Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Search results for: Tangi Aubert

4 Impact of Electric Field on the Optical Properties of Hydrophilic Quantum Dots

Authors: Valentina V. Goftman, Vladislav A. Pankratov, Alexey V. Markin, Tangi Aubert, Zeger Hens, Sarah De Saeger, Irina Yu. Goryacheva

Abstract:

The most important requirements for biochemical applicability of quantum dots (QDs) are: 1) the surface cap should render intact or improved optical properties; 2) mono-dispersion and good stability in aqueous phase in a wide range of pH and ionic strength values; 3) presence of functional groups, available for bioconjugation; 4) minimal impact from the environment on the QDs’ properties and, vice versa, minimal influence of the QDs’ components on the environment; and 5) stability against chemical/biochemical/physical influence. The latter is especially important for in vitro and in vivo applications. For example, some physical intracellular delivery strategies (e.g., electroporation) imply a rapid high-voltage electric field impulse in order to temporarily generate hydrophilic pores in the cell plasma membrane, necessary for the passive transportation of QDs into the cell. In this regard, it is interesting to investigate how different capping layers, which can provide high stability and sufficient fluorescent properties of QDs in a water solution, behave under these abnormal conditions. In this contribution, hydrophobic core-shell CdSe/CdS/CdZnS/ZnS QDs (λem=600 nm), produced by means of the Successive Ion Layer Adsorption and Reaction (SILAR) technique, were transferred to a water solution using two of the most commonly used methods: (i) encapsulation in an amphiphilic brush polymer based on poly(maleic anhydride-alt-1-octadecene) (PMAO) modified with polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains and (ii) silica covering. Polymer encapsulation preserves the initial ligands on the QDs’ surface owing to the hydrophobic attraction between the hydrophobic groups of the amphiphilic molecules and the surface hydrophobic groups of the QDs. This covering process allows maintaining the initial fluorescent properties, but it leads to a considerable increase of the QDs’ size. However, covering with a silica shell, by means of the reverse microemulsion method, allows maintaining both size and fluorescent properties of the initial QDs. The obtained water solutions of polymer covered and silica-coated QDs in three different concentrations were exposed to a low-voltage electric field for a short time and the fluorescent properties were investigated. It is shown that the PMAO-PEG polymer acquires some additional charges in the presence of the electric field, which causes repulsion between the polymer and the QDs’ surface. This process destroys the homogeneity of the whole amphiphilic shell and it dramatically decreases the fluorescent properties (dropping to 10% from its initial value) because of the direct contact of the QDs with the strongly oxidative environment (water). In contrast, a silica shell possesses dielectric properties which allow retaining 90% of its initial fluorescence intensity, even after a longer electric impact. Thus, silica shells are clearly a preferable covering for bio-application of QDs, because – besides the high uniform morphology, controlled size and biocompatibility – it allows protecting QDs from oxidation, even under the influence of an electric field.

Keywords: electric field, polymer coating, quantum dots, silica covering, stability

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3 Shock and Particle Velocity Determination from Microwave Interrogation

Authors: Benoit Rougier, Alexandre Lefrancois, Herve Aubert

Abstract:

Microwave interrogation in the range 10-100 GHz is identified as an advanced technique to investigate simultaneously shock and particle velocity measurements. However, it requires the understanding of electromagnetic wave propagation in a multi-layered moving media. The existing models limit their approach to wave guides or evaluate the velocities with a fitting method, restricting therefore the domain of validity and the precision of the results. Moreover, few data of permittivity on high explosives at these frequencies under dynamic compression have been reported. In this paper, shock and particle velocities are computed concurrently for steady and unsteady shocks for various inert and reactive materials, via a propagation model based on Doppler shifts and signal amplitude. Refractive index of the material under compression is also calculated. From experimental data processing, it is demonstrated that Hugoniot curve can be evaluated. The comparison with published results proves the accuracy of the proposed method. This microwave interrogation technique seems promising for shock and detonation waves studies.

Keywords: electromagnetic propagation, experimental setup, Hugoniot measurement, shock propagation

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2 Effects of Voltage Pulse Characteristics on Some Performance Parameters of LiₓCoO₂-based Resistive Switching Memory Devices

Authors: Van Son Nguyen, Van Huy Mai, Alec Moradpour, Pascale Auban Senzier, Claude Pasquier, Kang Wang, Pierre-Antoine Albouy, Marcelo J. Rozenberg, John Giapintzakis, Christian N. Mihailescu, Charis M. Orfanidou, Thomas Maroutian, Philippe Lecoeur, Guillaume Agnus, Pascal Aubert, Sylvain Franger, Raphaël Salot, Nathalie Brun, Katia March, David Alamarguy, Pascal ChréTien, Olivier Schneegans

Abstract:

In the field of Nanoelectronics, a major research activity is being developed towards non-volatile memories. To face the limitations of existing Flash memory cells (endurance, downscaling, rapidity…), new approaches are emerging, among them resistive switching memories (Re-RAM). In this work, we analysed the behaviour of LixCoO2 oxide thin films in electrode/film/electrode devices. Preliminary results have been obtained concerning the influence of bias pulses characteristics (duration, value) on some performance parameters, such as endurance and resistance ratio (ROFF/RON). Besides, Conducting Probe Atomic Force Microscopy (CP-AFM) characterizations of the devices have been carried out to better understand some causes of performance failure, and thus help optimizing the switching performance of such devices.

Keywords: non volatile resistive memories, resistive switching, thin films, endurance

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1 Nude Cosmetic Water-Rich Compositions for Skin Care and Consumer Emotions

Authors: Emmanuelle Merat, Arnaud Aubert, Sophie Cambos, Francis Vial, Patrick Beau

Abstract:

Basically, consumers are sensitive to many stimuli when applying a cream: brand, packaging and indeed formulation compositions. Many studies demonstrated the influence of some stimuli such as brand, packaging, formula color and odor (e.g. in make-up applications). Those parameters influence perceived quality of the product. The objective of this work is to further investigate the relationship between nude skincare basic compositions with different textures and consumer experience. A tentative final step will be to connect the consumer feelings with key ingredients in the compositions. A new approach was developed to better understand touch-related subjective experience in consumers based on a combination of methods: sensory analysis with ten experts, preference mapping on one hundred female consumers and emotional assessments on thirty consumers (verbal and non-verbal through prosody and gesture monitoring). Finally, a methodology based on ‘sensorial trip’ (after olfactory, haptic and musical stimuli) has been experimented on the most interesting textures with 10 consumers. The results showed more or less impact depending on compositions and also on key ingredients. Three types of formulation particularly attracted the consumer: an aqueous gel, an oil-in-water emulsion, and a patented gel-in-oil formulation type. Regarding these three formulas, the preferences were both revealed through sensory and emotion tests. One was recognized as the most innovative in consumer sensory test whereas the two other formulas were discriminated in emotions evaluation. The positive emotions were highlighted especially in prosody criteria. The non-verbal analysis, which corresponds to the physical parameters of the voice, showed high pitch and amplitude values; linked to positive emotions. Verbatim, verbal content of responses (i.e., ideas, concepts, mental images), confirmed the first conclusion. On the formulas selected for their positive emotions generation, the ‘sensorial trip’ provided complementary information to characterize each emotional profile. In the second step, dedicated to better understand ingredients power, two types of ingredients demonstrated an obvious input on consumer preference: rheology modifiers and emollients. As a conclusion, nude cosmetic compositions with well-chosen textures and ingredients can positively stimulate consumer emotions contributing to capture their preference. For a complete achievement of the study, a global approach (Asia, America territories...) should be developed.

Keywords: sensory, emotion, cosmetic formulations, ingredients' influence

Procedia PDF Downloads 89