Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2067

Search results for: in vitro release

2067 Formulation and in vitro Evaluation of Sustained Release Matrix Tablets of Levetiracetam for Better Epileptic Treatment

Authors: Nagasamy Venkatesh Dhandapani

Abstract:

The objective of the present study was to develop sustained release oral matrix tablets of anti epileptic drug levetiracetam. The sustained release matrix tablets of levetiracetam were prepared using hydrophilic matrix hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) as a release retarding polymer by wet granulation method. Prior to compression, FTIR studies were performed to understand the compatibility between the drug and excipients. The study revealed that there was no chemical interaction between drug and excipients used in the study. The tablets were characterized by physical and chemical parameters and results were found in acceptable limits. In vitro release study was carried out for the tablets using 0.1 N HCl for 2 hours and in phosphate buffer pH 7.4 for remaining time up to 12 hours. The effect of polymer concentration was studied. Different dissolution models were applied to drug release data in order to evaluate release mechanisms and kinetics. The drug release data fit well to zero order kinetics. Drug release mechanism was found as a complex mixture of diffusion, swelling and erosion.

Keywords: levetiracetam, sustained-release, hydrophilic matrix tablet, HPMC grade K 100 MCR, wet granulation, zero order release kinetics

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
2066 Effect of Non-Ionic Surfactants on in vitro Release of Ketorolactromethamine

Authors: Ajay Aggarwal, Kamal Saroha, Sanju Nanda

Abstract:

Niosomes or non-ionic surfactant vesicles are microscopic lamellar structures formed on admixture of non-ionic surfactant of the alkyl or dialkyl polyglycerol ether class and cholesterol with subsequent hydration in aqueous media. They are vesicular systems similar to liposomes that can be used as carriers of amphiphilic and lipophilic drugs. Entrapment efficiency was found to be higher in case of niosome prepared with span60 than niosome prepared with tween. The amount of release was found to be in order of Span20>Tween60>Tween20>Span60. As the concentration of surfactant is increased in vitro release was increased due to high entrapment. The stability study of optimized batch revealed that particle size was increased after 3months on increasing the temperature. On the other hand entrapment efficiency was decreased on increasing the temperature.

Keywords: niosomes, vesicles, span, tween, in vitro release

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
2065 Novel Solid Lipid Nanoparticles for Oral Delivery of Oxyresveratrol: Effect of the Formulation Parameters on the Physicochemical Properties and in vitro Release

Authors: Yaowaporn Sangsen, Kittisak Likhitwitayawuid, Boonchoo Sritularak, Kamonthip Wiwattanawongsa, Ruedeekorn Wiwattanapatapee

Abstract:

Novel solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) were developed to improve oral bioavailability of oxyresveratrol (OXY). The SLNs were prepared by a high speed homogenization technique, at an effective speed and time, using Compritol® 888 ATO (5% w/w) as the solid lipid. The appropriate weight proportions (0.3% w/w) of OXY affected the physicochemical properties of blank SLNs. The effects of surfactant types on the properties of the formulations such as particle size and entrapment efficacy were also investigated. Conclusively, Tween 80 combined with soy lecithin was the most appropriate surfactant to stabilize OXY-loaded SLNs. The mean particle size of the optimized formulation was 134.40 ± 0.57 nm. In vitro drug release study, the selected S2 formulation showed a retarded release profile for OXY with no initial burst release compared to OXY suspension in the simulated gastrointestinal fluids. Therefore, these SLNs could provide a suitable system to develop for the oral OXY delivery.

Keywords: solid lipid nanoparticles, physicochemical properties, in vitro drug release, oxyresveratrol

Procedia PDF Downloads 328
2064 Self-Carried Theranostic Nanoparticles for in vitro and in vivo Cancer Therapy with Real-Time Monitoring of Drug Release

Authors: Jinfeng Zhang, Chun-Sing Lee

Abstract:

The use of different nanocarriers for delivering hydrophobic pharmaceutical agents to tumor sites has garnered major attention. Despite the merits of these nanocarriers, further studies are needed for improving their drug loading capacities (typically less than 10%) and reducing their potential systemic toxicity. So development of alternative self-carried nanodrug delivery strategies without using any inert carriers is highly desirable. In this study, we developed a self-carried theranostic curcumin (Cur) nanodrug for highly effective cancer therapy in vitro and in vivo with real-time monitoring of drug release. With a biocompatible C18PMH-PEG functionalization, the Cur nanoparticles (NPs) showed excellent dispersibility and outstanding stability in physiological environment, with drug loading capacity higher than 78 wt.%. Both confocal microscopy and flow cytometry confirmed the cellular fluorescent “OFF-ON” activation and real-time monitoring of Cur molecule release, showing its potential for cancer diagnosis. In vitro and in vivo experiments clearly show that therapeutic efficacy of the PEGylated Cur NPs is much better than that of free Cur. This self-carried theranostic strategy with real-time monitoring of drug release may open a new way for simultaneous cancer therapy and diagnosis.

Keywords: drug delivery, in vitro and in vivo cancer therapy, real-time monitoring, self-carried

Procedia PDF Downloads 326
2063 Formulation Development and Evaluation of Floating Tablets of Venlafaxine Hydrochloride

Authors: Gajera Lalit, Shah Pranav, Shah Shailesh

Abstract:

Venlafaxine hydrochloride has a short elimination half-life of 5 ± 2 hr, and absorption window in the upper part of gastrointestinal tract. The conventional tablets need to be administered two to three times a day and possess an oral bioavailability of 45%. The purpose of this study was to formulate gastroretentive effervescent floating tablets of Venlafaxine HCl. Different grades of HPMC namely K15M, K4M, K100M and E15LV were employed as swelling polymers whereas sodium bicarbonate was employed as gas generating agent. The direct compression method was employed for the formulation of tablets. The tablets were evaluated in terms of hardness, friability, weight variation, drug content, water uptake, in-vitro floating behavior and in-vitro drug release study. All the formulations exhibited very short floating lag time of < 1 min and total floating time of 12 hr. Formulation L3 containing 25 mg and 75 mg of HPMC E15 LV and HPMC K15M respectively exhibited complete drug release within 12 hrs.

Keywords: venlafaxine HCl, hydroxyl propyl methylcellulose, floating gastro retentive tablets, in-vitro drug release, non-fickian diffusion

Procedia PDF Downloads 416
2062 Release of Calcein from Liposomes Using Low and High Frequency Ultrasound

Authors: Ghaleb A. Husseini, Salma E. Ahmed, Hesham G. Moussa, Ana M. Martins, Mohammad Al-Sayah, Nasser Qaddoumi

Abstract:

This abstract aims to investigate the use of targeted liposomes as anticancer drug carriers in vitro in combination with ultrasound applied as drug trigger; in order to reduce the side effects caused by traditional chemotherapy. Pegylated liposomes were used to encapsulate calcein and then release this model drug when 20-kHz, 40-kHz, 1-MHz and 3-MHz ultrasound were applied at different acoustic power densities. Fluorescence techniques were then used to measure the percent drug release of calcein from these targeted liposomes. Results showed that as the power density increases, at the four frequencies studied, the release of calcein also increased. Based on these results, we believe that ultrasound can be used to increase the rate and amount of chemotherapeutics release from liposomes.

Keywords: liposomes, calcein release, high frequency ultrasound, low frequency ultrasound, fluorescence techniques

Procedia PDF Downloads 340
2061 Design and Development of Buccal Delivery System for Atenolol Tablets by Using Different Bioadhesive Polymers

Authors: Venkatalakshmi Ranganathan, Ong Hsin Ju, Tan Yinn Ming, Lim Kien Sin, Wong Man Ting, Venkata Srikanth Meka

Abstract:

The mucoadhesive buccal tablet is an oral drug delivery system which attached to the buccal surface for direct drug absorption into the systemic circulation and the unidirectional drug release is ensured by formulating a hydrophobic backing layer. The objective of present study was to formulate mucoadhesive atenolol bilayer buccal tablets by using sodium alginate, hydroxyethyl cellulose, and xanthan gum as mucoadhesive polymer and the technique applied was direct compression method. Ethyl cellulose was used as backing layer of the tablet. FTIR and DSC analysis were carried out to identify the drug polymer interactions. The prepared tablets were evaluated for physicochemical parameters, ex vivo mucoadhesion time and in-vitro drug release. The formulated tablets showed the average surface pH 6-7 which is favourable for oral mucosa. The formulation containing sodium alginate showed more than 90 % of drug release at the end of the 7 hours in vitro dissolution studies. The formulation containing xanthan gum showed more than 8 hours of mucoadhesion time and all formulation exhibited non fickian release kinetics. The present study indicates enormous potential of erodible mucoadhesive buccal tablet containing atenolol for systemic delivery with an added advantage of circumventing the hepatic first pass metabolism.

Keywords: atenolol, mucoadhesion, in vitro drug release, direct compression, ethyl cellulose

Procedia PDF Downloads 540
2060 Effect of Ethyl Cellulose and Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose Polymer on the Release Profile of Diltiazem Hydrochloride Sustained Release Pellets

Authors: Shahana Sharmin

Abstract:

In the present study, the effect of cellulose polymers Ethyl Cellulose and Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose was evaluated on the release profile of drug from sustained release pellet. Diltiazem Hydrochloride, an antihypertensive, cardio-protective agent and slow channel blocker were used as a model drug to evaluate its release characteristics from different pellets formulations. Diltiazem Hydrochloride sustained release pellets were prepared by drug loading (drug binder suspension) on neutral pellets followed by different percentages of spraying, i.e. 2%,4%, 6%, 8% and 10% coating suspension using ethyl cellulose and hydroxy-propyl methyl cellulose polymer in a fixed 85:15 ratios respectively. The in vitro dissolution studies of Diltiazem Hydrochloride from these sustained release pellets were carried out in pH 7.2 phosphate buffer for 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 hrs using USP-I method. Statistically, significant differences were found among the drug release profile from different formulations. Polymer content with the highest concentration of Ethyl cellulose on the pellets shows the highest release retarding rate of the drug. The retarding capacity decreases with the decreased concentration of ethyl cellulose. The release mechanism was explored and explained with zero order, first order, Higuchi and Korsmeyer’s equations. Finally, the study showed that the profile and kinetics of drug release were functions of polymer type, polymer concentration & the physico-chemical properties of the drug.

Keywords: diltiazem hydrochloride, ethyl cellulose, hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose, release kinetics, sustained release pellets

Procedia PDF Downloads 338
2059 Formulation and Evaluation of Colon-Specific Drug Delivery System of Zaltoprofen

Authors: Surajj Sarode, G. P. Vadnere, G. Vidya Sagar

Abstract:

Compression coating is one of the strategies for delivering drug to the colon based on Gastrointestinal PH and transit time concept. The main aim of these formulations to develop rapidly disintegrating Zaltoprofen core tablets compression-coated with a mixture of time-dependent hydrophilic swellable polymer HPMC K 15 and PH responsive soluble polymer Chitosan and Guar gum in different ratios. The effect of the proportion of HPMC, Chitosan and Guar gum in the coat on premature drug release in upper part (Stomach and small intestine) of GIT and the amount of drug release in colon target area was studied. The formulations are carried out by using Direct Compression method. Sodium starch Glycolate used for rapid disintegration. FTIR used for Drug-Polymer Interaction studies. The prepared tablets were evaluated for hardness, thickness, friability, in-vitro disintegration, in-Vitro dissolution and in-vitro kinetic study.

Keywords: zaltoprofen, chitosan, formulation, drug delivery

Procedia PDF Downloads 367
2058 Preparation, Characterization, and in-Vitro Drug Release Study of Methotrexate-Loaded Hydroxyapatite-Sodium Alginate Nanocomposites

Authors: Friday G. Okibe, Edit B. Agbaji, Victor O. Ajibola, Christain C. Onoyima

Abstract:

Controlled drug delivery systems reduce dose-dependent toxicity associated with potent drugs, including anticancer drugs. In this research, hydroxyapatite (HA) and hydroxyapatite-sodium alginate nanocomposites (HASA) were successfully prepared and characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The FTIR result showed absorption peaks characteristics of pure hydroxyapatite (HA), and also confirmed the chemical interaction between hydroxyapatite and sodium alginate in the formation of the composite. Image analysis from SEM revealed nano-sized hydroxyapatite and hydroxyapatite-sodium alginate nanocomposites with irregular morphologies. Particle size increased with the formation of the nanocomposites relative to pure hydroxyapatite, with no significant change in particles morphologies. Drug loading and in-vitro drug release study were carried out using synthetic body fluid as the release medium, at pH 7.4 and 37 °C and under perfect sink conditions. The result shows that drug loading is highest for pure hydroxyapatite and decreased with increasing quantity of sodium alginate. However, the release study revealed that HASA-5%wt and HASA-20%wt presented better release profile than pure hydroxyapatite, while HASA-33%wt and HASA-50%wt have poor release profiles. This shows that Methotrexate-loaded hydroxyapatite-sodium alginate if prepared under optimal conditions is a potential carrier for effective delivery of Methotrexate.

Keywords: drug-delivery, hydroxyapatite, methotrexate, nanocomposites, sodium alginate

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
2057 Development and Evaluation of Gastro Retentive Floating Tablets of Ayurvedic Vati Formulation

Authors: Imran Khan Pathan, Anil Bhandari, Peeyush K. Sharma, Rakesh K. Patel, Suresh Purohit

Abstract:

Floating tablets of Marichyadi Vati were developed with an aim to prolong its gastric residence time and increase the bioavailability of drug. Rapid gastrointestinal transit could result in incomplete drug release from the drug delivery system above the absorption zone leading to diminished efficacy of the administered dose. The tablets were prepared by wet granulation technique, using HPMC E50 LV act as Matrixing agent, Carbopol as floating enhancer, microcrystalline cellulose as binder, sodium bi carbonate as effervescent agent with other excipients. The simplex lattice design was used for selection of variables for tablets formulation. Formulation was optimized on the basis of floating time and in vitro drug release. The results showed that the floating lag time for optimized formulation was found to be 61 second with about 97.32 % of total drug release within 3 hours. The in vitro release profiles of drug from the formulation could be best expressed zero order with highest linearity r2 = 0.9943. It was concluded that the gastroretentive drug delivery system can be developed for Marichyadi Vati containing piperine to increase the residence time of the drug in the stomach and thereby increasing bioavailability.

Keywords: piperine, Marichyadi Vati, gastroretentive drug delivery, floating tablet

Procedia PDF Downloads 358
2056 Development of pH Responsive Nanoparticles for Colon Targeted Drug Delivery System

Authors: V. Balamuralidhara

Abstract:

The aim of the present work was to develop Paclitaxel loaded polyacrylamide grafted guar gum nanoparticles as pH responsive nanoparticle systems for targeting colon. The pH sensitive nanoparticles were prepared by modified ionotropic gelation technique. The prepared nanoparticles showed mean diameters in the range of 264±0.676 nm to 726±0.671nm, and a negative net charge 10.8 mV to 35.4mV. Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) studies suggested that there was no chemical interaction between drug and polymers. The encapsulation efficiency of the drug was found to be 40.92% to 48.14%. The suitability of the polyacrylamide grafted guar gum ERN’s for the release of Paclitaxel was studied by in vitro release at pH 1.2 and 7.4. It was observed that, there was no significant amount of drug release at gastric pH and 97.63% of drug release at pH 7.4 was obtained for optimized formulation F3 at the end of 12 hrs. In vivo drug targeting performance for the prepared optimized formulation (F3) and pure drug Paclitaxel was evaluated by HPLC. It was observed that the polyacrylamide grafted guar gum can be used to prepare nanoparticles for targeting the drug to the colon. The release performance was greatly affected by the materials used in ERN’s preparation, which allows maximum release at colon’s pH. It may be concluded that polyacrylamide grafted guar gum nanoparticles loaded with paclitaxel have desirable release responsive to specific pH. Hence it is a unique approach for colonic delivery of drug having appropriate site specificity and feasibility and controlled release of drug.

Keywords: colon targeting, polyacrylamide grafted guar gum nanoparticles, paclitaxel, nanoparticles

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
2055 Development and in vitro Characterization of Loteprednol Etabonate-Loaded Polymeric Nanoparticles for Ocular Delivery

Authors: Abhishek Kumar Sah, Preeti K. Suresh

Abstract:

Effective drug delivery to the eye is a massive challenge, due to complicated physiological ocular barriers, rapid washout by tear and nasolachrymal drainage. Thus, most of the conventional ophthalmic formulations face the problem of low ocular bioavailability. Ophthalmic drug therapy can be improved by enhancing the precorneal drug retention along with improved drug penetration. The aim of the present investigation was to develop and evaluate a biodegradable polymer poly (D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) coated nanoparticulate carrier of loteprednol etabonate. PLGA nanoparticles were prepared by modified emulsification/solvent diffusion method using high-speed homogenizer followed by sonication. The nanoparticles were characterized for various parameters such as particle size, zeta potential, polydispersity index, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), in vitro drug release profile and stability. The prepared nanocarriers displayed mean particle size in the range of 271.7 to 424.4 nm, with zeta potential less than –10 mV. In vitro release in simulated tear fluid (STF) nanocarrier showed an extended release profile of loteprednol etabonate. TEM confirmed the spherical morphology and smooth surface of the particles. All the prepared formulations were found to be stable at varying temperatures.

Keywords: drug delivery, ocular delivery, polymeric nanoparticles, loteprednol etabonate

Procedia PDF Downloads 449
2054 Green Approach towards Synthesis of Chitosan Nanoparticles for in vitro Release of Quercetin

Authors: Dipali Nagaonkar, Mahendra Rai

Abstract:

Chitosan, a carbohydrate polymer at nanoscale level has gained considerable momentum in drug delivery applications due to its inherent biocompatibility and non-toxicity. However, conventional synthetic strategies for chitosan nanoparticles mainly rely upon physicochemical techniques, which often yield chitosan microparticles. Hence, there is an emergent need for development of controlled synthetic protocols for chitosan nanoparticles within the nanometer range. In this context, we report the green synthesis of size controlled chitosan nanoparticles by using Pongamia pinnata (L.) leaf extract. Nanoparticle tracking analysis confirmed formation of nanoparticles with mean particle size of 85 nm. The stability of chitosan nanoparticles was investigated by zetasizer analysis, which revealed positive surface charged nanoparticles with zeta potential 20.1 mV. The green synthesized chitosan nanoparticles were further explored for encapsulation and controlled release of antioxidant biomolecule, quercetin. The resulting drug loaded chitosan nanoparticles showed drug entrapment efficiency of 93.50% with drug-loading capacity of 42.44%. The cumulative in vitro drug release up to 15 hrs was achieved suggesting towards efficacy of green synthesized chitosan nanoparticles for drug delivery applications.

Keywords: Chitosan nanoparticles, green synthesis, Pongamia pinnata, quercetin

Procedia PDF Downloads 491
2053 Curcumin Loaded Modified Chitosan Nanocarrier for Tumor Specificity

Authors: S. T. Kumbhar, M. S. Bhatia, R. C. Khairate

Abstract:

An effective nanodrug delivery system was developed by using chitosan for increased encapsulation efficiency and retarded release of curcumin. Potential ionotropic gelation method was used for the development of chitosan nanoparticles with TPP as cross-linker. The characterization was done for analysis of size, structure, surface morphology, and thermal behavior of synthesized chitosan nanoparticles. The encapsulation efficiency was more than 80%, with improved drug loading capacity. The in-vitro drug release study showed that curcumin release rate was decreased significantly. These chitosan nanoparticles could be a suitable platform for co-delivery of curcumin and anticancer agent for enhanced cytotoxic effect on tumor cells.

Keywords: Curcumin, chitosan, nanoparticles, anticancer activity

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
2052 Sun Protection Factor (SPF) Determination of Sericin Cream and Niosomal Gel

Authors: Farzad Doostishoar, Abbas Pardakhty, Abdolreza Hassanzadeh, Sudeh salarpour, Elham Sharif

Abstract:

Background: Sericin is a protein extracted from silk and has antioxidant, antimicrobial, antineoplastic, wound healing and moisturizing properties. Different cosmetic formulation of sericin is available in different countries such as Japan and the other south-eastern Asian countries. We formulated and evaluated the sunscreen properties of topical formulations of sericin by an in vitro method. Method: Niosomes composed of sorbitan palmitate (Span 40), polysorbate 40 (Tween 40) and cholesterol (300 µmol, 3.5:3.5:3 molar ratio) were prepared by film hydration technique. Sericin was dissolved in normal saline and the lipid hydration was carried out at 60°C and the niosomes were incorporated in a Carbomer gel base. A W/O cream was also prepared and the release of sericin was evaluated by using Franz diffusion cell. Particle size analysis, sericin encapsulation efficiency measurement, morphological studies and stability evaluation were done in niosomal formulations. SPF was calculated by using Transpore tape in vitro method for both formulations. Results: Niosomes had high stability during 6 months storage at 4-8°C. The mean volume diameter of niosomes was less than 7 µm which is ideal for sustained release of drugs in topical formulations. The SPF of niosomal gel was 25 and higher than sericin cream with a diffusion based release pattern of active material. Conclusion: Sericin can be successfully entrapped in niosomes with sustained release pattern and relatively high SPF.

Keywords: sericin, niosomes, sun protection factor, cream, gel

Procedia PDF Downloads 410
2051 Development and Characterization of Controlled Release Photo Cross-Linked Implants for Ocular Delivery of Triamcinolone Acetonide

Authors: Ravi Sheshala, Annie Lee, Ai Lin Ong, Ling Ling Cheu, Thiagarajan Madheswaran, Thankur R. R. Singh

Abstract:

The objectives of the present research work were to develop and characterize biodegradable controlled release photo cross-linked implants of Triamcinolone Acetonide (TA) for the treatment of chronic ocular diseases. The photo cross-linked implants were prepared using film casting technique by mixing TA (2.5%) polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA 700), pore formers (mannitol, maltose, and gelatin) and the photoinitiator (Irgacure 2959). The resulting mixture was injected into moulds using 21 G and subjected to photocrosslinking at 365 nm. Scanning electron microscopy results demonstrated that more pores were formed in the films with the increase in the concentration of pore formers from 2%-10%. The maximum force required to break the films containing 2-10% of pore formers were determined in both dry and wet conditions using texture analyzer and found that films in a dry condition required a higher force to break compared to wet condition and blank films. In vitro drug release from photo cross-linked films were determined by incubating samples in 50 ml PBS pH 7.4 at 37 C and the samples were analyzed for drug release by HPLC. The films demonstrated a biphasic release profile i.e. an initial burst release (<20%) on the first day followed by a constant and continuous drug release in a controlled manner for 42 days. The drug release from all formulations followed the first-order release pattern and the combination of diffusion and erosion release mechanism. In conclusion, the developed formulations were able to provide controlled drug delivery to treat the chronic ocular diseases.

Keywords: controlled release, ophthalmic, PEGDA, photocrosslinking, pore formers

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
2050 Development and in vitro Evaluation of Polymer-Drug Conjugates Containing Potentiating Agents for Combination Therapy

Authors: Blessing A. Aderibigbe

Abstract:

Combination therapy is a treatment approach that is used to prevent the emergence of drug resistance. This approach is used for the treatment of many chronic and infectious diseases. Potentiating agents are currently explored in combination therapy, resulting in excellent therapeutic outcomes. Breast cancer and malaria are two chronic conditions responsible globally for high death rates. In this research, a class of polymer-drug conjugates containing potentiating agents with either antimalarial or anticancer drugs were prepared by Michael Addition Polymerization reaction and ring-opening polymerization reaction. Conjugation of potentiating agents with bioactive compounds into the polymers resulted in conjugates with good water solubility, highly selective and non-toxic. In vitro cytotoxicity and in vitro antiplasmodial evaluation on the conjugates revealed that the conjugates were more effective when compared to the free drugs. The drug release studies further showed that the release profile of the drugs from the conjugates was sustained. The findings revealed the potential of polymer-drug conjugates to overcome drug toxicity and drug resistance, which is common with the currently used antimalarial and anticancer drugs.

Keywords: anticancer, antimalarials, combination therapy, polymer-drug conjugates

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
2049 Localized Treatment of Cutaneous Candidiasis through Cubosomes in vitro Evaluation

Authors: Aakanchha Jain, D. V. Kohli

Abstract:

Cubosomes are nanoparticles but instead of the solid particles, cubosomes are self-assembled liquid crystalline particles of certain surfactant with proper ratio of water with a microstructure that provides unique properties of practical interest. Cubosomes encapsulating Fluconazole were prepared by emulsification method and characterized for particle size, entrapment efficiency. The cubosomes prepared were 257.2±2.94 nm in size with drug entrapment efficiency of 66.2±2.69%. The optimized formulation characterized for shape and surface morphology by TEM and SEM analysis. SEM photograph showed the smooth surface of optimized cubosomes and TEM photograph revealed square somewhat circular intact shapes of cubosomes. MIC was determined by XTT based method and antifungal activity was determined in vitro. The cumulative percentage of Fnz from cubosomes permeated via dialysis membrane (MWCO 12-14 KD) showed a percent cumulative drug release of 76.86% while Fnz solution showed release up to 91.04% in 24 hours in PBS (pH 6.5)(p < 0.005).

Keywords: Candids albicans, cubosomes, fluconazole, topical delivery

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
2048 Preparation and Evaluation of Zidovudine Nanoparticles

Authors: D. R. Rama Brahma Reddy, A. Vijaya Sarada Reddy

Abstract:

Nanoparticles represent a promising drug delivery system of controlled and targeted drug release. They are specially designed to release the drug in the vicinity of target tissue. The aim of this study was to prepare and evaluate polymethacrylic acid nanoparticles containing Zidovudine in different drug to polymer ratio by nanoprecipitation method. SEM indicated that nanoparticles have a discrete spherical structure without aggregation. The average particle size was found to be 120 ± 0.02 - 420 ± 0.05 nm. The particle size of the nanoparticles was gradually increased with increase in the proportion of polymethacrylic acid polymer. The drug content of the nanoparticles was increasing on increasing polymer concentration up to a particular concentration. No appreciable difference was observed in the extent of degradation of product during 60 days in which, nanoparticles were stored at various temperatures. FT-IR studies indicated that there was no chemical interaction between drug and polymer and stability of drug. The in-vitro release behavior from all the drug loaded batches was found to be zero order and provided sustained release over a period of 24 h. The developed formulation overcome and alleviates the drawbacks and limitations of Zidovudine sustained release formulations and could possibility be advantageous in terms of increased bio availability of Zidovudine.

Keywords: nanoparticles, zidovudine, biodegradable, polymethacrylic acid

Procedia PDF Downloads 403
2047 Formulation of Film Forming Transdermal Spray Containing Fluconazole Using Full Factorial Design

Authors: Paresh M. Patel, Amit A. Patel, R. H. Parikh

Abstract:

The present investigation was undertaken to fabricate modified transport fluconazole that belongs to BCS class II and have a poor applicability on topical infection. So to improve topical application, transdermal spray could play a vital role by using ethyl cellulose and Eudragit® S100 as film-forming polymers. Concentration of Eudragit® S100, ethyl cellulose and permeation enhancer (camphor and menthol) were selected as independent variables, whereas drying time, viscosity and in-vitro drug release were selected as dependent variables in factorial design. The viscosity, drying time and in-vitro drug release of the optimize batch B15 was 40.1 cps, 47 sec. and 90.79% respectively. The film of optimized batch was flexible and dermal-adhesive.

Keywords: Eudragit, ethyl cellulose, fluconazole, transdermal spray

Procedia PDF Downloads 378
2046 Formulation of Extended-Release Ranolazine Tablet and Investigation Its Stability in the Accelerated Stability Condition at 40⁰C and 75% Humidity

Authors: Farzad Khajavi, Farzaneh Jalilfar, Faranak Jafari, Leila Shokrani

Abstract:

Formulation of Ranolazine in the form of extended-release tablet in 500 mg dosage form was performed using Eudragit L100-55 as a retarding agent. Drug-release profiles were investigated in comparison with the reference Ranexa extended-release 500 mg tablet. F₂ and f₁ were calculated as 64.16 and 8.53, respectively. According to Peppas equation, the release of drug is controlled by diffusion (n=0.5). The tablets were put into accelerated stability conditions (40 °C, 75% humidity) for 3 and 6 months. The dissolution release profiles and other physical and chemical characteristics of the tablets confirmed the robustness and stability of formulation in this condition.

Keywords: drug release, extended-release tablet, ranolazine, stability

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
2045 Sphingosomes: Potential Anti-Cancer Vectors for the Delivery of Doxorubicin

Authors: Brajesh Tiwari, Yuvraj Dangi, Abhishek Jain, Ashok Jain

Abstract:

The purpose of the investigation was to evaluate the potential of sphingosomes as nanoscale drug delivery units for site-specific delivery of anti-cancer agents. Doxorubicin Hydrochloride (DOX) was selected as a model anti-cancer agent. Sphingosomes were prepared and loaded with DOX and optimized for size and drug loading. The formulations were characterized by Malvern zeta-seizer and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) studies. Sphingosomal formulations were further evaluated for in-vitro drug release study under various pH profiles. The in-vitro drug release study showed an initial rapid release of the drug followed by a slow controlled release. In vivo studies of optimized formulations and free drug were performed on albino rats for comparison of drug plasma concentration. The in- vivo study revealed that the prepared system enabled DOX to have had enhanced circulation time, longer half-life and lower elimination rate kinetics as compared to free drug. Further, it can be interpreted that the formulation would selectively enter highly porous mass of tumor cells and at the same time spare normal tissues. To summarize, the use of sphingosomes as carriers of anti-cancer drugs may prove to be a fascinating approach that would selectively localize in the tumor mass, increasing the therapeutic margin of safety while reducing the side effects associated with anti-cancer agents.

Keywords: sphingosomes, anti-cancer, doxorubicin, formulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
2044 Floating Oral in Situ Gelling System of Anticancer Drug

Authors: Umme Hani, Mohammed Rahmatulla, Mohammed Ghazwani, Ali Alqahtani, Yahya Alhamhoom

Abstract:

Background and introduction: Neratinib is a potent anticancer drug used for the treatment of breast cancer. It is poorly soluble at higher pH, which tends to minimize the therapeutic effects in the lower gastrointestinal tract (GIT) leading to poor bioavailability. An attempt has been made to prepare and develop a gastro-retentive system of Neratinib to improve the drug bioavailability in the GIT by enhancing the gastric retention time. Materials and methods: In the present study a three-factor at two-level (23) factorial design based optimization was used to inspect the effects of three independent variables (factors) such as sodium alginate (A), sodium bicarbonate (B) and sodium citrate (C) on the dependent variables like in vitro gelation, in vitro floating, water uptake and percentage drug release. Results: All the formulations showed pH in the range 6.7 ±0.25 to 7.4 ±0.24, percentage drug content was observed to be 96.3±0.27 to 99.5 ±0.28%, in vitro gelation observed as gelation immediate remains for an extended period. Percentage of water uptake was in the range between 9.01±0.15 to 31.01±0.25%, floating lag time was estimated form 7±0.39 to 57±0.36 sec. F4 and F5 showed floating even after 12hrs. All formulations showed a release of around 90% drug release within 12hr. It was observed that the selected independent variables affect the dependent variables. Conclusion: The developed system may be a promising and alternative approach to augment gastric retention of drugs and enhances the therapeutic efficacy of the drug.

Keywords: neratinib, 2³ factorial design, sodium alginate, floating, in situ gelling system

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
2043 Comparative Analysis of in vitro Release profile for Escitalopram and Escitalopram Loaded Nanoparticles

Authors: Rashi Rajput, Manisha Singh

Abstract:

Escitalopram oxalate (ETP), an FDA approved antidepressant drug from the category of SSRI (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor) and is used in treatment of general anxiety disorder (GAD), major depressive disorder (MDD).When taken orally, it is metabolized to S-demethylcitalopram (S-DCT) and S-didemethylcitalopram (S-DDCT) in the liver with the help of enzymes CYP2C19, CYP3A4 and CYP2D6. Hence, causing side effects such as dizziness, fast or irregular heartbeat, headache, nausea etc. Therefore, targeted and sustained drug delivery will be a helpful tool for increasing its efficacy and reducing side effects. The present study is designed for formulating mucoadhesive nanoparticle formulation for the same Escitalopram loaded polymeric nanoparticles were prepared by ionic gelation method and characterization of the optimised formulation was done by zeta average particle size (93.63nm), zeta potential (-1.89mV), TEM (range of 60nm to 115nm) analysis also confirms nanometric size range of the drug loaded nanoparticles along with polydispersibility index of 0.117. In this research, we have studied the in vitro drug release profile for ETP nanoparticles, through a semi permeable dialysis membrane. The three important characteristics affecting the drug release behaviour were – particle size, ionic strength and morphology of the optimised nanoparticles. The data showed that on increasing the particle size of the drug loaded nanoparticles, the initial burst was reduced which was comparatively higher in drug. Whereas, the formulation with 1mg/ml chitosan in 1.5mg/ml tripolyphosphate solution showed steady release over the entire period of drug release. Then this data was further validated through mathematical modelling to establish the mechanism of drug release kinetics, which showed a typical linear diffusion profile in optimised ETP loaded nanoparticles.

Keywords: ionic gelation, mucoadhesive nanoparticle, semi-permeable dialysis membrane, zeta potential

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
2042 Tunable Control of Therapeutics Release from the Nanochannel Delivery System (nDS)

Authors: Thomas Geninatti, Bruno Giacomo, Alessandro Grattoni

Abstract:

Nanofluidic devices have been investigated for over a decade as promising platforms for the controlled release of therapeutics. The nanochannel drug delivery system (nDS), a membrane fabricated with high precision silicon techniques, capable of zero-order release of drugs by exploiting diffusion transport at the nanoscale originated from the interactions between molecules with nanochannel surfaces, showed the flexibility of the sustained release in vitro and in vivo, over periods of time ranging from weeks to months. To improve the implantable bio nanotechnology, in order to create a system that possesses the key features for achieve the suitable release of therapeutics, the next generation of nDS has been created. Platinum electrodes are integrated by e-beam deposition onto both surfaces of the membrane allowing low voltage (<2 V) and active temporal control of drug release through modulation of electrostatic potentials at the inlet and outlet of the membrane’s fluidic channels. Hence, a tunable administration of drugs is ensured from the nanochannel drug delivery system. The membrane will be incorporated into a peek implantable capsule, which will include drug reservoir, control hardware and RF system to allow suitable therapeutic regimens in real-time. Therefore, this new nanotechnology offers tremendous potential solutions to manage chronic disease such as cancer, heart disease, circadian dysfunction, pain and stress.

Keywords: nanochannel membrane, drug delivery, tunable release, personalized administration, nanoscale transport, biomems

Procedia PDF Downloads 227
2041 In vitro Inhibitory Action of an Aqueous Extract of Carob on the Release of Myeloperoxidase by Human Neutrophils

Authors: Kais Rtibi, Slimen Selmi, Jamel El-Benna, Lamjed Marzouki, Hichem Sebai

Abstract:

Background: Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is a hemic enzyme found in high concentrations in the primary neutrophils granules. In addition to its peroxidase activity, it has a chlorination activity, using hydrogen peroxide and chloride ions to form hypochlorous acid, a strong oxidant, capable of chlorinating molecules. Bioactive compounds contained in medicinal plants could limit the action of this enzyme to reduce the reactive oxygen species production and its chlorination activity. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of the carob aqueous extract (CAE) on the release of MPO by human neutrophils in vitro and its activity following stimulation of these cells by PMA. Methods: Neutrophils were isolated by simple sedimentation using the Dextran/Ficoll method. After stimulation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), neutrophils release the MPO by degranulation. The effect of CAE on the release of MPO was analyzed by the Western blot technique, while, its activity was determined by biochemical method using the method of 3,3', 5,5'- Tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) and hydrogen peroxide. The data were expressed as mean ± SEM. Results: The carob aqueous extract causes a decrease in MPO quantity and activity in a concentration-dependent manner which leads to a reduction of the production of the ROS (reactive oxygen species) and the protection of the molecules against oxidation and chlorination mechanisms. Conclusion: Thanks to its richness in bioactive compounds, the aqueous extract of carob could limit the development of damages related to the uncontrolled activity of MPO.

Keywords: carob, MPO, myeloperoxidase, neutrophils, PMA, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate

Procedia PDF Downloads 84
2040 Preparation and In vitro Characterization of Nanoparticle Hydrogel for Wound Healing

Authors: Rajni Kant Panik

Abstract:

The aim of the present study was to develop and evaluate mupirocin loaded nanoparticle incorporated into hydrogel as an infected wound healer. Incorporated Nanoparticle in hydrogel provides a barrier that effectively prevents the contamination of the wound and further progression of infection to deeper tissues. Hydrogel creates moist healing environment on wound space with good fluid absorbance. Nanoparticles were prepared by double emulsion solvent evaporation method using different ratios of PLGA polymer and the hydrogels was developed using sodium alginate and gelatin. Further prepared nanoparticles were then incorporated into the hydrogels. The formulations were characterized by FT-IR and DSC for drug and polymer compatibility and surface morphology was studied by TEM. Nanoparticle hydrogel were evaluated for their size, shape, encapsulation efficiency and for in vitro studies. The FT-IR and DSC confirmed the absence of any drug polymer interaction. The average size of Nanoparticle was found to be in range of 208.21-412.33 nm and shape was found to be spherical. The maximum encapsulation efficiency was found to be 69.03%. The in vitro release profile of Nanoparticle incorporated hydrogel formulation was found to give sustained release of drug. Antimicrobial activity testing confirmed that encapsulated drug preserve its effectiveness. The stability study confirmed that the formulation prepared were stable. Present study complements our finding that mupirocin loaded Nanoparticle incorporated into hydrogel has the potential to be an effective and safe novel addition for the release of mupirocin in sustained manner, which may be a better option for the management of wound. These finding also supports the progression of antibiotic via hydrogel delivery system is a novel topical dosage form for the management of wound.

Keywords: hydrogel, nanoparticle, PLGA, wound healing

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
2039 An Activatable Theranostic for Targeted Cancer Therapy and Imaging

Authors: Sankarprasad Bhuniya, Sukhendu Maiti, Eun-Joong Kim, Hyunseung Lee, Jonathan L. Sessler, Kwan Soo Hong, Jong Seung Kim

Abstract:

A new theranostic strategy is described. It is based on the use of an “all in one” prodrug, namely the biotinylated piperazine-rhodol conjugate 4a. This conjugate, which incorporates the anticancer drug SN-38, undergoes self-immolative cleavage when exposed to biological thiols. This leads to the tumor-targeted release of the active SN-38 payload along with fluorophore 1a. This release is made selective as the result of the biotin functionality. Fluorophore 1a is 32-fold more fluorescent than prodrug 4a. It permits the delivery and release of the SN-38 payload to be monitored easily in vitro and in vivo, as inferred from cell studies and ex vivo analyses of mice xenografts derived HeLa cells, respectively. Prodrug 4a also displays anticancer activity in the HeLa cell murine xenograft tumor model. On the basis of these findings we suggest that the present strategy, which combines within a single agent the key functions of targeting, release, imaging, and treatment, may have a role to play in cancer diagnosis and therapy.

Keywords: theranostic, prodrug, cancer therapy, fluorescence

Procedia PDF Downloads 454
2038 Solid Lipid Nanoparticles of Levamisole Hydrochloride

Authors: Surendra Agrawal, Pravina Gurjar, Supriya Bhide, Ram Gaud

Abstract:

Levamisole hydrochloride is a prominent anticancer drug in the treatment of colon cancer but resulted in toxic effects due poor bioavailability and poor cellular uptake by tumor cells. Levamisole is an unstable drug. Incorporation of this molecule in solid lipids may minimize their exposure to the aqueous environment and partly immobilize the drug molecules within the lipid matrix-both of which may protect the encapsulated drugs against degradation. The objectives of the study were to enhance bioavailability by sustaining drug release and to reduce the toxicities associated with the therapy. Solubility of the drug was determined in different lipids to select the components of Solid Lipid Nanoparticles (SLN). Pseudoternary phase diagrams were created using aqueous titration method. Formulations were subjected to particle size and stability evaluation to select the final test formulations which were characterized for average particle size, zeta potential, and in-vitro drug release and percentage transmittance to optimize the final formulation. SLN of Levamisole hydrochloride was prepared by Nanoprecipitation method. Glyceryl behenate (Compritol 888 ATO) was used as core comprising of Tween 80 as surfactant and Lecithin as co-surfactant in (1:1) ratio. Entrapment efficiency (EE) was found to be 45.89%. Particle size was found in the range of 100-600 nm. Zeta potential of the formulation was -17.0 mV revealing the stability of the product. In-vitro release study showed that 66 % drug released in 24 hours in pH 7.2 which represent that formulation can give controlled action at the intestinal environment. In pH 5.0 it showed 64% release indicating that it can even release drug in acidic environment of tumor cells. In conclusion, results revealed SLN to be a promising approach to sustain the drug release so as to increase bioavailability and cellular uptake of the drug with reduction in toxic effects as dose has been reduced with controlled delivery.

Keywords: SLN, nanoparticulate delivery of levamisole, pharmacy, pharmaceutical sciences

Procedia PDF Downloads 366