Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2487

Search results for: battery characterization

2487 Investigation and Estimation of State of Health of Battery Pack in Battery Electric Vehicles-Online Battery Characterization

Authors: Ali Mashayekh, Mahdiye Khorasani, Thomas Weyh

Abstract:

The tendency to use the Battery-Electric vehicle (BEV) for the low and medium driving range or even high driving range has been growing more and more. As a result, higher safety, reliability, and durability of the battery pack as a component of electric vehicles, which has a great share of cost and weight of the final product, are the topics to be considered and investigated. Battery aging can be considered as the predominant factor regarding the reliability and durability of BEV. To better understand the aging process, offline battery characterization has been widely used, which is time-consuming and needs very expensive infrastructures. This paper presents the substitute method for the conventional battery characterization methods, which is based on battery Modular Multilevel Management (BM3). According to this Topology, the battery cells can be drained and charged concerning their capacity, which allows varying battery pack structures. Due to the integration of the power electronics, the output voltage of the battery pack is no longer fixed but can be dynamically adjusted in small steps. In other words, each cell can have three different states, namely series, parallel, and bypass in connection with the neighbor cells. With the help of MATLAB/Simulink and by using the BM3 modules, the battery string model is created. This model allows us to switch two cells with the different SoC as parallel, which results in the internal balancing of the cells. But if the parallel switching lasts just for a couple of ms, we can have a perturbation pulse which can stimulate the cells out of the relaxation phase. With the help of modeling the voltage response pulse of the battery, it would be possible to characterize the cell. The Online EIS method, which is discussed in this paper, can be a robust substitute for the conventional battery characterization methods.

Keywords: battery characterization, SoH estimation, RLS, BEV

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
2486 Characterization of a LiFeOP₄ Battery Cell with Mechanical Responses

Authors: Ki-Yong Oh, Eunji Kwak, Due Su Son, Siheon Jung

Abstract:

A pouch type of 10 Ah LiFePO₄ battery cell is characterized with two mechanical responses: swelling and bulk force. Both responses vary upon the state of charge significantly, whereas voltage shows flat responses, suggesting that mechanical responses can become a sensitive gauge to characterize microstructure transformation of a battery cell. The derivative of swelling s with respect to capacity Q, (ds/dQ) and the derivative of force F with respect to capacity Q, (dF/dQ) more clearly identify phase transitions of cathode and anode electrodes in the overall charge process than the derivative of voltage V with respect to capacity Q, (dV/dQ). Especially, the force versus swelling curves over the state of charge clearly elucidates three different stiffness over the state of charge oriented from phase transitions: the α-phase, the β-phase, and the metastable solid-solution phase. The observation from mechanical responses suggests that macro-scale mechanical responses of a battery cell are directly correlated to microscopic transformation of a battery cell.

Keywords: force response, LiFePO₄ battery, strain response, stress response, swelling response

Procedia PDF Downloads 84
2485 Adaptive Discharge Time Control for Battery Operation Time Enhancement

Authors: Jong-Bae Lee, Seongsoo Lee

Abstract:

This paper proposes an adaptive discharge time control method to balance cell voltages in alternating battery cell discharging method. In the alternating battery cell discharging method, battery cells are periodically discharged in turn. Recovery effect increases battery output voltage while the given battery cell rests without discharging, thus battery operation time of target system increases. However, voltage mismatch between cells leads two problems. First, voltage difference between cells induces inter-cell current with wasted power. Second, it degrades battery operation time, since system stops when any cell reaches to the minimum system operation voltage. To solve this problem, the proposed method adaptively controls cell discharge time to equalize both cell voltages. In the proposed method, battery operation time increases about 19%, while alternating battery cell discharging method shows about 7% improvement.

Keywords: battery, recovery effect, low-power, alternating battery cell discharging, adaptive discharge time control

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
2484 Reducing Change-Related Costs in Assembly of Lithium-Ion Batteries for Electric Cars by Mechanical Decoupling

Authors: Achim Kampker, Heiner Hans Heimes, Mathias Ordung, Nemanja Sarovic

Abstract:

A key component of the drive train of electric vehicles is the lithium-ion battery system. Among various other components, such as the battery management system or the thermal management system, the battery system mostly consists of several cells which are integrated mechanically as well as electrically. Due to different vehicle concepts with regards to space, energy and power specifications, there is a variety of different battery systems. The corresponding assembly lines are specially designed for each battery concept. Minor changes to certain characteristics of the battery have a disproportionally high effect on the set-up effort in the form of high change-related costs. This paper will focus on battery systems which are made out of battery cells with a prismatic format. The product architecture and the assembly process will be analyzed in detail based on battery concepts of existing electric cars and key variety-causing drivers will be identified. On this basis, several measures will be presented and discussed on how to change the product architecture and the assembly process in order to reduce change-related costs.

Keywords: assembly, automotive industry, battery system, battery concept

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
2483 Modelling of Heat Generation in a 18650 Lithium-Ion Battery Cell under Varying Discharge Rates

Authors: Foo Shen Hwang, Thomas Confrey, Stephen Scully, Barry Flannery

Abstract:

Thermal characterization plays an important role in battery pack design. Lithium-ion batteries have to be maintained between 15-35 °C to operate optimally. Heat is generated (Q) internally within the batteries during both the charging and discharging phases. This can be quantified using several standard methods. The most common method of calculating the batteries heat generation is through the addition of both the joule heating effects and the entropic changes across the battery. In addition, such values can be derived by identifying the open-circuit voltage (OCV), nominal voltage (V), operating current (I), battery temperature (T) and the rate of change of the open-circuit voltage in relation to temperature (dOCV/dT). This paper focuses on experimental characterization and comparative modelling of the heat generation rate (Q) across several current discharge rates (0.5C, 1C, and 1.5C) of a 18650 cell. The analysis is conducted utilizing several non-linear mathematical functions methods, including polynomial, exponential, and power models. Parameter fitting is carried out over the respective function orders; polynomial (n = 3~7), exponential (n = 2) and power function. The generated parameter fitting functions are then used as heat source functions in a 3-D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver under natural convection conditions. Generated temperature profiles are analyzed for errors based on experimental discharge tests, conducted at standard room temperature (25°C). Initial experimental results display low deviation between both experimental and CFD temperature plots. As such, the heat generation function formulated could be easier utilized for larger battery applications than other methods available.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, curve fitting, lithium-ion battery, voltage drop

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2482 Customized Cow’s Urine Battery Using MnO2 Depolarizer

Authors: Raj Kumar Rajak, Bharat Mishra

Abstract:

Bio-battery represents an entirely new long term, reasonable, reachable and ecofriendly approach to production of sustainable energy. Types of batteries have been developed using MnO2 in various ways. MnO2 is suitable with physical, chemical, electrochemical, and catalytic properties, serving as an effective cathodic depolarizer and may be considered as being the life blood of the battery systems. In the present experimental work, we have studied the effect of generation of power by bio-battery using different concentrations of MnO2. The tests show that it is possible to generate electricity using cow’s urine as an electrolyte. After ascertaining the optimum concentration of MnO2, various battery parameters and performance indicates that cow urine solely produces power of 695 mW, while a combination with MnO2 (40%) enhances power of bio-battery, i.e. 1377 mW. On adding more and more MnO2 to the electrolyte, the power suppressed because inflation of internal resistance. The analysis of the data produced from experiment shows that MnO2 is quite suitable to energize the bio-battery.

Keywords: bio-batteries, cow’s urine, manganese dioxide, non-conventional

Procedia PDF Downloads 101
2481 Advanced Structural Analysis of Energy Storage Materials

Authors: Disha Gupta

Abstract:

The aim of this research is to conduct X-ray and e-beam characterization techniques on lithium-ion battery materials for the improvement of battery performance. The key characterization techniques employed are the synchrotron X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) combined with X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to obtain a more holistic approach to understanding material properties. This research effort provides additional battery characterization knowledge that promotes the development of new cathodes, anodes, electrolyte and separator materials for batteries, hence, leading to better and more efficient battery performance. Both ex-situ and in-situ synchrotron experiments were performed on LiFePO₄, one of the most common cathode material, from different commercial sources and their structural analysis, were conducted using Athena/Artemis software. This analysis technique was then further extended to study other cathode materials like LiMnxFe(₁₋ₓ)PO₄ and even some sulphate systems like Li₂Mn(SO₄)₂ and Li₂Co0.5Mn₀.₅ (SO₄)₂. XAS data were collected for Fe and P K-edge for LiFePO4, and Fe, Mn and P-K-edge for LiMnxFe(₁₋ₓ)PO₄ to conduct an exhaustive study of the structure. For the sulphate system, Li₂Mn(SO₄)₂, XAS data was collected at both Mn and S K-edge. Finite Difference Method for Near Edge Structure (FDMNES) simulations were also conducted for various iron, manganese and phosphate model compounds and compared with the experimental XANES data to understand mainly the pre-edge structural information of the absorbing atoms. The Fe K-edge XAS results showed a charge compensation occurring on the Fe atom for all the differently synthesized LiFePO₄ materials as well as the LiMnxFe(₁₋ₓ)PO₄ systems. However, the Mn K-edge showed a difference in results as the Mn concentration changed in the materials. For the sulphate-based system Li₂Mn(SO₄)₂, however, no change in the Mn K-edge was observed, even though electrochemical studies showed Mn redox reactions.

Keywords: li-ion batteries, electrochemistry, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, XRD

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
2480 Thin and Flexible Zn-Air Battery by Inexpensive Screen Printing Technique

Authors: Sira Suren, Soorathep Kheawhom

Abstract:

This work focuses the development of thin and flexible zinc-air battery. The battery with an overall thickness of about 300 μm was fabricated by an inexpensive screen-printing technique. Commercial nano-silver ink was used as both current collectors and catalyst layer. Carbon black ink was used to fabricate cathode electrode. Polypropylene membrane was used as the cathode substrate and separator. 9 M KOH was used as the electrolyte. A mixture of Zn powder and ZnO was used to prepare the anode electrode. Types of conductive materials (Bi2O3, Na2O3Si and carbon black) for the anode and its concentration were investigated. Results showed that the battery using 29% carbon black showed the best performance. The open-circuit voltage and energy density observed were 1.6 V and 694 Wh/kg, respectively. When the battery was discharged at 10 mA/cm2, the potential voltage observed was 1.35 V. Furthermore, the battery was tested for its flexibility. Upon bending, no significant loss in performance was observed.

Keywords: flexible, Gel Electrolyte, screen printing, thin battery, Zn-Air battery

Procedia PDF Downloads 123
2479 High Efficiency Electrolyte Lithium Battery and RF Characterization

Authors: Wei Quan, Liu Chao, Mohammed N. Afsar

Abstract:

The dielectric properties and ionic conductivity of novel "ceramic state" polymer electrolytes for high capacity lithium battery are characterized by radio-frequency and Microwave methods in two broad frequency ranges from 50 Hz to 20 KHz and 4 GHz to 40 GHz. This innovative solid polymer electrolyte which is highly ionic conductive (10-3 S/cm at room temperature) from -40 oC to +150 oC and can be used in any battery application. Such polymer exhibits properties more like a ceramic rather than polymer. The various applied measurement methods produced accurate dielectric results for comprehensive analysis of electrochemical properties and ion transportation mechanism of this newly invented polymer electrolyte. Two techniques and instruments employing air gap measurement by capacitance bridge and inwave guide measurement by vector network analyzer are applied to measure the complex dielectric spectra. The complex dielectric spectra are used to determine the complex alternating current electrical conductivity and thus the ionic conductivity.

Keywords: polymer electrolyte, dielectric permittivity, lithium battery, ionic relaxation, microwave measurement

Procedia PDF Downloads 389
2478 A Study on Long Life Hybrid Battery System Consists of Ni-63 Betavoltaic Battery and All Solid Battery

Authors: Bosung Kim, Youngmok Yun, Sungho Lee, Chanseok Park

Abstract:

There is a limitation to power supply and operation by the chemical or physical battery in the space environment. Therefore, research for utilizing nuclear energy in the universe has been in progress since the 1950s, around the major industrialized countries. In this study, the self-rechargeable battery having a long life relative to the half-life of the radioisotope is suggested. The hybrid system is composed of betavoltaic battery, all solid battery and energy harvesting board. Betavoltaic battery can produce electrical power at least 10 years over using the radioisotope from Ni-63 and the silicon-based semiconductor. The electrical power generated from the betavoltaic battery is stored in the all-solid battery and stored power is used if necessary. The hybrid system board is composed of input terminals, boost circuit, charging terminals and output terminals. Betavoltaic and all solid batteries are connected to the input and output terminal, respectively. The electric current of 10 µA is applied to the system board by using the high-resolution power simulator. The system efficiencies are measured from a boost up voltage of 1.8 V, 2.4 V and 3 V, respectively. As a result, the efficiency of system board is about 75% after boosting up the voltage from 1V to 3V.

Keywords: isotope, betavoltaic, nuclear, battery, energy harvesting

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
2477 Wireless Battery Charger with Adaptive Rapid-Charging Algorithm

Authors: Byoung-Hee Lee

Abstract:

Wireless battery charger with adaptive rapid charging algorithm is proposed. The proposed wireless charger adopts voltage regulation technique to reduce the number of power conversion steps. Moreover, based on battery models, an adaptive rapid charging algorithm for Li-ion batteries is obtained. Rapid-charging performance with the proposed wireless battery charger and the proposed rapid charging algorithm has been experimentally verified to show more than 70% charging time reduction compared to conventional constant-current constant-voltage (CC-CV) charging without the degradation of battery lifetime.

Keywords: wireless, battery charger, adaptive, rapid-charging

Procedia PDF Downloads 226
2476 Estimation of the State of Charge of the Battery Using EFK and Sliding Mode Observer in MATLAB-Arduino/Labview

Authors: Mouna Abarkan, Abdelillah Byou, Nacer M'Sirdi, El Hossain Abarkan

Abstract:

This paper presents the estimation of the state of charge of the battery using two types of observers. The battery model used is the combination of a voltage source, which is the open circuit battery voltage of a strength corresponding to the connection of resistors and electrolyte and a series of parallel RC circuits representing charge transfer phenomena and diffusion. An adaptive observer applied to this model is proposed, this observer to estimate the battery state of charge of the battery is based on EFK and sliding mode that is known for their robustness and simplicity implementation. The results are validated by simulation under MATLAB/Simulink and implemented in Arduino-LabView.

Keywords: model of the battery, adaptive sliding mode observer, the EFK observer, estimation of state of charge, SOC, implementation in Arduino/LabView

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
2475 A Study on Evaluation for Performance Verification of Ni-63 Radioisotope Betavoltaic Battery

Authors: Youngmok Yun, Bosung Kim, Sungho Lee, Kyeongsu Jeon, Hyunwook Hwangbo, Byounggun Choi

Abstract:

A betavoltaic battery converts nuclear energy released as beta particles (β-) directly into electrical energy. Betavoltaic cells are analogous to photovoltaic cells. The beta particle’s kinetic energy enters a p-n junction and creates electron-hole pairs. Subsequently, the built-in potential of the p-n junction accelerates the electrons and ions to their respective collectors. The major challenges are electrical conversion efficiencies and exact evaluation. In this study, the performance of betavoltaic battery was evaluated. The betavoltaic cell was evaluated in the same condition as radiation from radioactive isotope using by FE-SEM(field emission scanning electron microscope). The average energy of the radiation emitted from the Ni-63 radioisotope is 17.42 keV. FE-SEM is capable of emitting an electron beam of 1-30keV. Therefore, it is possible to evaluate betavoltaic cell without radioactive isotopes. The betavoltaic battery consists of radioisotope that is physically connected on the surface of Si-based PN diode. The performance of betavoltaic battery can be estimated by the efficiency of PN diode unit cell. The current generated by scanning electron microscope with fixed accelerating voltage (17keV) was measured by using faraday cup. Electrical characterization of the p-n junction diode was performed by using Nano Probe Work Station and I-V measurement system. The output value of the betavoltaic cells developed by this research team was 0.162 μw/cm2 and the efficiency was 1.14%.

Keywords: betavoltaic, nuclear, battery, Ni-63, radio-isotope

Procedia PDF Downloads 188
2474 An Equivalent Circuit Model Approach for Battery Pack Simulation in a Hybrid Electric Vehicle System Powertrain

Authors: Suchitra Sivakumar, Hajime Shingyouchi, Toshinori Okajima, Kyohei Yamaguchi, Jin Kusaka

Abstract:

The progressing need for powertrain electrification calls for more accurate and reliable simulation models. A battery pack serves as the most vital component for energy storage in an electrified powertrain. Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) do not behave the same way as they age, and there are several environmental factors that account for the degradation of the battery on a system level. Therefore, in this work, a battery model was proposed to study the state of charge (SOC) variation and the internal dynamic changes that contribute to aging and performance degradation in HEV batteries. An equivalent circuit battery model (ECM) is built using MATLAB Simulink to investigate the output characteristics of the lithium-ion battery. The ECM comprises of circuit elements like a voltage source, a series resistor and a parallel RC network connected in series. A parameter estimation study is conducted on the ECM to study the dependencies of the circuit elements with the state of charge (SOC) and the terminal voltage of the battery. The battery model is extended to simulate the temperature dependence of the individual battery cell and the battery pack with the environment. The temperature dependence model accounts for the heat loss due to internal resistance build up in the battery pack during charging, discharging, and due to atmospheric temperature. The model was validated for a lithium-ion battery pack with an independent drive cycle showing a voltage accuracy of 4% and SOC accuracy of about 2%.

Keywords: battery model, hybrid electric vehicle, lithium-ion battery, thermal model

Procedia PDF Downloads 130
2473 Defects Analysis, Components Distribution, and Properties Simulation in the Fuel Cells and Batteries by 2D and 3D Characterization Techniques

Authors: Amir Peyman Soleymani, Jasna Jankovic

Abstract:

The augmented demand of the clean and renewable energy has necessitated the fuel cell and battery industries to produce more efficient devices at the lower prices, which can be achieved through the improvement of the electrode. Microstructural characterization, as one of the main materials development tools, plays a pivotal role in the production of better clean energy devices. In this study, methods for characterization and studying of the defects and components distribution were performed on the polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) and Li-ion battery (LIB) electrodes in 2D and 3D. The particles distribution, porosity, mechanical defects, and component distribution were studied by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), SEM-Focused Ion Beam (SEM-FIB), and Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope equipped with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (STEM-EDS). The 3D results obtained from X-ray Computed Tomography (XCT) revealed the pathways for electron and ion conductivity and defects progression maps. Computer-aided methods (Avizo) were employed to simulate the properties and performance of the microstructure in the electrodes. The suggestions were provided to improve the performance of PEMFCs and LIBs by adjusting the microstructure and the distribution of the components in the electrodes.

Keywords: PEM fuel cells, Li-ion batteries, 2D and 3D imaging, materials characterizations

Procedia PDF Downloads 65
2472 Lithium-Ion Battery State of Charge Estimation Using One State Hysteresis Model with Nonlinear Estimation Strategies

Authors: Mohammed Farag, Mina Attari, S. Andrew Gadsden, Saeid R. Habibi

Abstract:

Battery state of charge (SOC) estimation is an important parameter as it measures the total amount of electrical energy stored at a current time. The SOC percentage acts as a fuel gauge if it is compared with a conventional vehicle. Estimating the SOC is, therefore, essential for monitoring the amount of useful life remaining in the battery system. This paper looks at the implementation of three nonlinear estimation strategies for Li-Ion battery SOC estimation. One of the most common behavioral battery models is the one state hysteresis (OSH) model. The extended Kalman filter (EKF), the smooth variable structure filter (SVSF), and the time-varying smoothing boundary layer SVSF are applied on this model, and the results are compared.

Keywords: state of charge estimation, battery modeling, one-state hysteresis, filtering and estimation

Procedia PDF Downloads 284
2471 Design of a Universal Wireless Battery Charger

Authors: Ahmad B. Musamih, Ahmad A. Albloushi, Ahmed H. Alshemeili, Abdulaziz Y. Alfili, Ala A. Hussien

Abstract:

This paper proposes a universal wireless battery charger design for portable electronic devices. As the number of portable electronics devices increases, the demand for more flexible and reliable charging techniques is becoming more urgent. A wireless battery charger differs from a traditional charger in the way the power transferred to the battery. In the latter, the power is transferred through electrical wires that connect the charger terminals to the battery terminals, while in the former; the power is transferred by induction without electrical connections. With a detection algorithm that detects the battery size and chemistry, the proposed charger will be able to accommodate a wide range of applications, and will allow a more flexible and reliable option to most of today’s portable electronics.

Keywords: efficiency, magnetically-coupled resonators, resonance frequency, wireless power transfer

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
2470 Renewable Integration Algorithm to Compensate Photovoltaic Power Using Battery Energy Storage System

Authors: Hyung Joo Lee, Jin Young Choi, Gun Soo Park, Kyo Sun Oh, Dong Jun Won

Abstract:

The fluctuation of the output of the renewable generator caused by weather conditions must be mitigated because it imposes strain on the system and adversely affects power quality. In this paper, we focus on mitigating the output fluctuation of the photovoltaic (PV) using battery energy storage system (BESS). To satisfy tight conditions of system, proposed algorithm is developed. This algorithm focuses on adjusting the integrated output curve considering state of capacity (SOC) of the battery. In this paper, the simulation model is PSCAD / EMTDC software. SOC of the battery and the overall output curve are shown using the simulation results. We also considered losses and battery efficiency.

Keywords: photovoltaic generation, battery energy storage system, renewable integration, power smoothing

Procedia PDF Downloads 195
2469 A Flexible High Energy Density Zn-Air Battery by Screen Printing Technique

Authors: Sira Suren, Soorathep Kheawhom

Abstract:

This work investigates the development of a high energy density zinc-air battery. Printed and flexible thin film zinc-air battery with an overall thickness of about 350 μm was fabricated by an inexpensive screen-printing technique. Commercial nano-silver ink was used as both current collectors and catalyst layer. Carbon black ink was used to fabricate cathode electrode. Polypropylene membrane was used as the cathode substrate and separator. 9 M KOH was used as the electrolyte. A mixture of Zn powder, ZnO, and Bi2O3 was used to prepare the anode electrode. The suitable concentration of Bi2O3 and types of binders (styrene-butadiene and sodium silicate) were investigated. Results showed that battery using 20% Bi2O3 and sodium silicate binder provided the best performance. The open-circuit voltage and energy density observed were 1.59 V and 690 Wh/kg, respectively. When the battery was discharged at 20 mA/cm2, the potential voltage observed was 1.3 V. Furthermore, the battery was tested for its flexibility. Upon bending, no significant loss in performance was observed.

Keywords: flexible, printed battery, screen printing, Zn-air

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
2468 Experimental investigation on the lithium-Ion Battery Thermal Management System Based on Micro Heat Pipe Array in High Temperature Environment

Authors: Ruyang Ren, Yaohua Zhao, Yanhua Diao

Abstract:

The intermittent and unstable characteristics of renewable energy such as solar energy can be effectively solved through battery energy storage system. Lithium-ion battery is widely used in battery energy storage system because of its advantages of high energy density, small internal resistance, low self-discharge rate, no memory effect and long service life. However, the performance and service life of lithium-ion battery is seriously affected by its operating temperature. Thus, the safety operation of the lithium-ion battery module is inseparable from an effective thermal management system (TMS). In this study, a new type of TMS based on micro heat pipe array (MHPA) for lithium-ion battery is established, and the TMS is applied to a battery energy storage box that needs to operate at a high temperature environment of 40 °C all year round. MHPA is a flat shape metal body with high thermal conductivity and excellent temperature uniformity. The battery energy storage box is composed of four battery modules, with a nominal voltage of 51.2 V, a nominal capacity of 400 Ah. Through the excellent heat transfer characteristics of the MHPA, the heat generated by the charge and discharge process can be quickly transferred out of the battery module. In addition, if only the MHPA cannot meet the heat dissipation requirements of the battery module, the TMS can automatically control the opening of the external fan outside the battery module according to the temperature of the battery, so as to further enhance the heat dissipation of the battery module. The thermal management performance of lithium-ion battery TMS based on MHPA is studied experimentally under different ambient temperatures and the condition to turn on the fan or not. Results show that when the ambient temperature is 40 °C and the fan is not turned on in the whole charge and discharge process, the maximum temperature of the battery in the energy storage box is 53.1 °C and the maximum temperature difference in the battery module is 2.4 °C. After the fan is turned on in the whole charge and discharge process, the maximum temperature is reduced to 50.1 °C, and the maximum temperature difference is reduced to 1.7 °C. Obviously, the lithium-ion battery TMS based on MHPA not only could control the maximum temperature of the battery below 55 °C, but also ensure the excellent temperature uniformity of the battery module. In conclusion, the lithium-ion battery TMS based on MHPA can ensure the safe and stable operation of the battery energy storage box in high temperature environment.

Keywords: heat dissipation, lithium-ion battery thermal management, micro heat pipe array, temperature uniformity

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2467 Frequency Selective Filters for Estimating the Equivalent Circuit Parameters of Li-Ion Battery

Authors: Arpita Mondal, Aurobinda Routray, Sreeraj Puravankara, Rajashree Biswas

Abstract:

The most difficult part of designing a battery management system (BMS) is battery modeling. A good battery model can capture the dynamics which helps in energy management, by accurate model-based state estimation algorithms. So far the most suitable and fruitful model is the equivalent circuit model (ECM). However, in real-time applications, the model parameters are time-varying, changes with current, temperature, state of charge (SOC), and aging of the battery and this make a great impact on the performance of the model. Therefore, to increase the equivalent circuit model performance, the parameter estimation has been carried out in the frequency domain. The battery is a very complex system, which is associated with various chemical reactions and heat generation. Therefore, it’s very difficult to select the optimal model structure. As we know, if the model order is increased, the model accuracy will be improved automatically. However, the higher order model will face the tendency of over-parameterization and unfavorable prediction capability, while the model complexity will increase enormously. In the time domain, it becomes difficult to solve higher order differential equations as the model order increases. This problem can be resolved by frequency domain analysis, where the overall computational problems due to ill-conditioning reduce. In the frequency domain, several dominating frequencies can be found in the input as well as output data. The selective frequency domain estimation has been carried out, first by estimating the frequencies of the input and output by subspace decomposition, then by choosing the specific bands from the most dominating to the least, while carrying out the least-square, recursive least square and Kalman Filter based parameter estimation. In this paper, a second order battery model consisting of three resistors, two capacitors, and one SOC controlled voltage source has been chosen. For model identification and validation hybrid pulse power characterization (HPPC) tests have been carried out on a 2.6 Ah LiFePO₄ battery.

Keywords: equivalent circuit model, frequency estimation, parameter estimation, subspace decomposition

Procedia PDF Downloads 58
2466 Internet of Things Based Battery Management System

Authors: Pakhil Singh, Rahul Singh, Mohammad Saad Alam, Yasser Rafat

Abstract:

The battery management system is an essential package/system which ensures optimum performance and safety of a battery by monitoring the key essential parameters of the battery like the voltage, current, temperature, state of charge, state of health during charging and discharging. This can be accomplished using outputs of various sensors employed to serve the purpose. The increasing demand for electricity generation from renewable energy sources requires proper storage and hence a proper monitoring system as well. A battery management system is required in wide applications ranging from renewable energy storage systems, off-grid solar PV applications to electric vehicles. The aim of this paper is to study the parameters used in monitoring various battery operating conditions and proposes the usage of the internet of things (IoT) to implement a reliable battery management system.

Keywords: electric vehicles, internet of things, sensors, state of charge, state of health

Procedia PDF Downloads 66
2465 Packaging Improvement for Unit Cell Vanadium Redox Flow Battery (V-RFB)

Authors: A. C. Khor, M. R. Mohamed, M. H. Sulaiman, M. R. Daud

Abstract:

Packaging for vanadium redox flow battery is one of the key elements for successful implementation of flow battery in the electrical energy storage system. Usually the bulky battery size and low energy densities make this technology not available for mobility application. Therefore RFB with improved packaging size and energy capacity are highly desirable. This paper focuses on the study of packaging improvement for unit cell V-RFB to the application on Series Hybrid Electric Vehicle. Two different designs of 25 cm2 and 100 cm2 unit cell V-RFB at same current density are used for the sample in this investigation. Further suggestions on packaging improvement are highlighted.

Keywords: electric vehicle, redox flow battery, packaging, vanadium

Procedia PDF Downloads 311
2464 Battery Grading Algorithm in 2nd-Life Repurposing LI-Ion Battery System

Authors: Ya L. V., Benjamin Ong Wei Lin, Wanli Niu, Benjamin Seah Chin Tat

Abstract:

This article introduces a methodology that improves reliability and cyclability of 2nd-life Li-ion battery system repurposed as an energy storage system (ESS). Most of the 2nd-life retired battery systems in the market have module/pack-level state-of-health (SOH) indicator, which is utilized for guiding appropriate depth-of-discharge (DOD) in the application of ESS. Due to the lack of cell-level SOH indication, the different degrading behaviors among various cells cannot be identified upon reaching retired status; in the end, considering end-of-life (EOL) loss and pack-level DOD, the repurposed ESS has to be oversized by > 1.5 times to complement the application requirement of reliability and cyclability. This proposed battery grading algorithm, using non-invasive methodology, is able to detect outlier cells based on historical voltage data and calculate cell-level historical maximum temperature data using semi-analytic methodology. In this way, the individual battery cell in the 2nd-life battery system can be graded in terms of SOH on basis of the historical voltage fluctuation and estimated historical maximum temperature variation. These grades will have corresponding DOD grades in the application of the repurposed ESS to enhance system reliability and cyclability. In all, this introduced battery grading algorithm is non-invasive, compatible with all kinds of retired Li-ion battery systems which lack of cell-level SOH indication, as well as potentially being embedded into battery management software for preventive maintenance and real-time cyclability optimization.

Keywords: battery grading algorithm, 2nd-life repurposing battery system, semi-analytic methodology, reliability and cyclability

Procedia PDF Downloads 109
2463 Battery Replacement Strategy for Electric AGVs in an Automated Container Terminal

Authors: Jiheon Park, Taekwang Kim, Kwang Ryel Ryu

Abstract:

Electric automated guided vehicles (AGVs) are becoming popular in many automated container terminals nowadays because they are pollution-free and environmentally friendly vehicles for transporting the containers within the terminal. Since efficient operation of AGVs is critical for the productivity of the container terminal, the replacement of batteries of the AGVs must be conducted in a strategic way to minimize undesirable transportation interruptions. While a too frequent replacement may lead to a loss of terminal productivity by delaying container deliveries, missing the right timing of battery replacement can result in a dead AGV that causes a severer productivity loss due to the extra efforts required to finish post treatment. In this paper, we propose a strategy for battery replacement based on a scoring function of multiple criteria taking into account the current battery level, the distances to different battery stations, and the progress of the terminal job operations. The strategy is optimized using a genetic algorithm with the objectives of minimizing the total time spent for battery replacement as well as maximizing the terminal productivity.

Keywords: AGV operation, automated container terminal, battery replacement, electric AGV, strategy optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
2462 Comparison of Entropy Coefficient and Internal Resistance of Two (Used and Fresh) Cylindrical Commercial Lithium-Ion Battery (NCR18650) with Different Capacities

Authors: Sara Kamalisiahroudi, Zhang Jianbo, Bin Wu, Jun Huang, Laisuo Su

Abstract:

The temperature rising within a battery cell depends on the level of heat generation, the thermal properties and the heat transfer around the cell. The rising of temperature is a serious problem of Lithium-Ion batteries and the internal resistance of battery is the main reason for this heating up, so the heat generation rate of the batteries is an important investigating factor in battery pack design. The delivered power of a battery is directly related to its capacity, decreases in the battery capacity means the growth of the Solid Electrolyte Interface (SEI) layer which is because of the deposits of lithium from the electrolyte to form SEI layer that increases the internal resistance of the battery. In this study two identical cylindrical Lithium-Ion (NCR18650)batteries from the same company with noticeable different in capacity (a fresh and a used battery) were compared for more focusing on their heat generation parameters (entropy coefficient and internal resistance) according to Brandi model, by utilizing potentiometric method for entropy coefficient and EIS method for internal resistance measurement. The results clarify the effect of capacity difference on cell electrical (R) and thermal (dU/dT) parameters. It can be very noticeable in battery pack design for its Safety.

Keywords: heat generation, Solid Electrolyte Interface (SEI), potentiometric method, entropy coefficient

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2461 Standalone Docking Station with Combined Charging Methods for Agricultural Mobile Robots

Authors: Leonor Varandas, Pedro D. Gaspar, Martim L. Aguiar

Abstract:

One of the biggest concerns in the field of agriculture is around the energy efficiency of robots that will perform agriculture’s activity and their charging methods. In this paper, two different charging methods for agricultural standalone docking stations are shown that will take into account various variants as field size and its irregularities, work’s nature to which the robot will perform, deadlines that have to be respected, among others. Its features also are dependent on the orchard, season, battery type and its technical specifications and cost. First charging base method focuses on wireless charging, presenting more benefits for small field. The second charging base method relies on battery replacement being more suitable for large fields, thus avoiding the robot stop for recharge. Existing many methods to charge a battery, the CC CV was considered the most appropriate for either simplicity or effectiveness. The choice of the battery for agricultural purposes is if most importance. While the most common battery used is Li-ion battery, this study also discusses the use of graphene-based new type of batteries with 45% over capacity to the Li-ion one. A Battery Management Systems (BMS) is applied for battery balancing. All these approaches combined showed to be a promising method to improve a lot of technical agricultural work, not just in terms of plantation and harvesting but also about every technique to prevent harmful events like plagues and weeds or even to reduce crop time and cost.

Keywords: agricultural mobile robot, charging methods, battery replacement method, wireless charging method

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
2460 Synthesis of LiMₓMn₂₋ₓO₄ Doped Co, Ni, Cr and Its Characterization as Lithium Battery Cathode

Authors: Dyah Purwaningsih, Roto Roto, Hari Sutrisno

Abstract:

Manganese dioxide (MnO₂) and its derivatives are among the most widely used materials for the positive electrode in both primary and rechargeable lithium batteries. The MnO₂ derivative compound of LiMₓMn₂₋ₓO₄ (M: Co, Ni, Cr) is one of the leading candidates for positive electrode materials in lithium batteries as it is abundant, low cost and environmentally friendly. Over the years, synthesis of LiMₓMn₂₋ₓO₄ (M: Co, Ni, Cr) has been carried out using various methods including sol-gel, gas condensation, spray pyrolysis, and ceramics. Problems with these various methods persist including high cost (so commercially inapplicable) and must be done at high temperature (environmentally unfriendly). This research aims to: (1) synthesize LiMₓMn₂₋ₓO₄ (M: Co, Ni, Cr) by reflux technique; (2) develop microstructure analysis method from XRD Powder LiMₓMn₂₋ₓO₄ data with the two-stage method; (3) study the electrical conductivity of LiMₓMn₂₋ₓO₄. This research developed the synthesis of LiMₓMn₂₋ₓO₄ (M: Co, Ni, Cr) with reflux. The materials consisting of Mn(CH₃COOH)₂. 4H₂O and Na₂S₂O₈ were refluxed for 10 hours at 120°C to form β-MnO₂. The doping of Co, Ni and Cr were carried out using solid-state method with LiOH to form LiMₓMn₂₋ₓO₄. The instruments used included XRD, SEM-EDX, XPS, TEM, SAA, TG/DTA, FTIR, LCR meter and eight-channel battery analyzer. Microstructure analysis of LiMₓMn₂₋ₓO₄ was carried out on XRD powder data by two-stage method using FullProf program integrated into WinPlotR and Oscail Program as well as on binding energy data from XPS. The morphology of LiMₓMn₂₋ₓO₄ was studied with SEM-EDX, TEM, and SAA. The thermal stability test was performed with TG/DTA, the electrical conductivity was studied from the LCR meter data. The specific capacity of LiMₓMn₂₋ₓO₄ as lithium battery cathode was tested using an eight-channel battery analyzer. The results showed that the synthesis of LiMₓMn₂₋ₓO₄ (M: Co, Ni, Cr) was successfully carried out by reflux. The optimal temperature of calcination is 750°C. XRD characterization shows that LiMn₂O₄ has a cubic crystal structure with Fd3m space group. By using the CheckCell in the WinPlotr, the increase of Li/Mn mole ratio does not result in changes in the LiMn₂O₄ crystal structure. The doping of Co, Ni and Cr on LiMₓMn₂₋ₓO₄ (x = 0.02; 0.04; 0; 0.6; 0.08; 0.10) does not change the cubic crystal structure of Fd3m. All the formed crystals are polycrystals with the size of 100-450 nm. Characterization of LiMₓMn₂₋ₓO₄ (M: Co, Ni, Cr) microstructure by two-stage method shows the shrinkage of lattice parameter and cell volume. Based on its range of capacitance, the conductivity obtained at LiMₓMn₂₋ₓO₄ (M: Co, Ni, Cr) is an ionic conductivity with varying capacitance. The specific battery capacity at a voltage of 4799.7 mV for LiMn₂O₄; Li₁.₀₈Mn₁.₉₂O₄; LiCo₀.₁Mn₁.₉O₄; LiNi₀.₁Mn₁.₉O₄ and LiCr₀.₁Mn₁.₉O₄ are 88.62 mAh/g; 2.73 mAh/g; 89.39 mAh/g; 85.15 mAh/g; and 1.48 mAh/g respectively.

Keywords: LiMₓMn₂₋ₓO₄, solid-state, reflux, two-stage method, ionic conductivity, specific capacity

Procedia PDF Downloads 82
2459 Optimal MPPT Charging Battery System for Photovoltaic Standalone Applications

Authors: Kelaiaia Mounia Samira, Labar Hocine, Mesbah Tarek, Kelaiaia samia

Abstract:

The photovoltaic panel produces green power, and because of its availability across the globe, it can supply isolated loads (site away of the electrical network or difficult of access). Unfortunately this energy remains very expensive. The most application of these types of power needs storage devices, the Lithium batteries are commonly used because of its powerful storage capability. Using a solar panel or an array of panels without a controller that can perform MPPT will often result in wasted power, which results in the need to install more panels for the same power requirement. For devices that have the battery connected directly to the panel, this will also result in premature battery failure or capacity loss. In this paper it is proposed a modified P&O algorithm for the MPPT which takes in account the battery’s internal resistance vs temperature and stage of charging. Of course the temperature variation and irradiation of the PV panel are also introduced.

Keywords: modeling, battery, MPPT, charging, PV Panel

Procedia PDF Downloads 433
2458 A Review of Magnesium Air Battery Systems: From Design Aspects to Performance Characteristics

Authors: R. Sharma, J. K. Bhatnagar, Poonam, R. C. Sharma

Abstract:

Metal–air batteries have been designed and developed as an essential source of electric power to propel automobiles, make electronic equipment functional, and use them as the source of power in remote areas and space. High energy and power density, lightweight, easy recharge capabilities, and low cost are essential features of these batteries. Both primary and rechargeable magnesium air batteries are highly promising. Our focus will be on the basics of electrode reaction kinetics of Mg–air cell in this paper. Design and development of Mg or Mg alloys as anode materials, design and composition of air cathode, and promising electrolytes for Mg–air batteries have been reviewed. A brief note on the possible and proposed improvements in design and functionality is also incorporated. This article may serve as the primary and premier document in the critical research area of Mg-air battery systems.

Keywords: air cathode, battery design, magnesium air battery, magnesium anode, rechargeable magnesium air battery

Procedia PDF Downloads 79