSiF₆) was prepared from calcium silicate (CaSiO₃) with fluorine gas at 25 ~ 200 ℃ and 760 Torr for 1~24 h. Especially, the pure CaSiF₆ could be prepared at 25 ℃ for 24 h with F₂ gas from the results of X-ray diffraction. Increasing temperature to higher than 100 ℃, the prepared CaSiF₆ was decomposed into CaF₂ and SiF₄. The release of SiF₄ gas was confirmed by the results of gas-phase infrared spectroscopy. In this study, we tried to modify the surface of polycarbonate (PC) resin using the SiF₄ gas released from CaSiF₆ particles. By using the prepared CaSiF₆, the surface roughness of fluorinated PC samples was approximately four times larger than that (1.4 nm) of the untreated sample. The results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated the formation of fluorinated bonds (e.g., -CFx) on the surface of PC after surface fluorination. Consequently, the CaSiF₆ particles can be useful for a new fluorinating agent.

Keywords: calcium fluorosilicate, fluorinating agent, polycarbonate, surface fluorination

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16516 The Influence of Sulfate and Magnesium Ions on the Growth Kinetics of CaCO3

Authors: Kotbia Labiod, Mohamed Mouldi Tlili


The presence of different mineral salts in natural waters may precipitate and form hard deposits in water distribution systems. In this respect, we have developed numerous works on scaling by Algerian water with a very high hardness of 102 °F. The aim of our work is to study the influence of water dynamics and its composition on mineral salts on the precipitation of calcium carbonate (CaCO3). To achieve this objective, we have adopted two precipitation techniques based on controlled degassing of dissolved CO2. This study will identify the causes and provide answers to this complex phenomenon.

Keywords: calcium carbonate, controlled degassing, precipitation, scaling

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