Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 33

Search results for: Zeger Hens

33 Alternative Housing Systems: Influence on Blood Profile of Egg-Type Chickens in Humid Tropics

Authors: Olufemi M. Alabi, Foluke A. Aderemi, Adebayo A. Adewumi, Banwo O. Alabi

Abstract:

General well-being of animals is of paramount interest in some developed countries and of global importance hence the shift onto alternative housing systems for egg-type chickens as replacement for conventional battery cage system. However, there is paucity of information on the effect of this shift on physiological status of the hens to judge their health via the blood profile. Therefore, investigation was carried out on two strains of hen kept in three different housing systems in humid tropics to evaluate changes in their blood parameters. 108, 17-weeks old super black (SBL) hens and 108, 17-weeks old super brown (SBR) hens were randomly allotted to three different intensive systems Partitioned Conventional Cage (PCC), Extended Conventional Cage (ECC) and Deep Litter System (DLS) in a randomized complete block design with 36 hens per housing system, each with three replicates. The experiment lasted 37 weeks during which blood samples were collected at 18th week of age and bi-weekly thereafter for analyses. Parameters measured are packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin concentration (Hb), red blood counts (RBC), white blood counts (WBC) and serum metabolites such as total protein (TP), albumin (Alb), globulin (Glb), glucose, cholesterol, urea, bilirubin, serum cortisol while blood indices such as mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), mean cell volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were calculated. The hematological values of the hens were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by the housing system and strain, so also the serum metabolites except for the serum cortisol which was significantly (p<0.05) affected by the housing system only. Hens housed on PCC had higher values (20.05 ng/ml for SBL and 20.55 ng/ml for SBR) followed by hens on ECC (18.15ng/ml for SBL and 18.38ng/ml for SBL) while hens on DLS had the lowest value (16.50ng/ml for SBL and 16.00ng/ml for SBR) thereby confirming indication of stress with conventionally caged birds. Alternative housing systems can also be adopted for egg-type chickens in the humid tropics from welfare point of view with the results of this work confirming stress among caged hens.

Keywords: blood, housing, humid-tropics, layers

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32 Breeding Performance and Egg Quality of Red Jungle Fowl (Gallus Gallus L.) Mated with Native Hens (Gallus galus domesticus) in Selected Areas of Leyte under Confinement System

Authors: Francisco F. Buctot Jr.

Abstract:

This study was conducted to assess the breeding performance and egg quality traits of Red Jungle Fowls in selected areas of Leyte mated to Native hens under confinement system. A total of six Red Jungle Fowl roosters, two native roosters and 16 native hens were randomly assigned to four treatments with eight replications; each composed of one rooster and two hens randomly laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design set up. Result on egg weight showed highly significant difference at p<0.01 and revealed heaviest weight (39.0 g) and lightest weight (35.75 g) on Native x Native and Baybay RJF x Native, respectively. While comparable number of eggs per clutch, fertility and hatchability rates, yolk and albumen weights, shell weight, egg length and width, egg shape index and yolk color score were obtained.

Keywords: egg clutch, egg shape index, native chicken, hatchability rate

Procedia PDF Downloads 278
31 Expression of Inflammatory and Cell Death Genes and DNA Damage Induced by Endotoxic Shock in Laying Hens

Authors: Mariam G. Eshak, Ahmed Abbas, M. I. El-Sabry, M. M. Mashaly

Abstract:

This investigation was conducted to determine the physiological response and evaluate the expression of inflammatory and cell death genes and DNA damage induced by endotoxic shock in laying hens. Endotoxic shock was induced by a single intravenous injection of 107 Escherichia coli (E. coli,) colony/hen. In the present study, 240 forty-week-old laying hens (H&N) were randomly assigned into 2 groups with 3 replicates of 40 birds each. Hens were reared in battery cages with wire floors in an open-sided housing system under natural conditions. Housing and general management practices were similar for all groups. At 42-wk of age, 45 hens from the first group (15 replicate) were infected with E. coli, while the same number of hens from the second group was injected with saline and served as a control. Heat shock protein-70 (HSP-70) expression, plasma corticosterone concentration, body temperature, and the gene expression of bax, caspase-3 activity, P38, Interlukin-1β (Il-1β), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) genes and DNA damage in the brain and liver were measured. Hens treated with E. coli showed significant (P≤0.05) increase of body temperature by 1.2 ᴼC and plasma corticosterone by 3 folds compared to the controls. Further, hens injected with E.Coli showed markedly over-expression of HSP-70 and increase DNA damage in brain and liver. These results were synchronized with activating cell death program since our data showed significant (P≤0.05) high expression of bax and caspase-3 activity genes in the brain and liver. These results were related to remarkable over-inflammation gene expression of P38, IL-1β, and TNF-α in brain and liver. In conclusion, our results indicate that endotoxic shock induces inflammatory physiological response and triggers cell death program by promoting P38, IL-1β, and TNF-α gene expression in the brain and liver.

Keywords: chicken, DNA damage, Escherichia coli, gene expression, inflammation

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30 Growth and Laying Performance of Commercial Hens Fed with Varying Levels of Trichanthera gigantea (Nees.) Leaf Meal

Authors: Carmel Khrisna Wong Moreno, Dinah M. Espina

Abstract:

The increasing price of feed ingredients has prompted farmers to seek feasible feed alternatives like the utilization of locally-grown protein-rich feedstuff which is cheaper but gives a positive result in poultry production. Trichanthera gigantea, a fodder tree which is an excellent alternative as feed ingredient in the Philippines has now gained popularity as feed supplement. This study was conducted to determine the growth and laying performance of commercial hens fed with varying levels of Trichanthera gigantea leaf meal. The incorporation of Trichanthera gigantea leaf meal at 5%, 10%, and 15% into the diet of commercial hens did not affect the growth and laying performance. Results of the study revealed that the weight gain of the birds fed with Trichanthera gigantea supplemented diets was not significantly different with the control (100% commercial layer mash). The voluntary feed intake, feed conversion ratio, weekly average egg weight and egg production of the commercial hens fed with T. gigantea leaf meal supplemented diets were not significantly different from the control. Results of the study showed that the supplementation of Trichanthera gigantea leaf meal of up to 15% into the diets of commercial hens is highly acceptable since it does not affect the growth and laying performance of the birds. In addition, it would mean a 15% savings in production cost from commercial feeds.

Keywords: egg production, growth, laying performance, trichanthera gigantea (nees)

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29 Production Planning for Animal Food Industry under Demand Uncertainty

Authors: Pirom Thangchitpianpol, Suttipong Jumroonrut

Abstract:

This research investigates the distribution of food demand for animal food and the optimum amount of that food production at minimum cost. The data consist of customer purchase orders for the food of laying hens, price of food for laying hens, cost per unit for the food inventory, cost related to food of laying hens in which the food is out of stock, such as fine, overtime, urgent purchase for material. They were collected from January, 1990 to December, 2013 from a factory in Nakhonratchasima province. The collected data are analyzed in order to explore the distribution of the monthly food demand for the laying hens and to see the rate of inventory per unit. The results are used in a stochastic linear programming model for aggregate planning in which the optimum production or minimum cost could be obtained. Programming algorithms in MATLAB and tools in Linprog software are used to get the solution. The distribution of the food demand for laying hens and the random numbers are used in the model. The study shows that the distribution of monthly food demand for laying has a normal distribution, the monthly average amount (unit: 30 kg) of production from January to December. The minimum total cost average for 12 months is Baht 62,329,181.77. Therefore, the production planning can reduce the cost by 14.64% from real cost.

Keywords: animal food, stochastic linear programming, aggregate planning, production planning, demand uncertainty

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28 Comparison of Bioactive Compound Content in Egg Yolk Oil Extracted from Eggs Obtained from Different Laying Hen Housing Systems

Authors: Aleksandrs Kovalcuks

Abstract:

Egg yolk oil is a natural source of bioactive compounds such as unsaturated fatty acids, oil soluble vitamins, pigments and others. Bioactive compound content in egg yolk oil depends from its content in eggs, from which oil was extracted. Many studies show that bioactive compound content in egg is correlated to the content of these compounds in hen feed, but there is also an opinion that hen housing systems also have influence on egg chemical content. The aim of this study was to determine which factor, laying hen housing system or hen diet, has a primary influence on bioactive compound content in egg yolk oil. The egg yolk oil was extracted from eggs obtained from 4 different hen housing systems: cage, barn and two groups of free range. All hens were fed with commercially produced compound feed except one group of free range hens which get free diet – pastured hens. Extracted egg yolk oils were analyzed for fatty acids, oil soluble vitamins and β-carotene content. α-tocopherol, ergocalcipherol and polyunsaturated fatty acid content in egg yolk oil was higher from eggs obtained from all housing systems where hens were fed with commercial compound feed. β-carotene and retinol content in egg yolk oils from free range free diet eggs was significantly (p>0.05) higher that from other eggs because hens have access to green forage. Hen physical activity in free range housing systems decreases content of some bioactive compound in egg yolk oil.

Keywords: egg yolk oil, vitamins, caged eggs, free range

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27 Immune Activity of Roman Hens as Influenced by the Feed Formulated with Germinated Paddy Rice

Authors: Wirot Likittrakulwong, Pisit Poolprasert, Tossaporn Incharoen

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Germinated paddy rice (GPR) has the potential to be used as a feed ingredient. However, their properties have not been fully investigated. This paper examined the nutrient digestibility and the relationship to immune activity in Roman hens fed with GPR. It was found that true and apparent metabolizable energy (ME) values of GPR were 3.20 and 3.28 kcal/g air dry, respectively. GPR exhibited high content of phytonutrients, especially GABA. GPR showed similar protein profiles in comparison to non-germinated paddy rice. For immune activity, the feed with GPR enhanced the immune activity of Roman hens under high stocking density stress as evidenced by the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lysozyme activity. In this study, GPR is proved to be a good source of functional ingredient for chicken feed.

Keywords: germinated paddy rice, nutrient digestibility, immune activity, functional property

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26 Isolation of Different Brachyspira spp. from Laying Hens in North-East of Iran

Authors: Ahdieh Alijani, Mina Zarrabi, Abdollah Jamshidi, Jamshid Razmyar

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Avian intestinal spirochetosis (AIS) is caused by spiral-shaped Gram-negative Brachyspira spp. in poultry and is known as a cause of diarrhea, low egg production and increased the occurrence of dirty eggs in layer hens. In this study the presence of some Brachyspira spp. was investigated in laying hens. A total of 100 cloacal swab samples were individually collected from 20 laying hen flocks showing fecal egg staining in northeastern Iran. By culture and morphologic examination, 41 samples (41%) from 20 flocks were positive but by using genus–specific PCR only 37 (37%) samples were confirmed as Brachyspira spp. Using species-specific primers, single colonization was identified in 18 samples associated with B. pilosicoli (48.6%) while single colonization with B. intermedia was found in only two samples (5.4%). Simultaneous colonization by B. intermedia and B. murdochii was detected in 3 samples (8.1%). B. pilosicoli was the most prevalent species in concurrent colonization in 11 cases (29.7%). Finally, co-colonization by B. intermedia and B. innocens was identified in 3 samples (8.1%). The results of this study show the colonization of different species of Brachyspira with the dominance of B. pilosicoli in layer hens. In simultaneous colonization with pathogenic and non-pathogenic species the symptoms of intestinal spirochetosis were reduced, suggesting a competitive role in preventing and reducing the colonization of pathogenic species.

Keywords: intestinal spirochetosis, Brachyspira, laying hen, PCR

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25 Laying Hens' Feed Fortified with Pectin, Xanthan Gum and Guar Gum Aims to Reduce the Cholesterol in Muscle and Egg Yolk

Authors: Novia Dwi Prabandari, Diah Ayu Asmarani

Abstract:

Soluble fiber can accelerate the metabolism of cholesterol. Pectin and gum has been used in the form of substance additive for material stabilizer and emulsifier. Pectin supplementation in laying hens can decimate the cholesterol content in egg yolk and muscle. Therefore, this laying hens’ feed is regular feed chickens enriched with soluble fiber (Pectin, Xanthan gum, and Guar gum) to produce eggs and muscle with lower cholesterol than usual.The ingredients are mixed in the ratio of concentrate 45%, corn flour 25%, soybean meal 20%, and extract of soluble fiber 10%. Once all the ingredients are mixed and then evaporated with temperature < 80 °C. Then put in the grinding machine resulting in a circular shape with holes 2-3 mm in diameter, after it dried up the water content in the feed is less than 14%. Eggs from laying hen with soluble fiber fortification feed intake will have lower cholesterol levels in eggs than regular feed. So even with the cholesterol content in the muscle, it is because chicken feed fortified with soluble fiber will accelerate the metabolism of cholesterol and cause cholesterol deposits in the chicken less. The use of this kind of laying hens feed is produce eggs with high protein content can be consumed more for people who have hypercholesterolemia.

Keywords: pectin, xanthan gum, guar gum, laying hen, cholesterol

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24 The Effect of Extruded Full-Fat Rapeseed on Productivity and Eggs Quality of Isa Brown Laying Hens

Authors: Vilma Sasyte, Vilma Viliene, Agila Dauksiene, Asta Raceviciute-Stupeliene, Romas Gruzauskas, Saulius Alijosius

Abstract:

The eight-week feeding trial was conducted involving 27-wk-old Isa brown laying hens to study the effect of dry extrusion processing on partial reduction in total glucosinolates content of locally produced rapeseed and on productivity and eggs quality parameters of laying hens. Thirty-six hens were randomly assigned one of three treatments (CONTR, AERS and HERS), each comprising 12, individual caged layers. The main composition of the diets was the same, but extruded soya bean seed were replaced with 2.5% of the extruded rapeseed in the AERS group and 4.5 % in the HERS group. Rapeseed was extruded together with faba beans. Due to extrusion process the glucosinolates content was reduced by 7.83 µmol/g of rapeseed. The results of conducted trial shows, that during all experimental period egg production parameters, such as the average feed intake (6529.17 vs. 6257 g/hen/14 day; P < 0.05) and laying intensity (94.35% vs. 89.29; P < 0.05) were statistically different for HERS and CONTR laying hens respectively. Only the feed conversion ratio to produce 1 kg of eggs, kg in AERS group was by 11 % lower compared to CONTR group (P < 0.05). By analysing the effect of extruded rapeseed on egg mass, the statistical differences between treatments were no determined. The dietary treatments did not affect egg weight, albumen height, haugh units, albumen and yolk pH. However, in the HERS group were get eggs with the more intensive yolk color, higher redness (a) and yellowness (b) values. The inclusion of full-fat extruded rapeseed had no effect on egg shell quality parameters, i.e. shell breaking strength, shell weight with and without coat and shell index, but in the experimental groups were get eggs with the thinner shell (P < 0.05). The internal egg quality analysis showed that with higher content of extruded rapeseed (4.5 %) level in the diet, the total cholesterol in the eggs yolk decreased by 1.92 mg/g in comparison with CONTR group (P < 0.05). Eggs laid by hens fed the diet containing 2.5% and 4.5% had increasing ∑PNRR/∑SRR ratio and decreasing ∑(n-6)/∑(n-3) ratio values of eggs yolk fatty acids than in CONTR group. Eggs of hens fed different amount of extruded rapeseed presented an n-6 : n-3 ratio changed from 5.17 to 4.71. The analysis of the relationship between hypocholesteremia/ hypercholesterolemia fatty acids (H/H), which is based on the functional properties of fatty acids, found that the value of it ratio is significant higher in laying hens fed diets supplemented with 4.5% extruded rapeseed than the CONTR group, demonstrating the positive effects of extruded rapeseed on egg quality. The results of trial confirmed that extruded full fat rapeseed to the 4.5% are suitable to replace soyabean in the compound feed of laying hens.

Keywords: egg quality, extruded full-fat rapeseed, laying hens, productivity

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23 The Effects of Neurospora crassa-Fermented Palm Kernel Cake in the Diet on the Production Performance and Egg-Yolk Quality of Arab Laying-Hens

Authors: Yose Rizal, Nuraini, Mirnawati, Maria Endo Mahata, Rio Darman, Dendi Kurniawan

Abstract:

An experiment had been conducted to determine the effects of several levels of Neurospora crassa- fermented palm kernel cake in the diet on the production performance and egg-yolk quality of Arab laying-hens, and to obtain the appropriate level of this fermented palm kernel cake for reducing the utilization of concentrated feed in the diet. Three hundred Arab laying-hens of 72 weeks old were employed in this experiment, and randomly assigned to four treatments (0, 7.25, 10.15, and 13.05% fermented palm kernel cake in diets) in a completely randomized design with five replicates. Measured variables were production performance (feed consumption, egg-mass production, feed conversion, egg weight and hen-day egg production), and egg-yolk quality (ether extract and cholesterol contents, and egg-yolk color index). Results of experiment indicated that feed consumption, egg-mass production, feed conversion, egg weight, hen-day egg production and egg-yolk color index were not influenced (P>0.05) by diets. However, the ether extract and cholesterol contents of egg-yolk were very significantly reduced (P<0.01) by diets. In conclusion, Neurospora crassa-fermented palm kernel cake could be included up to 13.05% to effectively replace 45% concentrated feed in Arab laying-hens diet without adverse effect on the production performance.

Keywords: neurospora crassa-fermented palm kernel cake, Arab laying-hens, production performance, ether extract, cholesterol, egg-yolk color index

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22 The Influence of Newest Generation Butyrate Combined with Acids, Medium Chain Fatty Acids and Plant Extract on the Performance and Physiological State of Laying Hens

Authors: Vilma Sasyte, Vilma Viliene, Asta Raceviciute-Stupeliene, Agila Dauksiene, Romas Gruzauskas, Virginijus Slausgalvis, Jamal Al-Saifi

Abstract:

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of butyrate, acids, medium-chain fatty acids and plant extract mixture on performance, blood and gastrointestinal tract characteristics of laying hens’. For the period of 8 weeks, 24 Hisex Brown laying hens were randomly assigned to 2 dietary treatments: 1) control wheat-corn-soybean meal based diet (Control group), 2) control diet supplemented with the mixture of butyrate, acids, medium chain fatty acids and plant extract (Lumance®) at the level of 1.5 g/kg of feed (Experimental group). Hens were fed with a crumbled diet at 125 g per day. Housing and feeding conditions were the same for all groups and met the requirements of growth for laying hens of Hisex Brown strain. In the blood serum total protein, bilirubin, cholesterol, DTL- and MTL- cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, GGT, GOT, GPT, alkaline phosphatase, alpha amylase, contents of c-reactive protein, uric acid, and lipase were analyzed. Development of intestines and internal organs (intestinal length, intestinal weight, the weight of glandular and muscular stomach, pancreas, heart, and liver) were determined. The concentration of short chain fatty acids in caecal content was measured using the method of HPLC. The results of the present study showed that 1.5 g/kg supplementation of feed additive affected egg production and feed conversion ratio for the production of 1 kg of egg mass. Dietary supplementation of analyzed additive in the diets increased the concentration of triglycerides, GOT, alkaline phosphatase and decreased uric acid content compared with the control group (P<0.05). No significant difference for others blood indices in comparison to the control was observed. The addition of feed additives in laying hens’ diets increased intestinal weight by 11% and liver weight by 14% compared with the control group (P<0.05). The short chain fatty acids (propionic, acetic and butyric acids) in the caecum of laying hens in experimental groups decreased compared with the control group. The supplementation of the mixture of butyrate, acids, medium-chain fatty acids and plant extract at the level of 1.5 g/kg in the laying hens’ diets had the effect on the performance, some gastrointestinal tract function and blood parameters of laying hens.

Keywords: acids, butyrate, laying hens, MCFA, performance, plant extract, psysiological state

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21 Effect of Different Level of Pomegranate Molasses on Performance, Egg Quality Trait, Serological and Hematological Parameters in Older Laying Hens

Authors: Ismail Bayram, Aamir Iqbal, E. Eren Gultepe, Cangir Uyarlar, Umit Ozcınar, I. Sadi Cetingul

Abstract:

The current study was planned with the objective to explore the potential of pomegranate molasses (PM) on performance, egg quality and blood parameters in older laying hens. A total of 240 Babcock white laying hens (52 weeks old) were divided into 5 groups (n=48) with 8 subgroups having 6 hens in each. Pomegranate molasses was added in the drinking water to experimental groups with 0 %, 0.1%, 0.25 %, 0.5%, and 1%, respectively during one month. In our results, egg weight values were remained the same in all pomegranate molasses supplemented groups except 1% group over control. However, feed consumption, egg production, feed conversion ratio (FCR), egg mass, egg yolk cholesterol, body weights, and water consumption remained unaffected (P > 0.05). During mid-study (15 Days) analyses, egg quality parameters such as Haugh unit, eggshell thickness, albumin index, yolk index, and egg yolk color were remained non-significant (P > 0.05) while after final (30 Days) egg analyses, only egg yolk color had positively (P < 0.05) increased in 0.5% group. Moreover, Haugh unit, eggshell thickness, and albumin index were not significantly (P > 0.05) affected by the supplementation of pomegranate molasses. Regarding serological parameters, pomegranate molasses did not show any positive effect on cholesterol, total protein, LDL, HDL, GGT, AST, ALT, and glucose level. Similarly, pomegranate molasses also showed non-significant (P > 0.05) results on different blood parameters such as HCT, RBC, MCV, MCH, MCHC, PLT, RDWC, MPV except hemoglobin level. Only hemoglobin level was increased in all experimental groups over control showing that pomegranate molasses can be used as an enhancer in animals with low hemoglobin level.

Keywords: pomegranate molasses, laying hen, egg yield, blood parameters

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20 Effect of Probiotic and Prebiotic on Performance, Some Blood Parameters, and Intestine Morphology of Laying Hens

Authors: A. Zarei, M. Porkhalili, B. Gholamhosseini

Abstract:

In this experiment, sixty Hy-Line (W-36) laying hens were selected in 40weeks of age. Experimental diets were consumed for 12 weeks duration by them. The experimental design was completely randomized block included four treatments and each of them with five replications and three sample in each replicate. Treatments were as follow: Basal diet+probiotic, basal diet + prebiotic and basal diet+probiotic+ prebiotic. Performance traits were measured such as: hen production, egg weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio ,shell thickness, shell strength, shell weight, hough unit, yolk color, and yolk cholesterol. Blood parameters like; Ca, cholesterol, triglyceride, VLDL and antibody titer and so morphological of intestine were determined. At the end of experimental period, after sampling from end of cecum, bacterial colony count was measured. Results showed; shell weight was significantly greater than other treatments in probiotic treatment.Yolk weight in prebiotic treatment was significantly greater than other treatments. The ratio of height of villi to dept of crypt cells in duodenum, jejunum, ileum and secum in prebiotic treatment were significantly greater. Results from the other traits were not significant between treatments, however there were totally good results in other traits with simultaneous usage of probiotic and prebiotic.

Keywords: probiotic, prebiotic, laying hens, performance, blood parameters, intestine morphology

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19 Some Factors Affecting Reproductive Traits in Nigerian Indigenous Chickens under Intensive Management System

Authors: J. Aliyu, A. O. Raji, A. A. Ibrahim

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The study was carried out to assess the fertility, early and late embryonic mortalities as well as hatchability by strain, season and hen’s weight in Nigerian indigenous chickens reared on deep litter. Four strains (normal feathered, naked neck, frizzle and dwarf) of hens maintained at a mating ratio of 1 cock to 4 hens, fed breeders mash and water ad libitum were used in a three year experiment. The data generated were subjected to analysis of variance using the SAS package and the means, where significant, were separated using the least significant difference (LSD). There were significant effects (P < 0.05) of strain on all the traits studied. Fertility was generally high (84.29 %) in all the strains. Early embryonic mortality was significantly lowest (P < 0.01) in naked neck which had the highest late embryonic mortality (P < 0.001). Hatchability was significantly highest (P < 0.01) in normal feathered (80.23 %) and slightly depressed in frizzle (74.95 %) and dwarf (72.27 %) while naked neck had the lowest (60.80 %). Season of the year had significant effects on early embryonic mortality. Dry hot season significantly (P < 0.05) depressed fertility while early embryonic mortality was depressed in the wet season (15.33 %). Early and late embryonic mortalities significantly increased (P < 0.05) with increasing weight of hen. Dwarf, frizzle and normal feathered hens could be used to improve hatchability as well as reduce early and late embryonic mortalities in Nigerian indigenous chickens.

Keywords: chicken, fertility, hatchability, indigenous, strain

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18 Egg Production Performance of Old Laying Hen Fed Dietary Turmeric Powder

Authors: D. P. Rahardja, M. Rahman Hakim, V. Sri Lestari

Abstract:

An experiment was conducted to elucidate the effects of turmeric powder supplementation on egg production performance of old laying hens (104 weeks of age). There were 40 hens of Hysex Brown strain used in the study. They were caged individually, and randomly divided into 4 treatment groups of diet containing 0 (control), 1, 2 and 4 % oven dried turmeric powder for 3 periods of 4 weeks; Egg production (% hen day) and feed intake of the 4 treatment groups at the commencement of the experiment were not significantly different. In addition to egg production performance (%HD and egg weight), feed and water intakes were measured daily. The results indicated that feed intakes of the hen were significantly lowered when 4% turmeric powder supplemented, while there were no significant changes in water intakes. Egg production (%HD) were significantly increased and maintained at a higher level by turmeric powder supplementation up to 4% compared with the control, while the weight of eggs were not significantly affected. The research markedly demonstrated that supplementation of turmeric powder up to 4% could improve and maintain egg production performance of the old laying hen.

Keywords: curcumin, feed and water intake, old laying hen, egg production

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17 Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) on Performance of Commercial Layer Hens

Authors: P. Arun Subhash, B. N. Suresh, M. C. Shivakumar, N. Suma

Abstract:

An experiment was conducted to study the effect of dietary supplementation of ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) root powder on the egg production performance and egg quality in commercial layer birds. A practical type layer diet was prepared as per Bureau of Indian Standards (1992) to serve as the control, and the test diet was prepared by supplementing control diet with ashwagandha powder at 1kg/ton of feed. Each diet was assigned to twenty replicate groups of 5 laying hens each for duration of 84 days. The result revealed that cumulative egg production (%) was comparable between control and test group. The feed consumption and its conversion efficiency were similar among both the groups. The egg weight and egg characteristics viz., yolk index, yolk color, haugh unit score, albumen index, egg shape index and eggshell thickness were also remained similar between both the groups. It was concluded that supplementation of ashwagandha powder at 1kg/ton in layer diets has no beneficial effect on egg production and egg quality parameters.

Keywords: ashwagandha, egg production, egg quality, layers

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16 Xylanase Impact beyond Performance: A Prebiotic Approach in Laying Hens

Authors: Veerle Van Hoeck, Ingrid Somers, Dany Morisset

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Anti-nutritional factors such as non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) are present in viscous cereals used to feed poultry. Therefore, exogenous carbohydrases are commonly added to monogastric feed to degrade these NSP. Our hypothesis is that xylanase not only improves laying hen performance and digestibility but also induces a significant shift in microbial composition within the intestinal tract and, thereby, can cause a prebiotic effect. In this context, a better understanding of whether and how the chicken gut flora can be modulated by xylanase is needed. To do so, in the herein laying hen study, the effects of dietary supplementation of xylanase on performance, digestibility, and cecal microbiome were evaluated. A total of 96 HiSex laying hens was used in this experiment (3 diets and 16 replicates of 2 hens). Xylanase was added to the diets at concentrations of 0, 45,000 (15 g/t XygestTM HT) and 90,000 U/kg (30 g/t Xygest HT). The diets were based on wheat (~55 %), soybean, and sunflower meal. The lowest dosage, 45,000 U/kg, significantly increased average egg weight and improved feed efficiency compared to the control treatment (p < 0.05). Egg quality parameters were significantly improved in the experiment in response to the xylanase addition. For example, during the last 28 days of the trial, the 45,000 U/kg and the 90,000 U/kg treatments exhibited an increase in Haugh units and albumin heights (p < 0.05). Compared with the control, organic matter digestibility and N retention were drastically improved in the 45,000 U/kg treatment group, which implies better nutrient digestibility at this lowest recommended dosage compared to the control (p < 0.05). Furthermore, gross energy and crude fat digestibility were improved significantly for birds fed 90,000 U/kg group compared to the control. Importantly, 16S rRNA gene analysis revealed that xylanase at 45,000 U/kg dosages can exert a prebiotic effect. This conclusion was drawn based on studying the sequence variation in the 16S rRNA gene in order to characterize diverse microbial communities of the cecal content. A significant increase in beneficial bacteria (Lactobacilli spp and Enterococcus casseliflavus) was documented when adding 45,000 U/kg xylanase to the diet of laying hens. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of xylanase, even at the lowest dose of (45,000 U/kg), significantly improved laying hen performance and digestibility. Furthermore, it is generally accepted that a proper bacterial balance between the number of beneficial bacteria and pathogenic bacteria in the intestine is vital for the host. It seems that the xylanase enzyme is able to modulate the laying hen microbiome beneficially and thus exerts a prebiotic effect. This microbiome plasticity in response to the xylanase provides an attractive target for stimulating intestinal health.

Keywords: laying hen, prebiotic, XygestTM HT, xylanase

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15 Comparative Effect of Microbial Phytase Supplementation on Layer Chickens Fed Diets with Required or Low Phosphorous Level

Authors: Hamada Ahmed, Mervat A. Abdel-Latif, Alaa. A. Ghoraba, Samah A. Ganna

Abstract:

An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of microbial phytase (Quantum Blue®) supplementation on layer chickens fed diets with required or low phosphorous level in corn-soybean based diets. One hundred and sixteen 23-week-old Lohman brown laying hens were used in 8-week feeding trial. Hens were randomly allotted into four treatments where the group (1) (control group) was fed basal diet without phytase, group (2) fed basal diet supplemented with phytase, group (3) fed diet supplemented with phytase as a replacement of 25% of monocalcium phosphate and group (4) fed diet supplemented with phytase as a replacement of 50% of monocalcium phosphate. Records on daily egg production, egg mass, egg weight and body weight of hens at the end of experimental period were recorded. Results revealed no significant (p ≥ 0.05) differences were observed among the other dietary treatments in BW, egg production, egg mass, feed intake or feed conversion when these parameters were evaluated over the duration of the experiment while egg weight showed significant (p < 0.05) increase in all phytase supplemented groups. There was no significant (p ≥ 0.05) differences in egg quality including egg length, egg width, egg shape index, yolk height, yolk width, yolk index, yolk weight and yolk albumin ratio while egg albumin was significantly increased (p < 0.05) in group (2) and group (3). Egg shell weight increased significantly (p < 0.05) in all phytase supplemented groups when compared with the control group also shell thickness increased significantly (p < 0.05) in both group (2 &3). No significant (P ≥ 0.05) difference was observed in serum Ca, P level while alkaline phosphatase was significantly (P ˂ 0.05) increased in group (3). Egg shell analysis showed increase in egg shell ash% in all phytase supplemented groups when compared with the control group, egg shell calcium % was higher in group (3) and group (4) than the control group while group (2) showed lower egg shell calcium% than the other experimental groups, egg shell phosphorous% was higher in all phytase supplemented groups than the control group. Phosphorous digestability was significantly (P ˂ 0.05) increased in all phytase supplemented groups than the control group and the highest p digestability was in group (4). Calcium digestability showed significant (P ˂ 0.05) increase in all phytase supplemented groups when compared with the control group and the highest digetability was in group (4).

Keywords: layers, microbial phytase, Ca and P availability, egg production, egg characteristics

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14 Impact of Electric Field on the Optical Properties of Hydrophilic Quantum Dots

Authors: Valentina V. Goftman, Vladislav A. Pankratov, Alexey V. Markin, Tangi Aubert, Zeger Hens, Sarah De Saeger, Irina Yu. Goryacheva

Abstract:

The most important requirements for biochemical applicability of quantum dots (QDs) are: 1) the surface cap should render intact or improved optical properties; 2) mono-dispersion and good stability in aqueous phase in a wide range of pH and ionic strength values; 3) presence of functional groups, available for bioconjugation; 4) minimal impact from the environment on the QDs’ properties and, vice versa, minimal influence of the QDs’ components on the environment; and 5) stability against chemical/biochemical/physical influence. The latter is especially important for in vitro and in vivo applications. For example, some physical intracellular delivery strategies (e.g., electroporation) imply a rapid high-voltage electric field impulse in order to temporarily generate hydrophilic pores in the cell plasma membrane, necessary for the passive transportation of QDs into the cell. In this regard, it is interesting to investigate how different capping layers, which can provide high stability and sufficient fluorescent properties of QDs in a water solution, behave under these abnormal conditions. In this contribution, hydrophobic core-shell CdSe/CdS/CdZnS/ZnS QDs (λem=600 nm), produced by means of the Successive Ion Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR) technique, were transferred to a water solution using two of the most commonly used methods: (i) encapsulation in an amphiphilic brush polymer based on poly(maleic anhydride-alt-1-octadecene) (PMAO) modified with polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains and (ii) silica covering. Polymer encapsulation preserves the initial ligands on the QDs’ surface owing to the hydrophobic attraction between the hydrophobic groups of the amphiphilic molecules and the surface hydrophobic groups of the QDs. This covering process allows maintaining the initial fluorescent properties, but it leads to a considerable increase of the QDs’ size. However, covering with a silica shell, by means of the reverse microemulsion method, allows maintaining both size and fluorescent properties of the initial QDs. The obtained water solutions of polymer covered and silica-coated QDs in three different concentrations were exposed to a low-voltage electric field for a short time and the fluorescent properties were investigated. It is shown that the PMAO-PEG polymer acquires some additional charges in the presence of the electric field, which causes repulsion between the polymer and the QDs’ surface. This process destroys the homogeneity of the whole amphiphilic shell and it dramatically decreases the fluorescent properties (dropping to 10% from its initial value) because of the direct contact of the QDs with the strongly oxidative environment (water). In contrast, a silica shell possesses dielectric properties which allow retaining 90% of its initial fluorescence intensity, even after a longer electric impact. Thus, silica shells are clearly a preferable covering for bio-application of QDs, because – besides the high uniform morphology, controlled size and biocompatibility – it allows protecting QDs from oxidation, even under the influence of an electric field.

Keywords: electric field, polymer coating, quantum dots, silica covering, stability

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13 Improving Egg Production by Using Split-Phase Lighting Program

Authors: Hanan Al-Khalaifah, Afaf Al-Nasser

Abstract:

The egg shell quality and oviposition in laying hens are influenced by a range of factors including strain of birds, age, nutrition, water quality, general stress, heat stress, disease, and lighting program inside houses. A layer experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of split-phase lighting program on egg production efficiency. Four different feeds and average phosphorus (av. P) levels were tested. Diet A was a ration with an av. P level of 0.471%; Diet B was a ration with an av. P level of 0.510%; Diet C contained an av. P level of 0.293%; and Diet D contained an av. P level of 0.327%. The split-phase lighting program tested was one that inserted a 7-hour dark period from 9 am to 4 pm to reduce the heat produced by the feeding increment and physical activity of the hens. Diet B produced significantly more eggs than Diet C, or Diet D. Diet A was not significantly different from any of the other diets. Diet B also had the best feed efficiency with the other three diets in the same order and significance as for egg production. Diet D produced eggshells significantly thicker than either Diet A, or Diet B. Diet C produced thicker eggshells than Diet B, whose shells were significantly thinner than the other three diets. There were no differences in egg size. From these data, it is apparent that the minimal av. P level for the Lohmann strain of layer in Kuwait is above 0.327%. There was no difference in egg production or eggshell thickness between the split-phase light treatment and the standard light program. There was no difference in oviposition frequency. The split-phase light used 3.66% less feed, however, which was significant. The standard light produced eggs that were significantly heavier (66.30g vs. 65.73g). These results indicate that considerable savings in feed costs could be attained by using split-phase lighting, especially when cooling is not very efficient.

Keywords: egg, laying, nutrition, oviposition

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
12 Effects of Four Dietary Oils on Cholesterol and Fatty Acid Composition of Egg Yolk in Layers

Authors: A. F. Agboola, B. R. O. Omidiwura, A. Oyeyemi, E. A. Iyayi, A. S. Adelani

Abstract:

Dietary cholesterol has elicited the most public interest as it relates with coronary heart disease. Thus, humans have been paying more attention to health, thereby reducing consumption of cholesterol enriched food. Egg is considered as one of the major sources of human dietary cholesterol. However, an alternative way to reduce the potential cholesterolemic effect of eggs is to modify the fatty acid composition of the yolk. The effect of palm oil (PO), soybean oil (SO), sesame seed oil (SSO) and fish oil (FO) supplementation in the diets of layers on egg yolk fatty acid, cholesterol, egg production and egg quality parameters were evaluated in a 42-day feeding trial. One hundred and five Isa Brown laying hens of 34 weeks of age were randomly distributed into seven groups of five replicates and three birds per replicate in a completely randomized design. Seven corn-soybean basal diets (BD) were formulated: BD+No oil (T1), BD+1.5% PO (T2), BD+1.5% SO (T3), BD+1.5% SSO (T4), BD+1.5% FO (T5), BD+0.75% SO+0.75% FO (T6) and BD+0.75% SSO+0.75% FO (T7). Five eggs were randomly sampled at day 42 from each replicate to assay for the cholesterol, fatty acid profile of egg yolk and egg quality assessment. Results showed that there were no significant (P>0.05) differences observed in production performance, egg cholesterol and egg quality parameters except for yolk height, albumen height, yolk index, egg shape index, haugh unit, and yolk colour. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) observed in total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein and low density lipoprotein levels of egg yolk across the treatments. However, diets had effect (P<0.05) on TAG (triacylglycerol) and VLDL (very low density lipoprotein) of the egg yolk. The highest TAG (603.78 mg/dl) and VLDL values (120.76 mg/dl) were recorded in eggs of hens on T4 (1.5% sesame seed oil) and was similar to those on T3 (1.5% soybean oil), T5 (1.5% fish oil) and T6 (0.75% soybean oil + 0.75% fish oil). However, results revealed a significant (P<0.05) variations on eggs’ summation of polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA). In conclusion, it is suggested that dietary oils could be included in layers’ diets to produce designer eggs low in cholesterol and high in PUFA especially omega-3 fatty acids.

Keywords: dietary oils, egg cholesterol, egg fatty acid profile, egg quality parameters

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11 Comparison of Punicic Acid Amounts in Abdominal Fat Farm Feeding Hy-Line Chickens

Authors: Ozcan Baris Citil, Mehmet Akoz

Abstract:

Effects of fatty acid composition and punicic acid contents of abdominal fat of Hy-line hens were investigated by the gas chromatographic method. Total 30 different fatty acids were determined in fatty acid compositions of eggs. These fatty acids were varied between C 8 to C 22. The punicic acid content of abdominal fats analysed was found to be higher percentages in the 90th day than those of 30th and 60th day. At the end of the experiment, total punicic acid contents of abdominal fats were significantly increased.

Keywords: fatty acids, gas chromatography, punicic acid, abdominal fats

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
10 Effects of Eggs Storage Period and Layer Hen Age on Eggs Hatchability and Weight of Broilers of Breed Ross

Authors: Alipanah Masoud, Sheihkei Iman

Abstract:

One day old chicken quality has great deal of contributions in increasing daily weight gain as well as economical productivity of broilers production. On the other hand, eggs are kept in different times in layer hens flocks and subsequently are transported to incubation units. In order to evaluate effects of two factors layer hen age and storage period of eggs on one day old broilers weight gain during feeding, eggs for layer hen gathered on 32 weeks old (young hen) and 74 weeks old (older ones) were used. Storage period for samples was set as 1 and 9 days. Data were analysed in completely randomized design in four replicates by software SAS. Results indicated that one day old broiler chickens from young had less weight gain, although they exhibited higher weight gain during next weeks. At the same time, there was no difference between chickens from eggs stored for nine days and those from stored for one day.

Keywords: egg, chicken, hatchability, layer

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9 Determination of the Some IGF and IGFBP2 Polymorphisms and Their Association with Growth and Egg Traits in Atak-S Chickens

Authors: Huseyi̇n Das, Bülent Tarim, Sunay Demi̇r, Nurçi̇n Küçükkent, Sevi̇l Cengi̇z, Engi̇n Tülek, Veci̇hi̇ Aksakal

Abstract:

Atak-S laying hens are a high-performance strain obtained by crossing of the Rhode Island Red (RIR) X the Barred Plymouth Rock (BR) and are being produced in the Ankara Poultry Research Institute since 1997. Phenotypic and genetic improving studies are continued for this strain. In this study, 2 from IGF and 1 from IGFBP2, totally 3 different SNP polymorphisms were examined in 200 Atak-S chickens. Genotypes of SNPs were compared using ANOVA to body weight and egg number thorough 32 weeks of age, body weight at sexual maturity, age at sexual maturity and also egg quality traits such as egg shell breaking strength, shell thickness, Haugh unit, albumen index, yolk index, shape index. Only IGF(a) locus was in agreement with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, while, the other loci were not. As a result of the performance comparisons to the 3 SNP loci, it was determined that there has a significant association (P<0.05) between only TC genotypes of the IGF(b) locus and body weight at 32 weeks of age, but there was not any association to the other traits.

Keywords: Atak-S, Igf, Igfbp2, single nucleotide polymorphism

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
8 Efficacy of Plant and Mushroom Based Bio-Products against the Red Poultry Mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (Mesostigmata: Dermanyssidae)

Authors: Muhammad Asif Qayyoum, Bilal Saeed Khan

Abstract:

Poultry red mites (Dermanyssus gallinae De Geer) are economically deleterious parasite of hens in poultry industry in all over the world. Due to lack of proper control managements and result of poor application of commercial products, D. gallinae get resistance and severe infestation in poultry birds. Laboratory experiment was planned for the control of D. gallinae by using different mushroom and plant extracts. We used control treatment (100 ml distilled water) and nine treatments (10 gr Lentinula adobas, Ganoderma lucidum and Pleurotus aryngii with 100 ml methanol, 1% and 2% Neemazal, 1.5% Gamma-T-ol, Echinacea Leaf , 1.5% Fungatol with neem spray and Methanol) with five replication having five mites each. Data collected after 12 and 24 hours every day till mites found dead in every treatment. The significant differences among the mean values were compared with the DUNCAN multiple range test. The efficacy (%) of each treatment was determined with the Abbott formula. All statistical analyses were conducted with the SPSS Version 12 program. Lentinula edodes (80%), Ganoderma lucidum (76%) and Fungatol+Neem spray (1.5%) (80%) were significant against D. gallinae within 3 days.

Keywords: mushroom extracts, plant extracts, D. gallinae, control

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7 Protein Derived Biodegradable Food Packaging Material from Poultry By-Product

Authors: Muhammad Zubair, Aman Ullah, Jianping Wu

Abstract:

During the last decades, petroleum derived synthetic polymers like polyethylene terephthalate, polyvinylchloride, polyethylene, polypropylene and polystyrene has extensively been used in the field of food packaging and mostly are non-degradable. Biopolymers are a good fit for single-use or short-lived products such as food packaging. Spent hens, a poultry by-product which is of little economic value and their disposal are environmentally harmful. Through current study, we have explored the possibility to transform proteins from spent fowl into green food packaging material. Proteins from spent fowl were extracted within 1 hour using pH shift method with recovery of about 74%. Different plasticizers were tried like glycerol, sorbitol, glutaraldehyde, 1,2 ethylene glycol and 1,2 butanediol. Glycerol was the best plasticizer among all these plasticizers. A naturally occurring and non-toxic cross-linking agent, chitosan, was used to form the chitosan/glycerol/protein blend by casting and compression molding techniques. The mechanical properties were characterized using tensile strength analyzer. The nano-reinforcements with homogeneous dispersion of nanoparticles lead to improved physical properties suggesting that these materials have great potential for food packaging applications.

Keywords: differential scanning calorimetry, dynamic mechanical analysis, scanning electron microscopy, spent hen

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6 A Blueprint for Responsible Launch of Small Satellites from a Debris Perspective

Authors: Jeroen Rotteveel, Zeger De Groot

Abstract:

The small satellite community is more and more aware of the need to start operating responsibly and sustainably in order to secure the use of outer space in the long run. On the technical side, many debris mitigation techniques have been investigated and demonstrated on board small satellites, showing that technically, a lot of things can be done to curb the growth of space debris and operate more responsible. However, in the absence of strict laws and constraints, one cannot help but wonder what the incentive is to incur significant costs (paying for debris mitigation systems and the launch mass of these systems) and to lose performance onboard resource limited small satellites (mass, volume, power)? Many small satellite developers are operating under tight budgets, either from their sponsors (in case of academic and research projects) or from their investors (in case of startups). As long as it is not mandatory to act more responsibly, we might need to consider the implementation of incentives to stimulate developers to accommodate deorbiting modules, etc. ISISPACE joined the NetZeroSpace initiative in 2021 with the aim to play its role in secure the use of low earth orbit for the next decades by facilitating more sustainable use of space. The company is in a good position as both a satellite builder, a rideshare launch provider, and a technology development company. ISISPACE operates under one of the stricter space laws in the world in terms of maximum orbital lifetime and has been active in various debris mitigation and debris removal in-orbit demonstration missions in the past 10 years. ISISPACE proposes to introduce together with launch partners and regulators an incentive scheme for CubeSat developers to baseline debris mitigation systems on board their CubeSats in such a way that is does not impose too many additional costs to the project. Much like incentives to switch to electric cars or install solar panels on your house, such an incentive can help to increase market uptake of behavior or solutions prior to legislation or bans of certain practices. This can be achieved by: Introducing an extended launch volume in CubeSat deployers to accommodate debris mitigation systems without compromising available payload space for the payload of the main mission Not charging the fee for the launch mass for the additional debris mitigation module Whenever possible, find ways to further co-fund the purchase price, or otherwise reduce the cost of flying debris mitigation modules onboard the CubeSats. The paper will outline the framework of such an incentive scheme and provides ISISPACE’s way forward to make this happen in the near future.

Keywords: netZerospace, cubesats, debris mitigation, small satellite community

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5 Renewable Energy Potential of Diluted Poultry Manure during Ambient Anaerobic Stabilisation

Authors: Cigdem Yangin-Gomec, Aigerim Jaxybayeva, Orhan Ince

Abstract:

In this study, the anaerobic treatability of chicken manure diluted with tap water (with an influent feed ratio of 1 kg of fresh chicken manure to 6 liter of tap water) was investigated in a lab-scale anaerobic sludge bed (ASB) reactor inoculated with the granular sludge already adapted to chicken manure. The raw waste digested in this study was the manure from laying-hens having average total solids (TS) of about 30% with ca. 60% volatile content. The ASB reactor was fed semi-continuously at ambient operating temperature range (17-23C) at a HRT of 13 and 26 days for about 6 months, respectively. The respective average total and soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD) removals were ca. 90% and 75%, whereas average biomethane production rate was calculated ca. 180 lt per kg of CODremoved from the ASB reactor at an average HRT of 13 days. Moreover, total suspended solids (TSS) and volatile suspended solids (VSS) in the influent were reduced more than 97%. Hence, high removals of the organic compounds with respective biogas production made anaerobic stabilization of the diluted chicken manure by ASB reactor at ambient operating temperatures viable. By this way, external heating up to 35C (i.e. anaerobic processes have been traditionally operated at mesophilic conditions) could be avoided in the scope of this study.

Keywords: ambient anaerobic digestion, biogas recovery, poultry manure, renewable energy

Procedia PDF Downloads 288
4 Effect of Different Levels of Distillery Yeast Sludge on Immune Level, Egg Quality and Performance of Layers as a Substitute for Soybean Meal

Authors: Rana Bilal, Faiz-Ul-Hassan, Moazzam Jameel

Abstract:

There is a dire need to replace high-cost protein with more economical protein to overcome animal protein shortage in developing nations especially countries like Pakistan. In conjunction with these efforts, the current study was planned to evaluate the effects of various dried distillery yeast sludge (DYS) levels on the immune level, egg quality, and performance of layers by replacing soybean meal. The study was designed with two hundred layers of Hy-Line variety. Distillery yeast sludge was dried and ground for 2 mm mesh size and after this proximate and mineral analysis was determined. Five isocaloric and isonitrogeneous feeds were given containing C (control), 5, 10, 15, 20% distillery yeast sludge by replacing soybean meal. The trial was performed in the completely randomized design with five treatments, 4 replicates and 10 hen per replicate. Results demonstrated that feed intake, egg production, feed conversion ratio decreased (P < 0.05) with the increased dietary DYS. However, statistically significant decrease (P < 0.05) was found in hens having DYS20 diet than control. Layers on Diets C, DYS5 and DYS10 exerted a higher immune level than DYS15 and DYS20 diets. Egg weight, eggshell weight, eggshell thickness, egg albumen height as well as haugh unit score were affected significantly by the increased level of DYS. In general, results of this study demonstrated that inclusion of DYS up to 10% showed no adverse effects on health and performance of layers.

Keywords: egg quality, immunity, layers, performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 103