Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Search results for: M. Dezyani

4 Effect pH on Chemical and Physical Properties of Iranian Fetta Cheese

Authors: M. Dezyani, R. Ezzati, H. Mirzaei

Abstract:

The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of pH on chemical, structural, and functional properties of Fetta cheese, and to relate changes in structure to changes in cheese unctionality. Fetta cheese was obtained from a cheese-production facility and stored at 4°C. Ten days after manufacture, the cheese was cut into blocks that were vacuum-packaged and stored for 4 d at 4°C. Cheese blocks were then high-pressure injected one, three, or five times with a 20% (wt/wt) glucono-δ-lactone solution. Successive injections were performed 24 h apart. Cheese blocks were then analyzed after 40 d of storage at 4°C. Acidulant injection decreased cheese pH from 5.3 in the uninjected cheese to 4.7 after five injections. Decreased pH increased the content of soluble calcium and slightly decreased the total calcium content of cheese. At the highest level, injection of acidulant promoted syneresis. Thus, after five injections, the moisture content of cheese decreased from 34 to 31%, which esulted in decreased cheese weight. Lowered cheese pH, 4.7 compared with 5.3, also resulted in contraction of the protein matrix. Acidulant injection decreased cheese hardness and cohesiveness, and the cheese became more crumbly.

Keywords: calcium, high-pressure injection, protein matrix, syneresis

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3 Microstracture of Iranian Processed Cheese

Authors: R. Ezzati, M. Dezyani, H. Mirzaei

Abstract:

The effects of the concentration of trisodium citrate (TSC) emulsifying salt (0.25 to 2.75%) and holding time (0 to 20 min) on the textural, rheological, and microstructural properties of Iranian Processed Cheese Cheddar cheese were studied using a central composite rotatable design. The loss tangent parameter (from small amplitude oscillatory rheology), extent of flow, and melt area (from the Schreiber test) all indicated that the meltability of process cheese decreased with increased concentration of TSC and that holding time led to a slight reduction in meltability. Hardness increased as the concentration of TSC increased. Fluorescence micrographs indicated that the size of fat droplets decreased with an increase in the concentration of TSC and with longer holding times. Acid-base titration curves indicated that the buffering peak at pH 4.8, which is due to residual colloidal calcium phosphate, decreased as the concentration of TSC increased. The soluble phosphate content increased as concentration of TSC increased. However, the insoluble Ca decreased with increasing concentration of TSC. The results of this study suggest that TSC chelated Ca from colloidal calcium phosphate and dispersed casein; the citrate-Ca complex remained trapped within the process cheese matrix. Increasing the concentration of TSC helped to improve fat emulsification and casein dispersion during cooking, both of which probably helped to reinforce the structure of process cheese.

Keywords: Iranian processed cheese, cheddar cheese, emulsifying salt, rheology

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2 Effect of Microfiltration on the Composition and Ripening of Iranian Fetta Cheese

Authors: M. Dezyani, R. Ezzati belvirdi, M. Shakerian, H. Mirzaei

Abstract:

The effect of Microfiltration (MF) on proteolysis, hardness, and flavor of Feta cheese during 6 mo of aging was determined. Raw skim milk was microfiltered two-fold in two cheese making trials. In trial 1, four vats of cheese were made in 1 d using unconcentrated milk (1X), 1.26X, 1.51X, and 1.82X Concentration Factors (CF). Casein-(CN)-to-fat ratio was constant among treatments. Proteolysis during cheese aging decreased with increasing CF due to either limitation of substrate availability for chymosin due to low moisture in the nonfat substance (MNFS), inhibition of chymosin activity by high molecular weight milk serum proteins, such as α2-macroglobulin, retained in the cheese or low residual chymosin in the cheese. Hardness of fresh cheese increased, and cheese flavor intensity decreased with increasing CF. In trial 2, the 1X and 1.8X CF were compared directly. Changes made in the cheese making procedure for the 1.8X CF (more chymosin and less cooking) increased the MNFS and made proteolysis during aging more comparable for the 1X and 1.8X cheeses. The significant difference in cheese hardness due to CF in trial 1 was eliminated in trial 2. In a triangle test, panelists could not differentiate between the 1X and 1.8X cheeses. Therefore, increasing chymosin and making the composition of the two cheeses more similar allowed production of aged Fetta cheese from milk concentrated up to 1.8X by MF that was not perceived as different from aged feta cheese produced without MF.

Keywords: feta cheese, microfiltration, concentration factor, proteolysis

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1 Iranian Processed Cheese under Effect of Emulsifier Salts and Cooking Time in Process

Authors: M. Dezyani, R. Ezzati bbelvirdi, M. Shakerian, H. Mirzaei

Abstract:

Sodium Hexametaphosphate (SHMP) is commonly used as an Emulsifying Salt (ES) in process cheese, although rarely as the sole ES. It appears that no published studies exist on the effect of SHMP concentration on the properties of process cheese when pH is kept constant; pH is well known to affect process cheese functionality. The detailed interactions between the added phosphate, Casein (CN), and indigenous Ca phosphate are poorly understood. We studied the effect of the concentration of SHMP (0.25-2.75%) and holding time (0-20 min) on the textural and Rheological properties of pasteurized process Cheddar cheese using a central composite rotatable design. All cheeses were adjusted to pH 5.6. The meltability of process cheese (as indicated by the decrease in loss tangent parameter from small amplitude oscillatory rheology, degree of flow, and melt area from the Schreiber test) decreased with an increase in the concentration of SHMP. Holding time also led to a slight reduction in meltability. Hardness of process cheese increased as the concentration of SHMP increased. Acid-base titration curves indicated that the buffering peak at pH 4.8, which is attributable to residual colloidal Ca phosphate, was shifted to lower pH values with increasing concentration of SHMP. The insoluble Ca and total and insoluble P contents increased as concentration of SHMP increased. The proportion of insoluble P as a percentage of total (indigenous and added) P decreased with an increase in ES concentration because of some of the (added) SHMP formed soluble salts. The results of this study suggest that SHMP chelated the residual colloidal Ca phosphate content and dispersed CN; the newly formed Ca-phosphate complex remained trapped within the process cheese matrix, probably by cross-linking CN. Increasing the concentration of SHMP helped to improve fat emulsification and CN dispersion during cooking, both of which probably helped to reinforce the structure of process cheese.

Keywords: Iranian processed cheese, emulsifying salt, rheology, texture

Procedia PDF Downloads 342