Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 429

Search results for: span

429 Study of Hydrocarbons Metering Issues in Algerian Fields under the New Law Context

Authors: A. Hadjadj, S. Maamir


Since the advent of the law 86/14 concerning the
exploitation of the national territory by foreign companies in
partnership with the Algerian oil and gas company, the problem of
hydrocarbons metering in the sharing production come out.
More generally, good management counting hydrocarbons can
provide data on the production wells, the field and the reservoir for
medium and long term planning, particularly in the context of the
management and field development.
In this work, we are interested in the transactional metering which
is a very delicate and crucial period in the current context of the new
hydrocarbon’s law characterized by assets system between the
various activities of Sonatrach and its foreign partners.
After a state of the art on hydrocarbons metering devices in
Algeria and elsewhere, we will decline the advantages and
disadvantages of each system, and then we describe the problem to
try to reach an optimal solution.

Keywords: transactional metering, flowmeter orifice, heat flow, Sonatrach

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
428 Phenolic Compounds and Antimicrobial Properties of Pomegranate (Punica granatum) Peel Extracts

Authors: P. Rahnemoon, M. Sarabi Jamab, M. Javanmard Dakheli, A. Bostan


In recent years, tendency to use of natural antimicrobial agents in food industry has increased. Pomegranate peels containing phenolic compounds and anti-microbial agents, are counted as valuable source for extraction of these compounds. In this study, the extraction of pomegranate peel extract was carried out at different ethanol/water ratios (40:60, 60:40, and 80:20), temperatures (25, 40, and 55 ˚C), and time durations (20, 24, and 28 h). The extraction yield, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, and anthocyanins were measured. ‎Antimicrobial activity of pomegranate peel extracts were determined against some food-borne ‎microorganisms such as Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, ‎‎Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus niger, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae by agar diffusion and MIC methods. Results showed that at ethanol/water ratio 60:40, 25 ˚C and 24 h maximum amount of phenolic compounds ‎(‎‎349.518‎‏ ‏mg gallic acid‏/‏g dried extract), ‎flavonoids (250.124 mg rutin‏/‏g dried extract), anthocyanins (252.047 ‎‏‏mg ‎cyanidin‎3‎glucoside‏/‏‎100 g dried extract), and the strongest antimicrobial activity were obtained. ‎All extracts’ antimicrobial activities were demonstrated against every tested ‎‎microorganisms.‎Staphylococcus aureus showed the highest sensitivity among the tested ‎‎‎microorganisms.

Keywords: antimicrobial agents, phenolic compounds, pomegranate peel, solvent extraction‎

Procedia PDF Downloads 194
427 Indian Art Education and Career Opportunities: A Critical Analysis on Commercial Art

Authors: Pooja Jain


Art education is often ignored in syllabus of developing countries like India and in educational planning for development but now days Indian Art with a global recognition is becoming an integral part of the education at all levels. The term art, widely used in all parts of the modern world, carried varied significance in India as its meaning was continuously being extended, covering the many varieties of creative expression such as painting, sculpture, commercial art, design, poetry, music, dance, and architecture. Over the last 100 years Indian artists of all forms have evolved a wide variety of expressive styles. With the recommendations and initiatives by Government of India, Art Education has subsequently gained pace at the school level as a mandatory subject for all making a path way for students with a creative bend of mind. This paper investigates curriculum in various schools of the country at secondary and senior secondary levels along with some eminent institutions running the program. Findings depicted the role of art education and justified its importance primarily with commercial art being perceived to be essential for students learning skills for economic gain in their career ahead. With so many art colleges spread across India, emerging artists and designers are being trained and are creating art of infinite variety and style and have opened up many career avenues. Commercial Art being a plethora of artistic expressions has confidently come of age wherein a creative perception is mixed with an introspective imagination to bring out multi faceted career options with a significant future enveloped in art. Visual arts in education thus is an expanding field of result assured research.

Keywords: modern art, commercial art, introspective imagination, career

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426 Comparative Study of Arch Bridges with Varying Rise to Span Ratio

Authors: Tauhidur Rahman, Arnab Kumar Sinha


This paper presents a comparative study of Arch bridges based on their varying rise to span ratio. The comparison is done between different steel Arch bridges which have variable span length and rise to span ratio keeping the same support condition. The aim of our present study is to select the optimum value of rise to span ratio of Arch bridge as the cost of the Arch bridge increases with the increasing of the rise. In order to fulfill the objective, several rise to span ratio have been considered for same span of Arch bridge and various structural parameters such as Bending moment, shear force etc have been calculated for different model. A comparative study has been done for several Arch bridges finally to select the optimum rise to span ratio of the Arch bridges. In the present study, Finite Element model for medium to long span, with different rise to span ratio have been modeled and are analyzed with the help of a Computational Software named MIDAS Civil to evaluate the results such as Bending moments, Shear force, displacements, Stresses, influence line diagrams, critical loads. In the present study, 60 models of Arch bridges for 80 to 120 m span with different rise to span ratio has been thoroughly investigated.

Keywords: arch bridge, analysis, comparative study, rise to span ratio

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425 Integrating Geographic Information into Diabetes Disease Management

Authors: Tsu-Yun Chiu, Tsung-Hsueh Lu, Tain-Junn Cheng


Background: Traditional chronic disease management did not pay attention to effects of geographic factors on the compliance of treatment regime, which resulted in geographic inequality in outcomes of chronic disease management. This study aims to examine the geographic distribution and clustering of quality indicators of diabetes care. Method: We first extracted address, demographic information and quality of care indicators (number of visits, complications, prescription and laboratory records) of patients with diabetes for 2014 from medical information system in a medical center in Tainan City, Taiwan, and the patients’ addresses were transformed into district- and village-level data. We then compared the differences of geographic distribution and clustering of quality of care indicators between districts and villages. Despite the descriptive results, rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated for indices of care in order to compare the quality of diabetes care among different areas. Results: A total of 23,588 patients with diabetes were extracted from the hospital data system; whereas 12,716 patients’ information and medical records were included to the following analysis. More than half of the subjects in this study were male and between 60-79 years old. Furthermore, the quality of diabetes care did indeed vary by geographical levels. Thru the smaller level, we could point out clustered areas more specifically. Fuguo Village (of Yongkang District) and Zhiyi Village (of Sinhua District) were found to be “hotspots” for nephropathy and cerebrovascular disease; while Wangliau Village and Erwang Village (of Yongkang District) would be “coldspots” for lowest proportion of ≥80% compliance to blood lipids examination. On the other hand, Yuping Village (in Anping District) was the area with the lowest proportion of ≥80% compliance to all laboratory examination. Conclusion: In spite of examining the geographic distribution, calculating rate ratios and their 95% CI could also be a useful and consistent method to test the association. This information is useful for health planners, diabetes case managers and other affiliate practitioners to organize care resources to the areas most needed.

Keywords: catchment area of healthcare, chronic disease management, Geographic information system, quality of diabetes care

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424 Reduction of Plants Biodiversity in Hyrcanian Forest by Coal Mining Activities

Authors: Mahsa Tavakoli, Seyed Mohammad Hojjati, Yahya Kooch


Considering that coal mining is one of the important industrial activities, it may cause damages to environment. According to the author’s best knowledge, the effect of traditional coal mining activities on plant biodiversity has not been investigated in the Hyrcanian forests. Therefore, in this study, the effect of coal mining activities on vegetation and tree diversity was investigated in Hyrcanian forest, North Iran. After filed visiting and determining the mine, 16 plots (20×20 m2) were established by systematic-randomly (60×60 m2) in an area of 4 ha (200×200 m2-mine entrance placed at center). An area adjacent to the mine was not affected by the mining activity, and it is considered as the control area. In each plot, the data about trees such as number and type of species were recorded. The biodiversity of vegetation cover was considered 5 square sub-plots (1 m2) in each plot. PAST software and Ecological Methodology were used to calculate Biodiversity indices. The value of Shannon Wiener and Simpson diversity indices for tree cover in control area (1.04±0.34 and 0.62±0.20) was significantly higher than mining area (0.78±0.27 and 0.45±0.14). The value of evenness indices for tree cover in the mining area was significantly lower than that of the control area. The value of Shannon Wiener and Simpson diversity indices for vegetation cover in the control area (1.37±0.06 and 0.69±0.02) was significantly higher than the mining area (1.02±0.13 and 0.50±0.07). The value of evenness index in the control area was significantly higher than the mining area. Plant communities are a good indicator of the changes in the site. Study about changes in vegetation biodiversity and plant dynamics in the degraded land can provide necessary information for forest management and reforestation of these areas.

Keywords: vegetation biodiversity, species composition, traditional coal mining, Caspian forest

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423 Analysis of Simply Supported Beams Using Elastic Beam Theory

Authors: M. K. Dce


The aim of this paper is to investigate the behavior of simply supported beams having rectangular section and subjected to uniformly distributed load (UDL). In this study five beams of span 5m, 6m, 7m and 8m have been considered. The width of all the beams is 400 mm and span to depth ratio has been taken as 12. The superimposed live load has been increased from 10 kN/m to 25 kN/m at the interval of 5 kN/m. The analysis of the beams has been carried out using the elastic beam theory. On the basis of present study it has been concluded that the maximum bending moment as well as deflection occurs at the mid-span of simply supported beam and its magnitude increases in proportion to magnitude of UDL. Moreover, the study suggests that the maximum moment is proportional to square of span and maximum deflection is proportional to fourth power of span.

Keywords: beam, UDL, bending moment, deflection, elastic beam theory

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422 A Design for Supply Chain Model by Integrated Evaluation of Design Value and Supply Chain Cost

Authors: Yuan-Jye Tseng, Jia-Shu Li


To design a product with the given product requirement and design objective, there can be alternative ways to propose the detailed design specifications of the product. In the design modeling stage, alternative design cases with detailed specifications can be modeled to fulfill the product requirement and design objective. Therefore, in the design evaluation stage, it is required to perform an evaluation of the alternative design cases for deciding the final design. The purpose of this research is to develop a product evaluation model for evaluating the alternative design cases by integrated evaluating the criteria of functional design, Kansei design, and design for supply chain. The criteria in the functional design group include primary function, expansion function, improved function, and new function. The criteria in the Kansei group include geometric shape, dimension, surface finish, and layout. The criteria in the design for supply chain group include material, manufacturing process, assembly, and supply chain operation. From the point of view of value and cost, the criteria in the functional design group and Kansei design group represent the design value of the product. The criteria in the design for supply chain group represent the supply chain and manufacturing cost of the product. It is required to evaluate the design value and the supply chain cost to determine the final design. For the purpose of evaluating the criteria in the three criteria groups, a fuzzy analytic network process (FANP) method is presented to evaluate a weighted index by calculating the total relational values among the three groups. A method using the technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) is used to compare and rank the design alternative cases according to the weighted index using the total relational values of the criteria. The final decision of a design case can be determined by using the ordered ranking. For example, the design case with the top ranking can be selected as the final design case. Based on the criteria in the evaluation, the design objective can be achieved with a combined and weighted effect of the design value and manufacturing cost. An example product is demonstrated and illustrated in the presentation. It shows that the design evaluation model is useful for integrated evaluation of functional design, Kansei design, and design for supply chain to determine the best design case and achieve the design objective.

Keywords: design for supply chain, design evaluation, functional design, Kansei design, fuzzy analytic network process, technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution

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421 Risk Assessment in Construction of K-Span Buildings in United Arab Emirates (UAE)

Authors: Imtiaz Ali, Imam Mansoor


Investigations as a part of the academic study were undertaken to identify and evaluate the significant risks associated with the construction of K-span buildings in the region of UAE. Primary field data was collected through questionnaires obtaining specific open and close-ended questions from carefully selected construction firms, civil engineers and, construction manager regarding risks associated to K-span building construction. Historical data available for other regions of the same construction technique was available which was compared for identifying various non-critical and critical risk parameters by comparative evaluation techniques to come up with important risks and potential sources for their control and minimization in K-Span buildings that is increasing in the region. The associated risks have been determined with their Relative Importance Index (RII) values of which Risk involved in Change of Design required by Owners carries the highest value (RII=0.79) whereas, Delayed Payment by Owner to Contractor is one of the least (RII=0.42) value. The overall findings suggest that most relative risks as quantified originate or associated with the contractors. It may be concluded that project proponents undertaking K-span projects in planning and budgeting the cost and delays should take into account of risks on high account if changes in design are also required any delays in the material by the supplier would then be a major risk in K-span project delay. Since projects are, less costly, so owners have limited budgets, then they hire small contractors, which are not highly competent contractors. So study suggests that owner should be aware of these types of risks associated with the construction of K-span buildings in order to make it cost effective.

Keywords: k-span buildings, k-span construction, risk management, relative improvement index (RII)

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
420 Behavior of Cold Formed Steel in Trusses

Authors: Reinhard Hermawan Lasut, Henki Wibowo Ashadi


The use of materials in Indonesia's construction sector requires engineers and practitioners to develop efficient construction technology, one of the materials used in cold-formed steel. Generally, the use of cold-formed steel is used in the construction of roof trusses found in houses or factories. The failure of the roof truss structure causes errors in the calculation analysis in the form of cross-sectional dimensions or frame configuration. The roof truss structure, vertical distance effect to the span length at the edge of the frame carries the compressive load. If the span is too long, local buckling will occur which causes problems in the frame strength. The model analysis uses various shapes of roof trusses, span lengths and angles with analysis of the structural stiffness matrix method. Model trusses with one-fifth shortened span and one-sixth shortened span also The trusses model is reviewed with increasing angles. It can be concluded that the trusses model by shortening the span in the compression area can reduce deflection and the model by increasing the angle does not get good results because the higher the roof, the heavier the load carried by the roof so that the force is not channeled properly. The shape of the truss must be calculated correctly so the truss is able to withstand the working load so that there is no structural failure.

Keywords: cold-formed, trusses, deflection, stiffness matrix method

Procedia PDF Downloads 98
419 Ways to Define the Most Sustainable Actions for Water Shortage Prevention in Mega Cities, Especially in Developing Countries

Authors: Keivan Karimlou, Nemat Hassani, Abdollah Rashidi Mehrabadi


Climate change, industrial bloom, population growth and mismanagement are the most important factors that lead to water shortages around the world. Water shortages often lead to forced immigration, war, and thirst and hunger, especially in developing countries. One of the simplest solutions to solve the water shortage issues around the world is transferring water from one watershed to another; however it may not be a suitable solution. Water managers around the world use supply and demand management methods to decrease the incidence of water shortage in a sustainable manner. But as a matter of economic constraints, they must define a method to select the best possible action to reduce and limit water shortages. The following paper recognizes different kinds of criteria to select the best possible policy for reducing water shortage in mega cities by examining a comprehensive literature review.

Keywords: criteria, management, shortage, sustainable, water

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
418 Statistical Analysis of Cables in Long-Span Cable-Stayed Bridges

Authors: Ceshi Sun, Yueyu Zhao, Yaobing Zhao, Zhiqiang Wang, Jian Peng, Pengxin Guo


With the rapid development of transportation, there are more than 100 cable-stayed bridges with main span larger than 300 m in China. In order to ascertain the statistical relationships among the design parameters of stay cables and their distribution characteristics, 1500 cables were selected from 25 practical long-span cable-stayed bridges. A new relationship between the first order frequency and the length of cable was found by conducting the curve fitting. Then, based on this relationship other interesting relationships were deduced. Several probability density functions (PDFs) were used to investigate the distributions of the parameters of first order frequency, stress level and the Irvine parameter. It was found that these parameters obey the Lognormal distribution, the Weibull distribution and the generalized Pareto distribution, respectively. Scatter diagrams of the three parameters were plotted and their 95% confidence intervals were also investigated.

Keywords: cable, cable-stayed bridge, long-span, statistical analysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 518
417 Investigation of Wood Chips as Internal Carbon Source Supporting Denitrification Process in Domestic Wastewater Treatment

Authors: Ruth Lorivi, Jianzheng Li, John J. Ambuchi, Kaiwen Deng


Nitrogen removal from wastewater is accomplished by nitrification and denitrification processes. Successful denitrification requires carbon, therefore, if placed after biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and nitrification process, a carbon source has to be re-introduced into the water. To avoid adding a carbon source, denitrification is usually placed before BOD and nitrification processes. This process however involves recycling the nitrified effluent. In this study wood chips were used as internal carbon source which enabled placement of denitrification after BOD and nitrification process without effluent recycling. To investigate the efficiency of a wood packed aerobic-anaerobic baffled reactor on carbon and nutrients removal from domestic wastewater, a three compartment baffled reactor was presented. Each of the three compartments was packed with 329 g wood chips 1x1cm acting as an internal carbon source for denitrification. The proposed mode of operation was aerobic-anoxic-anaerobic (OAA) with no effluent recycling. The operating temperature, hydraulic retention time (HRT), dissolved oxygen (DO) and pH were 24 ± 2 , 24 h, less than 4 mg/L and 7 ± 1 respectively. The removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N) and total nitrogen (TN) attained was 99, 87 and 83% respectively. TN removal rate was limited by nitrification as 97% of ammonia converted into nitrate and nitrite was denitrified. These results show that application of wood chips in wastewater treatment processes is an efficient internal carbon source. 

Keywords: aerobic-anaerobic baffled reactor, denitrification, nitrification, wood chip

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416 Effect of Span 60, Labrasol, and Cholesterol on Labisia pumila Loaded Niosomes Quality

Authors: H. Binti Ya’akob, C. Siew Chin, A. Abd Aziz, I. Ware, M. Fauzi Abd Jalil, N. Rashidah Ahmed, R. Sabtu


Labisia pumila (LP) plant extract has the potential to be applied in cosmeceutical products due to its anti-photoaging properties. The main purpose of this study was to improve transdermal delivery of LP by encapsulating LP in niosomes. Niosomes loaded LPs were prepared by coacervation phase separation method using non-ionic surfactant (Span 60), labrasol, and cholesterol. The optimum formula obtained were Span 60, labrasol and cholesterol at the mole ratio of 6:1:4. At the optimum formulation, the niosome obtained significantly improved the quality of transdermal penetration of LP compared to free LP.

Keywords: Labisia pumila, niosomes, transdermal, quality

Procedia PDF Downloads 227
415 Development of Visual Working Memory Precision: A Cross-Sectional Study of Simultaneously Delayed Responses Paradigm

Authors: Yao Fu, Xingli Zhang, Jiannong Shi


Visual working memory (VWM) capacity is the ability to maintain and manipulate short-term information which is not currently available. It is well known for its significance to form the basis of numerous cognitive abilities and its limitation in holding information. VWM span, the most popular measurable indicator, is found to reach the adult level (3-4 items) around 12-13 years’ old, while less is known about the precision development of the VWM capacity. By using simultaneously delayed responses paradigm, the present study investigates the development of VWM precision among 6-18-year-old children and young adults, besides its possible relationships with fluid intelligence and span. Results showed that precision and span both increased with age, and precision reached the maximum in 16-17 age-range. Moreover, when remembering 3 simultaneously presented items, the probability of remembering target item correlated with fluid intelligence and the probability of wrap errors (misbinding target and non-target items) correlated with age. When remembering more items, children had worse performance than adults due to their wrap errors. Compared to span, VWM precision was effective predictor of intelligence even after controlling for age. These results suggest that unlike VWM span, precision developed in a slow, yet longer fashion. Moreover, decreasing probability of wrap errors might be the main reason for the development of precision. Last, precision correlated more closely with intelligence than span in childhood and adolescence, which might be caused by the probability of remembering target item.

Keywords: fluid intelligence, precision, visual working memory, wrap errors

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
414 Seismic Investigation on the Effect of Surface Structures and Twin Tunnel on the Site Response in Urban Areas

Authors: Seyed Abolhasan Naeini, Saeideh Mohammadi


Site response has a profound effect on earthquake damages. Seismic interaction of urban tunnels with surface structures could also affect seismic site response. Here, we use FLAC 2D to investigate the interaction of a single tunnel and twin tunnels-surface structures on the site response. Soil stratification and properties are selected based on Line. No 7 of the Tehran subway. The effect of surface structure is considered in two ways: Equivalent surcharge and geometrical modeling of the structure. Comparison of the results shows that consideration of the structure geometry is vital in dynamic analysis and leads to the changes in the magnitude of displacements, accelerations and response spectrum. Therefore it is necessary for the surface structures to be wholly modeled and not just considered as a surcharge in dynamic analysis. The use of twin tunnel also leads to the reduction of dynamic residual settlement.

Keywords: superstructure, tunnel, site response, surcharge, interaction

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413 Lead and Cadmium Spatial Pattern and Risk Assessment around Coal Mine in Hyrcanian Forest, North Iran

Authors: Mahsa Tavakoli, Seyed Mohammad Hojjati, Yahya Kooch


In this study, the effect of coal mining activities on lead and cadmium concentrations and distribution in soil was investigated in Hyrcanian forest, North Iran. 16 plots (20×20 m2) were established by systematic-randomly (60×60 m2) in an area of 4 ha (200×200 m2-mine entrance placed at center). An area adjacent to the mine was not affected by the mining activity; considered as the controlled area. In order to investigate soil lead and cadmium concentration, one sample was taken from the 0-10 cm in each plot. To study the spatial pattern of soil properties and lead and cadmium concentrations in the mining area, an area of 80×80m2 (the mine as the center) was considered and 80 soil samples were systematic-randomly taken (10 m intervals). Geostatistical analysis was performed via Kriging method and GS+ software (version 5.1). In order to estimate the impact of coal mining activities on soil quality, pollution index was measured. Lead and cadmium concentrations were significantly higher in mine area (Pb: 10.97±0.30, Cd: 184.47±6.26 in comparison to control area (Pb: 9.42±0.17, Cd: 131.71±15.77 The mean values of the PI index indicate that Pb (1.16) and Cd (1.77) presented slightly polluted. Results of the NIPI index showed that Pb (1.44) and Cd (2.52) presented slight pollution and moderate pollution respectively. Results of variography and kriging method showed that it is possible to prepare interpolation maps of lead and cadmium around the mining areas in Hyrcanian forest. According to results of pollution and risk assessments, forest soil was contaminated by heavy metals (lead and cadmium); therefore, using reclamation and remediation techniques in these areas is necessary.

Keywords: traditional coal mining, heavy metals, pollution indicators, geostatistics, Caspian forest

Procedia PDF Downloads 97
412 Influence of Prestress Loss on Mechanical Performance of Fabricated Girder Bridge

Authors: Wu Xiaoguang, Liu Jiaxin, Fang Miaomiao, Wei Saidong


There are many prestressed concrete prefabricated girder Bridges with small and medium span and the damage is serious. This paper mainly study the effect of prestress loss of prefabricated bridge bearing performance, through the establishment of ANSYS finite element model, from the condition of different prestress loss research, get the stress and strain data, draw curve, finally get the following conclusion: loss of prestress can reduce the ultimate bearing capacity of Bridges, the side span across the deflection value than the influence of times side span, the influence of the deflection in the midspan cross value. Therefore, the prestress loss and the effective prestress should be strictly considered in the design and construction process.

Keywords: across the deflection, loss of prestress, prefabricated girder bridge, the main tensile stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
411 Optimization of Shear Frame Structures Applying Various Forms of Wavelet Transforms

Authors: Seyed Sadegh Naseralavi, Sohrab Nemati, Ehsan Khojastehfar, Sadegh Balaghi


In the present research, various formulations of wavelet transform are applied on acceleration time history of earthquake. The mentioned transforms decompose the strong ground motion into low and high frequency parts. Since the high frequency portion of strong ground motion has a minor effect on dynamic response of structures, the structure is excited by low frequency part. Consequently, the seismic response of structure is predicted consuming one half of computational time, comparing with conventional time history analysis. Towards reducing the computational effort needed in seismic optimization of structure, seismic optimization of a shear frame structure is conducted by applying various forms of mentioned transformation through genetic algorithm.

Keywords: time history analysis, wavelet transform, optimization, earthquake

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
410 Existence of Nano-Organic Carbon Particles below the Size Range of 10 nm in the Indoor Air Environment

Authors: Bireswar Paul, Amitava Datta


Indoor air environment is a big concern in the last few decades in the developing countries, with increased focus on monitoring the air quality. In this work, an experimental study has been conducted to establish the existence of carbon nanoparticles below the size range of 10 nm in the non-sooting zone of a LPG/air partially premixed flame. Mainly, four optical techniques, UV absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering and TEM have been used to characterize and measure the size of carbon nanoparticles in the sampled materials collected from the inner surface of the flame front. The existence of the carbon nanoparticles in the sampled material has been confirmed with the typical nature of the absorption and fluorescence spectra already reported in the literature. The band gap energy shows that the particles are made up of three to six aromatic rings. The size measurement by DLS technique also shows that the particles below the size range of 10 nm. The results of DLS are also corroborated by the TEM image of the same material. 

Keywords: indoor air, carbon nanoparticle, lpg, partially premixed flame, optical techniques

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
409 Parametric Study for Optimal Design of Hybrid Bridge Joint

Authors: Bongsik Park, Jae Hyun Park, Jae-Yeol Cho


Mixed structure, which is a kind of hybrid system, is incorporating steel beam and prestressed concrete beam. Hybrid bridge adopting mixed structure have some merits. Main span length can be made longer by using steel as main span material. In case of cable-stayed bridge having asymmetric span length, negative reaction at side span can be restrained without extra restraining devices by using weight difference between main span material and side span material. However angle of refraction might happen because of rigidity difference between materials and stress concentration also might happen because of abnormal loading transmission at joint in the hybrid bridge. Therefore the joint might be a weak point of the structural system and it needs to pay attention to design of the joint. However, design codes and standards about the joint in the hybrid-bridge have not been established so the joint designs in most of construction cases have been very conservative or followed previous design without extra verification. In this study parametric study using finite element analysis for optimal design of hybrid bridge joint is conducted. Before parametric study, finite element analysis was conducted based on previous experimental data and it is verified that analysis result approximated experimental data. Based on the finite element analysis results, parametric study was conducted. The parameters were selected as those have influences on joint behavior. Based on the parametric study results, optimal design of hybrid bridge joint has been determined.

Keywords: parametric study, optimal design, hybrid bridge, finite element analysis

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408 Identifying Families in C-SPAN’s: U.S. Presidential Ratings: 2000, 2009, and 2017

Authors: Alexander Cramer, Kenneth Cramer


Since the inauguration of President George Washington in 1789, the United States of America has seen the governance of some 44 individual presidents. Although such presidents share a variety of attributes, they still differ from one another on many others. Significantly, these traits may be used to construct distinct sets of 'families' of presidents throughout American history. By comparatively analyzing data from experts on the U.S. presidency – in this case, the C-SPAN Presidential Historians Surveys from 2000, 2009, and 2017 – this article identifies a consistent set of six presidential families: the All Stars; the Conservative Visionaries; the Postwar Progressives; the Average Joes; the Forgettables; and the Regrettables. In situating these categories in history, this article argues that U.S. presidents can be accurately organized into cohesive, like-performing families whose constituents share a common set of criteria.

Keywords: C-SPAN, POTUS presidential performance, presidential ranking, presidential studies, presidential surveys, United States

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407 Removal of Textile Dye from Industrial Wastewater by Natural and Modified Diatomite

Authors: Hakim Aguedal, Abdelkader Iddou, Abdallah Aziz, Djillali Reda Merouani, Ferhat Bensaleh, Saleh Bensadek


The textile industry produces high amount of colored effluent each year. The management or treatment of these discharges depends on the applied techniques. Adsorption is one of wastewater treatment techniques destined to treat this kind of pollution, and the performance and efficiency predominantly depend on the nature of the adsorbent used. Therefore, scientific research is directed towards the development of new materials using different physical and chemical treatments to improve their adsorption capacities. In the same perspective, we looked at the effect of the heat treatment on the effectiveness of diatomite, which is found in abundance in Algeria. The textile dye Orange Bezaktiv (SRL-150) which is used as organic pollutants in this study is provided by the textile company SOITEXHAM in Oran city (west Algeria). The effect of different physicochemical parameters on the adsorption of SRL-150 on natural and modified diatomite is studied, and the results of the kinetics and adsorption isotherms were modeled.

Keywords: wastewater treatment, diatomite, adsorption, dye pollution, kinetic, isotherm

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
406 Sensitivity Parameter Analysis of Negative Moment Dynamic Load Allowance of Continuous T-Girder Bridge

Authors: Fan Yang, Ye-Lu Wang, Yang Zhao


The dynamic load allowance, as an application result of the vehicle-bridge coupled vibration theory, is an important parameter for bridge design and evaluation. Based on the coupled vehicle-bridge vibration theory, the current work establishes a full girder model of a dynamic load allowance, selects a planar five-degree-of-freedom three-axis vehicle model, solves the coupled vehicle-bridge dynamic response using the APDL language in the spatial finite element program ANSYS, selects the pivot point 2 sections as the representative of the negative moment section, and analyzes the effects of parameters such as travel speed, unevenness, vehicle frequency, span diameter, span number and forced displacement of the support on the negative moment dynamic load allowance through orthogonal tests. The influence of parameters such as vehicle speed, unevenness, vehicle frequency, span diameter, span number, and forced displacement of the support on the negative moment dynamic load allowance is analyzed by orthogonal tests, and the influence law of each influencing parameter is summarized. It is found that the effects of vehicle frequency, unevenness, and speed on the negative moment dynamic load allowance are significant, among which vehicle frequency has the greatest effect on the negative moment dynamic load allowance; the effects of span number and span diameter on the negative moment dynamic load allowance are relatively small; the effects of forced displacement of the support on the negative moment dynamic load allowance are negligible.

Keywords: continuous T-girder bridge, dynamic load allowance, sensitivity analysis, vehicle-bridge coupling

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405 A Preliminary Study of Economic Dimension of Underground Rock Caverns for Water Storage at Singapore

Authors: Junlong Shang, Zhengxian Chua, Hoongping Peh, Zhiye Zhao


Due to scarce land resources in Singapore, it is imperative to increase water storage capacities to meet the increasing demand of water to secure a sustainable development, which can be achieved in the underground by rock caverns. In this paper, a preliminary study on the effects of cavern span, height and radius on the cavern stability is presented to provide a guidance on the cavern construction in the context of Singapore. It is found that the radius of caverns should be around half of the span width (i.e., B/R=2) to reduce vertical displacement at the crown of cavern. The smaller the rock cover, the smaller displacement. The minimum rock thickness should be at least the same as the cavern span to eliminate excessive yielded element. Finally, rock support system is introduced to maintain the profile of caverns.

Keywords: cavern dimension, numerical modelling, sustainable development, underground rock cavern

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404 Characteristics of Ozone Generated from Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Actuators

Authors: R. Osada, S. Ogata, T. Segawa


Dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators (DBD-PAs) have been developed for active flow control devices. However, it is necessary to reduce ozone produced by DBD toward practical applications using DBD-PAs. In this study, variations of ozone concentration, flow velocity, power consumption were investigated by changing exposed electrodes of DBD-PAs. Two exposed electrode prototypes were prepared: span-type with exposed electrode width of 0.1 mm, and normal-type with width of 5 mm. It was found that span-type shows lower power consumption and higher flow velocity than that of normal-type at Vp-p = 4.0-6.0 kV. Ozone concentration of span-type higher than normal-type at Vp-p = 4.0-8.0 kV. In addition, it was confirmed that catalyst located in downstream from the exposed electrode can reduce ozone concentration between 18 and 42% without affecting the induced flow.

Keywords: dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators, ozone diffusion, PIV measurement, power consumption

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403 Digital Control Techniques for Power Electronic Devices

Authors: Rakesh Krishna, Abhishek Poddar


The paper discusses the work carried out on the implementation of control techniques like Digital Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) and Digital Pulse Fired control(PFC). These techniques are often used in devices like inverters, battery chargers, DC-to-DC converters can also be implemented on household devices like heaters. The advantage being the control and improved life span of device. In case of batteries using these techniques are known to increase the life span of battery in mobiles and other hand-held devices. 8051 microcontroller is used to implement these methods.Thyristors are used for switching operations.

Keywords: PWM, SVM, PFC, bidirectional inverters, snubber

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402 Studying the Theoretical and Laboratory Design of a Concrete Frame and Optimizing Its Design for Impact and Earthquake Resistance

Authors: Mehrdad Azimzadeh, Seyed Mohammadreza Jabbari, Mohammadreza Hosseinzadeh Alherd


This paper includes experimental results and analytical studies about increasing resistance of single-span reinforced concreted frames against impact factor and their modeling according to optimization methods and optimizing the behavior of these frames under impact loads. During this study, about 30 designs for different frames were modeled and made using specialized software like ANSYS and Sap and their behavior were examined under variable impacts. Then suitable strategies were offered for frames in terms of concrete mixing in order to optimize frame modeling. To reduce the weight of the frames, we had to use fine-grained stones. After designing about eight types of frames for each type of frames, three samples were designed with the aim of controlling the impact strength parameters, and a good shape of the frame was created for the impact resistance, which was a solid frame with muscular legs, and as a bond away from each other as much as possible with a 3 degree gradient in the upper part of the beam.

Keywords: optimization, reinforced concrete, optimization methods, impact load, earthquake

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401 Evaluation of the End Effect Impact on the Torsion Test for Determining the Shear Modulus of a Timber Beam through a Photogrammetry Approach

Authors: Niaz Gharavi, Hexin Zhang, Yanjun Xie


The timber beam end effect in the torsion test is evaluated using binocular stereo vision system. It is recommended by BS EN 408:2010+A1:2012 to exclude a distance of two to three times of cross-sectional thickness (b) from ends to avoid the end effect; whereas, this study indicates that this distance is not sufficiently far enough to remove this effect in slender cross-sections. The shear modulus of six timber beams with different aspect ratios is determined at the various angles and cross-sections. The result of this experiment shows that the end affected span of each specimen varies depending on their aspect ratios. It is concluded that by increasing the aspect ratio this span will increase. However, by increasing the distance from the ends to the values greater than 6b, the shear modulus trend becomes constant and end effect will be negligible. Moreover, it is concluded that end affected span is preferred to be depth-dependent rather than thickness-dependant.

Keywords: end clamp effect, full-size timber test, shear properties, torsion test, wood engineering

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400 Equations of Pulse Propagation in Three-Layer Structure of As2S3 Chalcogenide Plasmonic Nano-Waveguides

Authors: Leila Motamed-Jahromi, Mohsen Hatami, Alireza Keshavarz


This research aims at obtaining the equations of pulse propagation in nonlinear plasmonic waveguides created with As2S3 chalcogenide materials. Via utilizing Helmholtz equation and first-order perturbation theory, two components of electric field are determined within frequency domain. Afterwards, the equations are formulated in time domain. The obtained equations include two coupled differential equations that considers nonlinear dispersion.

Keywords: nonlinear optics, plasmonic waveguide, chalcogenide, propagation equation

Procedia PDF Downloads 243