Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 45

Search results for: vesicles

45 Localisation of Fluorescently Labelled Drug-Free Phospholipid Vesicles to the Cartilage Surface of Rat Synovial Joints

Authors: Sam Yurdakul, Nick Baverstock, Jim Mills


TDT 064 (FLEXISEQ®) is a drug-free gel used to treat osteoarthritis (OA)-associated pain and joint stiffness. It contains ultra-deformable phospholipid Sequessome™ vesicles, which can pass through the skin barrier intact. In six randomized OA studies, topical TDT 064 was well tolerated and improved joint pain, physical function and stiffness. In the largest study, these TDT 064-mediated effects were statistically significantly greater than oral placebo and equivalent to celecoxib. To understand the therapeutic effects of TDT 064, we investigated the localisation of the drug-free vesicles within rat synovial joints. TDT 064 containing DiO-labelled Sequessome™ vesicles was applied to the knees of four 6-week-old CD® hairless rats (10 mg/kg/ joint), 2–3 times/day, for 3 days (representing the recommended clinical dose). Eighteen hours later, the animals and one untreated control were sacrificed, and the knee joints isolated, flash frozen and embedded in Acrytol Mounting Media™. Approximately 15 sections (10 µm) from each joint were analysed by fluorescence microscopy. To investigate whether the localisation of DiO fluorescence was associated with intact vesicles, an anti-PEG monoclonal antibody (mAb) was used to detect Tween, a constituent of Sequessome™ vesicles. Sections were visualized at 484 nm (DiO) and 647 nm (anti-PEG mAb) and analysed using inForm 1.4 (Perkin Elmer, Inc.). Significant fluorescence was observed at 484 nm in sections from TDT 064-treated animals. No non-specific fluorescence was observed in control sections. Fluorescence was detected as discrete vesicles on the cartilage surfaces, inside the cartilaginous matrix and within the synovial space. The number of DiO-labelled vesicles in multiple fields of view was consistent and >100 in sections from four different treated knees. DiO and anti-PEG mAb co-localised within the collagenous tissues in four different joint sections. Under higher magnification (40x), vesicles were seen in the intercellular spaces of the synovial joint tissue, but no fluorescence was seen inside cells. These data suggest that the phospholipid vesicles in TDT 064 localize at the surface of the joint cartilage; these vesicles may therefore be supplementing the phospholipid deficiency reported in OA and acting as a biolubricant within the synovial joint.

Keywords: joint pain, osteoarthritis, phospholipid vesicles, TDT 064

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44 Biodegradable Polymeric Vesicles Containing Magnetic Nanoparticles, Quantum Dots and Anticancer Drugs for Drug Delivery and Imaging

Authors: Fei Ye, Åsa Barrefelt, Manuchehr Abedi-Valugerdi, Khalid M. Abu-Salah, Salman A. Alrokayan, Mamoun Muhammed, Moustapha Hassan


With appropriate encapsulation in functional nanoparticles drugs are more stable in physiological environment and the kinetics of the drug can be more carefully controlled and monitored. Furthermore, targeted drug delivery can be developed to improve chemotherapy in cancer treatment, not only by enhancing intracellular uptake by target cells but also by reducing the adverse effects in non-target organs. Inorganic imaging agents, delivered together with anti-cancer drugs, enhance the local imaging contrast and provide precise diagnosis as well as evaluation of therapy efficacy. We have developed biodegradable polymeric vesicles as a nanocarrier system for multimodal bio-imaging and anticancer drug delivery. The poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) PLGA) vesicles were fabricated by encapsulating inorganic imaging agents of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION), manganese-doped zinc sulfide (MN:ZnS) quantum dots (QDs) and the anticancer drug busulfan into PLGA nanoparticles via an emulsion-evaporation method. T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of PLGA-SPION-Mn:ZnS phantoms exhibited enhanced negative contrast with r2 relaxivity of approximately 523 s-1 mM-1 Fe. Murine macrophage (J774A) cellular uptake of PLGA vesicles started fluorescence imaging at 2 h and reached maximum intensity at 24 h incubation. The drug delivery ability PLGA vesicles was demonstrated in vitro by release of busulfan. PLGA vesicles degradation was studied in vitro, showing that approximately 32% was degraded into lactic and glycolic acid over a period of 5 weeks. The biodistribution of PLGA vesicles was investigated in vivo by MRI in a rat model. Change of contrast in the liver could be visualized by MRI after 7 min and maximal signal loss detected after 4 h post-injection of PLGA vesicles. Histological studies showed that the presence of PLGA vesicles in organs was shifted from the lungs to the liver and spleen over time.

Keywords: biodegradable polymers, multifunctional nanoparticles, quantum dots, anticancer drugs

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43 Fabric Softener Deposition on Cellulose Nanocrystals and Cotton Fibers

Authors: Evdokia K. Oikonomou, Nikolay Christov, Galder Cristobal, Graziana Messina, Giovani Marletta, Laurent Heux, Jean-Francois Berret


Fabric softeners are aqueous formulations that contain ~10 wt. % double tailed cationic surfactants. Here, a formulation in which 50% surfactant was replaced with low quantities of natural guar polymers was developed. Thanks to the reduced surfactant quantity this product has less environmental impact while the guars presence was found to maintain the product’s performance. The objective of this work is to elucidate the effect of the guar polymers on the softener deposition and the adsorption mechanism on the cotton surface. The surfactants in these formulations are assembled into large distributed (0.1 – 1 µm) vesicles that are stable in the presence of guars and upon dilution. The effect of guars on the vesicles adsorption on cotton was first estimated by using cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) as a stand-in for cotton. The dispersion of CNC in water permits to follow the interaction between the vesicles, guars, and CNC in the bulk. It was found that guars enhance the deposition on CNC and that the vesicles are deposited intactly on the fibers driven by electrostatics. The mechanism of the vesicles/guars adsorption on cellulose fibers was identified by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring. It was found that the guars increase the surfactant deposited quantity, in agreement with the results in the bulk. Also, the structure of the adsorbed surfactant on the fibers' surfaces (vesicle or bilayer) was influenced by the guars presence. Deposition studies on cotton fabrics were also conducted. Attenuated total reflection and scanning electron microscopy were used to study the effect of the polymers on this deposition. Finally, fluorescent microscopy was used to follow the adsorption of surfactant vesicles, labeled with a fluorescent dye, on cotton fabrics in water. It was found that, in the presence or not of polymers, the surfactant vesicles are adsorbed on fiber maintaining their vesicular structure in water (supported vesicular bilayer structure). The guars influence this process. However, upon drying the vesicles are transformed into bilayers and eventually wrap the fibers (supported lipid bilayer structure). This mechanism is proposed for the adsorption of vesicular conditioner on cotton fiber and can be affected by the presence of polymers.

Keywords: cellulose nanocrystals, cotton fibers, fabric softeners, guar polymers, surfactant vesicles

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42 Medicinal Plants and Arbuscular mycorrhizal Colonization

Authors: Ammani K., Glory M.


Demands of traditional herbal medicines are increasing day by day over the world. Considering the growing demand of medicinal plants in curative treatments and the role of VAM fungi in augmentation of the production of active secondary metabolites by the medicinal plants, the present work has been undertaken to survey the mycorrhizal status in 30 different medicinal plants belonging to various families from Krishna district, Andhra Pradesh. The roots were collected carefully and stained by the Phillips & Hayman technique. Basing on the occurrence of vesicles and arbuscules, categorized into four grades; Excellent: mycelia, vesicles or arbuscules present more than 75% of root bits, Good: mycelia, vesicles or arbuscules present 50-75% in surface of root bits, moderate: mycelia, vesicles or arbuscules present 25-50% in surface of root bits, and poor: mycelia, vesicles or arbuscules present 1-25% in surface of root bits. The study reveals that the roots of all plants were colonized by AM fungi. Percentage of root colonization by AM fungi was more in Aloe vera, Phylanthus emblica, Azadiracta indica and least in plants such as Aerva lanata, Vinca rosea, Crotalaria verrucosa among the 30 medicinal plants in present study. The enhancement of growth and vigour and increased production of bioactive compounds of the medicinal plants is desirable which may be achieved by inoculation of the roots with Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. There is a steady increase in the cultivation of medicinal plants to maintain a steady supply to support the increasing demand but corresponding researches of VAM fungi and their association in medicinal plants have received very little attention as compared to the studies on forest species and field crops. So a vast research on this field is necessary for a better tomorrow.

Keywords: Arbuscular mycorrhizae, colonization, categories, medicinal plants

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41 Unveiling the Self-Assembly Behavior and Salt-Induced Morphological Transition of Double PEG-Tailed Unconventional Amphiphiles

Authors: Rita Ghosh, Joykrishna Dey


PEG-based amphiphiles are of tremendous importance for its widespread applications in pharmaceutics, household purposes, and drug delivery. Previously, a number of single PEG-tailed amphiphiles having significant applications have been reported from our group. Therefore, it was of immense interest to explore the properties and application potential of PEG-based double tailed amphiphiles. Herein, for the first time, two novel double PEG-tailed amphiphiles having different PEG chain lengths have been developed. The self-assembly behavior of the newly developed amphiphiles in aqueous buffer (pH 7.0) was thoroughly investigated at 25 oC by a number of techniques including, 1H-NMR, and steady-state and time-dependent fluorescence spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and isothermal titration calorimetry. Despite having two polar PEG chains both molecules were found to have strong tendency to self-assemble in aqueous buffered solution above a very low concentration. Surprisingly, the amphiphiles were shown to form stable vesicles spontaneously at room temperature without any external stimuli. The results of calorimetric measurements showed that the vesicle formation is driven by the hydrophobic effect (positive entropy change) of the system, which is associated with the helix-to-random coil transition of the PEG chain. The spectroscopic data confirmed that the bilayer membrane of the vesicles is constituted by the PEG chains of the amphiphilic molecule. Interestingly, the vesicles were also found to exhibit structural transitions upon addition of salts in solution. These properties of the vesicles enable them as potential candidate for drug delivery.

Keywords: double-tailed amphiphiles, fluorescence, microscopy, PEG, vesicles

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40 Synthesis and Characterization of Novel Hollow Silica Particle through DODAB Vesicle Templating

Authors: Eun Ju Park, Wendy Rusli, He Tao, Alexander M. Van Herk, Sanggu Kim


Hollow micro-/nano- structured materials have proven to be promising in wide range of applications, such as catalysis, drug delivery and controlled release, biotechnology, and personal and consumer care. Hollow sphere structures can be obtained through various templating approaches; colloid templates, emulsion templates, multi-surfactant templates, and single crystal templates. Vesicles are generally the self-directed assemblies of amphiphilic molecules including cationic, anionic, and cationic surfactants in aqueous solutions. The directed silica capsule formations were performed at the surface of dioctadecyldimethylammoniumbromide(DODAB) bilayer vesicles as soft template. The size of DODAB bilayer vesicles could be tuned by extrusion of a preheated dispersion of DODAB. The synthesized hollow silica particles were characterized by conventional TEM, cryo-TEM and SEM to determine the morphology and structure of particles and dynamic light scattering (DLS) method to measure the particle size and particle size distribution.

Keywords: characterization, DODAB, hollow silica particle, synthesis, vesicle

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39 Regulating Nanocarrier and Mononuclear Phagocyte System Interactions through Esomeprazole-Based Preconditioning Strategy

Authors: Zakia Belhadj, Bing He, Hua Zhang, Xueqing Wang, Wenbing Dai, Qiang Zhang


Mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) forms an abominable obstacle hampering the tumor delivery efficiency of nanoparticles. Passively targeted nanocarriers have received clinical approval over the past 20 years. However, none of the actively targeted nanocarriers have entered clinical trials. Thus it is important to endue effective targeting ability to actively targeted approaches by overcoming biological barriers to nanoparticle drug delivery. Here, it presents that an Esomeprazole-based preconditioning strategy for regulating nanocarrier-MPS interaction to substantially prolong circulation time and enhance tumor targeting of nanoparticles. In vitro, the clinically approved proton pump inhibitor Esomeprazole “ESO” was demonstrated to reduce interactions between macrophages and subsequently injected targeted vesicles by interfering with their lysosomal trafficking. Of note, in vivo studies demonstrated that ESO pretreatment greatly decreased the liver and spleen uptake of c(RGDm7)-modified vesicles, highly enhanced their tumor accumulation, thereby provided superior therapeutic efficacy of c(RGDm7)-modified vesicles co-loaded with Doxorubicin (DOX) and Gefitinib (GE). This MPS-preconditioning strategy using ESO provides deeper insights into regulating nanoparticles interaction with the phagocytic system and enhancing their cancer cells' accessibility for anticancer therapy.

Keywords: esomeprazole (ESO), mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS), preconditioning strategy, targeted lipid vesicles

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38 Synthesis of Liposomal Vesicles by a Novel Supercritical Fluid Process

Authors: Wen-Chyan Tsai, Syed S. H. Rizvi


Organic solvent residues are always associated with liposomes produced by the traditional techniques like the thin film hydration and reverse phase evaporation methods, which limit the applications of these vesicles in the pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries. Our objective was to develop a novel and benign process of liposomal microencapsulation by using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) as the sole phospholipid-dissolving medium and a green substitute for organic solvents. This process consists of supercritical fluid extraction followed by rapid expansion via a nozzle and automatic cargo suction. Lecithin and cholesterol mixed in 10:1 mass ratio were dissolved in SC-CO2 at 20 ± 0.5 MPa and 60 oC. After at least two hours of equilibrium, the lecithin/cholesterol-laden SC-CO2 was passed through a 1000-micron nozzle and immediately mixed with the cargo solution to form liposomes. Liposomal micro-encapsulation was conducted at three pressures (8.27, 12.41, 16.55 MPa), three temperatures (75, 83 and 90 oC) and two flow rates (0.25 ml/sec and 0.5 ml/sec). Liposome size, zeta potential and encapsulation efficiency were characterized as functions of the operating parameters. The average liposomal size varied from 400-500 nm to 1000-1200 nm when the pressure was increased from 8.27 to 16.55 MPa. At 12.41 MPa, 90 oC and 0.25 ml per second of 0.2 M glucose cargo loading rate, the highest encapsulation efficiency of 31.65 % was achieved. Under a confocal laser scanning microscope, large unilamellar vesicles and multivesicular vesicles were observed to make up a majority of the liposomal emulsion. This new approach is a rapid and continuous process for bulk production of liposomes using a green solvent. Based on the results to date, it is feasible to apply this technique to encapsulate hydrophilic compounds inside the aqueous core as well as lipophilic compounds in the phospholipid bilayers of the liposomes for controlled release, solubility improvement and targeted therapy of bioactive compounds.

Keywords: liposome, micro encapsulation, supercritical carbon dioxide, non-toxic process

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37 Effect of Non-Ionic Surfactants on in vitro Release of Ketorolactromethamine

Authors: Ajay Aggarwal, Kamal Saroha, Sanju Nanda


Niosomes or non-ionic surfactant vesicles are microscopic lamellar structures formed on admixture of non-ionic surfactant of the alkyl or dialkyl polyglycerol ether class and cholesterol with subsequent hydration in aqueous media. They are vesicular systems similar to liposomes that can be used as carriers of amphiphilic and lipophilic drugs. Entrapment efficiency was found to be higher in case of niosome prepared with span60 than niosome prepared with tween. The amount of release was found to be in order of Span20>Tween60>Tween20>Span60. As the concentration of surfactant is increased in vitro release was increased due to high entrapment. The stability study of optimized batch revealed that particle size was increased after 3months on increasing the temperature. On the other hand entrapment efficiency was decreased on increasing the temperature.

Keywords: niosomes, vesicles, span, tween, in vitro release

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36 Formulation and Evaluation of Niosomes Containing an Antihypertensive Drug

Authors: Sunil Kamboj, Suman Bala, Vipin Saini


Niosomes were formulated with an aim of enhancing the oral bioavailability of losartan potassium and formulated in different molar ratios of surfactant, cholesterol and dicetyl phosphate. The formulated niosomes were found in range of 54.98 µm to 107.85 µm in size. Formulations with 1:1 ratio of surfactant and cholesterol have shown maximum entrapment efficiencies. Niosomes with sorbitan monostearate showed maximum drug release and zero order release kinetics, at the end of 24 hours. The in vivo study has shown the significant enhancement in oral bioavailability of losartan potassium in rats, after a dose of 10 mg/kg. The average relative bioavailability in relation with pure drug solution was found 2.56, indicates more than two fold increase in oral bioavailability. A significant increment in MRT reflects the release retarding ability of the vesicles. In conclusion, niosomes could be a promising delivery of losartan potassium with improved oral bioavailability and prolonged release profiles.

Keywords: non-ionic surfactant vesicles, losartan potassium, oral bioavailability, controlled release

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35 Biophysical Features of Glioma-Derived Extracellular Vesicles as Potential Diagnostic Markers

Authors: Abhimanyu Thakur, Youngjin Lee


Glioma is a lethal brain cancer whose early diagnosis and prognosis are limited due to the dearth of a suitable technique for its early detection. Current approaches, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and invasive biopsy for the diagnosis of this lethal disease, hold several limitations, demanding an alternative method. Recently, extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been used in numerous biomarker studies, majorly exosomes and microvesicles (MVs), which are found in most of the cells and biofluids, including blood, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and urine. Remarkably, glioma cells (GMs) release a high number of EVs, which are found to cross the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) and impersonate the constituents of parent GMs including protein, and lncRNA; however, biophysical properties of EVs have not been explored yet as a biomarker for glioma. We isolated EVs from cell culture conditioned medium of GMs and regular primary culture, blood, and urine of wild-type (WT)- and glioma mouse models, and characterized by nano tracking analyzer, transmission electron microscopy, immunogold-EM, and differential light scanning. Next, we measured the biophysical parameters of GMs-EVs by using atomic force microscopy. Further, the functional constituents of EVs were examined by FTIR and Raman spectroscopy. Exosomes and MVs-derived from GMs, blood, and urine showed distinction biophysical parameters (roughness, adhesion force, and stiffness) and different from that of regular primary glial cells, WT-blood, and -urine, which can be attributed to the characteristic functional constituents. Therefore, biophysical features can be potential diagnostic biomarkers for glioma.

Keywords: glioma, extracellular vesicles, exosomes, microvesicles, biophysical properties

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34 Investigating the Suitability of Utilizing Lyophilized Gels to Improve the Stability of Ufasomes

Authors: Mona Hassan Aburahma, Alaa Hamed Salama


Ufasomes “unsaturated fatty acids liposomes” are unique nano-sized self-assembled bilayered vesicles that can be easily created from the readily available unsaturated fatty acid. Ufasomes are formed due to weak associative interaction of the fully ionized and unionized fatty acids into bilayers structures. In the ufasomes constructs, the fatty acid molecules are oriented with their hydrocarbon tails directed toward the membrane interior and the carboxyl groups are in contact with water. Although ufasomes can be employed as a safe vesicular carrier for drugs, the extreme instability of their aqueous dispersions hinders their effective use in drug delivery field. Accordingly, in our study, lyophilized gels containing ufasomes were prepared using a simple assembling technique form the readily available oleic acid to overcome the colloidal instability of the ufasomes dispersions and convert them into accurate unit dosage forms. The influence of changing cholesterol percentage relative to oleic acid on the ufasomes vesicles were investigated using factorial design. The optimized oleic acid ufasomes comprised nanoscaled spherical vesicles. Scanning electron micrographs of the lyophilized gels revealed that the included ufasomes were intact, non-aggregating, and preserved their spherical morphology. Rheological characterization (viscosity and shear stress versus shear rate) of reconstituted ufasomal lyophilized gel ensured the ease of application. The capability of the ufasomes, included in the gel, to penetrate deep through the mucosa layers was illustrated using ex-vivo confocal laser imaging, thereby, highlighting the feasibility of stabilizing ufasomes using lyophilized gel platforms.

Keywords: ufasomes, lyophilized gel, confocal scanning microscopy, rheological characterization, oleic acid

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33 Nanoparticles-Protein Hybrid-Based Magnetic Liposome

Authors: Amlan Kumar Das, Avinash Marwal, Vikram Pareek


Liposome plays an important role in medical and pharmaceutical science as e.g. nano scale drug carriers. Liposomes are vesicles of varying size consisting of a spherical lipid bilayer and an aqueous inner compartment. Magnet-driven liposome used for the targeted delivery of drugs to organs and tissues1. These liposome preparations contain encapsulated drug components and finely dispersed magnetic particles. Liposomes are vesicles of varying size consisting of a spherical lipid bilayer and an aqueous inner compartment that are generated in vitro. These are useful in terms of biocompatibility, biodegradability, and low toxicity, and can control biodistribution by changing the size, lipid composition, and physical characteristics2. Furthermore, liposomes can entrap both hydrophobic and hydrophilic drugs and are able to continuously release the entrapped substrate, thus being useful drug carriers. Magnetic liposomes (MLs) are phospholipid vesicles that encapsulate magneticor paramagnetic nanoparticles. They are applied as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)3. The biological synthesis of nanoparticles using plant extracts plays an important role in the field of nanotechnology4. Green-synthesized magnetite nanoparticles-protein hybrid has been produced by treating Iron (III)/Iron(II) chloride with the leaf extract of Dhatura Inoxia. The phytochemicals present in the leaf extracts act as a reducing as well stabilizing agents preventing agglomeration, which include flavonoids, phenolic compounds, cardiac glycosides, proteins and sugars. The magnetite nanoparticles-protein hybrid has been trapped inside the aqueous core of the liposome prepared by reversed phase evaporation (REV) method using oleic and linoleic acid which has been shown to be driven under magnetic field confirming the formation magnetic liposome (ML). Chemical characterization of stealth magnetic liposome has been performed by breaking the liposome and release of magnetic nanoparticles. The presence iron has been confirmed by colour complex formation with KSCN and UV-Vis study using spectrophotometer Cary 60, Agilent. This magnet driven liposome using nanoparticles-protein hybrid can be a smart vesicles for the targeted drug delivery.

Keywords: nanoparticles-protein hybrid, magnetic liposome, medical, pharmaceutical science

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32 Ultra-deformable Drug-free Sequessome™ Vesicles (TDT 064) for the Treatment of Joint Pain Following Exercise: A Case Report and Clinical Data

Authors: Joe Collins, Matthias Rother


Background: Oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used for the relief of joint pain during and post-exercise. However, oral NSAIDs increase the risk of systemic side effects, even in healthy individuals, and retard recovery from muscle soreness. TDT 064 (Flexiseq®), a topical formulation containing ultra-deformable drug-free Sequessome™ vesicles, has demonstrated equivalent efficacy to oral celecoxib in reducing osteoarthritis-associated joint pain and stiffness. TDT 064 does not cause NSAID-related adverse effects. We describe clinical study data and a case report on the effectiveness of TDT 064 in reducing joint pain after exercise. Methods: Participants with a pain score ≥3 (10-point scale) 12–16 hours post-exercise were randomized to receive TDT 064 plus oral placebo, TDT 064 plus oral ketoprofen, or ketoprofen in ultra-deformable phospholipid vesicles plus oral placebo. Results: In the 168 study participants, pain scores were significantly higher with oral ketoprofen plus TDT 064 than with TDT 064 plus placebo in the 7 days post-exercise (P = 0.0240) and recovery from muscle soreness was significantly longer (P = 0.0262). There was a low incidence of adverse events. These data are supported by clinical experience. A 24-year-old male professional rugby player suffered a traumatic lisfranc fracture in March 2014 and underwent operative reconstruction. He had no relevant medical history and was not receiving concomitant medications. He had undergone anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in 2008. The patient reported restricted training due to pain (score 7/10), stiffness (score 9/10) and poor function, as well as pain when changing direction and running on consecutive days. In July 2014 he started using TDT 064 twice daily at the recommended dose. In November 2014 he noted reduced pain on running (score 2-3/10), decreased morning stiffness (score 4/10) and improved joint mobility and was able to return to competitive rugby without restrictions. No side effects of TDT 064 were reported. Conclusions: TDT 064 shows efficacy against exercise- and injury-induced joint pain, as well as that associated with osteoarthritis. It does not retard muscle soreness recovery after exercise compared with an oral NSAID, making it an alternative approach for the treatment of joint pain during and post-exercise.

Keywords: exercise, joint pain, TDT 064, phospholipid vesicles

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31 Preparation and Physicochemical Characterization of Non-ionic Surfactant Vesicles Containing Itraconazole

Authors: S. Ataei, F. Sarrafzadeh Javadi, K. Gilani, E. Moazeni


Drug delivery systems using colloidal particulate carriers such as niosomes or liposomes have distinct advantages over conventional dosage forms because the particles can act as drug-containing reservoirs. These carriers play an increasingly important role in drug delivery. Niosomes are vesicular delivery systems which result from the self-assembly of hydrated surfactant. Niosomes are now widely studied as an attractive to liposomes because they alleviate the disadvantages associated with liposomes, such as chemical instability, variable purity of phospholipids and high cost. The encapsulation of drugs in niosomes can decrease drug toxicity, increase the stability of drug and increase the penetrability of drug in the location of application, and may reduce the dose and systemic side effect. Nowadays, Niosomes are used by the pharmaceutical industry in manufacturing skin medications, eye medication, in cosmetic formulas and these vesicular systems can be used to deliver aspiratory drugs. One way of improving dispersion in the water phase and solubility of the hydrophobic drug is to formulate in into niosomes. Itraconazole (ITZ) was chosen as a model hydrophobic drug. This drug is water insoluble (solubility ~ 1 ng/ml at neutral pH), is a broad-spectrum triazole antifungal agent and is used to treat various fungal disease. This study aims to investigate the capability of forming itraconazole niosomes with Spans, Tweens, Brijs as non-ionic surfactants. To this end, various formulations of niosomes have been studied with regard to parameters such as the degree of containment and particle size.

Keywords: physicochemical, non-ionic surfactant vesicles, itraconazole

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30 Artificial Cells Capable of Communication by Using Polymer Hydrogel

Authors: Qi Liu, Jiqin Yao, Xiaohu Zhou, Bo Zheng


The first artificial cell was produced by Thomas Chang in the 1950s when he was trying to make a mimic of red blood cells. Since then, many different types of artificial cells have been constructed from one of the two approaches: a so-called bottom-up approach, which aims to create a cell from scratch, and a top-down approach, in which genes are sequentially knocked out from organisms until only the minimal genome required for sustaining life remains. In this project, bottom-up approach was used to build a new cell-free expression system which mimics artificial cell that capable of protein expression and communicate with each other. The artificial cells constructed from the bottom-up approach are usually lipid vesicles, polymersomes, hydrogels or aqueous droplets containing the nucleic acids and transcription-translation machinery. However, lipid vesicles based artificial cells capable of communication present several issues in the cell communication research: (1) The lipid vesicles normally lose the important functions such as protein expression within a few hours. (2) The lipid membrane allows the permeation of only small molecules and limits the types of molecules that can be sensed and released to the surrounding environment for chemical communication; (3) The lipid vesicles are prone to rupture due to the imbalance of the osmotic pressure. To address these issues, the hydrogel-based artificial cells were constructed in this work. To construct the artificial cell, polyacrylamide hydrogel was functionalized with Acrylate PEG Succinimidyl Carboxymethyl Ester (ACLT-PEG2000-SCM) moiety on the polymer backbone. The proteinaceous factors can then be immobilized on the polymer backbone by the reaction between primary amines of proteins and N-hydroxysuccinimide esters (NHS esters) of ACLT-PEG2000-SCM, the plasmid template and ribosome were encapsulated inside the hydrogel particles. Because the artificial cell could continuously express protein with the supply of nutrients and energy, the artificial cell-artificial cell communication and artificial cell-natural cell communication could be achieved by combining the artificial cell vector with designed plasmids. The plasmids were designed referring to the quorum sensing (QS) system of bacteria, which largely relied on cognate acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) / transcription pairs. In one communication pair, “sender” is the artificial cell or natural cell that can produce AHL signal molecule by synthesizing the corresponding signal synthase that catalyzed the conversion of S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) into AHL, while the “receiver” is the artificial cell or natural cell that can sense the quorum sensing signaling molecule form “sender” and in turn express the gene of interest. In the experiment, GFP was first immobilized inside the hydrogel particle to prove that the functionalized hydrogel particles could be used for protein binding. After that, the successful communication between artificial cell-artificial cell and artificial cell-natural cell was demonstrated, the successful signal between artificial cell-artificial cell or artificial cell-natural cell could be observed by recording the fluorescence signal increase. The hydrogel-based artificial cell designed in this work can help to study the complex communication system in bacteria, it can also be further developed for therapeutic applications.

Keywords: artificial cell, cell-free system, gene circuit, synthetic biology

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29 Double Liposomes Based Dual Drug Delivery System for Effective Eradication of Helicobacter pylori

Authors: Yuvraj Singh Dangi, Brajesh Kumar Tiwari, Ashok Kumar Jain, Kamta Prasad Namdeo


The potential use of liposomes as drug carriers by i.v. injection is limited by their low stability in blood stream. Firstly, phospholipid exchange and transfer to lipoproteins, mainly HDL destabilizes and disintegrates liposomes with subsequent loss of content. To avoid the pain associated with injection and to obtain better patient compliance studies concerning various dosage forms, have been developed. Conventional liposomes (unilamellar and multilamellar) have certain drawbacks like low entrapment efficiency, stability and release of drug after single breach in external membrane, have led to the new type of liposomal systems. The challenge has been successfully met in the form of Double Liposomes (DL). DL is a recently developed type of liposome, consisting of smaller liposomes enveloped in lipid bilayers. The outer lipid layer of DL can protect inner liposomes against various enzymes, therefore DL was thought to be more effective than ordinary liposomes. This concept was also supported by in vitro release characteristics i.e. DL formation inhibited the release of drugs encapsulated in inner liposomes. DL consists of several small liposomes encapsulated in large liposomes, i.e., multivesicular vesicles (MVV), therefore, DL should be discriminated from ordinary classification of multilamellar vesicles (MLV), large unilamellar vesicles (LUV), small unilamellar vesicles (SUV). However, for these liposomes, the volume of inner phase is small and loading volume of water-soluble drugs is low. In the present study, the potential of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) lipid anchored double liposomes (DL) to incorporate two drugs in a single system is exploited as a tool to augment the H. pylori eradication rate. Preparation of DL involves two steps, first formation of primary (inner) liposomes by thin film hydration method containing one drug, then addition of suspension of inner liposomes on thin film of lipid containing the other drug. The success of formation of DL was characterized by optical and transmission electron microscopy. Quantitation of DL-bacterial interaction was evaluated in terms of percent growth inhibition (%GI) on reference strain of H. pylori ATCC 26695. To confirm specific binding efficacy of DL to H. pylori PE surface receptor we performed an agglutination assay. Agglutination in DL treated H. pylori suspension suggested selectivity of DL towards the PE surface receptor of H. pylori. Monotherapy is generally not recommended for treatment of a H. pylori infection due to the danger of development of resistance and unacceptably low eradication rates. Therefore, combination therapy with amoxicillin trihydrate (AMOX) as anti-H. pylori agent and ranitidine bismuth citrate (RBC) as antisecretory agent were selected for the study with an expectation that this dual-drug delivery approach will exert acceptable anti-H. pylori activity.

Keywords: Helicobacter pylorI, amoxicillin trihydrate, Ranitidine Bismuth citrate, phosphatidylethanolamine, multi vesicular systems

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28 Polymersomes in Drug Delivery: A Comparative Review with Liposomes and Micelles

Authors: Salma E. Ahmed


Since the mid 50’s, enormous attention has been paid towards nanocarriers and their applications in drug and gene delivery. Among these vesicles, liposomes and micelles have been heavily investigated due to their many advantages over other types. Liposomes, for instance, are mostly distinguished by their ability to encapsulate hydrophobic, hydrophilic and amphiphilic drugs. Micelles, on the other hand, are self-assembled shells of lipids, amphiphilic or oppositely charged block copolymers that, once exposed to aqueous media, can entrap hydrophobic agents, and possess prolonged circulation in the bloodstream. Both carriers are considered compatible and biodegradable. Nevertheless, they have limited stabilities, chemical versatilities, and drug encapsulation efficiencies. In order to overcome these downsides, strategies for optimizing a novel drug delivery system that has the architecture of liposomes and polymeric characteristics of micelles have been evolved. Polymersomes are vehicles with fluidic cores and hydrophobic shells that are protected and isolated from the aqueous media by the hydrated hydrophilic brushes which give the carrier its distinctive polymeric bilayer shape. Similar to liposomes, this merit enables the carrier to encapsulate a wide range of agents, despite their affinities and solubilities in water. Adding to this, the high molecular weight of the amphiphiles that build the body of the polymersomes increases their colloidal and chemical stabilities and reduces the permeability of the polymeric membranes, which makes the vesicles more protective to the encapsulated drug. These carriers can also be modified in ways that make them responsive when targeted or triggered, by manipulating their composition and attaching moieties and conjugates to the body of the carriers. These appealing characteristics, in addition to the ease of synthesis, gave the polymersomes greater potentials in the area of drug delivery. Thus, their design and characterization, in comparison with liposomes and micelles, are briefly reviewed in this work.

Keywords: controlled release, liposomes, micelles, polymersomes, targeting

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27 Surface Functionalized Biodegradable Polymersome for Targeted Drug Delivery

Authors: Susmita Roy, Madhavan Nallani


In recent years' polymersomes, self-assembled polymeric vesicles emerge from block copolymers, have been widely investigated due to their enhance stability and unique advantageous properties compared to their phospholipid counterpart, liposomes, dendrimers, and micelles. It provides a distinctive platform for advanced therapeutics and the creation of complex (bio) catalytically active systems for research in Nanomedicine and synthetic biology. Inspired by nature, where compartmentalization of biological components is all ubiquitous, we are interested in developing a platform technology of self-assembled multifunctional compartments with applications in areas from targeted drug/gene delivery, biosensing, pharmaceutical to cosmetics. Polymersome surfaces can be a proper choice of derivatization with a controlled amount of functional groups. To achieve site-specific targeting of polymersomes, biological recognition motives can be attached to the polymersomes surface by standard bioconjugation techniques, (like esterification, amidation, thiol-maleimide coupling, click-chemistry routes or other coupling methods). Herein, we are developing easy going, one-step bioconjugation strategies for site-specific surface functionalized biodegradable polymeric and/or polymer-lipid hybrid vesicles for targeted drug delivery. Biodegradable polymer, polycaprolactone-b-polyethylene glycol (PCL-PEG), polylactic acid-b-polyethylene glycol (PLA-PEG) and phospholipid, 1-palmitoyl-2- oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) has been widely used for numerous vesicle formulations. Some of these drug-loaded formulations are being tested on mice for controlled release. These surface functionalized polymersomes are also appropriate for membrane protein reconstitution/insertion, antibodies conjugation and various bioconjugation with diverse targeted molecules for controlled drug delivery.

Keywords: drug delivery, membrane protein, polymersome, surface modification

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26 Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin/Kexin Type 9 Enhances Arterial Medial Calcification in a Uremic Rat Model of Chronic Kidney Disease

Authors: Maria Giovanna Lupo, Marina Camera, Marcello Rattazzi, Nicola Ferri


A complex interplay among chronic kidney disease, lipid metabolism and aortic calcification has been recognized starting from results of many clinical and experimental studies. Here we investigated the influence of kidney function on PCSK9 levels, both in uremic rats and in clinical observation study, and its potential direct action on cultured smooth muscle cells (SMCs) calcification. In a cohort of 594 subjects enrolled in a single centre, observational, cross-sectional and longitudinal study, a negative association between GFR and plasma PCSK9 was found. Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), as co-morbidity, further increased PCSK9 plasma levels. Diet-induced uremic condition in rats, induced aortic calcification and increased total cholesterol and PCSK9 levels in plasma, livers and kidneys. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed PCSK9 expression in aortic SMCs. SMCs overexpressing PCSK9 (SMCsPCSK9), cultured for 7-days in a pro-calcification environment (2.0mM or 2.4mM inorganic phosphate, Pi) showed a significantly higher extracellular calcium (Ca2+) deposition compared to mocked SMCs. Under the same experimental conditions, the addition of exogenous recombinant PCSK9 did not increase the extracellular calcification of SMCs. By flow cytometry analysis we showed that SMCsPCSK9, in response to 2.4mM Pi, released higher number of extracellular vesicles (EVs) positive for three tetraspanin molecules, such as CD63, CD9, and CD81. EVs derived from SMCsPCSK9 tended to be more enriched in calcium and alkaline phosphatase (ALPL), compared to EVs from mocks SMCs. In conclusion, our study reveals a direct role of PCSK9 on vascular calcification induced by higher inorganic phosphate levels associated to CKD condition. This effect appears to be mediated by a positive effect of endogenous PCSK9 on the release of EVs containing Ca2+ and ALP, which facilitate the deposition inorganic calcium phosphate crystals.

Keywords: PCSK9, calcification, extracellular vesicles, chronic kidney disease

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25 3D Estimation of Synaptic Vesicle Distributions in Serial Section Transmission Electron Microscopy

Authors: Mahdieh Khanmohammadi, Sune Darkner, Nicoletta Nava, Jens Randel Nyengaard, Jon Sporring


We study the effect of stress on nervous system and we use two experimental groups of rats: sham rats and rats subjected to acute foot-shock stress. We investigate the synaptic vesicles density as a function of distance to the active zone in serial section transmission electron microscope images in 2 and 3 dimensions. By estimating the density in 2D and 3D we compare two groups of rats.

Keywords: stress, 3-dimensional synaptic vesicle density, image registration, bioinformatics

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24 Proniosomes as a Carrier for Ocular Drug Delivery

Authors: Rawia M. Khalil, Ghada Abd-Elbary, Mona Basha, Ghada E. A. Awad, Hadeer A. Elhashemy


Background: Bacterial infections of the eye are the clinical conditions responsible for ocular morbidity and blindness. Conjunctivitis is an inflammation of the conjunctiva, due to Staphylococcus aureus. Lomefloxacin HCl (LXN) is a third generation flouroquinolone antibiotic with a broad spectrum against wide range of bacteria and very effective against Staph infections especially in conjunctiva (conjunctivitis). The present study aims to develop and evaluate novel ocular proniosomal gels of Lomefloxacin Hcl (LXN); in order to improve its ocular bioavailability for the management of bacterial conjunctivitis. Materials and methods: Proniosomes were prepared by coacervation phase separation method using different types of nonionic surfactants (Span 60,40,20,Tween 20,40,60,80,Brij 35,98,72) solely and as mixtures with Span® 60. The formed gels were characterized for entrapment efficiency, vesicle size and in vitro drug release. The optimum proniosomal gel; P-LXN 7 were characterized for pH measurement, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) as well as Stability study and microbiological evaluation .The results revealed that only Span 60 was able to form stable LXN proniosomal gel when used individually while the other nonionic surfactants formed gels only in combination with Span 60 at different ratios. The optimum proniosomal gel; P-LXN 7 (Span60:Tween60, 9:1) appeared as spherical shaped vesicles having high entrapment efficiency (>80 %), appropriate vesicle size (187 nm) as well as controlled drug release over 12h. DSC confirmed the amorphous nature and the uniformity of LXN inclusion within the vesicles. Physical stability study did not show any significant changes in appearance or entrapment efficiency or vesicle size after storage for 3 months at 4°C. Ocular irritancy test revealed that P-LXN 7 was safe, well tolerable and suitable for ocular delivery. In vivo antibacterial activity of P-LXN 7 evaluated using the susceptibility test and topical therapy of induced ocular conjunctivitis confirmed the enhanced antibacterial therapeutic efficacy of the LXN-proniosomal gel compared to the commercially available LXN eye drops; Orchacin®. Conclusions: Our results suggest that proniosomal gels could provide a promising carrier of LXN for efficient ocular treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis.

Keywords: bacterial conjunctivitis, lomefloxacin HCl, ocular drug delivery, proniosomes

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23 The Challenges and Opportunities Faced by Women in Geomatics Engineering: The Case of the SADC Region

Authors: Moreblessings Shoko


Polymersomes are materials which are considered as artificial counterparts of natural vesicles. The nanotechnology of such smart nanovesicles is very useful to enhance the efficiency of many therapeutic and diagnostic drugs. Those compounds show a higher stability, flexibility, and mechanical strength to the membrane compared to natural liposomes. Also, they can be designed in detail, the permeability of the membrane can be controlled by different stimuli, and the surface can be functionalized with different biological molecules to facilitate monitoring and target. For this purpose, this study demonstrates the formation of multifunctional and pH sensitive polymersomes and their functionalization with different reactive groups or biomolecules inside and outside of polymersomes´ membrane providing by crossing the membrane and docking/undocking processes for biomedical applications. Overall, they are highly versatile and thus present new opportunities for the design of targeted and selective recognition systems, for example, in mimicking cell functions and in synthetic biology.

Keywords: women, geomatics, challenges, capacity building

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22 Petrology of the Post-Collisional Dolerites, Basalts from the Javakheti Highland, South Georgia

Authors: Bezhan Tutberidze


The Neogene-Quaternary volcanic rocks of the Javakheti Highland are products of post-collisional continental magmatism and are related to divergent and convergent margins of Eurasian-Afroarabian lithospheric plates. The studied area constitutes an integral part of the volcanic province of Central South Georgia. Three cycles of volcanic activity are identified here: 1. Late Miocene-Early Pliocene, 2. Late Pliocene-Early /Middle/ Pleistocene and 3. Late Pleistocene. An intense basic dolerite magmatic activity occurred within the time span of the Late Pliocene and lasted until at least Late /Middle/ Pleistocene. The age of the volcanogenic and volcanogenic-sedimentary formation was dated by geomorphological, paleomagnetic, paleontological and geochronological methods /1.7-1.9 Ma/. The volcanic area of the Javakheti Highland contains multiple dolerite Plateaus: Akhalkalaki, Gomarethi, Dmanisi, and Tsalka. Petrographic observations of these doleritic rocks reveal fairly constant mineralogical composition: olivine / Fo₈₇.₆₋₈₂.₇ /, plagioclase / Ab₂₂.₈ An₇₅.₉ Or₁.₃; Ab₄₅.₀₋₃₂.₃ An₅₂.₉₋₆₂.₃ Or₂.₁₋₅.₄/. The pyroxene is an augite and may exhibit a visible zoning: / Wo 39.7-43.1 En 43.5-45.2 Fs 16.8-11.7/. Opaque minerals /magnetite, titanomagnetite/ is abundant as inclusions within olivine and pyroxene crystals. The texture of dolerites exhibits intergranular, holocrystalline to ophitic to sub ophitic granular. Dolerites are most common vesicular rocks. Vesicles range in shape from spherical to elongated and in size from 0.5 mm to than 1.5-2 cm and makeup about 20-50 % of the volume. The dolerites have been subjected to considerable alteration. The secondary minerals in the geothermal field are: zeolite, calcite, chlorite, aragonite, clay-like mineral /dominated by smectites/ and iddingsite –like mineral; rare quartz and pumpellyite are present. These vesicles are filled by secondary minerals. In the chemistry, dolerites are the calc-alkalic transition to sub-alkaline with a predominance of Na₂O over K₂O. Chemical analyses indicate that dolerites of all plateaus of the Javakheti Highland have similar geochemical compositions, signifying that they were formed from the same magmatic source by crystallization of olivine basalis magma which less differentiated / ⁸⁷Sr \ ⁸⁶Sr 0.703920-0704195/. There is one argument, which is less convincing, according to which the dolerites/basalts of the Javakheti Highland are considered to be an activity of a mantle plume. Unfortunately, there does not exist reliable evidence to prove this. The petrochemical peculiarities and eruption nature of the dolerites of the Javakheti Plateau point against their plume origin. Nevertheless, it is not excluded that they influence the formation of dolerite producing primary basaltic magma.

Keywords: calc-alkalic, dolerite, Georgia, Javakheti Highland

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21 Smart Multifunctionalized and Responsive Polymersomes as Targeted and Selective Recognition Systems

Authors: Silvia Moreno, Banu Iyisan, Hannes Gumz, Brigitte Voit, Dietmar Appelhans


Polymersomes are materials which are considered as artificial counterparts of natural vesicles. The nanotechnology of such smart nanovesicles is very useful to enhance the efficiency of many therapeutic and diagnostic drugs. Those compounds show a higher stability, flexibility, and mechanical strength to the membrane compared to natural liposomes. In addition, they can be designed in detail, the permeability of the membrane can be controlled by different stimuli, and the surface can be functionalized with different biological molecules to facilitate monitoring and target. For this purpose, this study demonstrates the formation of multifunctional and pH sensitive polymersomes and their functionalization with different reactive groups or biomolecules inside and outside of polymersomes´ membrane providing by crossing the membrane and docking/undocking processes for biomedical applications. Overall, they are highly versatile and thus present new opportunities for the design of targeted and selective recognition systems, for example, in mimicking cell functions and in synthetic biology.

Keywords: multifunctionalized, pH stimulus, controllable release, cellular uptake

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20 Liposome Loaded Polysaccharide Based Hydrogels: Promising Delayed Release Biomaterials

Authors: J. Desbrieres, M. Popa, C. Peptu, S. Bacaita


Because of their favorable properties (non-toxicity, biodegradability, mucoadhesivity etc.), polysaccharides were studied as biomaterials and as pharmaceutical excipients in drug formulations. These formulations may be produced in a wide variety of forms including hydrogels, hydrogel based particles (or capsules), films etc. In these formulations, the polysaccharide based materials are able to provide local delivery of loaded therapeutic agents but their delivery can be rapid and not easily time-controllable due to, particularly, the burst effect. This leads to a loss in drug efficiency and lifetime. To overcome the consequences of burst effect, systems involving liposomes incorporated into polysaccharide hydrogels may appear as a promising material in tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and drug loading systems. Liposomes are spherical self-closed structures, composed of curved lipid bilayers, which enclose part of the surrounding solvent into their structure. The simplicity of production, their biocompatibility, the size and similar composition of cells, the possibility of size adjustment for specific applications, the ability of hydrophilic or/and hydrophobic drug loading make them a revolutionary tool in nanomedicine and biomedical domain. Drug delivery systems were developed as hydrogels containing chitosan or carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) as polysaccharides and gelatin (GEL) as polypeptide, and phosphatidylcholine or phosphatidylcholine/cholesterol liposomes able to accurately control this delivery, without any burst effect. Hydrogels based on CMC were covalently crosslinked using glutaraldehyde, whereas chitosan based hydrogels were double crosslinked (ionically using sodium tripolyphosphate or sodium sulphate and covalently using glutaraldehyde). It has been proven that the liposome integrity is highly protected during the crosslinking procedure for the formation of the film network. Calcein was used as model active matter for delivery experiments. Multi-Lamellar vesicles (MLV) and Small Uni-Lamellar Vesicles (SUV) were prepared and compared. The liposomes are well distributed throughout the whole area of the film, and the vesicle distribution is equivalent (for both types of liposomes evaluated) on the film surface as well as deeper (100 microns) in the film matrix. An obvious decrease of the burst effect was observed in presence of liposomes as well as a uniform increase of calcein release that continues even at large time scales. Liposomes act as an extra barrier for calcein release. Systems containing MLVs release higher amounts of calcein compared to systems containing SUVs, although these liposomes are more stable in the matrix and diffuse with difficulty. This difference comes from the higher quantity of calcein present within the MLV in relation with their size. Modeling of release kinetics curves was performed and the release of hydrophilic drugs may be described by a multi-scale mechanism characterized by four distinct phases, each of them being characterized by a different kinetics model (Higuchi equation, Korsmeyer-Peppas model etc.). Knowledge of such models will be a very interesting tool for designing new formulations for tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and drug delivery systems.

Keywords: controlled and delayed release, hydrogels, liposomes, polysaccharides

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19 Investigation of the Controversial Immunomodulatory Potential of Trichinella spiralis Excretory-Secretory Products versus Extracellular Vesicles Derived from These Products in Vitro

Authors: Natasa Ilic, Alisa Gruden-Movsesijan, Maja Kosanovic, Sofija Glamoclija, Marina Bekic, Ljiljana Sofronic-Milosavljevic, Sergej Tomic


As a very promising candidate for modulation of immune response in the sense of biasing the inflammatory towards the anti-inflammatory type of response, Trichinella spiralis infection was shown to successfully alleviate the severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, the animal model of human disease multiple sclerosis. This effect is achieved via its excretory-secretory muscle larvae (ES L1) products which affect the maturation status and function of dendritic cells (DCs) by inducing the tolerogenic status of DCs, which leads to the mitigation of Th1 type of response and the activation of a regulatory type of immune response both in vitro and in vivo. ES L1 alone or via treated DCs successfully mitigated EAE in the same manner as the infection itself. On the other hand, it has been shown that T. spiralis infection slows down the tumor growth and significantly reduces the tumor size in the model of mouse melanoma, while ES L1 possesses a pro-apoptotic and anti-survival effect on melanoma cells in vitro. Hence, although the mechanisms still need to be revealed, T. spiralis infection and its ES L1 products have a bit of controversial potential to modulate both inflammatory diseases and malignancies. The recent discovery of T. spiralis extracellular vesicles (TsEVs) suggested that the induction of complex regulation of the immune response requires simultaneous delivery of different signals in nano-sized packages. This study aimed to explore whether TsEVs bare the similar potential as ES L1 to influence the status of DCs in initiation, progression and regulation of immune response, but also to investigate the effect of both ES L1 and TsEVs on myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC), which present the regular tumor tissue environment. TsEVs were enriched from the conditioned medium of T. spiralis muscle larvae by differential centrifugation and used for the treatment of human monocyte-derived DCs and MDSC. On DCs, TsEVs induced low expression of HLA DR and CD40, moderate CD83 and CD86 and increased expression of ILT3 and CCR7 on treated DCs, i.e., they induced tolerogenic DCs. Such DCs possess the capacity to polarize T cell immune response towards regulatory type, with an increased proportion of IL-10 and TGF-β producing cells similarly to ES L1. These findings indicated that the ability of TsEVs to induce tolerogenic DCs favoring anti-inflammatory responses might be helpful in coping with diseases that involve Th1/Th17-, but also Th2-mediated inflammation. In MDSC in vitro model, although both ES L1 and TsEVs had the same impact on MDSC phenotype i.e., they acted suppresivelly, ES L1 treated MDSC, unlike TsEVs treated ones, induced T cell response characterized by the increased RoRγT and IFN-γ, while the proportion of regulatory cells were decreased followed by the decrease in IL-10 and TGF-β positive cells proportion within this population. These findings indicate the interesting ability of ES L1 to modulate T cells response via MDSC towards pro-inflammatory type, suggesting that, unlike TsEVs, which consistently demonstrate the suppressive effect on the inflammatory response, it could also be used for the development of new approaches aimed at the treatment of malignant diseases.

Keywords: immunomodulation, dendritic cells, myeloid-derived suppressor cells, trichinella spiralis

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18 Formulation and Characterization of Drug Loaded Niosomal Gel for Anti-Inflammatory Activity

Authors: Sunil Kamboj, Vipin Saini, Suman Bala, Gaurav Sharma


The main aim of the present research was to encapsulate mefenamic acid in niosomes and incorporate the prepared niosomes in the carbopol gel base for sustained therapeutic action. Mefenamic acid loaded niosomes were prepared by thin film hydration technique and evaluated for entrapment efficiency, vesicular size and zeta potential. The entrapment efficiency of the prepared niosomes was found to increase with decreasing the HLB values of surfactants and vesicle size was found to increase with increasing the cholesterol concentration. Niosomal vesicles with good entrapment efficiencies were incorporated in carbopol gel base to form the niosomal gel. The prepared niosomal gel was evaluated for pH, viscosity, spreadability, extrudability and skin permeation study across the rat skin.The results of permeation study revealed that the gel formulated with span 60 niosomes sustained the drug release for 12 h. Further the in vivo study showed the good inhibition of inflammation by the gel prepared with span 60 niosomes.

Keywords: mefenamic acid, niosomal gel, nonionic surfactants, sustained release

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17 Glucose Uptake Rate of Insulin-Resistant Human Liver Carcinoma Cells (IR/HepG2) by Flavonoids from Enicostema littorale via IR/IRS1/AKT Pathway

Authors: Priyanka Mokashi, Aparna Khanna, Nancy Pandita


Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder which will be the 7th leading cause of death by 2030. The current line of treatment for the diabetes mellitus is oral antidiabetic drugs (biguanides, sulfonylureas, meglitinides, thiazolidinediones and alpha-glycosidase inhibitors) and insulin therapy depending upon the type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus. But, these treatments have their disadvantages, ranging from the developing of resistance to the drugs and adverse effects caused by them. Alternative to these synthetic agents, natural products provides a new insight for the development of more efficient and safe drugs due to their therapeutic values. Enicostema littorale blume (A. Raynal) is a traditional Indian plant belongs to the Gentianaceae family. It is widely distributed in Asia, Africa, and South America. There are few reports on Swrtiamarin, major component of this plant for its antidiabetic activity. However, the antidiabetic activity of flavonoids from E. littorale and their mechanism of action have not yet been elucidated. Flavonoids have a positive relationship with disease prevention and can act on various molecular targets and regulate different signaling pathways in pancreatic β-cells, adipocytes, hepatocytes and skeletal myofibers. They may exert beneficial effects in diabetes by (i) improving hyperglycemia through regulation of glucose metabolism in hepatocytes; (ii) enhancing insulin secretion and reducing apoptosis and promoting proliferation of pancreatic β-cells; (iii) increasing glucose uptake in hepatocytes, skeletal muscle and white adipose tissue (iv) reducing insulin resistance, inflammation and oxidative stress. Therefore, we have isolated four flavonoid rich fractions, Fraction A (FA), Fraction B (FB), Fraction C (FC), Fraction D (FD) from crude alcoholic hot (AH) extract from E. littorale, identified by LC/MS. Total eight flavonoids were identified on the basis of fragmentation pattern. Flavonoid FA showed the presence of swertisin, isovitexin, and saponarin; FB showed genkwanin, quercetin, isovitexin, FC showed apigenin, swertisin, quercetin, 5-O-glucosylswertisin and 5-O-glucosylisoswertisin whereas FD showed the presence of swertisin. Further, these fractions were assessed for their antidiabetic activity on stimulating glucose uptake in insulin-resistant HepG2 cell line model (IR/HepG2). The results showed that FD containing C-glycoside Swertisin has significantly increased the glucose uptake rate of IR/HepG2 cells at the concentration of 10 µg/ml as compared to positive control Metformin (0.5mM) which was determined by glucose oxidase- peroxidase method. It has been reported that enhancement of glucose uptake of cells occurs due the translocation of Glut4 vesicles to cell membrane through IR/IRS1/AKT pathway. Therefore, we have studied expressions of three genes IRS1, AKT and Glut4 by real-time PCR to evaluate whether they follow the same pathway or not. It was seen that the glucose uptake rate has increased in FD treated IR/HepG2 cells due to the activation of insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS1) followed by protein kinase B (AKT) through phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) leading to translocation of Glut 4 vesicles to cell membrane, thereby enhancing glucose uptake and insulin sensitivity of insulin resistant HepG2 cells. Hence, the up-regulation indicated the mechanism of action through which FD (Swertisin) acts as antidiabetic candidate in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Keywords: E. littorale, glucose transporter, glucose uptake rate, insulin resistance

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16 Development and Characterization of Double Liposomes Based Dual Drug Delivery System for H. Pylori Targeting

Authors: Ashish Kumar Jain, Deepak Mishra


The objective of the present investigation was to prepare and evaluate a vesicular dual drug delivery system for effective management of mucosal ulcer. Inner encapsulating and Double liposomes were prepared by glass bead and reverse phase evaporation method respectively. The formulation consisted of inner liposomes bearing Ranitidine Bismuth Citrate (RBC) and outer liposomes encapsulating Amoxicillin trihydrate (AMOX). The optimized inner liposomes and double liposomes were extensively characterized for vesicle size, morphology, zeta potential, vesicles count, entrapment efficiency and in vitro drug release. In vitro, the double liposomes demonstrated a sustained release of AMOX and RBC viz 91.4±1.8% and 77.2±2.1% respectively at the end of 72 hr. Furthermore binding specificity and targeting propensity toward H. pylori (SKP-56) was confirmed by agglutination and in situ adherence assay. Reduction of the absolute alcohol induced ulcerogenic index from 3.01 ± 0.25 to 0.31 ± 0.09 and 100% H. pylori clearance rate was observed. These results suggested that double liposomes are potential vector for the development of dual drug delivery for effective treatment of H. pylori-associated peptic ulcer.

Keywords: double liposomes, H. pylori targeting, PE liposomes, glass-beads method, peptic ulcers

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