Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2659

Search results for: bioelectricity generation

2659 Microbial Fuel Cells in Waste Water Treatment and Electricity Generation

Authors: Rajalaxmi N., Padma Bhat, Pooja Garag, Pooja N. M., V. S. Hombalimath

Abstract:

Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is the advancement of science that aims at utilizing the oxidizing potential of bacteria for wastewater treatment and production of bio-hydrogen and bio-electricity. Salt-bridge is the economic alternative to highly priced proton-exchange membrane in the construction of a microbial fuel cell. This paper studies the electricity generating capacity of E.coli and Clostridium sporogenes in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Unlike most of MFC research, this targets the long term goals of renewable energy production and wastewater treatment. In present study the feasibility and potential of bioelectricity production from different wastewater was observed. Different wastewater was primarily treated which were confirmed by the COD tests which showed reduction of COD. We observe that the electricity production of MFCs decreases almost linearly after 120 hrs. The sewage wastewater containing Clostridium sporogenes showed bioelectricity production up to 188mV with COD removal of 60.52%. Sewage wastewater efficiently produces bioelectricity and this also helpful to reduce wastewater pollution load.

Keywords: microbial fuel cell, bioelectricity, wastewater, salt bridge, COD

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2658 Harnessing of Electricity from Distillery Effluent and Simultaneous Effluent Treatment by Microbial Fuel Cell

Authors: Hanish Mohammed, C. H. Muthukumar Muthuchamy

Abstract:

The advancement in the science and technology has made it possible to convert electrical energy into any desired form. It has given electrical energy a place of pride in the modern world. The survival of industrial undertakings and our social structure depends primarily upon low cost and uninterrupted supply of electrical energy. Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a promising and emerging technique for sustainable bioelectricity generation and wastewater treatment. MFCs are devices which are capable of converting organic matter to electricity/hydrogen with help of microorganisms. Different kinds of wastewater could be used in this technique, distillery effluent is one of the most troublesome and complex and strong organic effluent with high chemical oxygen demand of 1,53,846 mg/L. A single cell MFC unit was designed and fabricated for the distillery effluent treatment and to generate electricity. Due to the high COD value of the distillery effluent helped in the production of energy for 74 days. The highest voltage got from the fuel cell is 206 mV on the 30th day. A maximum power density obtained from the MFC was 9.8 mW, treatment efficiency was evaluated in terms of COD removal and other parameters. COD removal efficiencies were around 68.5 % and other parameters such as Total Hardness (81.5%), turbidity (70 %), chloride (66%), phosphate (79.5%), Nitrate (77%) and sulphate (71%). MFC using distillery effluent is a promising new unexplored substrate for the power generation and sustainable treatment technique through harnessing of bioelectricity.

Keywords: microbial fuel cell (MFC), bioelectricity, distillery effluent, wastewater treatment

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2657 Wastewater Treatment and Bio-Electricity Generation via Microbial Fuel Cell Technology Operating with Starch Proton Exchange Membrane

Authors: Livinus A. Obasi, Augustine N. Ajah

Abstract:

Biotechnology in recent times has tried to develop a mechanism whereby sustainable electricity can be generated by the activity of microorganisms on waste and renewable biomass (often regarded as “negative value”) in a device called microbial fuel cell, MFC. In this paper, we established how the biocatalytic activities of bacteria on organic matter (substrates) produced some electrons with the associated removal of some water pollution parameters; Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD) to the tune of 77.2% and 88.3% respectively from a petrochemical sanitary wastewater. The electricity generation was possible by conditioning the bacteria to operate anaerobically in one chamber referred to as the anode while the electrons are transferred to the fully aerated counter chamber containing the cathode. Power densities ranging from 12.83 mW/m2 to 966.66 mW/m2 were achieved using a dual-chamber starch membrane MFC experimental set-up. The maximum power density obtained in this research shows an improvement in the use of low cost MFC set up to achieve power production. Also, the level of organic matter removal from the sanitary waste water by the operation of this device clearly demonstrates its potential benefit in achieving an improved benign environment. The beauty of the MFCs is their potential utility in areas lacking electrical infrastructures like in most developing countries.

Keywords: bioelectricity, COD, microbial fuel cell, sanitary wastewater, wheat starch

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2656 Pruning Algorithm for the Minimum Rule Reduct Generation

Authors: Sahin Emrah Amrahov, Fatih Aybar, Serhat Dogan

Abstract:

In this paper we consider the rule reduct generation problem. Rule Reduct Generation (RG) and Modified Rule Generation (MRG) algorithms, that are used to solve this problem, are well-known. Alternative to these algorithms, we develop Pruning Rule Generation (PRG) algorithm. We compare the PRG algorithm with RG and MRG.

Keywords: rough sets, decision rules, rule induction, classification

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2655 Homogenization of Culture and Its Effect on Preferred Reading of Media Communications Aimed at Members of Generation Z

Authors: Philip Katz

Abstract:

The research examines preferred reading of contemporary ads aimed at Generation Z through digital media. A qualitative analysis of focus groups consisting of members of Generation Z from 13 countries in Europe, the Middle East, South America and Asia has shown that, among this cohort, the influence of national culture does not create a strong impediment to understanding media communications targeting Generation Z. The familiarity of members of Generation Z with other countries’ popular culture through the spread of digital media has allowed a homogenizing effect and allowed a greater understanding of those cultures among this generation that lessens the impact of geographic separation.

Keywords: audience, Generation Z, marketing communication, preferred reading

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2654 Examination of Activity Preferences in Leisure Time of Y and Z Generations

Authors: Esma Ozkan, Sumeyye Belhan

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to examine the activity preferences of individuals in Y and Z generation. 90 Y and 90 Z generation individuals with a mean age of 32,76 ± 4,76 and 15,35 ± 2,61 years respectively, participated in the study and their activity preferences assessed. Results show that Y and Z generations preferred swimming and cycling among health related activities. For leisure activities, listening to music was favored by 87.5% and 100% of the Y and Z generations respectively. Reading (90%) was the most popular among Y generation and the second preferred for Z generation after technology (77.5%). Therefore, school based occupational therapy including activity analysis is key to enable adolescents to engage in proper activities. Inviting/visiting friends and family (socialization) was chosen by 100% of Y generation compared to 75% for Z generation. Since our culture and traditions are based on eating and socializing, these activities are well regarded across generations in Turkish society. Educational activities were preferred by 35% of Z generation compared to 75% in Y generation. Also, Z generation was more interested in history compared to sciences. Educational system changes, due to domestic politics and society, may have caused such differences among generations.

Keywords: activity preference, lifestyle, values, Y and Z generations

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2653 Attractiveness of Cafeteria Systems as Viewed by Generation Z

Authors: Joanna Nieżurawska, Hanna Karaszewska, Anna Dziadkiewicz

Abstract:

Contemporary conditions force companies to constantly implement changes and improvements, which is connected with plasticization of their activity in all spheres. Cafeteria systems are a good example of flexible remuneration systems. Cafeteria systems are well-known and often used in the United States, Great Britain and in Western Europe. In Poland, they are hardly ever used and greater flexibility in remuneration packages refers mainly to senior managers and executives. The main aim of this article is to research the attractiveness of the cafeteria system as viewed by generation Z. The additional aim of the article is to prioritize using the importance index of particular types of cafeteria systems from the generation Z’s perspective, as well as to identify the factors which determine the development of cafeteria systems in Poland. The research was conducted in June 2015 among 185 young employees (generation Z). The paper presents some of the results.

Keywords: cafeteria, generation X, generation Y, generation Z, flexible remuneration systems, plasticization of remuneration

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2652 Future of Electric Power Generation Technologies: Environmental and Economic Comparison

Authors: Abdulrahman A. Bahaddad, Mohammed Beshir

Abstract:

The objective of this paper is to demonstrate and describe eight different types of power generation technologies and to understand the history and future trends of each technology. In addition, a comparative analysis between these technologies will be presented with respect to their cost analysis and associated performance.

Keywords: conventional power generation, economic analysis, environmental impact, renewable energy power generation

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2651 Unraveling Biostimulation of Decolorized Mediators for Microbial Fuel Cell-Aided Textile Dye Decontamination

Authors: Pei-Lin Yueh, Bor-Yann Chen, Chuan-Chung Hsueh

Abstract:

This first-attempt study revealed that decolorized intermediates of azo dyes could act as redox mediators to assist wastewater (WW) decolorization due to enhancement of electron-transport phenomena. Electrochemical impedance spectra indicated that hydroxyl and amino-substituent(s) were functional group(s) as redox-mediator(s). As azo dyes are usually multiple benzene rings structured, their derived decolorized intermediates are likely to play roles of electron shuttles due to lower barrier of energy gap for electron shuttling. According to cyclic voltammetric profiles, redox-mediating characteristics of decolorized intermediates of azo dyes (e.g., RBu171, RR198, RR141, and RBk5) were clearly disclosed. With supplementation of biodecolorized metabolites of RR141 and 198, decolorization performance of could be evidently augmented. This study also suggested the optimal modes of microbial fuel cell (MFC)-assisted WW decolorization would be plug-flow or batch mode of operation with no mix. Single chamber-MFCs would be more favourable than double chamber MFCs due to non-mixing contacting reactor scheme for operation.

Keywords: redox mediators, dye decolorization, bioelectricity generation, microbial fuel cells

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2650 A Finite Memory Residual Generation Filter for Fault Detection

Authors: Pyung Soo Kim, Eung Hyuk Lee, Mun Suck Jang

Abstract:

In the current paper, a residual generation filter with finite memory structure is proposed for fault detection. The proposed finite memory residual generation filter provides the residual by real-time filtering of fault vector using only the most recent finite observations and inputs on the window. It is shown that the residual given by the proposed residual generation filter provides the exact fault for noise-free systems. Finally, to illustrate the capability of the proposed residual generation filter, numerical examples are performed for the discretized DC motor system having the multiple sensor faults.

Keywords: residual generation filter, finite memory structure, kalman filter, fast detection

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2649 Social Networking Sites and Narcissism among Generation Z

Authors: Christine Mappala

Abstract:

Social Networking Sites has an undeniable contribution but also a downgrading effect in our society when used inappropriately. It has effects on an individual’s physical, academic, social, emotional, and behavioral aspects in life, a reason to take account to the possible risks it can have with the future generations, specifically the Generation Z. Determining if SNS Usage has an effect on an individual’s Narcissistic Tendencies, how common narcissism is among these individuals and to provide additional information about the Generation Z in the Philippines is the purpose of this study. A total of 342 participants were gathered. Results indicated that there is a low significance of SNS as a predictor to Narcissism. Also, results showed that there is a low level of narcissism among Generation Z.

Keywords: narcissism, social networking sites, Generation Z, normal narcissism

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2648 Generation Y in Organizations: Distinctive Characteristics and Behavior at Work of Moroccan YERs

Authors: Fatima Ezzahra Siragi, Omar Benaini

Abstract:

For many years, Generation Y has been at the center of controversies. This topic made the buzz in the Media as well as in scientific literature. Previous research led to contradictory results; some scholars considered this population a wealth for companies, while the others believe it constitutes a young danger in need of proper control. Existing literature has almost studied Generation Y in developed countries; very rare studies were conducted in developing countries. To our knowledge, no published articles have treated Generation Y in Morocco. The purpose of this research is to examine the distinctive characteristics of Generation Y in Morocco as well as their behavior at work. Using quantitative method, the study was conducted on a sample of 250 Moroccan employees that have a high educational level and who belong to Generation Y. Our results have shown high resemblance between Moroccan and Occidental Yers (France, USA, Canada …)

Keywords: Behavior in Organizations, Generation Y, Key Characteristics, Moroccan Yers, Motivation

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2647 Levels of Self-Efficiency and Participation Restrictions in Individuals Y and Z Generations

Authors: Sumeyye Belhan, Esma Ozkan, Mahmut Yaran

Abstract:

It is aimed to examine the self-efficacy and participation restrictions of the generations of Y and Z in the study. The participants were assessed with the Self-Efficacy Scale and the Participation Scale. There were 23 female and 17 male with a mean age of 29,17 ± 4,14 on the Y generation and 15 female and 25 male with a mean age of 13 ± 3,78 on the Z generation. The mean self-efficacy scores of the Y generation was 63.65 ± 11.01; and 65.80 ± 9.12 in the Z generation. There was no statistically significant difference between self-efficacy averages of Y and Z individuals (p > 0,05). The mean score indicating the participation limitations of the individuals on the Y generation was 11.28 ± 10.55; and 53,70 ± 18,05 in participants with Z generation. It was determined that there was a statistically significant difference between the participation restriction of Y and Z individuals (p < 0,001). The high level of participation restrictions on the Z generation suggests that these individuals are influenced by the situations such as family (financial resources, get permission) and school environment (exams, friends, adolescence period). This is reason it is believed that the planning and development of occupational therapy interventions would be beneficial to increase the participation of individuals in this population.

Keywords: environment, participation restriction, self efficiency, Y and Z generations

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2646 The Existence of Beauveria bassiana in the Third Generation of Corn Seedling

Authors: Itji Diana Daud, Nuniek Widiayani

Abstract:

The fungus Beauveria bassiana can be endophytic in maize. The fungus was recovered in culture from stems, leaves and roots after a month planting. This phenomenon was shown until the third generation of the corn. The result from laboratory shows that B. bassiana appear in F1, F2 and F3 in order 70, 80 and 90% in the roots, 80% in the stems in all generation, 90, 80 and 70% in leaves. In CFU’s ml-1 of B. bassiana in corn seed, show F1 was 8.9 x 106, F2 was 8.1 x 106 and F3 was 7.8 x 106. The research showed that B. Bassiana as endophyte still remain to the third generation. Innovation to the corn seed which is endophyte seed is essential to protect from the attack of corn borer and to avoid the usage of insecticide.

Keywords: endophytic, recovered, third generation, Beauveria bassiana

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2645 Entropy Generation of Natural Convection Heat Transfer in a Square Cavity Using Al2O3-Water Nanofluid

Authors: M. Alipanah, A. Ranjbar, E. Farnad, F. Alipanah

Abstract:

Entropy generation of an Al2O3-water nanofluid due to heat transfer and fluid friction irreversibility has been investigated in a square cavity subject to different side wall temperatures using a nanofluid for natural convection flow. This study has been carried out for the pertinent parameters in the following ranges: Rayleigh number between 104 to 107 and volume fraction between 0 to 0.05. Based on the obtained dimensionless velocity and temperature values, the distributions of local entropy generation, average entropy generation and average Bejan number are determined. The results are compared for a pure fluid and a nanofluid. It is totally found that the heat transfer and entropy generation of the nanofluid is more than the pure fluid and minimum entropy generation and Nusselt number occur in the pure fluid at any Rayleigh number. Results depict that the addition of nanoparticles to the pure fluid has more effect on the entropy generation as the Rayleigh number goes up.

Keywords: entropy generation, natural convection, bejan number, nuselt number, nanofluid

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2644 Entropy Analysis of a Thermo-Acoustic Stack

Authors: Ahmadali Shirazytabar, Hamidreza Namazi

Abstract:

The inherent irreversibility of thermo-acoustics primarily in the stack region causes poor efficiency of thermo-acoustic engines which is the major weakness of these devices. In view of the above, this study examines entropy generation in the stack of a thermo-acoustic system. For this purpose two parallel plates representative of the stack is considered. A general equation for entropy generation is derived based on the Second Law of thermodynamics. Assumptions such as Rott’s linear thermo-acoustic approximation, boundary layer type flow, etc. are made to simplify the governing continuity, momentum and energy equations to achieve analytical solutions for velocity and temperature. The entropy generation equation is also simplified based on the same assumptions and then is converted to dimensionless form by using characteristic entropy generation. A time averaged entropy generation rate followed by a global entropy generation rate are calculated and graphically represented for further analysis and inspecting the effect of different parameters on the entropy generation.

Keywords: thermo-acoustics, entropy, second law of thermodynamics, Rott’s linear thermo-acoustic approximation

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2643 Comparison of the Amount of Resources and Expansion Support Policy of Photovoltaic Power Generation: A Case on Hokkaido and Aichi Prefecture, Japan

Authors: Hiroaki Sumi, Kiichiro Hayashi

Abstract:

Now, the use of renewable energy power generation has been advanced. In this paper, we compared the expansion support policy of photovoltaic power generation which was researched using The internet and the amount of resource for photovoltaic power generation which was estimated using the NEDO formula in the municipality level in Hokkaido and Aichi Prefecture, Japan. This paper will contribute to grasp the current situation especially about the policy. As a result, there were municipalities which seemed to be no consideration of the amount of resources. We think it would need to consider the suitability between the policies and resources.

Keywords: photovoltaic power generation, dissemination and support policy, amount of resources, Japan

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2642 On an Approach for Rule Generation in Association Rule Mining

Authors: B. Chandra

Abstract:

In Association Rule Mining, much attention has been paid for developing algorithms for large (frequent/closed/maximal) itemsets but very little attention has been paid to improve the performance of rule generation algorithms. Rule generation is an important part of Association Rule Mining. In this paper, a novel approach named NARG (Association Rule using Antecedent Support) has been proposed for rule generation that uses memory resident data structure named FCET (Frequent Closed Enumeration Tree) to find frequent/closed itemsets. In addition, the computational speed of NARG is enhanced by giving importance to the rules that have lower antecedent support. Comparative performance evaluation of NARG with fast association rule mining algorithm for rule generation has been done on synthetic datasets and real life datasets (taken from UCI Machine Learning Repository). Performance analysis shows that NARG is computationally faster in comparison to the existing algorithms for rule generation.

Keywords: knowledge discovery, association rule mining, antecedent support, rule generation

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2641 Design of a Photovoltaic Power Generation System Based on Artificial Intelligence and Internet of Things

Authors: Wei Hu, Wenguang Chen, Chong Dong

Abstract:

In order to improve the efficiency and safety of photovoltaic power generation devices, this photovoltaic power generation system combines Artificial Intelligence (AI) and the Internet of Things (IoT) to control the chasing photovoltaic power generation device to track the sun to improve power generation efficiency and then convert energy management. The system uses artificial intelligence as the control terminal, the power generation device executive end uses the Linux system, and Exynos4412 is the CPU. The power generating device collects the sun image information through Sony CCD. After several power generating devices feedback the data to the CPU for processing, several CPUs send the data to the artificial intelligence control terminal through the Internet. The control terminal integrates the executive terminal information, time information, and environmental information to decide whether to generate electricity normally and then whether to convert the converted electrical energy into the grid or store it in the battery pack. When the power generation environment is abnormal, the control terminal authorizes the protection strategy, the power generation device executive terminal stops power generation and enters a self-protection posture, and at the same time, the control terminal synchronizes the data with the cloud. At the same time, the system is more intelligent, more adaptive, and longer life.

Keywords: photo-voltaic power generation, the pursuit of light, artificial intelligence, internet of things, photovoltaic array, power management

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2640 Power Generation through Water Vapour: An Approach of Using Sea/River/Lake Water as Renewable Energy Source

Authors: Riad

Abstract:

As present world needs more and more energy in a low cost way, it needs to find out the optimal way of power generation. In the sense of low cost, renewable energy is one of the greatest sources of power generation. Water vapour of sea/river/lake can be used for power generation by using the greenhouse effect in a large flat type water chamber floating on the water surface. The water chamber will always be kept half filled. When water evaporates by sunlight, the high pressured gaseous water will be stored in the chamber. By passing through a pipe and by using aerodynamics it can be used for power generation. The water level of the chamber is controlled by some means. As a large amount of water evaporates, an estimation can be highlighted, approximately 3 to 4 thousand gallons of water evaporates from per acre of surface (this amount will be more by greenhouse effect). This large amount of gaseous water can be utilized for power generation by passing through a pipe. This method can be a source of power generation.

Keywords: renewable energy, greenhouse effect, water chamber, water vapour

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2639 Investigation on Biomass as an Alternate Source for Power Generation

Authors: Narsimhulu Sanke, D. N. Reddy

Abstract:

The purpose of the paper is to discuss the biomass as a renewable source of energy for power generation. The setup is designed and fabricated in the Centre for Energy Technology (CET) and four different fuels are tested in the laboratory, but here the focus is on wood blocks (fuel) combustion with temperature, gas composition percentage by volume and the heating values.

Keywords: biomass, downdraft gasifier, power generation, renewable energy sources

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2638 Reliable Multicast Communication in Next Generation Networks

Authors: Muazzam Ali Khan Khattak

Abstract:

Next Generation Network is combination of different networks having different technologies. Due to mobile nature of nodes the movement of nodes occurs from one network to another network. Multicasting in such networks is still a hot issue of research because the user in today's world wants reliable communication wherever it lies. Due to heterogeneity of NGN it is very difficult to handle reliable multicast communication. In this paper we proposed an improved scheme for reliable multicast communication in next generation networks. Because multicast communication is very important to deliver same data packets to multiple receivers and minimize the network traffic. This new scheme will make the multicast communication in NGN more reliable and efficient.

Keywords: next generation networks, route request, IPT, NACK, ARQ, DTN

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2637 3G or 4G: A Predilection for Millennial Generation of Indian Society

Authors: Rishi Prajapati

Abstract:

3G is the abbreviation of third generation of wireless mobile telecommunication technologies. 3G is a mode that finds application in wireless voice telephony, mobile internet access, fixed wireless internet access, video calls and mobile TV. It also provides mobile broadband access to smartphones and mobile modems in laptops and computers. The first 3G networks were introduced in 1998, followed by 4G networks in 2008. 4G is the abbreviation of fourth generation of wireless mobile telecommunication technologies. 4G is termed to be the advanced form of 3G. 4G was firstly introduced in South Korea in 2007. Many abstracts have floated researches that depicted the diversity and similarity between the third and the fourth generation of wireless mobile telecommunications technology, whereas this abstract reflects the study that focuses on analyzing the preference between 3G versus 4G given by the elite group of the Indian society who are known as adolescents or the Millennial Generation aging from 18 years to 25 years. The Millennial Generation was chosen for this study as they have the easiest access to the latest technology. A sample size of 200 adolescents was selected and a structured survey was carried out which had several closed ended as well as open ended questions, to aggregate the result of this study. It was made sure that the effect of environmental factors on the subjects was as minimal as possible. The data analysis comprised of primary data collection reflecting it as quantitative research. The rationale behind this research is to give brief idea of how 3G and 4G are accepted by the Millennial Generation in India. The findings of this research would materialize a framework which depicts whether Millennial Generation would prefer 4G over 3G or vice versa.

Keywords: fourth generation, wireless telecommunication technology, Indian society, millennial generation, market research, third generation

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2636 Forecasting Solid Waste Generation in Turkey

Authors: Yeliz Ekinci, Melis Koyuncu

Abstract:

Successful planning of solid waste management systems requires successful prediction of the amount of solid waste generated in an area. Waste management planning can protect the environment and human health, hence it is tremendously important for countries. The lack of information in waste generation can cause many environmental and health problems. Turkey is a country that plans to join European Union, hence, solid waste management is one of the most significant criteria that should be handled in order to be a part of this community. Solid waste management system requires a good forecast of solid waste generation. Thus, this study aims to forecast solid waste generation in Turkey. Artificial Neural Network and Linear Regression models will be used for this aim. Many models will be run and the best one will be selected based on some predetermined performance measures.

Keywords: forecast, solid waste generation, solid waste management, Turkey

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2635 Analyzing Test Data Generation Techniques Using Evolutionary Algorithms

Authors: Arslan Ellahi, Syed Amjad Hussain

Abstract:

Software Testing is a vital process in software development life cycle. We can attain the quality of software after passing it through software testing phase. We have tried to find out automatic test data generation techniques that are a key research area of software testing to achieve test automation that can eventually decrease testing time. In this paper, we review some of the approaches presented in the literature which use evolutionary search based algorithms like Genetic Algorithm, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), etc. to validate the test data generation process. We also look into the quality of test data generation which increases or decreases the efficiency of testing. We have proposed test data generation techniques for model-based testing. We have worked on tuning and fitness function of PSO algorithm.

Keywords: search based, evolutionary algorithm, particle swarm optimization, genetic algorithm, test data generation

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2634 Composite Distributed Generation and Transmission Expansion Planning Considering Security

Authors: Amir Lotfi, Seyed Hamid Hosseini

Abstract:

During the recent past, due to the increase of electrical energy demand and governmental resources constraints in creating additional capacity in the generation, transmission, and distribution, privatization, and restructuring in electrical industry have been considered. So, in most of the countries, different parts of electrical industry like generation, transmission, and distribution have been separated in order to create competition. Considering these changes, environmental issues, energy growth, investment of private equity in energy generation units and difficulties of transmission lines expansion, distributed generation (DG) units have been used in power systems. Moreover, reduction in the need for transmission and distribution, the increase of reliability, improvement of power quality, and reduction of power loss have caused DG to be placed in power systems. On the other hand, considering low liquidity need, private investors tend to spend their money for DGs. In this project, the main goal is to offer an algorithm for planning and placing DGs in order to reduce the need for transmission and distribution network.

Keywords: planning, transmission, distributed generation, power security, power systems

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2633 The Importance of Generating Electricity through Wind Farms in the Brazilian Electricity Matrix, from 2013 to 2020

Authors: Alex Sidarta Guglielmoni

Abstract:

Since the 1970s, sustainable development has become increasingly present on the international agenda. The present work has as general objective to analyze, discuss and bring answers to the following question, what is the importance of the generation of electric energy through the wind power plants in the Brazilian electricity matrix between 2013 and 2019? To answer this question, we analyzed the generation of renewable energy from wind farms and the consumption of electricity in Brazil during the period of January 2013 until December 2020. The specific objectives of this research are: to analyze the public data, to identify the total wind generation, to identify the total wind capacity generation, to identify the percentage participation of the generation and generation capacity of wind energy in the Brazilian electricity matrix. In order to develop this research, it was necessary a bibliographic search, collection of secondary data, tabulation of generation data, and electricity capacity by a comparative analysis between wind power and the Brazilian electricity matrix. As a result, it was possible to observe how important Brazil is for global sustainable development and how much this country can grow with this, in view of its capacity and potential for generating wind power since this percentage has grown in past few years.

Keywords: wind power, Brazilian market, electricity matrix, generation capacity

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2632 Distributed Energy System - Microgrid Integration of Hybrid Power Systems

Authors: Pedro Esteban

Abstract:

Planning a hybrid power system (HPS) that integrates renewable generation sources, non-renewable generation sources and energy storage, involves determining the capacity and size of various components to be used in the system to be able to supply reliable electricity to the connected load as required. Nowadays it is very common to integrate solar photovoltaic (PV) power plants for renewable generation as part of HPS. The solar PV system is usually balanced via a second form of generation (renewable such as wind power or using fossil fuels such as a diesel generator) or an energy storage system (such as a battery bank). Hybrid power systems can also provide other forms of power such as heat for some applications. Modern hybrid power systems combine power generation and energy storage technologies together with real-time energy management and innovative power quality and energy efficiency improvement functionalities. These systems help customers achieve targets for clean energy generation, they add flexibility to the electrical grid, and they optimize the installation by improving its power quality and energy efficiency.

Keywords: microgrids, hybrid power systems, energy storage, grid code compliance

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2631 Exploring Factors Affecting Electricity Production in Malaysia

Authors: Endang Jati Mat Sahid, Hussain Ali Bekhet

Abstract:

Ability to supply reliable and secure electricity has been one of the crucial components of economic development for any country. Forecasting of electricity production is therefore very important for accurate investment planning of generation power plants. In this study, we aim to examine and analyze the factors that affect electricity generation. Multiple regression models were used to find the relationship between various variables and electricity production. The models will simultaneously determine the effects of the variables on electricity generation. Many variables influencing electricity generation, i.e. natural gas (NG), coal (CO), fuel oil (FO), renewable energy (RE), gross domestic product (GDP) and fuel prices (FP), were examined for Malaysia. The results demonstrate that NG, CO, and FO were the main factors influencing electricity generation growth. This study then identified a number of policy implications resulting from the empirical results.

Keywords: energy policy, energy security, electricity production, Malaysia, the regression model

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2630 Automated Test Data Generation For some types of Algorithm

Authors: Hitesh Tahbildar

Abstract:

The cost of test data generation for a program is computationally very high. In general case, no algorithm to generate test data for all types of algorithms has been found. The cost of generating test data for different types of algorithm is different. Till date, people are emphasizing the need to generate test data for different types of programming constructs rather than different types of algorithms. The test data generation methods have been implemented to find heuristics for different types of algorithms. Some algorithms that includes divide and conquer, backtracking, greedy approach, dynamic programming to find the minimum cost of test data generation have been tested. Our experimental results say that some of these types of algorithm can be used as a necessary condition for selecting heuristics and programming constructs are sufficient condition for selecting our heuristics. Finally we recommend the different heuristics for test data generation to be selected for different types of algorithms.

Keywords: ongest path, saturation point, lmax, kL, kS

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